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CHAPTER 5
REVERSIBLE DATA HIDING BASED ON
HISTOGRAM SHIFTING

The reversible watermarking algorithms are developed from the


time it was suggested by its pioneers. Fridrich et al, Jun Tian and Ni et al are
pioneers in the field.
Ni et al (2003) proposed an image lossless data hiding algorithm
using pairs of zero-points and peak-points, in which the part of an image
histogram is shifted to embed data. Lossless data embedding algorithm based
on the histogram shifting in spatial domain is proposed. Fridrich suggested
general methodologies for lossless embedding that can be applied to images
as well as any other digital objects. The concept of lossless data embedding
can be used as a powerful tool to achieve a variety of necessary tasks,
including lossless authentication using fragile watermarks (Fridrich et al
2002).
Xuan et al (2005) proposed the lossless embedding using the
Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) and histogram medication using a
threshold point for embedding limit. Xuan and Shi proposed a histogram
shifting method for image lossless data hiding in integer wavelet transform
domain. This algorithm hides data into wavelet coefficients of high frequency
subbands. It shifts part of the histogram of high frequency wavelet subbands
and embeds data by using the created histogram zero-point (Xuan et al 2006).

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Chrysochos et als (2007) scheme of reversible watermarking presents a


method resistant to geometrical attacks.
Fallahpour and Sedaaghi (2007) proposes relocation of zeroes and
peaks of the histogram of the image blocks of the original image to embed
data in the spatial domain. Image is divided into varying number of blocks as
required and the performance is analysed.
Zeng et al (2009) proposed scheme based on the difference
histogram shifting to make space for data hiding.
5.1

INTEGER -TO-INTEGER WAVELET TRANSFORMS


This algorithm again uses integer wavelet transform because the

algorithm proposed in this chapter based on histogram shifting is a reversible


algorithm.
In conventional wavelet transform reversibility is not achieved due
to the floating point wavelet coefficients we get after transformation. When
we take the inverse transform the original pixel values will get altered.
When we transform an image block consisting of integer-valued
pixels into wavelet domain using a floating-point wavelet transform and the
values of the wavelet coefficients are changed during watermark embedding,
the corresponding watermarked image block will not have integer values.
When we truncate the floating point values of the pixels, it may result in loss
of information and reversibility is lost. The original image cannot be
reconstructed from the watermarked image.
In conventional wavelet transform which is done as a floating-point
transform followed by a truncation or rounding it is impossible to represent

99

transform coefficients accurately. Information will be potentially lost through


forward and inverse transforms.
In view of the above problems, an invertible integer-to-integer
wavelet transform based on lifting is used in the proposed scheme. It maps
integers to integers which are preserved in both forward and reverse
transforms. There is no loss of information. Wavelet or subband
decomposition associated with finite length filters is obtained by a finite
number of primal and dual lifting followed by scaling.
5.2

HISTOGRAM PROCESSING
The histogram of a digital image with gray levels in the range

(0, L-1) is a discrete function p(rk) = nk/n, where rk is the kth gray level, nk is
the number of pixels in the image with that gray level, n is the total number of
pixels in the image, and k = 0,1,2 L-1 (Gonzalez 2008).
An estimate of the probability of occurrence of gray level rk is
given by p(rk). A plot of this function for all the values of k provides a global
description of the appearance of the image. The gray levels are concentrated
toward the dark end of the gray scale range. Thus the histogram corresponds
to an image with overall dark characteristics. The opposite is that the
histogram which has a narrow shape indicates little dynamic range and thus
corresponds to an image having low contrast. As all gray levels occur toward
the middle of the gray scale, the image would appear a murkey gray. A
histogram with a significant spread, corresponds to an image with high
contrast.
The properties described are global description say nothing specific
about image content, the shape of the histogram of an image give us useful
information about the possibility for contrast enhancement. The following

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discussion develops methods for manipulating histograms in a consistent and


meaningful manner.
5.3

WAVELET HISTOGRAM SHIFTING


Integer Wavelet transforms of the original image is taken. In the

subband wavelet histogram data is to be embedded. In the histogram the


horizontal axis (X) represents the wavelet coefficients value and the vertical
axis (Y) represents the number of occurrence of the coefficients value. The
wavelet histogram normally exhibits a Laplacian distribution nature with a
peak point and sloping on either side. Peak in wavelet histogram is usually at
coefficient value 0
Embedding can be done on both the sides of the histogram to get
the required embedding capacity. Data embedding is done by modifying some
of the coefficient values of the wavelet domain to its neighboring value by
shifting a portion of the histogram. This gives a good visual quality and
thereby a better PSNR between original image and watermarked image.
To embed data we choose the peak point of the histogram and call
it as P. Figure 5.1 shows a vacant point is created at Peak+1.This is done by
shifting all points with value Peak+1 and above one position to the right. Now
all the IWT coefficients are scanned and whenever a coefficient with value
peak is encountered, 0 is embedded by leaving it as such and 1 is
embedded by changing its value to peak+1.This is repeated till all the points
with value Peak are over. Then a new peak is created by shifting to the right
and data is embedded as per the algorithm. We choose the peak point so that
payload is maximized.
All the high frequency wavelet subbands can be utilized to get
maximum capacity. The same process can be done on the left side of the

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histogram Peak to embed more watermark bits. A reverse algorithm is applied


for extracting the watermark data.
After water mark bits are extracted, shifting is done towards the left
each time after data extraction so that the original coefficient values are
restored. This guarantees complete reversibility and the original image can be

Number of occurrences

Number of occurrences

exactly reconstructed without loss.

Integer wavelet coefficient values

Integer wavelet coefficient values

(a)
Figure 5.1

(b)

Illustration of wavelet Histogram, (a) Maximum point is at


Peak, (b) Histogram with zero point created at peak +1

5.4

PROPOSED METHOD

5.4.1

Embedding Method
For the wavelet transformed image sub bands histogram is taken.

Now we can start embedding using the following steps. For the selected sub
band, set P = Peak of the histogram coefficients.

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Create a zero point at P+1 so that no point in the histogram has the
value P+1.To create the zero point shift all coefficients with value P+1 and
above to one position right. This makes P+1 as P+2, and the original P+2 to
P+3 and so on.
1.

Peak = P; Select P and P+1 to embed data.

2.

Read the n watermark bits Wb = {W0, W1, ...........Wn-1}where


0<b<n-1.

3.

If Wb =0, then 0 is embedded as P = P.

4.

Else if Wb =1, then 1 is embedded P = P+1.

5.

Point P+1 gets slowly filled up depending upon the number of


Wb bits with value 1.

6.

Go to histogram of the other sub bands to be marked and


repeat the same process.

7.

While to- be- embedded watermark bits are still remaining, set
P=P+2 and go to step1.Otherwise stop.
watermark

Original Image

Preprocessing &Integer
Wavelet transform

High frequency
sub bands

Unmarked
Approximate
Coefficients
Watermarked
Image

Histogram Shifting and


Data Embedding
Algorithm

Marked LH, HL
&HH
Coefficients

Inverse IWT

Figure 5. 2 Embedding Method

103

Figure 5.2 Shows the original image is decomposed into its sub
bands using integer wavelet transform After preprocessing IWT is used to
ensure complete reversibility. The high frequency sub bands (horizontal,
Vertical and Diagonal) are used for data embedding. Each sub band is used
one after the other to meet the required embedding capacity. Watermark bits
that forms the payload is embedded into these sub bands using the embedding
algorithm. The low frequency unmarked approximate coefficients are then
used along with the marked sub bands and Inverse IWT is taken to get the
watermarked image.
5.4.2

Extraction Method
Watermarked
Image

Integer Wavelet
transform

Attack
identification

Histogram
Shifting & data
Recovery Algorithm

Approximate Low
frequency LL subband
Recovered original
Image

Inverse
IWT

Watermark
stream
High frequency
Subbands

Figure 5.3 Extraction Method


The extraction method is shown in Figure 5.3. Data extraction is the
reverse process. Integer wavelet Transform is taken for the watermarked
image. The watermarked high frequency sub bands are separated and using
the Data extraction algorithm, the watermark bits are retrieved and the
original sub bands are obtained. This is combined with the unmarked low
frequency sub band to get the original image. This method is completely blind
and reversible. Original image and the watermark data bits are obtained
without any loss.

104

After wavelet decomposition of the watermarked image, histograms


of the marked sub bands are taken. For the selected sub band, set Peak= Peak
of the histogram coefficients.
1.

P=Peak.

Read

the

coefficients

with

value

and

P+1.Whenever a coefficient with value P is read ,extract


watermark bit as Wb =0 and leave P unaltered. Whenever a
coefficient with value P+1 is read ,extract watermark bit as
Wb =1 and change P+1 to P.
2.

Shift all the coefficients with value P+2 and above one
position to the left.

3.

Go to histogram of the other marked sub bands and repeat the


same process.

4.

Set P = P+1.

5.

While all watermark bits Wn are not extracted go to


step1.Otherwise stop.

5.5

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Experiments are conducted using different 512 X 512 gray scale

images and different wavelets.


Various experiments are conducted to study the performance of the
embedding algorithm of histogram shifting. Experiments were done by using
different images, different wavelet decompositions on each image, by
embedding text of various sizes into the original image and by embedding
logo image of different sizes. The following sections illustrate the tests

105

conducted and the results are tabulated. Tables 5.1 and 5.2 shows the peak
signal to noise ratio between the original image and the watermarked image
after embedding text of various sizes.
Table 5.1 shows Image Quality tested with gradual increase in
payload using Text Input of Different sizes on Cameraman Image.
Table 5.1

Image Quality tested with gradual increase in payload using


Text Input of different sizes on Cameraman Image

Number of Characters
Embedded

PSNR (dB)

2486

48.7259

2974

48.6684

5027

48.4209

9126

47.6446

11291

47.3461

Table 5.2

Comparison of performance of various wavelet families on a given image for different payload size
Cameraman

Pay
cdf2.2
load bpp PSNR MSE

db2

sym3

bior3.3

bior6.8

rbio3.3

PSNR

MSE

PSNR MSE

PSNR

MSE

PSNR

MSE

PSNR

MSE

10,000 48.965 0.844

44.63

2.308

43.05 3.296

46.86

1.374

39.937

6.806

43.507

2.992

15,129 48.951 0.847

44.628

2.311

43.05 3.299

46.82

1.386

39.934

6.811

43.498

2.998

25,281 48.869 0.864

44.609

2.321

43.02 3.318

46.76

1.403

40.010

6.813

43.478

3.011

50,176 48.751 0.887

44.567

2.344

42.94 3.357

46.62

1.450

39.945

6.846

43.468

3.019

75,076 48.787 0.880 insufficient insufficient 42.90 3.412

46.55

1.472

39.862

6.926

43.368

3.132

1,00,489 48.674 0.903 insufficient insufficient 42.84 3.465 insufficient insufficient insufficient insufficient insufficient insufficient

Insufficient - Indicates insufficient Capacity in the number of peaks used to embed.

106

Image Quality PSNR(dB)

107

49
47

Cdf2.2
db2

45

Sym3
bior3.3

43

bior6.8
rbio3.3

41
39
10000

30000

50000

70000

90000

110000

Payload in Bits

Figure 5.4

Image

Quality

tested

using

different

wavelets

on

Cameraman Image
Table 5.2 shows image quality tested for different payloads on the
same image using different wavelets. Cdf2.2. performs better than other
wavelets for the same payload. Image quality quickly changes when different
wavelets are used. Performance in embedding, measured using peak signal to
noise ratio shows that bior6.8 has the minimum quality. The embedding
capacity also varies when using different wavelets using different wavelets
when the image is decomposed using db2 embedding stops in about 50,000
bits whereas cdf2.2 continues to embed over one lakhs bits. The same is
illustrated in the graph of Figure 5.4.

Number of Occurrences

108

Integer wavelet coefficient values

bior 3.3 wavelet

Number of Occurrences

db2 wavelet

Integer wavelet coefficient values

Integer wavelet coefficient values

bior 6.8 wavelet

Integer wavelet coefficient values

rbio 3.3 wavelet

Figure 5.5 Cameraman wavelet Histograms using different Wavelets


Figure 5.5 illustrates the histograms of cameraman image
decomposed using different wavelets. The number of points in the peak value
of the wavelet histogram is different for each or decomposition. The more the
number of points in the wavelet histogram peak, the more is the embedding
capacity. The same is illustrated in Figure 5.5a to Figure 5.5d for db2, bior3.3,
bior6.8 and rbio3.3 respectively.

109

Table 5.3

Embedding Capacity of various Images and their Quality


measured by varying number of Peaks used
Images

No of
Peaks
Used

Cameraman

Woman Dark
Hair

Lena

Sail Boat

Payload PSNR Payload PSNR Payload PSNR Payload PSNR


11 peaks
10 peaks

0.5506 41.8595 0.4954 42.2365 0.3940 38.0911 0.3748 37.7327


0.55

42.1261 0.4944 42.3553 0.3877 38.3574 0.3652 38.0314

9 peaks

0.5468 42.4130 0.4928 42.5261 0.3786 38.6859 0.3526 38.4327

8 peaks

0.5440 42.8195 0.4901 42.7120 0.3665 39.0803 0.3377 38.8818

7 peaks

0.5404 43.2402 0.4853 42.9094 0.3496 39.5308 0.3191 39.4865

6 peaks

0.5357 43.7392 0.4775 43.1588 0.3269 40.1725 0.2956 40.1670

5 peaks

0.5303 44.2951 0.4646 43.5402 0.2969 40.9678 0.2665 41.0522

4 peaks

0.5226 45.0178 0.4429 44.1540 0.2568 42.1267 0.2293 42.2822

3peaks

0.5012 45.8634 0.4038 45.0346 0.2057 43.6043 0.1831 43.9072

2 peaks

0.4675 47.0743 0.3264 46.5519 0.1443 45.9927 0.1281 46.2890

1 peak

0.3496 49.4225 0.1791 49.4425 0.0759 49.5160 0.0644 49.7468

Image quality is tested using different number of embedding points


in histogram to embed the watermark data. Table 5.3 shows the number of
bits embedded in the original image per pixel and shows the image quality
measured in PSNR for different grayscale images by number of peaks used in
the histogram for embedding data. Each coefficient value can embed
watermark bits equal to the number of occurrence of that point in the wavelet
histogram. Figure 5.6 shows image quality decreases as we use more and
more points in the histogram for embedding data. With lesser payload fewer
points are used and we get more image quality for the watermarked images.

110

mage Quality PSNR (dB)

Cameraman
49

Woman Dark Hair

47

Lena
Sail Boat

45
43
41
39
37
35
1

10 11

No. of Points in Histogram used for Embedding

Figure 5.6

Image Quality vs number of Histogram points used for


Embedding

Table 5.4

Image Quality tested on Cameraman Image and number of


bits embedded and the number of shifting of the histogram

Shifting
11 levels shifting
10 levels shifting
9 levels shifting
8 levels shifting
7 levels shifting
6 levels shifting

Capacity bits
144337
143871
143328
142610
141665
140433

PSNR
41.8595
42.1260
42.4130
42.8195
43.2402
43.7392

Payload
0.5506
0.5500
0.5468
0.5440
0.5404
0.5357

5 levels shifting
4 levels shifting
3 levels shifting
2 levels shifting
1 level shifting

139021
136991
132932
122558
91650

44.2951
45.0178
45.8634
47.0743
49.4225

0.5303
0.5226
0.5012
0.4675
0.3496

111

WOMAN DARK HAIR

(a)

0.
49
54
0.
49
7
pk
28
s
0.
48
5
pk
53
s
0.
3p 464
ks
6
0.
40
1
38
pk
0.
17
91

(b)

Payload, Number of peaks used vs Image Quality


(a) Cameraman Image

Table 5.5

pk
s
11

No. of Pks (Pay Load)

No. of Pks Used (PayLoad)

Figure 5.7

PSNR

pk

0.
55
06
0.
54
7
pk
68
s
0.
54
5
pk
04
s
0.
3p 530
ks
3
0
1
pe .50
12
ak
0.
34
96
pk
s

pk
s
11

PSNR

50
48
46
44
42
40
38

50
48
46
44
42
40
38

Image Quality PSNR dB

image Quality PSNR dB

CAMERA MAN

(b) Woman Dark hair Image

Image Quality tested on Woman Dark Hair Image and


number of bits embedded and the number of shifting of the
histogram

ns

Shifting

Capacity

PSNR

Payload

11 11 levels shifting

129870

42.2365

0.4954

10 10 levels shifting

129617

42.3553

0.4944

9 9 levels shifting

129192

42.5261

0.4928

8 8 levels shifting

128472

42.7120

0.4901

7 7 levels shifting

127215

42.9094

0.4853

6 6 levels shifting

125181

43.1588

0.4775

5 5 levels shifting

121805

43.5402

0.4646

4 4 levels shifting

116100

44.1540

0.4429

3 3 levels shifting

105852

45.0346

0.4038

2 2 levels shifting

85575

46.5519

0.3264

1 1 level shifting

46942

49.4425

0.1791

112

Table 5.4 and 5.5 illustrates how the number of watermark bits that
could be embedded in a given image for cdf 2.2 wavelet using a number of
embedding points. To embed in a peak we shift all the histogram points one
position to create a vacant point near the peak. As we increase the embedding
points the levels of shifting increase. Figure 5.7 (a) and 5.7(b) shows the
number of bits that can be embedded in the cameraman image and the woman
dark hair image respectively using one to eleven levels of shifting. Also the
signal quality of the images is shown. Also it illustrates the payload, number
of peaks used against the image quality for cameraman and woman dark hair
image respectively.

Figure 5.8

Watermarked Images marked at 0.4bpp (a) Sail Boat PSNR


37.05 dB, (b) Woman Dark Hair PSNR 45.03 dB,
(c) Camera Man PSNR 48.65 dB, (d) Lena PSNR 37.89 dB,
(e) Jet Plane PSNR 42.35 dB, (f) Lake PSNR 36.42 dB.

113

Figure 5.8 illustrates the watermarked images of Sailboat, Woman


darkhair, Cameraman, Lena, Jetplane and lake images. For the same number
of bits embedded different images show different quality measured in PSNR.
The maximum quality is for cameraman image at 48.65 dB for 0.4 bits per
pixel ,woman dark hair image with 45.03 dB and minimum for Lake image
with 36.42 dB.
Table 5.6 Image quality tested for different images on various wavelets
for a fixed payload of 25,000 bits

Wavelet
name

Lena

Boat

Cameraman

Woman dark
hair

PSNR

PSNR

PSNR

PSNR

cdf2.2

46.3435

46.5839

48.8746

47.5951

db2

44.6218

44.9846

44.6034

44.8392

db3

42.3504

42.5154

42.1412

42.4439

coif1

41.4483
(16900bitsonly)

41.6768
(15625bits)

42.4858
(14884bits)

43.1489
(17689bits)

sym2

44.6218

44.9846

44.6034

44.8392

sym3

41.1251

41.1670

43.0265

42.5173

bior3.3

45.3731

45.5399

46.7578

46.3826

bior6.8

39.8899

40.4009

39.9917

40.2478

rbio3.3

41.0944

41.3254

43.5110

42.8716

rbio5.5

38.0903 (6889bits)

37.8837
(8100bits)

39.1146
(2401bits)

39.1939
(2809bits)

rbio6.8

40.4545

40.7971

40.4842

40.6646

Experiments were conducted on various 512 512 grayscale images


to study the performance of various wavelets on the embedding algorithm.
For a fixed payload of 25,000 bits embedded and tested, db1 performs best as
shown in the Table 5.6. Bior6.8 has the minimum quality. A variation of
about 10db in Peak signal to noise ratio exists while changing the wavelet
family used for decomposing the original image for embedding. Also PSNR

114

between the original image and the watermarked image varies depending on
the image when using the same wavelet for decomposition. Histogram of
images for wavelet families which could not embed given capacity, tested for
25,000 bits is shown in the following figures. Histograms of some of the
images using coif 1 wavelet is shown in Figure 5.9(a) and (b).Cameraman
image when decomposed using coif 1 wavelet has its peak near 7000 in the
wavelet histogram of the horizontal wavelet coefficients, near 12000 in the
vertical coefficients and very less in the diagonal component. So the
decomposition using coif 1 is not able to embed the desired 25,000 bits.
Similar is the case of the boat image using coif 1 wavelet. This shows all
wavelets used do not give same performance for a given algorithm.

(a) Histogram of Cameraman image using coif1


wavelet - 14884 bits maximum embedded

Figure 5.9

(b) Histogram of boat image using coif1


wavelet -15625 bits maximum embedded

Histogram of Images using coif1 wavelet X axis shows


Integer wavelet coefficient values and Y axis shows Number
of occurrences

Table 5.7 shows that cameraman image has a better embedding


capacity than other images in the experiment. It also shows it has a better
visual quality as far as Peak signal to noise ratio is concerned. Figure 5.10
shows the image quality tested for different images using integer wavelet

115

transform for different payloads using cdf2.2 wavelet .The sailboat image
though has higher quality for the same payload compared to Lena image using
lower payload, the image quality quickly falls down as payload is increased.
This is because the wavelet histograms of Lena image have higher valued
peak points than sailboat image. To embed a given payload more shifting is to
be done on sailboat image compared to Lena image which degrades the
watermarked image quality.
Figure 5.11a through Figure 5.11f shows the image quality tested
on cameraman image for different payloads. It varies from 48.75 dB at 0.2
bits per pixel of the watermarked data embedded in the original image to
42.13 dB at 0.6 bits per pixel.

Image Quality Tested on different images using


cdf2.2 by varying Payload
50

Image Quality (PSNR dB)

48

Lena

46

Cameraman
Woman dark hair

44

Sailboat

42
40
38
36
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Payload (bpp)

Figure 5.10

Image Quality vs Embedding Capacity of different


Images using cdf 2.2 wavelet

116

Table 5.7

Performance of cdf2.2 wavelet using Image Quality Tested


on Different Grayscale Images for each payload

Lena

Cameraman

Woman dark
hair

Sailboat

PSNR dB

PSNR dB

PSNR dB

PSNR dB

Sl.No Payload bpp

0.1

46.3338

48.8519

47.5824

47.2015

0.15

45.9927

48.7678

47.5095

44.50572

0.2

43.6043

48.7591

47.5146

43.1822

0.25

42.1267

48.7421

47.4691

41.5522

0.3

40.1725

48.7014

47.4321

39.5865

0.35

39.3304

48.6990

45.7253

38.4327

0.4

37.8965

48.6552

45.0346

37.0477

0.45

insufficient

48.5825

43.8402

insufficient

0.5

insufficient

46.5234

42.2365

insufficient

10

0.55

insufficient

42.1261

insufficient

insufficient

117

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Figure 5.11 Watermarked Images of Cameraman (a) Original Image (b)


Payload(bpp)0.2, PSNR 48.75dB, (c)Payload(bpp)0.3, PSNR
48.70 dB, (d) Payload(bpp)0.4,PSNR 48.65 dB, (e) Payload
(bpp) 0.5, PSNR 46.52 dB, (f)
42.13dB

Payload(bpp)0.6, PSNR

118

5.5.1

Histograms of Original and Watermarked Image


Histograms of Original image get shifted in position after

embedding the watermark data. This is illustrated for cameraman image in


Figures 5.12a and 5.12b. These figures show the original wavelet histogram

Number of occurrences

Number of occurrences

and the histogram of the image after embedding the watermark.

Integer wavelet coefficient values

Number of occurrences

Integer wavelet coefficient values

Integer wavelet coefficient values

Figure 5.12 Histogram of Cameraman Image Before and After


Embedding (a) Histogram of Cameraman Image before
embedding

Number of occurrences

Number of occurrences

119

Integer wavelet coefficient values


Number of occurrences

Integer wavelet coefficient values

Integer wavelet coefficient values

Figure 5.12 (b) Histogram of Watermarked Cameraman Image


Figure 5.12 shows histograms of Cameraman Image using cdf 2.2
wavelet.

Figure

5.12(a)

shows

its

histogram

before

embedding.

Figure 5.12(b), shows the watermarked cameraman image wavelet histogram.


This shows the shifted positions of the histogram points due to shifting and
embedding. Histogram of wavelet transformed cameraman image shows more
number of coefficient values at peak point compared to Lena image and
sailboat. This influences the embedding capacity. Cameraman image has
higher embedding capacity compared to Lena or sailboat image as illustrated
in Figures 5.12 and 5.13.
All images have different decompositions even if we use a
particular wavelet. The number of points in the peak of the wavelet histogram
influences the embedding capacity as we choose the peak for embedding the
watermark data. The following Figures 5.13a and 5.13b, illustrates the
histogram of Sailboat and Lena image after decomposing using cdf 2.2
wavelet. The peaks have lesser number of points compared to other images

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like cameraman and woman dark hair which has higher embedding capacity
due to higher peak points in the wavelet histogram.

Figure 5.13 Histogram of Images with lesser points in wavelet peaks


X axis shows Integer wavelet coefficient values and Y axis
shows Number of occurrences (a) Histogram of Sailboat
Image after IWT (b) Histogram of Lena Image after IWT
5.6

CONCLUDING REMARKS
Reversible image watermarking using histogram shifting method

was done and tested using different images. Embedding capacity not only
varies from image to image, it also varies for various wavelets .The wavelet
histogram is used for embedding as it has a Laplacian like distribution and
embedding can be done on both sides of the histogram to embed more data.
More image quality is achieved for the same payload compared to other
reversible watermarking methods this is a blind watermarking method.
Original image and the embedded data are extracted exactly without any loss
because this method is completely reversible. Images with more number of
points on the wavelet histogram peak can embed more data. Cameraman
image performs better than all the other test images used for this algorithm.
Some wavelet decompositions and the wavelet histograms are not able to

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embed the desired capacity due to insufficient number of points in the wavelet
peak of the wavelet histogram.
The performance of the image watermarking algorithm using
histogram shifting is studied like the other algorithms implemented in this
work namely the reversible watermarking method using bitplane coding and
the non reversible neighbor correlation authentication method.
The performance of these algorithms will not be the same under the
influence of noise in the watermarked image. To see the behavior of all the
three algorithms implemented in such conditions, noise is introduced in the
watermarked image and the performance of the algorithms is studied and
discussed in the forthcoming chapter.