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NEBOSH International General Certificate Module 1 Summary

No Fault liability: The injured


Definitions
poor risk assessment
party does not have to prove
Welfare = Looking after the
procedure, lack of
that the employer was negligent.
basic needs of people.
supervision, no defect
Environment = The
reporting system.
Criminal Law:
surroundings in which the
The aim is to punish and deter
individuals and organizations
organization operates
from behaving in a way that is
including land, air, water,
Benefits of Good Health and
unacceptable to society.
natural resources, fauna,
Safety Practice:
Punishment of organizations Increased levels of compliance.
flora and humans and
usually a fine or restriction of
Improved production.
activities.
their inter-relationships.
Improved staff morale.
Punishment for individuals Ill Health:
Improved company reputation.
could be jail, fine, restriction of
Acute = Short-term exposure
Reduced accidents.
offices held or all of the above.
with immediate effect, usually
reversible.

Chronic = Long-term or
repeated exposure with delayed
effect, often irreversible.

Accident = An unwanted,
unforeseen, unplanned
event which results in
loss.
Incident/Near miss = An
unwanted, unforeseen,
unplanned event with the
potential to result in loss.
Hazard = Something with
the potential to cause
harm.
Physical
Chemical
Biological
Ergonomic
Psychological

Risk = The likelihood that


harm will occur and the
severity of the harm.
Safety Culture = The
product of individual and
group values, attitudes,
competencies and
patterns of behavior that
determine the
commitment to and
proficiency of an
organisations Health and
Safety.
Immediate or direct cause
of an accident = The
unsafe act or condition
that caused the accident.
The root or underlying
cause of an accident =
The failure of
management systems
and procedures that
allowed an unsafe act or
condition to occur e.g.

Reduced
Reduced
Reduced
Reduced
Reduced
Reduced
payouts

ill health.
damage to equipment.
staff complaints.
staff turnover.
insurance premiums.
fines and compensation

Reasons for Good Health


and Safety Practice:
Moral
Legal
Financial

Employers responsibilities:
The employer must provide:
Safe environment.
Safe buildings.
Safe plant and equipment.
Safe systems of work.
Competent staff.
Adequate supervision.
Adequate instructions.

Workers responsibilities:
To protect themselves and
those around them.
Co-operate with their employer.
Report any situation that
presents a significant danger.
To receive adequate
information, instruction and
training.
The worker (or representative)
should be consulted by their
employer on all aspects of
health and safety.

Legal System
Civil Law:
The aim is to compensate an
injured party for loss suffered.
There are 2 types of civil liability:
a) Fault liability
b) No fault liability
Fault liability: Injured party
must prove that:
There was a duty of care
owed.
Duty of care owed was
breached.
The breach caused the
loss/injury/ill health/death.

Direct costs of Accidents


Lost time of injured worker and
any continued payments to
worker or family.
Damage to equipment, tools,
property, plant or materials.
Medical or hospitalization costs.
Time and materials to clean up
after the accident.

Indirect costs of
Accidents (hidden costs)
Lost time by other workers
(curiosity, sympathy, morale)
Lost time assisting,
investigating, arranging for
new staff, preparing reports.
Failure to fill customers orders
on time.

Hidden Costs of
Accidents:
Accident investigation.
Payments to injured person.
Payments for non-productive
time.
Replacement labour.
Training for replacement labour.
Business interruption.
Loss of reputation.
Repair or replacement of
damaged plant.
Legal fees.
Insurance.

Uninsured costs

(8-36 times
greater than insured costs)

Sources of Information
Internal Sources:
Risk assessments.
Inspection reports.
Accident/incident records.
Medical reports.
Safety representatives.
Safety committee reports.
Company safety policy.
Maintenance reports.

External Sources:
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NEBOSH International General Certificate Module 1 Summary


Government organizations
Enforcing Authorities
Professional institutions IOSH
World Health Organisation ILO
Suppliers and manufacturers.
Consultants and specialists.
Insurance companies and
workers unions.

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NEBOSH International General Certificate Module 1 Summary


Elements of HSG65 Health
and Safety Management
Systems:
POP MR A
Policy:
Sets out Health and Safety aims
and objectives of the
organisation and Management
commitment.
Safety policy should be signed by
the most senior person in the
organisation because:
It shows management
commitment.
It gives the policy authority.
The person who signed it has
ultimate responsibility.

Organisation: 5Cs
Clear roles and responsibilities.
Competence. KATE
Control. (policies, procedures)
Co-operation obtained through
consultation.
Communication. (Should flow in
all directions)

Planning and
Implementation:
Generate SMART objectives.
Identify hazards, assess risks and
decide how risks can be
eliminated or controlled.
Set standards against which
performance can be measured.

Measuring Performance
Used as a means of determining
the extent to which health and
safety policy and objectives are
being implemented. It should
be both:
Proactive. Safety performance
measurements made before an
accident happens
Reactive. Safety performance
measurements made on
information resulting from
accidents and ill-health.

Reviewing Performance
Analysing data gathered through
monitoring to see whether
performance is adequate.

Audit
Systematic critical examination
of each stage of an
organisations management
systems and procedures.

Components of Safety policy:


1 Statement of Intent (WHAT)
- Demonstrates Managements
commitment to health and
safety and sets the H&S aims
and objectives

2 Organization (WHO) - To
identify H&S roles &
responsibilities and reporting
lines within the company. This
involves Competence Control
Co-operation and
Communication
3 Arrangements (WHAT) - Set
out in detail the systems and
procedures for implementing
the safety policy - for example
safe systems of work.

Issues included in
Organization:
Clear roles and responsibilities
for all health and safety
responsibilities allocated.
Competence. From recruitment
through to staff transfers and
training. - KATE
Control. Policies, procedures,
auditing, supervision and
management involvement.
Allocating responsibilities
accountabilities, instruction,
supervision to achieve control of
H&S.
Cooperation. is assisted by
consultation and demonstrates
management commitment internally between individuals,
groups, departments, including
consultation with H&S reps and
externally between clients
suppliers and contractors.
Communication. Needs to flow
in all directions. Verbal, written,
visible, example

Issues included in
Arrangements:
Sets out in detail how the
requirements of the policy will be
met This will include procedures and
arrangements for planning,
organisation, control, monitoring and
review. The procedures might
include:
Risk assessments.
COSHH assessments Control of
substances hazardous to health.
Safe systems of work.
Permits to work.
Eectrical work, hotwork,
confined spaces.
Manual handling.
Policies and procedures Fire, First
aid
Training programmes.
Maintenance of plant and
equipment.
Housekeeping.
Storage, transportation, handling.
Radiation, dust, noise, fumes.
PPE personal protective
equipment.

The safety policy should be


reviewed:
After:
Prosecutions
Enforcement Action
Compensation Claims
Review period expires
Professional Advise
Accidents or Incidents.
Changes in:
Organisation.
Processes.
Materials.
Premises.
Legislation.
Work patterns.
Risk assessments.

Targets
Important because:
They give evidence of
management commitment.
They motivate staff by giving
them something to aim for.

Ineffective Health and Safety


Policies
No commitment or leadership.
No annual objectives.
Health and safety not given
enough priority.
Insufficient resources provided.
Personnel do not understand the
aims.
Too much emphasis on employee
responsibility.
No measurement of
performance.
Management unaware of their
role.
No training of management in
their responsibilities.

Employers responsibilities
towards Employees:
Provide safe plant and
equipment.
Information, instruction, training
and supervision (ITIS).
Safe place of work, access and
egress.
Safe environment and welfare
facilities.
Provide a Safety policy.
Consult and inform employees.
Perform risk assessments.
Provide effective health and
safety management.
Competent health and safety
assistance.
Health surveillance.

Precautions for visitor safety


Signing in.
Providing identification badges.
Providing personal protective
equipment.

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NEBOSH International General Certificate Module 1 Summary


Site induction e.g. fire
precautions.
Escorting visitor to area of work.
Remain with visitor back to
reception area.
Signing out visitor and removing
badge.

Duties of Employees:
Protect themselves and others
from danger.
Co-operation with employer.
Not to interfere with anything
provided for safety.
Follow instructions and training
given.
Inform employer of dangers and
problems with health and
safety arrangements.

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NEBOSH International General Certificate Module 1 Summary


Requirements of Safety
practitioner:
Knowledge and understanding of
the work involved.
Understanding of principles of
risk assessment.
Knowledge of current health and
safety applications.
Capacity to apply to tasks
required.
Ability to identify problems.
Ability to assess the need for
action.
Ability to design and develop
strategies.
Evaluate the effectiveness of
strategies.
Promote and communicate
health and safety.
Understand current best
practice.
Awareness of own limitations.
Willingness to learn.
Membership of a professional
body IIRSM IOSH.
Competence based qualification.

Functions of the safety


practitioner
Advise management.
Carry out inspections.
Investigate accidents.
Record and analyze accident
data.
Assist with training.
Contact external bodies.
Liaison with the work force.
Keep up to date with new safety
standards.
Liaison with contractors.

External parties the Safety


practitioner will
communicate with.
The enforcing authority. EHS
Fire and rescue service.
Insurance company.
Contractors.
Consultants and engineers.
Manufacturers and suppliers.
Clients and customers.
Police.
Specialist health practitioners.
Public.
Media.

Management strategy for


contractors
Identification of suitable bidders.
Checking health and safety
aspects of bids.
Contractors agree to clients
rules.
Managing the contractors on site.
Identification of hazards related
to job.
Checking contractor work.

Selection of a suitable
contractor
Experience with type of work.
Reputation.
Suitable reference or
recommendation.
Previous work record.
Adequacy of safety policy.
Enforcement history.
Accident and ill-health data.
Membership of trade
organisations.
Suitable training for employees.
Arrangements for sub
contractors.
Suitable risk assessments etc.

Managing of contractors on
site
Appointment of coordinator.
Pre-contract meeting.
Progress meetings.
Regular inspections.
Safety committee.
Method statements.
Accident and incident reporting.
Client set example.
Safety propaganda.
Plant documentation.
Training competency.

Reducing the risks to


Contractors before and
during the building project
Before:
Careful selection of suitable
contractors.
Identification of hazards
associated with the job.
Checking the health and
safety aspects of the bids.
Establishing site rules.
Suitable risk assessments.
Suitable training for
employees.
Method statements.
Appointment of cocoordinator.
Pre-contract meeting.
During:
Progress meetings.
Regular inspections.
Safety committee.
Accident/incident reporting.
Clients sets an example.
Safety propaganda.
Monitor training program.

Functions of the Safety


Representative
Investigate potential hazards and
dangerous occurrences.
Investigate complaints from
employees.
Make representations on general
matters of health and safety to
employer.

Carry out workplace inspections.


Examine causes of accidents.
Consult with enforcement
authorities.
Attend safety committee
meetings.

Importance of consulting
Workers committees and
representatives should:
Be given adequate information
on health and safety matters.
Be consulted when major health
and safety changes are
envisaged.
Given protection from dismissal
when carrying out duties as a
representative.
Ability to contribute to decision
making process.
Be able to communicate with
workers during working hours.
Be free to contact labour
inspectors.
Be able to contribute to
negotiations in the undertaking
of health and safety matters.
Have reasonable paid time to
exercise their health and safety
functions.
Have recourse to specialists for
advise on particular health and
safety problems.

Matters on which employees


are to be consulted
Introduction of measures that
affect their health and safety.
New processes and technology.
New organisation of work
patterns.
New personal protective
equipment.
Planning and organisation of any
training required.

Safety committee
Object is to promote cooperation between employees
and employer on health and
safety matters.
No set structure. Formation of a
safety committee is between
the employer and workers
union/volunteers.
Equal representation from
management and safety
representatives.

Safety committee effective


meetings
Agenda may include relevant items
such as:
Study of statistics.
Examination of audit reports.
Analysis of inspectors report.
Consideration of safety
representatives reports.
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NEBOSH International General Certificate Module 1 Summary


Development and monitoring of
work safety rules and safe
systems of work.
Appraisal of effectiveness of
safety training.
Monitor adequacy of health and
safety communication.
Establish a link with the
appropriate inspectors.

Factors that influence the


effectiveness of safety
committee
Balanced representation.
Influence in decision making.
Respect of management.
Commitment from members.
Good leadership and
chairmanship.
Good communication channels.
Access to information or
specialist advice.
Formalised procedures with
agendas.
Relevant (not trivial) agenda
items.
Agenda not led by industrial
relations.

Safety Culture = The product


of individual and group
values, attitudes,
competencies and patterns
of behavior that determine
the commitment to, and
proficiency of an
organisations health and
safety performance.
Internal influences on health
and safety management
standards:
Production demands Too many
resources directed to
production and not enough to
health and safety.
Management commitment.
Communication.
Competence.
Employee representation.

External influences on health


and safety
Economic.
Social expectations society
expects certain safe behavior.
Legislation.
Enforcement.
Insurance companies.
Trade unions.

Indicators of a companys
health and safety culture:
Accident rates.
Absenteeism.
Sickness.

Staff turnover.
Complaints.
Compliance with legislation and
internal policies.
Morale.

Benefits of a positive safety


culture:
Increased levels of compliance.
Improved production.
Improved staff morale.
Improved company reputation.
Reduced accidents.
Reduced ill health.
Reduced damage to equipment.
Reduced staff complaints.
Reduced staff turnover.
Reduced insurance premiums.

Factors that can cause a


health and safety culture to
decline:
Lack of communication.
Perception of a growing blame
culture.
Lack of leadership and
management commitment.
Lack of monitoring.
Failure to implement remedial
action.
Lack of consultation and
employee involvement.
Poor working environment.
External influences unions.
Health and safety seen as a low
priority.
Lack of supervision.
Reorganization and uncertainty.

Promoting a positive health


and safety culture:
Senior management
commitment.
Ownership of health and safety
at all levels.
Effective consultation.
Effective communication.
Training for all levels of
employees.
Shared perception of risks.
Standards of acceptable
behavior.
Learning from experience
through monitoring and review.
Balance between health and
safety and production.

Why employees fail to


comply with safety
procedures even when
competent:
Lack of motivation.
Unrealistic working procedures.
Lack of management
commitment.
Over familiarisation with the
task.

Repetitive work leading to


boredom.
Peer group pressure.
Willful disregard of laid down
procedures.
Fatigue and stress.
Lack of information.
Job insecurity.

Types of communication.
Written Communication:
Letters, memos, reports, notices,
procedures etc.
Advantages
Disadvantages
Permanent record.
May be
unread.
Reference.
One way.
Consistent message.
Often no
feedback.
Accurate detail. Time consuming.
Wide audience. Cost.
Authoritative.
Misinterpretation.

Barriers to written
communication.
Illiteracy.
Competence.
Level of written material.
Presentation.
Quality of information.
Quantity.
Attitude.
Verbal Communication:
Instructions, interviews,
meetings, lectures.
Advantages
Direct.
Two way.
Quick.
Instant feedback.
message.
Easy to do.
memory.
Flexible.

Disadvantages
No record.
No reference.
Unstructured.
Inconsistent
Too much for
Limited audience.

Barriers to verbal
communication.
Hearing or speech defects.
Noise.
Distance.
Language jargon.
Lack of knowledge.
Attitude.
Duration speed.

Health and safety notice


boards.
Information should include:
Information for employees
regulation poster.
Health and safety policy.
Evacuation procedures.
First aid arrangements.
Contact details for safety
representatives.
Targets for accident reduction.

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NEBOSH International General Certificate Module 1 Summary


Communicating to employees
Maximize effectiveness of
and getting their commitment.
Additional
health
and
safety
health and safety notice
training
board:
Employer should keep
Increase in accidents or
Locate in a prominent area.
training records because:
incidents.
Dedicated to health and safety
only.
Information displayed is relevant
and current.
Information in a neat orderly
state.
Make boards eye-catching
through colour and graphics.

Training should be given at


the following stages:
On joining the organisation
(Induction training)
Before starting work (Job
specific)
At regular intervals (Refresher
training)
Whenever work practice changes
e.g. new material, new
technology, revision of systems
of work.
Before moving to a new job.

Induction Training is
important because:
Establishes a safety culture.
Shows management
commitment.
Identifies responsibilities.
Identifies hazards and
precautions.
Employee made aware of
hazards.
Imparts knowledge.
Employees recognize and report
hazards.
Sets the scene for future
performance.

Induction training
programme
Management commitment to
safety.
Company safety policy.
Consultative procedures.
Role of safety representatives.
Emergency procedures.
First aid arrangements.
Welfare and amenity provisions.
Specific hazards.
Health surveillance procedures.
How to report accidents.
PPE.
Drugs and alcohol policy.

Job specific training


programme
Safe system of work, permit to
work.
Equipment training.
PPE training.
Fire training.
Safety inspections.

Result of an accident
investigation.
Dangerous occurrences.
New processes or technology.
Job change.
Changes in working procedures.
Changes in work patterns night
shift.
Promotion or reorganization.
New legislation.
Enforcement action.
Results of inspections/audits.
Results of risk assessments.
Insurance company
requirements.

Young persons training.


Young workers at risk because:
Overenthusiastic.
No experience comparisons.
More likely to take risks.
Open to influence and peer
group pressure.
Body not fully developed.

Precautions for young


workers should include:
Provisions of suitable work
equipment.
Organisation of work processes.
Health and safety training.
Mentoring.
Supervision.
Limited working hours.

Benefits of training.
Employee
Employer
Less suffering.
Less accidents.
Quality of life.
Less absenteeism.
Job satisfaction.
Less claims and
premiums.
Achieve standard.
Less legal issues.
Flexibility of staff.
Improve morale.
Improve safety attitude.
Greater
productivity.
Improve efficiency.

Consideration for training


session
What employees need to know
and what they do already know
gap analysis.
Types of training already
received.
Employees responsibilities.
Activities carried out.
Risks associated with activities.
Actions required by employees.
Different requirements for
various staff.
Numbers involved.
Resources needed.
Competence of trainers.

Proof of employees competence.


Identify when refresher training
is needed.
Review effectiveness of training.
Assess progress against targets.
Provide evidence in
investigations.
Provide evidence in legal actions.

Competent persons
A person shall be considered
competent when he has
sufficient knowledge, ability,
training and experience to
enable him to carry out the
tasks required of him and
knowledge of his own
limitations.
Factors to be considered:
Evidence of qualifications.
Level of training.
Membership of professional
organisation.
Undertaking of written or
practical assessments.
References or
recommendations.

What is a risk assessment


A risk assessment is a careful
examination of what hazards
are in the work place and what
precautions should be put in
place to prevent harm.

Steps in the risk assessment


process
1. Identify the hazards.
Workplace inspections.
Talking to the workforce.
Non-inspection techniques.
Break down the job into tasks
and evaluate each task to
identify hazards.
Examination of documents.
Manufacturers data, material
safety data, legislation, codes
of practice.
Combined techniques.
Analysing the results of
safety audits.
Accident and ill-health data.
Monitoring accident statistics
and investigation and illhealth complaints to identify
the causes and then
determining the hazards from
the results.
Near miss reports.
2.

Decide who may be


harmed and how.
What are the hazards.
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NEBOSH International General Certificate Module 1 Summary


How likely are they to occur.
Consequences.
Number of employees exposed.
Frequency and duration of the
exposure.
Effects of the exposure.
Competence.
Existing controls.
Example: - risk to pregnant
women.
Exposure to chemicals.
Lead.
Biological exposure.
Ionizing radiation.
Extremes of temperature.
Ergonomic issues like
prolonged standing.
Stress.
PPE

Methods of identifying
hazards
Sources and forms of harm can
be identified via:
Workplace inspection.
(Proactive)
Job task analysis. (Proactive)
Manufacturers information.
(Proactive)
Risk assessment. (Proactive)
Accident incident data.
(Reactive)

3.

Evaluate the risks and


decide whether the
existing precautions are
adequate.
Use a likelihood x severity
matrix 5 x 5.
Likelihood:
1. Very unlikely.
2. Unlikely.
3. Likely.
4. Very likely.
5. Certain imminent.
Severity:
1. Minor injury no time
off.
2. Minor injury 3 days off
work.
3. Injury, non-disabling
illness, over 3 days off
work.
4. Major disabling injury.
5. Fatality.
1 7 = low risk.
8-15 = medium risk.
16 25 = high risk.

4.

Record the significant


findings.
Significant hazards should be
recorded. Information such as
the number of people
affected, the adequacy of
existing control measures and
any further precautions that
may be necessary.
5. Review the assessment
and revise it if necessary.
Reviews should be done:
Changes in process.
Changes in materials.
Changes in premises.
Changes in legislation.
Changes in work patterns.
After an incident or accident.
After prosecution.
After enforcement action.
After compensation claims.
After a policy review.
After professional advice.
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NEBOSH International General Certificate Module 1 Summary


Identifying hazards for
different states of operation
Complex activities should be
broken down into component
parts.
Installation.
Normal operation.
Cleaning.
Adjusting.
Breakdown maintenance.
Dismantling.

Types of hazards to look for.


Mechanical hazards.
Electrical hazards.
Thermal hazards.
Noise and vibration hazards.
Radiation hazards.
Toxic materials.
Ergonomic design hazards.

Competence of risk
assessors.
A combination of knowledge,
ability, training and experience
(KATE)and personal qualities.
Knowledge of own limitations.
A thorough understanding of the
processes and procedures
involved.
Good communication skills.

Suitable and sufficient


assessment
The risk assessment will be
suitable and sufficient if:
The detail in the risk assessment
is proportionate to the level of
risk.
All aspects of the work activity
must be reviewed taking into
account the way the work is
organized:
All of the significant hazards and
risks must be identified.
The risks have been evaluated.
Employees and others at risk
must be identified.
Suitable control measures must
be identified.
The control measures must be
appropriate to the nature of the
work.
The residual risk must be low.
Priorities have been set.
Takes account of non-routine
operations.
Staff undertaking the risk
assessment are competent.
Risk assessment is valid for a
reasonable amount of time.

Young persons
Young persons at greater risk
because:

Lack of knowledge, ability,


training and experience
(KATE).
Body not fully developed.
More likely to take risks.
More likely to respond to peer
pressure.
Overenthusiastic.
Control measures for young
persons:
Induction training.
Close supervision.
Mentoring.
Clear lines of communication.
Restrictions on type of work.
Restriction of working hours.

there a safer alternative? e.g.


reduce the risk of injury by
using low voltage tools.
Isolate Can the hazard be
enclosed or contained. e.g.
Guard on a dangerous part of a
machine.
Control Limiting the time or
frequency of the exposure.
PPE Can something be
provided to reduce the injury in
case of accident. E.g. Issuing
safety helmets or boots.
Discipline Ensuring that the
procedures and rules are being
followed and taking action if
not.

Lone working
Employer has a duty of care to
persons working alone without
close or direct supervision:
Single persons working on
the premises.
Persons working separately
from the others.
Persons working outside
normal working hours.
Mobile workers working away
from their normal base.

Lone working risk


assessment
Should take into account the
following:
Does the workplace present any
special risks.
Is there safe access and egress.
Does the task present any
special risks.
Is there a risk of violence.
Are women especially at risk.
Are young workers especially at
risk.
Does the worker have any
special medical conditions.
Is the lone working likely to
impose any additional physical
or mental burdens on the
worker.

Lone worker controls


Training.
Supervision.
Monitoring.
Periodic visits.
Regular contact using telephone
or radios.
Automatic or manual warning
devices.

Hierarchy of control
measures

Safe system of work = A


system of doing the work in
the safest way practicable by
performing a task analysis to
identify the hazards likely to
be present and creating
procedures including the
precautions necessary to
avoid or minimize the health
and safety risks.
When is a safe system
needed
A safe system of work is needed
when the hazards cannot be
physically eliminated.
Cleaning and maintenance
operations.
Changes to work layouts,
materials etc.
Employees working away
from base/alone.
Breakdown emergencies.
Contractors on your
premises.
Loading, unloading and
movement of vehicles.

5 Steps of the safe system of


work
1.

2.

ERICPD
Eliminate can the hazard be
removed completely. E.g.
Remove the trailing cable.
Reduce Can the risk be
reduced at the source or is
3.

Assess the task.


Materials.
Equipment.
Environment.
People involved.
Purpose of the task.
Work methods.
Legal requirements.
Standards.
Existing controls.
Identify the hazards.
Working at height.
Working below ground.
Machinery.
Electricity.
Vehicles.
Chemical hazards.
Environment.
Define safe method.
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NEBOSH International General Certificate Module 1 Summary


4.
5.

Implement the safe


system.
Monitor the safe system.

Designing a safe system by


considering MEEP
Materials. Raw, unfinished,
disposal
Equipment and machinery.
Design specification,
ergonomics.
Environment. light heat noise,
space
People. Behavior, knowledge,
skills.

3 forms of workplace controls


1.

2.

3.

Technical.
Equipment design e.g.
guarding.
Access egress wide aisles.
Materials choice of
packaging to make
handling easier.
Environment Local
exhaust ventilation.
Procedural.
Policy and standards.
Procedures and rules.
Permit to work.
Purchasing control buy
good quality.
Emergency preparedness.
Behavioral.
Supervision.
Health surveillance.
Competence. KATE
Motivation.
Communication.
Perception.

Permit to work = A permit to


work is a formal written
system used to control
certain types of potentially
hazardous work.
Work requiring permits:
Confined spaces.
Hot work and cold work.
Electrical.

Design of permit to work


system
1.

Job location/plant
identification.
2. Description of work.
3. Time limits.
4. Description of hazards.
5. Tests and checks prior to
work commencing.
6. Further precautions.
7. Authorization.
8. Acceptance.
9. Time extensions/Shift
change procedures.
10. Hand back.
11. Cancellation.
All signatures must be legible.

Reasons why employees may


not to wear PPE and
Reasons PPE should be a last
resort.
Poor selection or fit.
Lack of comfort.
Incompatibility with other PPE.
Fails to danger.
Contamination.
Misuse or non-use.
Relies on action being taken by
the user.
May create additional hazards.
Difficulty in obtaining equipment.
Relies on management
commitment.

Selection of PPE
Identify the hazard.
Choose type of equipment.
Compliance with standards.
Comfort.
Compatibility.
Costs.
Replacement.
Training needs.
Hygiene problems.
Supervision.
Storage.

Training in the use of PPE


Legal and organizational
requirements.
Consequences of not wearing it.
Protection offered.
Limitations of the PPE.
Compatibility with other types of
PPE.
Correct usage.
How to keep it clean.
Correct storage arrangements.
When and how to replace.

Workplace emergencies
Arrangements to be considered
when developing an
Emergency Response Plan:
Type of emergency fire,
hazardous chemical
spillage, bomb, flood,
earthquake, tsunami.
Emergency services contact
and response times.
Appoint persons to deal with
emergency.
Communication systems.
First aid and medical
facilities.
Evacuation procedures.
Effects on surrounding
community.
Post emergency action e.g.
media, repair, investigation.
Emergency procedure should be
practiced so that weaknesses
in the system are highlighted
and corrected.

Reasons for monitoring


Identify sub-standard health and
safety practices.
Identify trends and patterns.
Compare actual performance
against targets.
Useful in benchmarking.
Identify use and effectiveness of
control measures.
Make decisions on suitable
remedial measures.
Set priorities and establish
realistic timescales.
Assess compliance with legal
requirements.
Provide information to board,
committees etc.

Types of monitoring
Main purposes of First aid
Preserve life.
Prevent deterioration.
Promote recovery.

Assessment of first aid needs


checklist
Size of the organisation.
Nature and distribution of the
workforce.
Nature of the work.
Types of hazards and risks.
Past accident injury types.
Remoteness of emergency
services.
Travelling, remote and lone
workers.
Need to train personnel in special
procedures.
Need to cover absence of first
aiders.

Reactive monitoring.
Examining accident figures.
Claims records.
Other reactive monitoring
methods such as number of
defects reported following
safety inspection,
enforcement action against
company, prosecutions, legal
mandates or court orders.
Proactive monitoring.
Safety audit A systematic,
critical assessment of each
aspect of the health and
safety management system
and procedures.
Lengthy process carried out
by a trained auditor, either
internal or external.
The aim is to identify the
strengths and weaknesses

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NEBOSH International General Certificate Module 1 Summary


Safety inspection checklist
External audits
Housekeeping.

of the health and safety


management system
A structured way of assessing
the health and safety
performance that makes
use of a scoring system so
that improvements can be
measured.
Safety inspections The
straight forward
observation of a workplace,
activities and equipment.
Usually carried out by the
manager, employee
representative and safety
advisor.
Often aided by the use of a
checklist.
The aim is to identify hazards
and assess the use and
effectiveness of the control
measures.
May be carried out routinely
Safety surveys focusing on
particular activities and may
be carried out by a specialist.
Safety tours unscheduled,
less formal workplace
inspections are carried out to
check on issues such as
housekeeping or the use of
PPE.
Safety sampling Targeting
specific areas.
Benchmarking Where an
organisations performance in
certain areas is compared
with those of similar
organisation.
Health surveillance Providing periodic health
checks before symptoms
appear
Performance review Did
the organisation:
Achieve its health and
safety objectives.
Implement effective control
measures.
Ensure the effectiveness of
training, communication
and consulting
programmes.
Learn from management
system failures.
Meet legal standards.
Reduce the risk of accidents
and ill-health.

Limitations of safety
inspection
It is only a snapshot in time.
Some hazards may not be
visible.
Some hazards may not be
present at the time of the
inspection.
Unsafe practices may not occur
during the inspection.

Electrical safety.
Provision and use of PPE.
Use and storage of hazardous
substances.
Manual handling.
Traffic routes.
Machinery.
Internal transport.
Emergency equipment.
Welfare facilities.
Systems of work.
Working environment.

Strengths of using a checklist


to complete Health and
safety inspections
Enables prior preparation and
planning.
More structured and systematic.
Prevents issues from being
overlooked.
Ensure a consistent approach.
Immediate record available.
Easy method for comparison and
audit.

Weakness of using a
checklist to complete Health
and safety inspections
Inflexible approach.
Not reviewed or updated to
account for changes.
Inspections become routine and
no follow-up questions asked.
No scope for secondary issues to
be considered.
Incompetent person conducting
the inspection.
Inspection procedure leading to
human error or abuse.

Pre-audit preparation
procedure
Setting audit objectives.
Selecting the audit team.
Contact with the organisation
being audited.
Undertaking the audit.
Draw conclusions.
Report and presentation.
Action by the organisation.

Internal audits
Advantages:
Easier to arrange.
Lower cost to the organisation.
Employees may not feel so
threatened.
Disadvantages:
Could be influenced by internal
relationships.
Conclusions may not be taken
seriously.
The auditor may make
assumptions.

Disadvantages:
Require more time to arrange.
Higher cost to the organisation.
Employees may feel threatened.
Advantages:
Auditor will be completely
independent and unbiased.
The auditor will ask questions
and will not make assumptions.
More weight may be given to
their conclusions.

Initial actions to be taken


following a major injury
accident at work
Make sure the area is safe to
enter before entering as there
could be hazards surrounding
the accident scene.
Call the first aiders to attend to
the injured person.
Call for an ambulance if needed.
Secure the area by barricading to
prevent unwanted people from
entering.
Preserve the evidence.
Identify witnesses.
Collect evidence like taking
photographs or take sketches
of the accident scene.
Notify the authorities as per legal
requirements.

Aims of accident
investigation
Determine the cause of an
accident.
Identify weaknesses in the
management system.
Identify weaknesses in the risk
assessment.
Demonstrate management
commitment.
Comply with legal requirements.
Collect data to establish trends
which can be used to prevent
future business losses.
Provide information for
Civil/Criminal actions.
Provide information to insurance
company.

Immediate and longer term


action after an accident
First aid for injured party.
Calling for medical assistance if
necessary.
Isolation of the accident scene.
Report to relevant enforcing
authority if necessary.
Identify witnesses.
Set up investigating team.
Full investigation to determine
root cause. Make
recommendations.
Implement corrective action.
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NEBOSH International General Certificate Module 1 Summary


Documents:
Risk assessments.
Safe systems of work.
Incident/accident history.
Training records.
Maintenance records.
Equipment instructions.
Monitoring records dust,
noise.
Supervision quotas.
Inspection reports.
Pre-start equipment
checks.

Preparation before
investigation
Who should be involved and the
depth of the investigation.
Accident scene preserved.
Gather relevant existing
documents.
Identifying the witnesses.
Have legal requirements been
met.
Any equipment needed. Method
to be adopted.
Style of report and recipients.

2.

Analyse the information


What happened and why.
Analysis should determine:
Immediate/direct causes.
Root/underlying causes.

3.

Identify the risk control


measures possible
solutions to be identified.
The analysis may have
identified that no control
measures in place.
Control measures in place
but not used.
Combinations of both.
Measures should be
evaluated for:
The effectiveness of the
control measures.
Are the control measures
practical.
Will the control measures
be used.
Will the control measures
remain effective.

Investigation team
Line manager has knowledge
of the processes involved.
Supervisor has knowledge of
the process.
Safety representative has
legal right.
Safety practitioner to advise
on health and safety
implications.
Engineer to advise on
technical matters.
Senior manager from a
different department to be
unbiased.

Undertaking accident
investigation
1.

Gather the information


Where, When, Who, What,
Why.
MEEP Materials,
Equipment, Environment,
People.
Nature of work.
Specialist examinations.
Medical reports.
Interviews and witness
statements.

4.

Take action should have


SMART objectives.
Involves senior
management.

Highest priority risk control


measures implemented
first.
Prioritize the order of
control measures to be
implemented.
A senior manager
nominated to be in charge
of the implementation.

Reasons for reporting


accidents
Implement initial controls.
Monitoring health and safety
performance.
Starting point for investigation.
To comply with legal
requirements.
To prevent reoccurrences and
further injuries/losses.
To provide information for any
subsequent claim.
Review of risk assessments.

Accident data can:


Show trends and patterns.
Identify weaknesses in
procedures and policies.
Prioritize safety measures.
Identify areas that require
improvement.
Set targets for reduction.

Employees can be
discouraged from reporting
accidents because:
Ignorance of procedures.
Peer pressure.
Retribution by management.
Preservation of the departments
safety record.
Over-complicated response to
reports.

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