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- Ece Dsp Dip Main Project List
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- A Novel Study of Biometric Speaker Identification Using Neural Networks and Multi-Level Wavelet Decomposition
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CHAPTER 5

REVERSIBLE DATA HIDING BASED ON

HISTOGRAM SHIFTING

time it was suggested by its pioneers. Fridrich et al, Jun Tian and Ni et al are

pioneers in the field.

Ni et al (2003) proposed an image lossless data hiding algorithm

using pairs of zero-points and peak-points, in which the part of an image

histogram is shifted to embed data. Lossless data embedding algorithm based

on the histogram shifting in spatial domain is proposed. Fridrich suggested

general methodologies for lossless embedding that can be applied to images

as well as any other digital objects. The concept of lossless data embedding

can be used as a powerful tool to achieve a variety of necessary tasks,

including lossless authentication using fragile watermarks (Fridrich et al

2002).

Xuan et al (2005) proposed the lossless embedding using the

Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) and histogram medication using a

threshold point for embedding limit. Xuan and Shi proposed a histogram

shifting method for image lossless data hiding in integer wavelet transform

domain. This algorithm hides data into wavelet coefficients of high frequency

subbands. It shifts part of the histogram of high frequency wavelet subbands

and embeds data by using the created histogram zero-point (Xuan et al 2006).

98

method resistant to geometrical attacks.

Fallahpour and Sedaaghi (2007) proposes relocation of zeroes and

peaks of the histogram of the image blocks of the original image to embed

data in the spatial domain. Image is divided into varying number of blocks as

required and the performance is analysed.

Zeng et al (2009) proposed scheme based on the difference

histogram shifting to make space for data hiding.

5.1

This algorithm again uses integer wavelet transform because the

algorithm.

In conventional wavelet transform reversibility is not achieved due

to the floating point wavelet coefficients we get after transformation. When

we take the inverse transform the original pixel values will get altered.

When we transform an image block consisting of integer-valued

pixels into wavelet domain using a floating-point wavelet transform and the

values of the wavelet coefficients are changed during watermark embedding,

the corresponding watermarked image block will not have integer values.

When we truncate the floating point values of the pixels, it may result in loss

of information and reversibility is lost. The original image cannot be

reconstructed from the watermarked image.

In conventional wavelet transform which is done as a floating-point

transform followed by a truncation or rounding it is impossible to represent

99

forward and inverse transforms.

In view of the above problems, an invertible integer-to-integer

wavelet transform based on lifting is used in the proposed scheme. It maps

integers to integers which are preserved in both forward and reverse

transforms. There is no loss of information. Wavelet or subband

decomposition associated with finite length filters is obtained by a finite

number of primal and dual lifting followed by scaling.

5.2

HISTOGRAM PROCESSING

The histogram of a digital image with gray levels in the range

(0, L-1) is a discrete function p(rk) = nk/n, where rk is the kth gray level, nk is

the number of pixels in the image with that gray level, n is the total number of

pixels in the image, and k = 0,1,2 L-1 (Gonzalez 2008).

An estimate of the probability of occurrence of gray level rk is

given by p(rk). A plot of this function for all the values of k provides a global

description of the appearance of the image. The gray levels are concentrated

toward the dark end of the gray scale range. Thus the histogram corresponds

to an image with overall dark characteristics. The opposite is that the

histogram which has a narrow shape indicates little dynamic range and thus

corresponds to an image having low contrast. As all gray levels occur toward

the middle of the gray scale, the image would appear a murkey gray. A

histogram with a significant spread, corresponds to an image with high

contrast.

The properties described are global description say nothing specific

about image content, the shape of the histogram of an image give us useful

information about the possibility for contrast enhancement. The following

100

meaningful manner.

5.3

Integer Wavelet transforms of the original image is taken. In the

horizontal axis (X) represents the wavelet coefficients value and the vertical

axis (Y) represents the number of occurrence of the coefficients value. The

wavelet histogram normally exhibits a Laplacian distribution nature with a

peak point and sloping on either side. Peak in wavelet histogram is usually at

coefficient value 0

Embedding can be done on both the sides of the histogram to get

the required embedding capacity. Data embedding is done by modifying some

of the coefficient values of the wavelet domain to its neighboring value by

shifting a portion of the histogram. This gives a good visual quality and

thereby a better PSNR between original image and watermarked image.

To embed data we choose the peak point of the histogram and call

it as P. Figure 5.1 shows a vacant point is created at Peak+1.This is done by

shifting all points with value Peak+1 and above one position to the right. Now

all the IWT coefficients are scanned and whenever a coefficient with value

peak is encountered, 0 is embedded by leaving it as such and 1 is

embedded by changing its value to peak+1.This is repeated till all the points

with value Peak are over. Then a new peak is created by shifting to the right

and data is embedded as per the algorithm. We choose the peak point so that

payload is maximized.

All the high frequency wavelet subbands can be utilized to get

maximum capacity. The same process can be done on the left side of the

101

for extracting the watermark data.

After water mark bits are extracted, shifting is done towards the left

each time after data extraction so that the original coefficient values are

restored. This guarantees complete reversibility and the original image can be

Number of occurrences

Number of occurrences

(a)

Figure 5.1

(b)

Peak, (b) Histogram with zero point created at peak +1

5.4

PROPOSED METHOD

5.4.1

Embedding Method

For the wavelet transformed image sub bands histogram is taken.

Now we can start embedding using the following steps. For the selected sub

band, set P = Peak of the histogram coefficients.

102

Create a zero point at P+1 so that no point in the histogram has the

value P+1.To create the zero point shift all coefficients with value P+1 and

above to one position right. This makes P+1 as P+2, and the original P+2 to

P+3 and so on.

1.

2.

0<b<n-1.

3.

4.

5.

Wb bits with value 1.

6.

repeat the same process.

7.

While to- be- embedded watermark bits are still remaining, set

P=P+2 and go to step1.Otherwise stop.

watermark

Original Image

Preprocessing &Integer

Wavelet transform

High frequency

sub bands

Unmarked

Approximate

Coefficients

Watermarked

Image

Data Embedding

Algorithm

Marked LH, HL

&HH

Coefficients

Inverse IWT

103

Figure 5.2 Shows the original image is decomposed into its sub

bands using integer wavelet transform After preprocessing IWT is used to

ensure complete reversibility. The high frequency sub bands (horizontal,

Vertical and Diagonal) are used for data embedding. Each sub band is used

one after the other to meet the required embedding capacity. Watermark bits

that forms the payload is embedded into these sub bands using the embedding

algorithm. The low frequency unmarked approximate coefficients are then

used along with the marked sub bands and Inverse IWT is taken to get the

watermarked image.

5.4.2

Extraction Method

Watermarked

Image

Integer Wavelet

transform

Attack

identification

Histogram

Shifting & data

Recovery Algorithm

Approximate Low

frequency LL subband

Recovered original

Image

Inverse

IWT

Watermark

stream

High frequency

Subbands

The extraction method is shown in Figure 5.3. Data extraction is the

reverse process. Integer wavelet Transform is taken for the watermarked

image. The watermarked high frequency sub bands are separated and using

the Data extraction algorithm, the watermark bits are retrieved and the

original sub bands are obtained. This is combined with the unmarked low

frequency sub band to get the original image. This method is completely blind

and reversible. Original image and the watermark data bits are obtained

without any loss.

104

of the marked sub bands are taken. For the selected sub band, set Peak= Peak

of the histogram coefficients.

1.

P=Peak.

Read

the

coefficients

with

value

and

watermark bit as Wb =0 and leave P unaltered. Whenever a

coefficient with value P+1 is read ,extract watermark bit as

Wb =1 and change P+1 to P.

2.

Shift all the coefficients with value P+2 and above one

position to the left.

3.

same process.

4.

Set P = P+1.

5.

step1.Otherwise stop.

5.5

Experiments are conducted using different 512 X 512 gray scale

Various experiments are conducted to study the performance of the

embedding algorithm of histogram shifting. Experiments were done by using

different images, different wavelet decompositions on each image, by

embedding text of various sizes into the original image and by embedding

logo image of different sizes. The following sections illustrate the tests

105

conducted and the results are tabulated. Tables 5.1 and 5.2 shows the peak

signal to noise ratio between the original image and the watermarked image

after embedding text of various sizes.

Table 5.1 shows Image Quality tested with gradual increase in

payload using Text Input of Different sizes on Cameraman Image.

Table 5.1

Text Input of different sizes on Cameraman Image

Number of Characters

Embedded

PSNR (dB)

2486

48.7259

2974

48.6684

5027

48.4209

9126

47.6446

11291

47.3461

Table 5.2

Comparison of performance of various wavelet families on a given image for different payload size

Cameraman

Pay

cdf2.2

load bpp PSNR MSE

db2

sym3

bior3.3

bior6.8

rbio3.3

PSNR

MSE

PSNR MSE

PSNR

MSE

PSNR

MSE

PSNR

MSE

44.63

2.308

43.05 3.296

46.86

1.374

39.937

6.806

43.507

2.992

44.628

2.311

43.05 3.299

46.82

1.386

39.934

6.811

43.498

2.998

44.609

2.321

43.02 3.318

46.76

1.403

40.010

6.813

43.478

3.011

44.567

2.344

42.94 3.357

46.62

1.450

39.945

6.846

43.468

3.019

46.55

1.472

39.862

6.926

43.368

3.132

1,00,489 48.674 0.903 insufficient insufficient 42.84 3.465 insufficient insufficient insufficient insufficient insufficient insufficient

106

107

49

47

Cdf2.2

db2

45

Sym3

bior3.3

43

bior6.8

rbio3.3

41

39

10000

30000

50000

70000

90000

110000

Payload in Bits

Figure 5.4

Image

Quality

tested

using

different

wavelets

on

Cameraman Image

Table 5.2 shows image quality tested for different payloads on the

same image using different wavelets. Cdf2.2. performs better than other

wavelets for the same payload. Image quality quickly changes when different

wavelets are used. Performance in embedding, measured using peak signal to

noise ratio shows that bior6.8 has the minimum quality. The embedding

capacity also varies when using different wavelets using different wavelets

when the image is decomposed using db2 embedding stops in about 50,000

bits whereas cdf2.2 continues to embed over one lakhs bits. The same is

illustrated in the graph of Figure 5.4.

Number of Occurrences

108

Number of Occurrences

db2 wavelet

Figure 5.5 illustrates the histograms of cameraman image

decomposed using different wavelets. The number of points in the peak value

of the wavelet histogram is different for each or decomposition. The more the

number of points in the wavelet histogram peak, the more is the embedding

capacity. The same is illustrated in Figure 5.5a to Figure 5.5d for db2, bior3.3,

bior6.8 and rbio3.3 respectively.

109

Table 5.3

measured by varying number of Peaks used

Images

No of

Peaks

Used

Cameraman

Woman Dark

Hair

Lena

Sail Boat

11 peaks

10 peaks

0.55

9 peaks

8 peaks

7 peaks

6 peaks

5 peaks

4 peaks

3peaks

2 peaks

1 peak

in histogram to embed the watermark data. Table 5.3 shows the number of

bits embedded in the original image per pixel and shows the image quality

measured in PSNR for different grayscale images by number of peaks used in

the histogram for embedding data. Each coefficient value can embed

watermark bits equal to the number of occurrence of that point in the wavelet

histogram. Figure 5.6 shows image quality decreases as we use more and

more points in the histogram for embedding data. With lesser payload fewer

points are used and we get more image quality for the watermarked images.

110

Cameraman

49

47

Lena

Sail Boat

45

43

41

39

37

35

1

10 11

Figure 5.6

Embedding

Table 5.4

bits embedded and the number of shifting of the histogram

Shifting

11 levels shifting

10 levels shifting

9 levels shifting

8 levels shifting

7 levels shifting

6 levels shifting

Capacity bits

144337

143871

143328

142610

141665

140433

PSNR

41.8595

42.1260

42.4130

42.8195

43.2402

43.7392

Payload

0.5506

0.5500

0.5468

0.5440

0.5404

0.5357

5 levels shifting

4 levels shifting

3 levels shifting

2 levels shifting

1 level shifting

139021

136991

132932

122558

91650

44.2951

45.0178

45.8634

47.0743

49.4225

0.5303

0.5226

0.5012

0.4675

0.3496

111

(a)

0.

49

54

0.

49

7

pk

28

s

0.

48

5

pk

53

s

0.

3p 464

ks

6

0.

40

1

38

pk

0.

17

91

(b)

(a) Cameraman Image

Table 5.5

pk

s

11

Figure 5.7

PSNR

pk

0.

55

06

0.

54

7

pk

68

s

0.

54

5

pk

04

s

0.

3p 530

ks

3

0

1

pe .50

12

ak

0.

34

96

pk

s

pk

s

11

PSNR

50

48

46

44

42

40

38

50

48

46

44

42

40

38

CAMERA MAN

number of bits embedded and the number of shifting of the

histogram

ns

Shifting

Capacity

PSNR

Payload

11 11 levels shifting

129870

42.2365

0.4954

10 10 levels shifting

129617

42.3553

0.4944

9 9 levels shifting

129192

42.5261

0.4928

8 8 levels shifting

128472

42.7120

0.4901

7 7 levels shifting

127215

42.9094

0.4853

6 6 levels shifting

125181

43.1588

0.4775

5 5 levels shifting

121805

43.5402

0.4646

4 4 levels shifting

116100

44.1540

0.4429

3 3 levels shifting

105852

45.0346

0.4038

2 2 levels shifting

85575

46.5519

0.3264

1 1 level shifting

46942

49.4425

0.1791

112

Table 5.4 and 5.5 illustrates how the number of watermark bits that

could be embedded in a given image for cdf 2.2 wavelet using a number of

embedding points. To embed in a peak we shift all the histogram points one

position to create a vacant point near the peak. As we increase the embedding

points the levels of shifting increase. Figure 5.7 (a) and 5.7(b) shows the

number of bits that can be embedded in the cameraman image and the woman

dark hair image respectively using one to eleven levels of shifting. Also the

signal quality of the images is shown. Also it illustrates the payload, number

of peaks used against the image quality for cameraman and woman dark hair

image respectively.

Figure 5.8

37.05 dB, (b) Woman Dark Hair PSNR 45.03 dB,

(c) Camera Man PSNR 48.65 dB, (d) Lena PSNR 37.89 dB,

(e) Jet Plane PSNR 42.35 dB, (f) Lake PSNR 36.42 dB.

113

darkhair, Cameraman, Lena, Jetplane and lake images. For the same number

of bits embedded different images show different quality measured in PSNR.

The maximum quality is for cameraman image at 48.65 dB for 0.4 bits per

pixel ,woman dark hair image with 45.03 dB and minimum for Lake image

with 36.42 dB.

Table 5.6 Image quality tested for different images on various wavelets

for a fixed payload of 25,000 bits

Wavelet

name

Lena

Boat

Cameraman

Woman dark

hair

PSNR

PSNR

PSNR

PSNR

cdf2.2

46.3435

46.5839

48.8746

47.5951

db2

44.6218

44.9846

44.6034

44.8392

db3

42.3504

42.5154

42.1412

42.4439

coif1

41.4483

(16900bitsonly)

41.6768

(15625bits)

42.4858

(14884bits)

43.1489

(17689bits)

sym2

44.6218

44.9846

44.6034

44.8392

sym3

41.1251

41.1670

43.0265

42.5173

bior3.3

45.3731

45.5399

46.7578

46.3826

bior6.8

39.8899

40.4009

39.9917

40.2478

rbio3.3

41.0944

41.3254

43.5110

42.8716

rbio5.5

38.0903 (6889bits)

37.8837

(8100bits)

39.1146

(2401bits)

39.1939

(2809bits)

rbio6.8

40.4545

40.7971

40.4842

40.6646

to study the performance of various wavelets on the embedding algorithm.

For a fixed payload of 25,000 bits embedded and tested, db1 performs best as

shown in the Table 5.6. Bior6.8 has the minimum quality. A variation of

about 10db in Peak signal to noise ratio exists while changing the wavelet

family used for decomposing the original image for embedding. Also PSNR

114

between the original image and the watermarked image varies depending on

the image when using the same wavelet for decomposition. Histogram of

images for wavelet families which could not embed given capacity, tested for

25,000 bits is shown in the following figures. Histograms of some of the

images using coif 1 wavelet is shown in Figure 5.9(a) and (b).Cameraman

image when decomposed using coif 1 wavelet has its peak near 7000 in the

wavelet histogram of the horizontal wavelet coefficients, near 12000 in the

vertical coefficients and very less in the diagonal component. So the

decomposition using coif 1 is not able to embed the desired 25,000 bits.

Similar is the case of the boat image using coif 1 wavelet. This shows all

wavelets used do not give same performance for a given algorithm.

wavelet - 14884 bits maximum embedded

Figure 5.9

wavelet -15625 bits maximum embedded

Integer wavelet coefficient values and Y axis shows Number

of occurrences

capacity than other images in the experiment. It also shows it has a better

visual quality as far as Peak signal to noise ratio is concerned. Figure 5.10

shows the image quality tested for different images using integer wavelet

115

transform for different payloads using cdf2.2 wavelet .The sailboat image

though has higher quality for the same payload compared to Lena image using

lower payload, the image quality quickly falls down as payload is increased.

This is because the wavelet histograms of Lena image have higher valued

peak points than sailboat image. To embed a given payload more shifting is to

be done on sailboat image compared to Lena image which degrades the

watermarked image quality.

Figure 5.11a through Figure 5.11f shows the image quality tested

on cameraman image for different payloads. It varies from 48.75 dB at 0.2

bits per pixel of the watermarked data embedded in the original image to

42.13 dB at 0.6 bits per pixel.

cdf2.2 by varying Payload

50

48

Lena

46

Cameraman

Woman dark hair

44

Sailboat

42

40

38

36

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Payload (bpp)

Figure 5.10

Images using cdf 2.2 wavelet

116

Table 5.7

on Different Grayscale Images for each payload

Lena

Cameraman

Woman dark

hair

Sailboat

PSNR dB

PSNR dB

PSNR dB

PSNR dB

0.1

46.3338

48.8519

47.5824

47.2015

0.15

45.9927

48.7678

47.5095

44.50572

0.2

43.6043

48.7591

47.5146

43.1822

0.25

42.1267

48.7421

47.4691

41.5522

0.3

40.1725

48.7014

47.4321

39.5865

0.35

39.3304

48.6990

45.7253

38.4327

0.4

37.8965

48.6552

45.0346

37.0477

0.45

insufficient

48.5825

43.8402

insufficient

0.5

insufficient

46.5234

42.2365

insufficient

10

0.55

insufficient

42.1261

insufficient

insufficient

117

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Payload(bpp)0.2, PSNR 48.75dB, (c)Payload(bpp)0.3, PSNR

48.70 dB, (d) Payload(bpp)0.4,PSNR 48.65 dB, (e) Payload

(bpp) 0.5, PSNR 46.52 dB, (f)

42.13dB

Payload(bpp)0.6, PSNR

118

5.5.1

Histograms of Original image get shifted in position after

Figures 5.12a and 5.12b. These figures show the original wavelet histogram

Number of occurrences

Number of occurrences

Number of occurrences

Embedding (a) Histogram of Cameraman Image before

embedding

Number of occurrences

Number of occurrences

119

Number of occurrences

Figure 5.12 shows histograms of Cameraman Image using cdf 2.2

wavelet.

Figure

5.12(a)

shows

its

histogram

before

embedding.

This shows the shifted positions of the histogram points due to shifting and

embedding. Histogram of wavelet transformed cameraman image shows more

number of coefficient values at peak point compared to Lena image and

sailboat. This influences the embedding capacity. Cameraman image has

higher embedding capacity compared to Lena or sailboat image as illustrated

in Figures 5.12 and 5.13.

All images have different decompositions even if we use a

particular wavelet. The number of points in the peak of the wavelet histogram

influences the embedding capacity as we choose the peak for embedding the

watermark data. The following Figures 5.13a and 5.13b, illustrates the

histogram of Sailboat and Lena image after decomposing using cdf 2.2

wavelet. The peaks have lesser number of points compared to other images

120

like cameraman and woman dark hair which has higher embedding capacity

due to higher peak points in the wavelet histogram.

X axis shows Integer wavelet coefficient values and Y axis

shows Number of occurrences (a) Histogram of Sailboat

Image after IWT (b) Histogram of Lena Image after IWT

5.6

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Reversible image watermarking using histogram shifting method

was done and tested using different images. Embedding capacity not only

varies from image to image, it also varies for various wavelets .The wavelet

histogram is used for embedding as it has a Laplacian like distribution and

embedding can be done on both sides of the histogram to embed more data.

More image quality is achieved for the same payload compared to other

reversible watermarking methods this is a blind watermarking method.

Original image and the embedded data are extracted exactly without any loss

because this method is completely reversible. Images with more number of

points on the wavelet histogram peak can embed more data. Cameraman

image performs better than all the other test images used for this algorithm.

Some wavelet decompositions and the wavelet histograms are not able to

121

embed the desired capacity due to insufficient number of points in the wavelet

peak of the wavelet histogram.

The performance of the image watermarking algorithm using

histogram shifting is studied like the other algorithms implemented in this

work namely the reversible watermarking method using bitplane coding and

the non reversible neighbor correlation authentication method.

The performance of these algorithms will not be the same under the

influence of noise in the watermarked image. To see the behavior of all the

three algorithms implemented in such conditions, noise is introduced in the

watermarked image and the performance of the algorithms is studied and

discussed in the forthcoming chapter.

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