Polytechnic University
Mechanical Engineering Department
System Dynamics and Controls  ME 5050  24
Profesora: Sandra L. Ordez E.
In general, a physical system that can be represented by a linear timeinvariant differential
equation can be also represented by a transfer function. In this chapter sections we are going to
determine the transfer function of electrical and mechanical systems. Remember that the
general procedure to determine the transfer function of a system is:

Determine the differential equations that describe the behavior of the system
Find the Laplace transform of such differential equations.
Represent the system as a transfer function, described by: the output (as an s
polynomial) / the input (as an s polynomial).
v(t) _
i(t)
+
_
vc(t)
a) If the systems input is v(t), and its output is i(t), the differential equation that describe the
system dynamics is:
t
di (t )
1
L
R i (t ) i ( )d v(t )
dt
Then, the Laplace transform of this equation (when the initial conditions are zero) is:
Ls I(s) R I(s)
1
I(s) V(s)
Cs
Factorizing I(s):
1
V(s) I ( s ) Ls R
Cs
Page 2 of 21
V(s)
1
1
Ls R
Cs
s
1
Ls 2 Rs
C
s/L
R
1
s2 s
L
LC
b) If the systems input is v(t), and its output is vc(t), the differential equation that describe the
system dynamics is:
L
di(t)
1
R i(t) v c (t) v(t), and v c (t)
dt
C
i(()
0
Then, the Laplace transform of this equation (when the initial conditions are zero) is:
Ls I(s) R I(s) Vc (s) V(s),
and Vc (s)
1
I(s)
Cs
but,
I(s) CsVc (s),
2
V(s) CLs RCs 1
V(s)
1
1 / LC
R
1
R
1
s2 s
LC s 2 s
L
LC
L
LC
1 / LC
R
1
s2 s
L
LC
Vc(s)
We can find the transfer function directly without determine the differential equations of the
system using the Laplace transform of each element and then determine the KVL equations.
The voltage drop in each element of a RLC circuit is:
 For the inductor: VL(s)=LsI(s)
 For the Resistor: VR(s)=RI(s)
 For the Capacitor: VC(s) = I(s)/Cs
V(s)=VL(s)+VR(s)+VC(s) = LsI(s)+RI(s)+I(s)/Cs, That is the same that we had before (above).
Since we now that the impedance Z is defined as: V(s)/I(s), then,
 ZI(s)=Ls
Page 3 of 21
ZR(s)=R
ZC(s) = 1/Cs
c) If we want to determine the transfer function of the same circuit using nodes, then:
Vc ( s ) Vc ( s ) V ( s )
0
1
Ls R
Cs
Vc ( s )( Ls R )
1
1
1
(Vc ( s ) V ( s )) 0, Vc ( s )( Ls R
)
V (s)
Cs
Cs
Cs
1
Cs
1
Cs
1
Vc (s)
LC
1
1
R
1
V(s)
Ls R
Ls 2 Rs
s2 s
Cs
C
L
LC
s
Z1
va
Vo(s)
Page 4 of 21
To find the transfer function of the amplifier we can use nodal analysis:
Vb ( s ) Vo ( s ) Vb ( s ) Vi ( s )
0
Z 2 ( s)
Z1 ( s)
Since we know that Vb = Va and Va is connected to ground, then, Vb = Va = 0, and the equation
will become:
Vo ( s ) Vi ( s )
V ( s)
Z (s)
0 Z 1 ( s )Vo ( s ) Z 2 ( s )Vi ( s ) 0 o
2
Z 2 ( s) Z1 ( s)
Vi ( s )
Z1 ( s )
Which means that the gain A of the inverter amplifier will be (Z2/Z1), and at the output Vo(s) I
will have the input multiplied by that gain A and inverted.
Example 1:
C1
Vi(s)
Z1
R1
vb
va
C2
Vo(s)
Figure 4.
We first determine the transfer function using the impedances (same as above).
Vo ( s )
Z (s)
2
Vi ( s )
Z1 ( s)
Then, we calculate the values of Z2 and Z1 in terms of R and C and their Laplace representation.
We can start with Z2, where R2 and C2 are in series, then, Z2 is the algebraic sum of their
Laplace transforms:
Z 2 R2
Z 2 R2
1
C2 s
R s C2 s
s
1
2
s C2 s
s
Page 5 of 21
1
1
1
R
1 R1C1 s 1 R1C1 s
1
C1 s
C1 s 1
1
R1
R1
R1
R1
R1
C1 s
Then, the transfer function of the circuit shown in Figure 4 will be:
R2 s C 2 s
Vo ( s )
Z (s)
( R s C 2 s )(1 R1C1 s )
s
2
 2
R1
Vi ( s )
Z1 ( s)
R1 s
1 R1C1 s
b) Transfer function of an NonInverter amplifier (Figure 5).
Z2
Z1
Vi(s) va +
Vo(s)
To find the transfer function of the amplifier we can use nodal analysis:
Vb ( s ) Vo ( s ) Vb ( s ) 0
0
Z 2 ( s)
Z1 (s)
Since we know that Vb = Va and Va is our input Vi, then, Vb = Va = Vi, and the equation will
become:
Vi ( s ) Vo ( s ) Vi ( s ) 0
0
Z 2 ( s)
Z1 ( s)
Z1 ( s )Vi ( s ) Z1 ( s )Vo ( s ) Z 2 ( s )Vi ( s ) 0
( Z 1 ( s ) Z 2 ( s )) Vi ( s ) Z 1 ( s )Vo ( s) 0
Vo ( s ) Z 1 ( s ) Z 2 ( s )
Z (s)
1 2
Vi ( s )
Z1 (s)
Z1 (s)
Which means that the gain A of the inverter amplifier will be (1+Z2/Z1), and at the output Vo(s)
it will be the input multiplied by that gain A and with the same polarity.
Page 6 of 21
Example 2:
C2
R3
R4
Vi(s)
R2
vb
va
Vo(s)
Z1
C1
R1
Figure 6.
We first determine the transfer function using the impedances (same as above).
Vo ( s )
Z ( s)
1 2
Vi ( s )
Z1 ( s)
Then, we calculate the values of Z2 and Z1 in terms of R and C and their Laplace representation.
We can start with Z1, where R1 and C1 are in parallel, and that will be in series with R1:
Z 1 ( s ) R2
Z 1 ( s ) R2
1
1
1
1
R1
C1 s
R2
1
1
C1 s
R1
R2
1
R
1
C1 s 1
R1
R1
R2
R1
1
R2
1 R1C1 s
1 R1C1 s
R1
1 R1C1 s
R1
R R1 R2 C1 s R1
2
1 R1C1 s 1 R1C1 s
1 R1C1 s
And, Z1 will be calculated in the same way that we calculated Z1. R4 and C2 are in parallel, and
that will be in series with R3:
Page 7 of 21
Z 2 ( s ) R3
Z 2 ( s ) R3
1
1
1
1
R4
C2 s
R3
1
1
C2 s
R4
R3
1
R
1
C2 s 4
R4
R4
R3
R4
1
R3
1 R4 C 2 s
1 R4 C 2 s
R4
R R3 R4 C 2 s R4
1 R4 C 2 s
R4
3
1 R4 C 2 s 1 R 4 C 2 s
1 R4 C 2 s
Vo ( s )
Z 2 ( s ) Z1 ( s ) Z 2 ( s)
1 R1C1 s
1 R4 C 2 s
1
R
R
C
s
R1
Vi ( s )
Z1 (s)
Z1 (s)
2
1 2 1
1 R1C1 s
Vo ( s )
Vi ( s )
R2 R1 R2 C1 s R1 1 R4 C 2 s 1 R1C1 s R3 R3 R4 C 2 s R4
1 R4 C 2 s 1 R1C1 s
R2 R1 R2 C1 s R1
1 R1C1 s
Vo ( s ) R2 R1 R2 C1 s R1 1 R4 C 2 s 1 R1C1 s R3 R3 R4 C 2 s R4
Vi ( s )
1 R4 C 2 s R2 R1 R2 C1 s R1
Vo ( s ) R2 R1 R2 C1 s R1 R2 R4 C 2 s R1 R2 R4 C1C 2 s 2 R1 R4 C 2 s R3 R3 R4 C 2 s R4
Vi ( s )
R2 R1 R2 C1 s R1 R2 R4 C 2 s
R1 R3C1 s R1 R3 R4 C1C 2 s 2 R1 R4 C1 s
R1 R2 R4 C1 s 2 R1 R4 C 2 s
Vo ( s ) ( R2 R3 ) R1 R4 C1C 2 s 2 R1C1 R2 R3 R4 R4 C 2 R1 R2 R3 s R1 R2 R3 R4
Vi ( s )
R1 R2 R4 C1 s 2 R1 R2 C1 R2 R4 C 2 R1 R4 C 2 s R1 R2
Page 8 of 21
lo
lo
Mg
M
Mg
dm
dv
F dt (mv ) dt v m dt m v ma
If m0, then F ma. For example, this is the case of a space ship.
Then for our system, the sum of the vertical forces should be:
T
x(t)
M
Mg
F (t ) Mg K (l x(t )) m
d 2 x(t )
dt 2
Page 9 of 21
d 2 x(t )
dt 2
Then, the second order differential equation that describes the dynamics of the system
around the equilibrium point is:
d 2 x(t )
F (t ) m
Kx (t )
dt 2
 Mathematical model of Dampers, shock absorbers or viscous friction.
This is a force that is opposing to movement and it is experimented by any body that is
moving in the presence of a fluid medium (liquid or gas). The force created by a shock
absorber opposes to movement and it is proportional to the velocity of movement. The
shock absorber only dissipates energy.
oil
FB B
dx (t )
dt
x(t)
F (t ) Kx (t ) B
dx (t )
d 2 x(t )
M
dt
dt 2
Applying the Laplace transform to this second order differential equation, and assuming initials
conditions equal to zero, we have:
Page 10 of 21
F ( s ) KX ( s ) BsX ( s ) Ms 2 X ( s )
F ( s ) ( Ms 2 Bs K ) X ( s )
output
X ( s)
1
2
input
F ( s)
Ms Bs K
The transfer function of the system represented in block diagrams would be:
F(s)
X(s)
1
Ms Bs K
2
Example 4
Determine the differential equations that describe the dynamics of the system in and determine
their Laplace transform.
K1
F(t)
B1
M1
x1(t)
K2
B2
M2
K3
B3
x2(t)
M3
x3(t)
K4
Figure 11
Since there are three masses, and there will be three independent movements (three degrees of
freedom), then the dynamic of the system will be represented by three differential equations
(one per mass).
Page 11 of 21
dx1 (t )
d 2 x1 (t )
dx1 (t ) dx2 (t )
K 2 ( x1 (t ) x2 (t )) B2
M1
dt
dt
dt 2
dt
M2
K 3 ( x 2 (t ) x3 (t )) B3
dt
dt
dt 2
dt
dt
K 4 x3 (t ) M 3
dt
dt 2
dt
If we apply the Laplace transform in each of those differential equations (assuming initial
conditions equal to zero), and reorganizing the terms when have:
F ( s ) M 1 s 2 ( B1 B2 ) s ( K 1 K 2 ) X 1 ( s ) B2 s K 2 X 2 ( s )
0 M s
0 M 2 s 2 ( B 2 B3 ) s ( K 2 K 3 ) X 2 ( s ) B 2 s K 2 X 1 ( s ) B3 s K 3 X 3 ( s )
3
B3 s ( K 3 K 4 ) X 3 ( s ) B3 s K 3 X 2 ( s )
Using these equations we can find the transfer function X3(s)/F(s), or X2(s)/F(s), or X1(s)/F(s),
by solving the equations for the chosen variable (X1(s), X2(s), X3(s)).
b) Rotary systems
According to Newtons second law,
d 2
T
dt 2
2 TK
Page 12 of 21
d1 d 2
dt
dt
TK B
Combining both elements in the same system:
Example 5:
d (t )
d 2 (t )
T (t ) K (t ) B
J
dt
dt 2
J
B
Applying the Laplace transform to this second order differential equation, and assuming initials
conditions equal to zero, we have:
T ( s ) K ( s ) Bs ( s ) Js 2 ( s )
T ( s ) ( Js 2 Bs K ) ( s )
(s)
1
2
T (s)
Js Bs K
Example 6
Determine the differential equations that describe the system shown in Figure 13, and their
Laplace transform assuming initial conditions equal to zero.
T
J1
D1
J2
3
D2
J3
D3
Figure 13
Since there are three inertias, and there will be three independent movements (three degrees of
freedom), then the dynamic of the system will be represented by three differential equations
(one per inertia).
The first differential equation, for inertia J1 will be:
d1 (t )
d 21 (t )
T (t ) K 1 (t ) 2 (t ) D1
J1
dt
dt 2
The second equation, for inertia J2:
Page 13 of 21
d 2 2 (t )
d 2 (t ) d 3 (t )
J2
dt
dt
dt 2
K 2 (t ) 1 (t ) D2
J3
D3 3
dt
dt
dt 2
dt
D2
If we apply the Laplace transform in each of those differential equations (assuming initial
conditions equal to zero), and reorganizing the terms when have:
T ( s ) K 1 ( s ) 2 ( s ) D1 s1 ( s ) J 1 s 21 ( s ) T ( s ) J 1 s 2 D1 s K 1 ( s ) K 2 ( s )
K 2 ( s) 1 ( s) D2 s 2 ( s) 3 ( s) J 2 s 2 2 ( s) 0 J 2 s 2 D2 s K 2 ( s ) K1 ( s ) D2 s 3 ( s)
D2 s 3 ( s) 2 ( s) D3 s 3 ( s) J 3 s 2 3 ( s) J 3 s 2 D2 D3 s 3 ( s) D2 s 2 ( s)
Using these equations we can find the transfer function 3(s)/T(s), or 2(s)/T(s), or 1(s)/T(s), by
solving the equations for the chosen variable (1(s), 2(s), 3(s)).
c) Systems with gears
The gears are used to transmit a torque from one axis to another at different velocities. This
concept is analog to an electrical transformer.
T1 1
r1, N1
2 T2
r2, N2
Where N1, r1 and N2, r2 are the number of teeth and radius of the gears 1 and 2 respectively. The
gears circumference is:
2r1 = N1 and 2r2 = N2 where is the proportionality constant that relates the number of
teeth of the gear to its circumference. Since the gears 1 and 2 are mechanically connected,
has the same value in both relations. Then,
2r1 2r2
2r1 N1
r
N
1 1
N1
N2
2r2 N 2
r2 N 2
r1 1
r2 2
Page 14 of 21
r1
1
Ftangential
T2
r2
T1 r1 F , T2 r2 F
T1 r1
N
1 Na
T2 r2 N 2
T2 (t ) K 2 (t ) D
T1 1
r2, N2
d 2 (t )
d 2 2 (t )
J
dt
dt 2
r1, N1
2 T2
K
J
D
Figure 14
T2 ( s ) K 2 ( s) Ds 2 ( s ) Js 2 2 ( s ) T2 ( s ) Js 2 Ds K 2 ( s )
Having in mind that:
T1 r1 2 N1
Na
T2 r2 1 N 2
N
T2 2
N1
T1
N
2 1
N2
If we want to express the systems in terms of T1 instead of T2, and eliminate the gears, we
should have the system shown in Figure 15:
K
2 T1(N2/N1)
J
Page 15 of 21
Figure 15
N
T1 ( s ) 2 Js 2 Ds K 2 ( s)
N1
And expressing it in terms of 1 instead of 2, will result in the equivalent system of Figure 16:
T1 ( s) 2 Js 2 Ds K
N1
2
N
N
T1 ( s) J 1 s 2 D 1
N2
N2
N
1 ( s) T1 ( s ) Js Ds K 1
N2
2
2
N
s K 1 1 ( s)
N 2
N1
N2
N
K 1
N2
1 T1
N1
N2
1 ( s)
N
D 1
N2
Figure 16
Generalizing, the mechanical rotational impedances can be reflected through the gears
multiplying by:
Example 7.
Find the transfer function 2/T1 for the system of Figure 17.
J1
D1
T1 1
r2, N2
r1, N1
2 T2
K
J2
D2
Page 16 of 21
Figure 17
When we look at this system we initially think that the system is described for two differential
equations since the system has two inertias. However, since those inertias are jointed by gears,
there will be only one independent movement so there will be only one differential equation.
Since we need to have the system in some familiar form (only inertias, dampers and torsion
bars), we need to find an equivalent system using the relation mentioned above.
For an equivalent system (shown in Figure 18), the differential equation that describes its
behavior would be:
Keq
2 T2
Jeq
Figure 18
N
And since T2 2 T1
N1
Then,
Deq
T2 ( s ) J eq s 2 Deq s K eq 2 ( s )
N
2 (s)
N 2 / N1
T1 ( s ) 2 Js 2 Ds K 2 ( s )
2
T1 ( s ) J eq s Deq s K eq
N1
Since the equivalent of elements in the same axis will be its algebraic sum, and the equivalent
of the elements from other axis are the same elements multiplied by the relation of the gears,
then, the equivalent inertia Jeq, equivalent damper Deq and equivalent torsion bar Keq of the
2
2
system will be:
N
J eq 2 J 1 J 2
N1
2 T1(N2/N1)
N
Deq 2 D1 D2
N1
N
J 1 2
N1
K eq K
J2
N
D1 2
N1
D2
Figure 19
Gears in cascade:
For a system with gears in cascade as shown in Figure 20, the rotation angles can be expressed
in terms of the number of teeth of all the gears as follows:
Page 17 of 21
N1
N2
N3
N4
N5
N6
Figure 20
N1
1
N2
N3
NN
2 1 3 1
N4
N2 N4
N5
NN N
3 1 3 5 1
N6
N2 N4 N 6
Example 8
Find the equivalent elements (Jeq, Deq) of the system shown in Figure 21, if you reflect all the
elements to axis 1.
T1
N2
J2,D2
N1,J2,D2
2
N4
J4
N3, J3
3
J5
Figure 21
This system is the resumed version of the system shown in Figure 22.
We can start with the equivalent elements in the third axis where there are only two inertias in
series:
J a3 J 4 J 5
J a2
N
N
J 2 J 3 3 J a 3 J 2 J 3 3
N4
N4
J4 J5
and, Da 2 D2
Page 18 of 21
And then finally we can calculate the equivalent elements of the first axis:
N
N
N
J 1 1 J a 2 J 1 1 J 2 J 3 3
N2
N 2
N4
2
J a1
J 4 J 5
N
N
and, Da1 D1 1 Da 2 D1 1 D2
N2
N2
Then,
J eq
N
J 1 1
N2
J 2 J 3 N1 N 3
N2N4
J4 J5
N1
D2
N2
and, Deq D1
J2
N1
N2
D2
2
J2
D2
N3
3
J3
N4
J4
J5
Figure 22
= r
Page 19 of 21
such as robotics manipulators, tape transport mechanisms, disk drives, machine tools and
others.
The DC motor has two parts, the armature and the field. A model of the DC motor is shown in
Figure 23.
Armature
Ra
La
+
Rf
ia
vf

Lf
if
Field
Inertia. Friction b
J
V f ( s ) s ( Js b)( L f s R f ) s ( s b / J )( s R f / L f )
And
can
be
Page 20 of 21
Vf(s)
1
If(s)
Lf s Rf
Km
Td(s)
Tm(s)+ 
1
Js b
TL(s)
Speed
(s)
1
s
Position, (s)
Output
Load
Field
Rf
+
Ra
La
Lf
vf

if
Field
ia
Inertia. Friction b
J
Armature
Figure 25. DC motor equivalent circuit
Vb(s) = Kb (s)
Page 21 of 21
Km
Km
( s)
2
Va ( s) s ( Js b)( La s Ra ) K b K m s( s 2 n s n2 )
And can be represented by the block diagram shown in Figure 26.
Va(s)
1
Ia(s)
La s Ra
Km
TL(s)
1
Js b
Speed
(s)
Load
Armature
Back emf
Td(s)
Tm(s)+ 
Kb
1
s
Position, (s)
Output