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Polytechnic University
Mechanical Engineering Department
System Dynamics and Controls - ME 5050 - 24
Profesora: Sandra L. Ordez E.
In general, a physical system that can be represented by a linear time-invariant differential
equation can be also represented by a transfer function. In this chapter sections we are going to
determine the transfer function of electrical and mechanical systems. Remember that the
general procedure to determine the transfer function of a system is:
-

Determine the differential equations that describe the behavior of the system
Find the Laplace transform of such differential equations.
Represent the system as a transfer function, described by: the output (as an s
polynomial) / the input (as an s polynomial).

## The differential equations of a system correspond to its mathematical model. This is

determined using the physics laws like Newtons and Kirchhoffs.
Transfer function of electrical systems
1. Passive circuits (that use only passive elements such as resistances, inductances and
capacitances):
When we have an electrical system represented by the electrical circuit in Figure 1, we should
first identify its input signal and its possible output signals.
L
R
+

v(t) _

i(t)

+
_

vc(t)

## Figure 1. Electrical system, RLC circuit

a) If the systems input is v(t), and its output is i(t), the differential equation that describe the
system dynamics is:
t
di (t )
1
L
R i (t ) i ( )d v(t )
dt

Then, the Laplace transform of this equation (when the initial conditions are zero) is:
Ls I(s) R I(s)

1
I(s) V(s)
Cs

Factorizing I(s):
1

V(s) I ( s ) Ls R

Cs

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## Now we represent the system by its transfer function:

I(s)

V(s)

1
1
Ls R
Cs

s
1
Ls 2 Rs
C

s/L
R
1
s2 s
L
LC

b) If the systems input is v(t), and its output is vc(t), the differential equation that describe the
system dynamics is:
L

di(t)
1
R i(t) v c (t) v(t), and v c (t)
dt
C

i(()
0

Then, the Laplace transform of this equation (when the initial conditions are zero) is:
Ls I(s) R I(s) Vc (s) V(s),

and Vc (s)

1
I(s)
Cs

but,
I(s) CsVc (s),

## then, CLs 2Vc (s) CsRVc (s) Vc (s) V(s)

V(s) Vc( s ) LCs 2 RCs 1

## Now we represent the system by its transfer function:

Vc (s)
1

2
V(s) CLs RCs 1

V(s)

1
1 / LC

R
1
R
1

s2 s
LC s 2 s

L
LC
L
LC

1 / LC
R
1
s2 s
L
LC

Vc(s)

We can find the transfer function directly without determine the differential equations of the
system using the Laplace transform of each element and then determine the KVL equations.
The voltage drop in each element of a RLC circuit is:
- For the inductor: VL(s)=LsI(s)
- For the Resistor: VR(s)=RI(s)
- For the Capacitor: VC(s) = I(s)/Cs
V(s)=VL(s)+VR(s)+VC(s) = LsI(s)+RI(s)+I(s)/Cs, That is the same that we had before (above).
Since we now that the impedance Z is defined as: V(s)/I(s), then,
- ZI(s)=Ls

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ZR(s)=R
ZC(s) = 1/Cs

c) If we want to determine the transfer function of the same circuit using nodes, then:

Vc ( s ) Vc ( s ) V ( s )

0
1
Ls R
Cs
Vc ( s )( Ls R )

1
1
1
(Vc ( s ) V ( s )) 0, Vc ( s )( Ls R
)
V (s)
Cs
Cs
Cs

1
Cs

1
Cs

1
Vc (s)
LC

1
1
R
1
V(s)
Ls R
Ls 2 Rs
s2 s
Cs
C
L
LC
s

## That is identical to the one we found before (above).

2. Active circuits (It is an electronic circuit which uses active devices such as transistors,
operational amplifiers, or integrated circuits for its operation and which requires a power
source for operation).
An operational-amplifier (op-amp) is a device that amplifies analog signals, with a gain A. The
op-amp has two inputs and one output. The ideal op-amp is showed in Figure 2.
va = vb
i1 = 0, i2 = 0, Ro = 0, Ri =
vo = vb - va

Z2
Vi(s)

Z1

va

## Figure 3. Inverter amplifier

Vo(s)

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To find the transfer function of the amplifier we can use nodal analysis:
Vb ( s ) Vo ( s ) Vb ( s ) Vi ( s )

0
Z 2 ( s)
Z1 ( s)

Since we know that Vb = Va and Va is connected to ground, then, Vb = Va = 0, and the equation
will become:

Vo ( s ) Vi ( s )
V ( s)
Z (s)

0 Z 1 ( s )Vo ( s ) Z 2 ( s )Vi ( s ) 0 o
2
Z 2 ( s) Z1 ( s)
Vi ( s )
Z1 ( s )

Which means that the gain A of the inverter amplifier will be (-Z2/Z1), and at the output Vo(s) I
will have the input multiplied by that gain A and inverted.
Example 1:

## Remembering that the impedances for elements such as L, R and C are:

- ZI(s)=Ls
- ZR(s)=R
- ZC(s) = 1/Cs
Then we can determine the transfer function of the system showed in Figure 4, as follows:
Z2
R2

C1
Vi(s)

Z1

R1

vb
va

C2

Vo(s)

Figure 4.

We first determine the transfer function using the impedances (same as above).
Vo ( s )
Z (s)
2
Vi ( s )
Z1 ( s)

Then, we calculate the values of Z2 and Z1 in terms of R and C and their Laplace representation.
We can start with Z2, where R2 and C2 are in series, then, Z2 is the algebraic sum of their
Laplace transforms:
Z 2 R2
Z 2 R2

1
C2 s

R s C2 s
s
1

2
s C2 s
s

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## And, Z1 will be the parallel between R1 and C1:

R1
1
1
1
1
Z1

1
1
1
R
1 R1C1 s 1 R1C1 s
1

C1 s
C1 s 1
1
R1
R1
R1
R1
R1
C1 s
Then, the transfer function of the circuit shown in Figure 4 will be:

R2 s C 2 s
Vo ( s )
Z (s)
( R s C 2 s )(1 R1C1 s )
s
2

- 2
R1
Vi ( s )
Z1 ( s)
R1 s
1 R1C1 s
b) Transfer function of an Non-Inverter amplifier (Figure 5).
Z2
Z1

Vi(s) va +

Vo(s)

## Figure 5. Non-Inverter amplifier

To find the transfer function of the amplifier we can use nodal analysis:
Vb ( s ) Vo ( s ) Vb ( s ) 0

0
Z 2 ( s)
Z1 (s)

Since we know that Vb = Va and Va is our input Vi, then, Vb = Va = Vi, and the equation will
become:
Vi ( s ) Vo ( s ) Vi ( s ) 0

0
Z 2 ( s)
Z1 ( s)
Z1 ( s )Vi ( s ) Z1 ( s )Vo ( s ) Z 2 ( s )Vi ( s ) 0
( Z 1 ( s ) Z 2 ( s )) Vi ( s ) Z 1 ( s )Vo ( s) 0

Vo ( s ) Z 1 ( s ) Z 2 ( s )
Z (s)

1 2
Vi ( s )
Z1 (s)
Z1 (s)

Which means that the gain A of the inverter amplifier will be (1+Z2/Z1), and at the output Vo(s)
it will be the input multiplied by that gain A and with the same polarity.

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Example 2:

## Remembering that the impedances for elements such as L, R and C are:

- ZI(s)=Ls
- ZR(s)=R
- ZC(s) = 1/Cs
Then we can determine the transfer function of the system showed in Figure 6, as follows:
Z2

C2

R3

R4

Vi(s)

R2

vb
va

Vo(s)

Z1
C1

R1

Figure 6.

We first determine the transfer function using the impedances (same as above).
Vo ( s )
Z ( s)
1 2
Vi ( s )
Z1 ( s)

Then, we calculate the values of Z2 and Z1 in terms of R and C and their Laplace representation.
We can start with Z1, where R1 and C1 are in parallel, and that will be in series with R1:
Z 1 ( s ) R2

Z 1 ( s ) R2

1
1
1

1
R1
C1 s

R2

1
1
C1 s
R1

R2

1
R
1
C1 s 1
R1
R1

R2

R1
1
R2
1 R1C1 s
1 R1C1 s
R1

1 R1C1 s
R1
R R1 R2 C1 s R1

2
1 R1C1 s 1 R1C1 s
1 R1C1 s

And, Z1 will be calculated in the same way that we calculated Z1. R4 and C2 are in parallel, and
that will be in series with R3:

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Z 2 ( s ) R3

Z 2 ( s ) R3

1
1
1

1
R4
C2 s

R3

1
1
C2 s
R4

R3

1
R
1
C2 s 4
R4
R4

R3

R4
1
R3
1 R4 C 2 s
1 R4 C 2 s
R4

R R3 R4 C 2 s R4
1 R4 C 2 s
R4

3
1 R4 C 2 s 1 R 4 C 2 s
1 R4 C 2 s

## Then, my transfer function will be:

R2 R1 R2 C1 s R1 R3 R3 R4 C 2 s R4

Vo ( s )
Z 2 ( s ) Z1 ( s ) Z 2 ( s)
1 R1C1 s
1 R4 C 2 s
1

R
R
C
s

R1
Vi ( s )
Z1 (s)
Z1 (s)
2
1 2 1
1 R1C1 s

Vo ( s )

Vi ( s )

R2 R1 R2 C1 s R1 1 R4 C 2 s 1 R1C1 s R3 R3 R4 C 2 s R4
1 R4 C 2 s 1 R1C1 s
R2 R1 R2 C1 s R1
1 R1C1 s

Vo ( s ) R2 R1 R2 C1 s R1 1 R4 C 2 s 1 R1C1 s R3 R3 R4 C 2 s R4

Vi ( s )
1 R4 C 2 s R2 R1 R2 C1 s R1
Vo ( s ) R2 R1 R2 C1 s R1 R2 R4 C 2 s R1 R2 R4 C1C 2 s 2 R1 R4 C 2 s R3 R3 R4 C 2 s R4

Vi ( s )
R2 R1 R2 C1 s R1 R2 R4 C 2 s
R1 R3C1 s R1 R3 R4 C1C 2 s 2 R1 R4 C1 s
R1 R2 R4 C1 s 2 R1 R4 C 2 s
Vo ( s ) ( R2 R3 ) R1 R4 C1C 2 s 2 R1C1 R2 R3 R4 R4 C 2 R1 R2 R3 s R1 R2 R3 R4

Vi ( s )
R1 R2 R4 C1 s 2 R1 R2 C1 R2 R4 C 2 R1 R4 C 2 s R1 R2

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## a) Mathematical model of a spring

If lo is the natural length of the spring (when it is not compressed or tensioned), and l is
the elongation, then, in equilibrium (when all movement has ceased), the static analysis of
the system would be:
T

lo

lo

Mg

M
Mg

## T = Mg = Kl, where K is the static constant of the spring

In equilibrium, the force created by the spring equals the gravitational force (weight) of the
mass and there is no movement.
Dynamic analysis: What should happen if an external force F is applied altering the
equilibrium point?
Newtons Laws:
- The sum of all external forces acting over a body is equal to the

dm
dv
F dt (mv ) dt v m dt m v ma

If m0, then F ma. For example, this is the case of a space ship.
Then for our system, the sum of the vertical forces should be:

T
x(t)

M
Mg

## Figure 8. Dynamic analysis of a spring-mass system

F (t ) Mg K (l x(t )) m

d 2 x(t )
dt 2

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## And since Mg = Kl,

F (t ) Kl Kl Kx(t )) m

d 2 x(t )
dt 2

Then, the second order differential equation that describes the dynamics of the system
around the equilibrium point is:
d 2 x(t )
F (t ) m
Kx (t )
dt 2
- Mathematical model of Dampers, shock absorbers or viscous friction.
This is a force that is opposing to movement and it is experimented by any body that is
moving in the presence of a fluid medium (liquid or gas). The force created by a shock
absorber opposes to movement and it is proportional to the velocity of movement. The
shock absorber only dissipates energy.

oil
FB B

dx (t )
dt

x(t)

Example 3:

F(t)
M
x(t)
K

F (t ) Kx (t ) B

dx (t )
d 2 x(t )
M
dt
dt 2

## Figure 10. Mechanical system that combines spring-damper mechanical elements

Applying the Laplace transform to this second order differential equation, and assuming initials
conditions equal to zero, we have:

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F ( s ) KX ( s ) BsX ( s ) Ms 2 X ( s )
F ( s ) ( Ms 2 Bs K ) X ( s )
output
X ( s)
1

2
input
F ( s)
Ms Bs K

The transfer function of the system represented in block diagrams would be:
F(s)

X(s)
1
Ms Bs K
2

Example 4

Determine the differential equations that describe the dynamics of the system in and determine
their Laplace transform.

K1

F(t)

B1

M1
x1(t)

K2

B2

M2
K3

B3

x2(t)

M3
x3(t)
K4

Figure 11

Since there are three masses, and there will be three independent movements (three degrees of
freedom), then the dynamic of the system will be represented by three differential equations
(one per mass).

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## The first differential equation, for mass M1 will be:

F (t ) K1 x1 (t ) B1

dx1 (t )
d 2 x1 (t )
dx1 (t ) dx2 (t )
K 2 ( x1 (t ) x2 (t )) B2

M1
dt
dt
dt 2
dt

## The second equation, for mass M2:

d 2 x 2 (t )
dx 2 (t ) dx3 (t )
dx 2 (t ) dx1 (t )
K 2 ( x 2 (t ) x1 (t )) B2

M2
K 3 ( x 2 (t ) x3 (t )) B3
dt
dt
dt 2
dt
dt

## And the third equation, for mass M3:

d 2 x3 (t )
dx3 (t ) dx 2 (t )
K 3 ( x3 (t ) x 2 (t )) B3

K 4 x3 (t ) M 3
dt
dt 2
dt

If we apply the Laplace transform in each of those differential equations (assuming initial
conditions equal to zero), and reorganizing the terms when have:

F ( s ) M 1 s 2 ( B1 B2 ) s ( K 1 K 2 ) X 1 ( s ) B2 s K 2 X 2 ( s )

0 M s

0 M 2 s 2 ( B 2 B3 ) s ( K 2 K 3 ) X 2 ( s ) B 2 s K 2 X 1 ( s ) B3 s K 3 X 3 ( s )
3

B3 s ( K 3 K 4 ) X 3 ( s ) B3 s K 3 X 2 ( s )

Using these equations we can find the transfer function X3(s)/F(s), or X2(s)/F(s), or X1(s)/F(s),
by solving the equations for the chosen variable (X1(s), X2(s), X3(s)).
b) Rotary systems
According to Newtons second law,

d 2
T

dt 2

## Where J = Inertia, = rotation angle, = angular velocity, = angular acceleration

- Torsion bar.
When a torque (T) is applied to a torsion bar, there will be a reaction torque (TK) in the other
end of the bar.
K
TK K (1 2 )
T
TK 2
1
- Rotary viscous friction.
It occurs when a body is moving within a fluid medium and it is proportional to the velocity.
B
T

2 TK

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d1 d 2

dt
dt

TK B
Combining both elements in the same system:
Example 5:

d (t )
d 2 (t )
T (t ) K (t ) B
J
dt
dt 2

J
B

## Figure 12. Simple rotary system

Applying the Laplace transform to this second order differential equation, and assuming initials
conditions equal to zero, we have:
T ( s ) K ( s ) Bs ( s ) Js 2 ( s )
T ( s ) ( Js 2 Bs K ) ( s )
(s)
1

2
T (s)
Js Bs K
Example 6

Determine the differential equations that describe the system shown in Figure 13, and their
Laplace transform assuming initial conditions equal to zero.

T
J1

D1

J2

3
D2

J3
D3

Figure 13

Since there are three inertias, and there will be three independent movements (three degrees of
freedom), then the dynamic of the system will be represented by three differential equations
(one per inertia).
The first differential equation, for inertia J1 will be:

d1 (t )
d 21 (t )
T (t ) K 1 (t ) 2 (t ) D1
J1
dt
dt 2
The second equation, for inertia J2:

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d 2 2 (t )
d 2 (t ) d 3 (t )

J2
dt
dt
dt 2

K 2 (t ) 1 (t ) D2

## And the third equation, for inertia J3:

d (t )
d 2 3 (t )
d 3 (t ) d 2 (t )

J3
D3 3
dt
dt
dt 2
dt

D2

If we apply the Laplace transform in each of those differential equations (assuming initial
conditions equal to zero), and reorganizing the terms when have:

T ( s ) K 1 ( s ) 2 ( s ) D1 s1 ( s ) J 1 s 21 ( s ) T ( s ) J 1 s 2 D1 s K 1 ( s ) K 2 ( s )
K 2 ( s) 1 ( s) D2 s 2 ( s) 3 ( s) J 2 s 2 2 ( s) 0 J 2 s 2 D2 s K 2 ( s ) K1 ( s ) D2 s 3 ( s)

D2 s 3 ( s) 2 ( s) D3 s 3 ( s) J 3 s 2 3 ( s) J 3 s 2 D2 D3 s 3 ( s) D2 s 2 ( s)
Using these equations we can find the transfer function 3(s)/T(s), or 2(s)/T(s), or 1(s)/T(s), by
solving the equations for the chosen variable (1(s), 2(s), 3(s)).
c) Systems with gears
The gears are used to transmit a torque from one axis to another at different velocities. This
concept is analog to an electrical transformer.
T1 1
r1, N1
2 T2

r2, N2

Where N1, r1 and N2, r2 are the number of teeth and radius of the gears 1 and 2 respectively. The
gears circumference is:
2r1 = N1 and 2r2 = N2 where is the proportionality constant that relates the number of
teeth of the gear to its circumference. Since the gears 1 and 2 are mechanically connected,
has the same value in both relations. Then,

2r1 2r2
2r1 N1
r
N

1 1
N1
N2
2r2 N 2
r2 N 2

r11 r2 2

r1 1

r2 2

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## The relation between the torques T1 and T2 will be:

T1

r1

1
Ftangential

T2

r2

T1 r1 F , T2 r2 F

T1 r1
N
1 Na
T2 r2 N 2

## Reflecting the input/output

When a rotational system has gears, usually it is necessary to reflect one or more parts of the
system to another one, to find the transfer function.
For example, the differential equation that describes the behavior of the system of Figure 14 in
terms of T2 and 2 is:

T2 (t ) K 2 (t ) D
T1 1

r2, N2

d 2 (t )
d 2 2 (t )
J
dt
dt 2

r1, N1
2 T2

K
J
D

Figure 14

## Applying the Laplace transform:

T2 ( s ) K 2 ( s) Ds 2 ( s ) Js 2 2 ( s ) T2 ( s ) Js 2 Ds K 2 ( s )
Having in mind that:

T1 r1 2 N1

Na
T2 r2 1 N 2

N
T2 2
N1

T1

N
2 1
N2

If we want to express the systems in terms of T1 instead of T2, and eliminate the gears, we
should have the system shown in Figure 15:
K

2 T1(N2/N1)
J

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Figure 15

N
T1 ( s ) 2 Js 2 Ds K 2 ( s)
N1

And expressing it in terms of 1 instead of 2, will result in the equivalent system of Figure 16:

T1 ( s) 2 Js 2 Ds K
N1

2
N
N
T1 ( s) J 1 s 2 D 1
N2
N2

N
1 ( s) T1 ( s ) Js Ds K 1

N2
2
2
N
s K 1 1 ( s)
N 2

N1
N2

N
K 1
N2

1 T1

N1

N2

1 ( s)

N
D 1
N2

Figure 16

Generalizing, the mechanical rotational impedances can be reflected through the gears
multiplying by:

## Number of teeth of the source

Example 7.

Find the transfer function 2/T1 for the system of Figure 17.

J1
D1

T1 1

r2, N2

r1, N1
2 T2

K
J2
D2

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Figure 17

When we look at this system we initially think that the system is described for two differential
equations since the system has two inertias. However, since those inertias are jointed by gears,
there will be only one independent movement so there will be only one differential equation.
Since we need to have the system in some familiar form (only inertias, dampers and torsion
bars), we need to find an equivalent system using the relation mentioned above.
For an equivalent system (shown in Figure 18), the differential equation that describes its
behavior would be:
Keq
2 T2
Jeq
Figure 18

N
And since T2 2 T1
N1

Then,

Deq

T2 ( s ) J eq s 2 Deq s K eq 2 ( s )

N
2 (s)
N 2 / N1
T1 ( s ) 2 Js 2 Ds K 2 ( s )

2
T1 ( s ) J eq s Deq s K eq
N1

Since the equivalent of elements in the same axis will be its algebraic sum, and the equivalent
of the elements from other axis are the same elements multiplied by the relation of the gears,
then, the equivalent inertia Jeq, equivalent damper Deq and equivalent torsion bar Keq of the
2
2
system will be:
N
J eq 2 J 1 J 2
N1

2 T1(N2/N1)

N
Deq 2 D1 D2
N1

N
J 1 2
N1

K eq K

J2
N
D1 2
N1

D2

Figure 19

For a system with gears in cascade as shown in Figure 20, the rotation angles can be expressed
in terms of the number of teeth of all the gears as follows:

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N1
N2

N3
N4

N5
N6

Figure 20

N1
1
N2

N3
NN
2 1 3 1
N4
N2 N4

N5
NN N
3 1 3 5 1
N6
N2 N4 N 6

Example 8

Find the equivalent elements (Jeq, Deq) of the system shown in Figure 21, if you reflect all the
elements to axis 1.

T1

N2
J2,D2

N1,J2,D2
2
N4
J4

N3, J3
3

J5

Figure 21

This system is the resumed version of the system shown in Figure 22.
We can start with the equivalent elements in the third axis where there are only two inertias in
series:
J a3 J 4 J 5

## Then, we can calculate the equivalent elements of the second axis:

2

J a2

N
N
J 2 J 3 3 J a 3 J 2 J 3 3
N4
N4

J4 J5

and, Da 2 D2

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And then finally we can calculate the equivalent elements of the first axis:
N
N
N
J 1 1 J a 2 J 1 1 J 2 J 3 3
N2
N 2
N4
2

J a1

J 4 J 5

N
N
and, Da1 D1 1 Da 2 D1 1 D2
N2
N2

Then,

J eq

N
J 1 1
N2

J 2 J 3 N1 N 3
N2N4

J4 J5

N1
D2
N2

and, Deq D1

T1 1

J2

N1
N2

D2

2
J2
D2

N3
3

J3
N4

J4

J5

Figure 22

## d) Rack and pinion(converts radial motion to linear motion)

If a pinion with radius r has an angular movement , then, the linear displacement x will be:
x

= r

## Transfer function of a DC motor

A DC motor is used to move loads and is called an actuator. An actuator is a device that
provides the motive power to the process. DC motors are used widely in control applications

Page 19 of 21

such as robotics manipulators, tape transport mechanisms, disk drives, machine tools and
others.
The DC motor has two parts, the armature and the field. A model of the DC motor is shown in
Figure 23.
Armature
Ra
La
+

Rf

ia

vf
-

Lf
if
Field

Inertia. Friction b
J

## The flux is defined as: = Kf if

The motor torque is defined as: Tm = K1 ia(t) = K1Kfif(t)ia(t)
Then, to control the motor one current must be maintained constant while the other current
becomes the input current. In a field current controlled motor, the armature current is
maintained constant. In the armature controlled motor, the field current is the one that is
maintained constant.
Field current controlled motor (constant ia)
Tm(t) = K1 ia(t) = K1Kf ia(t) if(t) Tm(s) = Km If(s)
constant
In the motor circuit:
Vf(s) = (Rf +Lf s) If(s)
Tm(s) = TL(s) + Td(s)

## If(s) = Vf(s)/(Rf +Lf s)

Tm(s) = TL(s) = Km If(s) =Km Vf(s)/(Rf+Lfs)

## But, TL(s) = Js2(s)+bs (s) = (Js+b)s (s)

Then, the DC motor transfer function when the field is controlled is:
K m / JL f
Km
( s)

V f ( s ) s ( Js b)( L f s R f ) s ( s b / J )( s R f / L f )

And

can

be

Page 20 of 21

Vf(s)

1
If(s)
Lf s Rf

Km

Td(s)
Tm(s)+ -

1
Js b

TL(s)

Speed
(s)

1
s

Position, (s)
Output

Field

## Armature controlled motor (constant if)

This is the most common used method to control a DC motor.

Rf
+

Ra

La

Lf

vf
-

if
Field

ia

Inertia. Friction b
J

Armature
Figure 25. DC motor equivalent circuit

Vb(s) = Kb (s)

speed

## Ia(s) = (Va(s)- Kb (s)) /(Ra +La s)

Tm(s) = TL(s) + Td(s)

## But, TL(s) = Js2(s)+bs (s) = (Js+b)s (s), so,

TL(s) = Km Ia(s) = Km (Va(s)- Kb (s)) /(Ra +La s)
(Js+b)s (s) = Km (Va(s)- Kb (s)) /(Ra +La s), and since (s) = s (s),
(Js+b)s (s) = Km (Va(s)- Kb s (s)) /(Ra +La s)
(Ra +La s) (Js+b)s (s) + Km Kb s (s) = Km Va(s)
((Ra +La s) (Js+b)+ Km Kb )s (s) = Km Va(s)

Page 21 of 21

Km
Km
( s)

2
Va ( s) s ( Js b)( La s Ra ) K b K m s( s 2 n s n2 )
And can be represented by the block diagram shown in Figure 26.

Va(s)

1
Ia(s)
La s Ra

Km

TL(s)

1
Js b

Speed

(s)

Armature
Back emf

Td(s)
Tm(s)+ -

Kb

1
s

Position, (s)
Output