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Gayatri Mantra

காயத்திாி ததவி. Gayatri Devi:

Gayatri Devi: Credit:

Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

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Gayatri Mantra

A non-denominational Mantra for all times, regions, religions, beliefs, races, creeds,
colors, nationalities....

Please click on the following link, if you want to listen to the divine voice of Anuradha
Paudwal sing a 22-minute rendition of Gayatri. Copy and paste if necessary.
If you are a Hindu, that Light is the sun, Brahman, Gayatri Devi; a Jew, Adonai;
Christian, the Lord; Muslim, Allah. For the Hindu, the image is Gayatri Devi; for the Jew,
Christian and Muslim it is the Light of lights. There is no religious accretion in Gayatri

According to Jewish tradition sun was formed on the 4th day of creation on March 26,
3760 BCE. NYTimes: "According to the celestial calculations of a Talmudic sage
named Shmuel, at the outset of spring every 28 years, the sun moves into the same
place in the sky at the same time and on the same day of the week as it did when God
made it. This charged moment provides the occasion for reciting a one-line blessing of
God, “who makes the work of creation.” NYTimes.

That day is April 8, 2009; the previous ones were April 28, 1953, April 28, 1981. The
next one will occur on April 8, 2037.

Jewish Year 5769: sunset September 29, 2008 - nightfall October 1, 2008

Birkat Hachama (‫החמה ברכת‬, "Blessing of the Sun") refers to a Jewish blessing that is
recited on the Sun once every twenty-eight years, when the vernal equinox as
calculated by tradition falls on a Tuesday at sundown. Wikipedia.

It appears that Jews pay homage to the sun once every 28 years, while Hindus pay
homage everyday.

Here is the Gayatri Mantra of the Hindus paying homage to the sun.

Oṃ bhūr-bhuvaḥ-svaḥ tatsavitur vareṇyaṃ bhargo devasya dhīmahi dhiyo yonaḥ


Om , earth, atmosphere, and heaven, we meditate on the adorable glory of the radiant
sun; may he inspire our intelligence—translation by Dr. Radhakrishnan.
Gāyatrī = Gāya + Trī.

Gāya is derived from Ga (singing, page 352 Monier Williams Sanskrit Dictionary);

Trī = Female defender.

Tra = Trā = male defender, page 457.

Gāya = song; Gāyak = singer; Gāyan = singing

Gāyatrī / Gayatri = Song that protects; Gayatri Devi is the protector.

Gayatri = A Vedic Meter, three feet and 24 syllables long; Gayatri Devi

Line one: Tat Savitur Vareṇiyaṃ

Tat Sa vi tur Va re ṇi yaṃ = 8 syllables

Second line: Bhargo Devasya Dhīmahi

Bhar go De va sya Dhī ma hi = 8 syllables

Third line: Dhiyo yonaḥ pracodayāt

Dhi yo yo naḥ pra co da yāt = 8 syllables

Tirumular of Tirumantiram says the following in Verse 994 about 24-syllable Gayatri

ஆறு எழுத்தால் ஆறு சமயங்கள்
ஆறுக்கு நாலே இருபத்து நாலு என்பர்
சாவித்திாியில் தலே எழுத்து ஒன்று உள
லபதிக்க வல்ோர் பிறவி அற்றார்கலள.
The six letters are the six Samayas (faiths). Six multiplied by four is 24, which are the
syllables contained in Gayatri Mantra. The leading head of the Mantra is Om. They who
know the true meaning of Pranava will for ever escape the round of birth.

Gayatri Mantra sung by Anuradha Paudwal with golden and silken voice.

Here is the link.

Bhagavan Krishna says in Bhagavd Gita (10.35) Of the hymns in Sama Veda (I am)
Brhatsama; of meters, I am Gayatri; of months (I am) Margasirasa (Dec-Jan); of all
seasons, I am flower-bearer (spring).
Gayatri Devi is endowed with five heads, ten eyes, and ten hands and sits on a red
lotus. Because of Her many auspicious qualities and powers, She is One beyond
compare and yet She is Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, Vedas and Goddess; thus She has five
heads, ten eyes and ten hands, which hold weapons and accouterments of the said
deities. The three eyes in each head are the sun, the moon, and the third eye. The all-
knowing third eye when turned inside is for contemplation and meditation. When
opened to outside, it brings destruction of evil. The Roman god of rising and setting sun
Janus had only two faces to see forwards and backwards but Gayatri had five heads
and five faces looking in all directions. Besides, imagine the computing power of five
parallel processors!

There are five Devatas for worship: Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, Sakti, and Surya. (Ganesa
replaced Brahma.) Brahma worship was abandoned by Narada's and Siva's curse;
Ganesa, son of Siva and Avatara of Vishnu has taken his place of honor and worship.
Gayatri Mantra has five attributes appended to Deva: Pervader of the universe (Vibhu),
creator, Deva of worship, Deva at play, Inspirer of intelligence. Vaidika Gayatri: Oṃ
bhūr-bhuvaḥ-svaḥ tatsavitur vareṇyaṃ bhargo devasya dhīmahi dhiyo yonaḥ
pracodayāt — Om , earth, atmosphere, and heaven, we meditate on the adorable glory
of the radiant sun; may he inspire our intelligence—translation by Dr. Radhakrishnan.
Sakti forms the hypostasis for these five attributes. Gayatri depicts Sakti of Will, Sakti of
Action, and Sakti of Knowledge in its full measure. Three Purusas and three of their
aspects, Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesvara, Brahmani, Vaishnavi, and Rudrani form the six
tattvas in Gayatri Mantra. (insert: Brahma and Brahmani;
It is difficult to hold in mind all six
tattvas at the same time. Devi
forms the representative core of all
six tattvas and worshipping her is
equal to worshipping all six tattvas.
In the same vein, it is difficult to
worship at the same time a
pantheon of five gods: Siva, Sakti,
Surya, Vishnu, and Ganesa. One
Devata becomes the centerpiece,
Ishtadevata, with a circle of other
four devatas. The initiation may be
into all five Devatas or one
Ishtadevata. Mahanirvana Tantra
states that in Kali yuga, the wise
should worship Devas according
to Agamic rules. The Sadaka
(Brahmana, Ksatriya, and Vaishya) is initiated by the Guru in Vaidik Gayatri Mantra and
later in Tantric Mantra of Ishtadevata. A Sudra is initiated in Tantric Mantra alone.
Initiation in Vaidik Gayatri is done according to Tantric tradition.
Guru is essential in initiation. He teaches the initiate Mantra, Yantra, Mudra, and
Sadhana; external and internal purification, worship of Devatas, panchattatvas. The
very fact that the initiate has come to this stage of spiritual advancement means that he
has performed a goodly amount of Punyam (meritorious acts) in previous births. This
qualifies him to receive Mantra (Srividya Mantra in case of Tripurasundari, TPS)
instructions in a proper ritual. The Guru presents the initiate the specific Yantra of the
goddess (Sri Chakra Yantra in case of TPS). Mantra is the sound-body of a god or
goddess; Yantra depicts the sound-body in a diagram; just imagine Mantra is the
computer code while Yantra is the computer electronic circuit board.
Though She is Parabrahman (Supreme Brahman, Brahman beyond attributes or
mutation...; Immutable Ultimate Reality), she is considered the consort of Brahma. The
five heads are the four Vedas and the Godhead. The weapons are for protection.
Protection for and from whom? She is Almighty Goddess and does not need protection.
The weapons are visible symbols to the devotees who are really in need of protection.
It is a show of immense strength and power. Seeing (the weapons on the Goddess) is
believing that she provides divine protection. We are earthbound creatures, hard-wired
in the principle of WYSIWYG. From time immemorial, countries have been parading
their weapons and soldiers. Once the devotee sees the weapons on Gayatri, he is
reassured of protection from Her. The red lotus is a symbol of wealth. The Darshan
(seeing, looking, observing the divine) of five faces amounts to expunging the five sins
and acquiring five divine graces. The ten eyes are looking in the eight directions plus
the sky and the earth protecting the good and killing the bad. I bet the world nations
need Gayatri Devi all the time to do in the terrorists. What Argus sees with 100 eyes,
Gayatri can do the same with ten eyes; such is her power and perception. We use
idioms such as double-tongue, triple-tongue, forked tongue, foreign tongue, slip of the
tongue, tongue in cheek, speaking in tongues, hold one's tongue; literal meaning of
these words in a second language is the stuff of a stand-up comic. In like manner all
these extra body parts convey a special meaning. Demon Ravana had ten heads;
imagine inviting him for a dinner and having a chat. The ten talking heads will drive
every guest bonkers. It is like a gaggle of senior correspondents, invited guests, opinion
peddlers and professional verbal pugilists on a political TV forum engage in vociferous
intrusive verbal slugging. Imagine the amount of sumptuous food he will be eating,
when children are starving in countries like kotakongaponga. Imagine his twenty chaotic
flailing hands make maddening excursions between plates and his ten mouths. What
about the clanging flatware, silverware and hollowware? Add all these to his
metronomic eructations (from each head), growling borborygmi, emissive flatulence
from his Jovian equatorial bulge, and a drumbeat; there you have an eruptive orchestra.
That is a one man show, the best you will ever see and hear. His ten heads represent
ten bad qualities which stream forth from the head(s), the seat of thought. Sri Swami
Sivananda lists the ten bad qualities: passion, pride, anger, greed, infatuation, lust,
hatred, jealousy, selfishness and crookedness. Ram Bhagavan cuts off all his ten
heads in one sweep, telling us that we should rise above these ten bad qualities.
Imagine a farmhand chopping off ten cabbage heads on the farm land in one swoop.
That takes a ton of dexterity. They also represent ten ego-centric senses: five motor
and five sensory organs. Motor organs are larynx, hands, feet, anus and genitals and
their functions are speech, grasp, locomotion, evacuation and reproduction; organs of
perception are eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. These organs must be brought under
control. The senses have their headquarters in the head. Thus decapitation is
euphemism for severing the ugly heads of senses. You may ask how you can bring the
skin under control. Skin's function is touch, which encompasses appropriate touch,
inappropriate touch, foreplay, sexual intercourse.... Vaishnavites are of the opinion that
the Indriyas (senses) are created for the express purpose of glorifying Vishnu: chanting
His names, hearing His names, tasting the sweetness of His names .... All other uses
are of secondary importance.
Here are the five sins:

Pancha-ma-Patakam (five heinous sins of killing, lying, stealing, drinking and abusing
one's Guru). The votary should engage in Pancha Suddhi (five-part purification) in
worship: Bhuta suddhi, Anma suddhi, Dravya suddhi, Mantra suddhi, and Linga suddhi
in Saivism. Tantrics also have five-part purification: Atma suddhi, Stana Suddhi, Mantra
suddhi, Dravya Suddhi, and Deva Suddhi.
Bhuta Suddhi: Daily ceremonial by which the soul is purified from daily sins, part of

Anma Suddhi: Soul's realizing Divine grace as its mainstay.

Dravya Suddhi: Purification of defiled objects.

Mantra Suddhi: Ceremonial purification by sprinkling water consecrated by mantra.

Linga Suddhi: Realizing the immanence of God in the non-sentient universe, as well as
in the sentient.

The following is special to Tantrics, but applicable to all sects.

Stana Suddhi: Purification of the place of worship (Tantra).

Deva Suddhi: Purification of a deity which consists in placing its image on a seat,
bathing it, adorning it with garments, ornaments, etc., and offering incense, light.

The five graces of God or Gayatri are also His or Her names: SadyojAta, Vamadeva,
Tat Purusha, Isana, and Aghora.

SadyojAta: Sadyo + jAta = fresh + brought into existence, born = Creator.

VAmadeva: VAma + Deva = pleasant, agreeable, fair + god = preserver.

Tatpurusha: Tat + Purusha = That + man = Original or Supreme Spirit.

IsAna: The grace-giving form of Siva, Sadasiva. He is invisible to the human eye

Aghora: Not terrific. Destructive aspect of Siva as prelude to regeneration. It is fire that
is followed by new growth.

Gayatri, the sacred mantra of 24 syllables and three feet (eight syllables in each foot), is
recited by Brahmanas in their daily worship. All castes, classes, races, and followers of
all religions can chant this Mantra. It has an universal appeal. When Gayatri has not
been sung for three generations in a Brahmana family, the family loses its privilege and
caste status and ceases to be Brahmanas. They still retain the Brahmin status; it is one
or several notches below the real entity. Vaidika (Sanctioned by Vedas) Gayatri is a
seed mantra and the Vedas are ensconced in it. Vaidika Gayatri: Om bhur-bhuvah-
svah tatsavitur varenyam bhargo devasya dhīmahi dhiyo yonah prachodayāt— Om ,
earth, atmosphere, and heaven, we meditate on the adorable glory of the radiant sun;
may he inspire our intelligence—translation by Dr. Radhakrishnan. Sandya (junctional
[transitional time zones] prayers—sunrise, noon and sunset) is performed three times a
day. Now let us read the translation of Gayatri Mantra by Woodroffe: "Om, Earth, Middle
region, Heaven. let us contemplate upon the adorable spirit who is in the form of the sun
(Aditya Devata). May he direct our minds, towards attainment of the four-fold aims
(Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksa = righteous duty, wealth, desire and conjugal love,
liberation) of all sentient beings.
Woodroffe observes and amplifies, "The Self of all which exists in the three regions
appears in form of Sun-god with His body of fire. The Brahman is the cause of all, and
as the visible devata is the eye of the World and the Maker of the day who vivifies,
ripens and reveals all beings and things. The Sun-god is to the sun what spirit (Atman)
is to the body. He is the Supreme in the form of the great Luminary. His body is the
Light of the World, and he Himself is the Light of the lives of all beings. He is
everywhere. He is in the outer ether as the sun, and in the inner ethereal region of the
heart. He is the wondrous Light which is the smokeless Fire. He it is who is in constant
play with creation, maintenance and destruction; and by His radiance pleases both eye
and mind. Let us adore Him that we may escape the misery of birth and death. May He
ever direct our minds (Buddhivrtti) upon the path of the world (Trivarga) and liberation

GAyatri Mantra is so important that the Sun God himself came down as the preceptor
and priest for Upanayana Initiation of Lord Vamana (Dwarf incarnation of Vishnu) and
UpanyAsa of the Gayatri Mantra to child Vamana. (Upanayana = Sacred thread
ceremony of a Brahmana boy, a Ksatriya or a Vaisya at which the boy attains twice-
born status, the symbol being a loop of thread worn over the right shoulder and lower
loop hanging under the left armpit.)

When God decided to become many (from Niskala to Sakala mode) a multitude of
triplets appeared: three varnas (AUM); three vyahrtis (expansions, additions, utterance);
three footed Gayatri, three Vedas, three Devas, and three fires. The Mantra is tatsavitur
varenyam bhargo devasya dhīmahi dhiyo yonah prachodayāt; it is preceded by Pranava
(Om) and maha-vyahrtis (bhur-bhuvah-svaha, added by Yajur Veda).

Vyahrti: Utterance, speech, declaration, statement. The mystical utterance of the

names of the seven worlds (viz. Bhūr, bhuvar [or bhuvah], svar, mahar, janar, tapar,
satya , the first three of which, called ‘the great Vyāhrtis,’ are pronounced after Om by
every Brahmana in commencing his daily prayers and are personified as the daughters
of Savitri and Prisni). Monier williams Sanskrit Dictionary page 1039

The three worlds, Bhūr, bhuvar [or bhuvah], svar are the habitats of men and gods. It is
confluence of body, mind and soul. In a subjective sense, life on earth is waking; life in
the atmospheric domain, dream sleep; life in heaven, deep sleep. A note: Man in deep
sleep is the Purest Being known to man; he gives up all good, bad, and indifferent
deeds of his awake life; thus, a man in deep sleep is a spiritual being or the purest
being; he is in touch with his God in deep sleep; thus deep sleep is heaven. Have you
ever heard of a thief stealing or planning to steal in deep sleep? Here is another
example from Hindu sacred texts. The man holding on an umbrella when awake is the
man with worldly attachments; the man (dozing off in a moving train. I have seen many
a British on the train holding the umbrellas) going to sleep lets go of his umbrella and
gets in touch with his god in deep sleep. When he comes out of deep sleep, he is
disconnected from his God and temporary bliss and looks for his loose umbrella (lying
on the floor of the moving train). When we are in deep sleep, we are awake to the world
of Spirit. The progression is from spiritually marginal condition of awake life (Bhūr,
Earthly life) full of desires, to a dream world of aspirations and expectations of Bhuvar,
and to the world of deep sleep of Svar (heaven), where flesh dies along with desires,
and spirit rises. When we are in deep sleep we are all virtuous (Sattva); when we come
back to awake life, we resume our old personality which is a combination of Sattva
(virtue and goodness; the quality of truth, goodness, reality, purity), Rajas (motion,
passion, desire), and Tamas (darkness, ignorance, heaviness, illusion, anger, pride,
sorrow, dullness, solidity [dense]). All of us and matter possess these three qualities;
they are in various combinations, each in different proportions, all amounting to 100%.
Very few are 100% Sattvic: Maharishis, Ramana Maharishi, Ramakrishna
Paramahamsa, Buddha, Jesus Christ. Very few are 100% Tamasic (read evil): Hitler.
There is nothing in this universe which is free of these three qualities except
Parabrahman. Satya SAi Baba says the following (paraphrase): Take the sun in its orb;
our daily lives are tuned to the apparent movement of the sun. Early morning hours (4
AM to 8AM) is a time of Sattva, prayers and meditation; risen sun to afternoon hours (8
AM to 4 PM) coincides with Rajas and frenetic activity of the human race and most
other creatures; Sattvic period comes again between 4PM to 8PM for prayer and
meditation; setting sun and the dark of night (8 PM to 4 AM) mark the Tamasic dark

All substances have these three qualities. Take water; water at room temperature is of
Sattva guna, fit for drinking; boiling water and steam are of Rajasic nature; ice is of
Tamasic nature.

(Maharishi Bharadvaja was a Vedic Scholar and yet at age 96 he was not satisfied
with the extent of his knowledge of the Vedas; he thought his knowledge was
incomplete. He prayed to Indra, sought and received an additional lifetime of 100 years
for the learning of Vedas and thus he received three 100-year lifetimes for intense study
of Vedas. Before the last term was up for renewal, Indra appeared before Bharadvaja
and asked him, "What are you going to do with the fourth 100-year lifetime?"
Bharadvaja answered, "O Indra, What are you saying? I have nothing else to do except
to remain a Brahmacharin and learn Vedas." Indra at once created three mountain-
worlds (Yes, Indra can do that.): Bhuh, Bhuvah and Svahah (world, atmosphere, and
heaven). He addressed the Sage and said, "Look at these three worlds; these are the
Vedas." Bharadvaja's joy knew no bounds and asked Indra, "Did I learn all these three
Vedas in my three 100-year lifetimes?" Indra responded by scooping up one fistful of
mud from each mountain and retorted, "O Bharadvaja, What you say is nowhere near
the truth. The Vedas that you have learnt in three hundred years are three fistfuls. How
many 100 years do you need to scour the three mountains clean?" Bharadvaja was
pretty shaken up at the immensity of the proposal and task.

Facts and Factoids: The British Library boasts: We hold 14 million books, 920,000
journal and newspaper titles, 58 million patents, 3 million sound recordings, and so
much more. What is 'so much more', I don't know. Just imagine that one person
(Bharadvaja) is set out to learn from this mountain of books, which is only a fistful
according to Indra. Now you know why Baradvaja's ego was deflated, when the British
Library is reduced to a fistful of knowledge by Indra.

This reminds us of the Avvaiyar's pithy saying, "What you have learnt is of the size of
fistful of mud and what you haven't learnt is of the size of the world. = கற்றது
ககம்மண்ணளவு கல்லாதது உலகளவு."

" Thus Vedas are endless apart from its eternal existence, absent claim of authorship,
and its learning by word of mouth from generation to generation.)

The view from the West

The West regards Indra as an Aryan God, whose life, times, prestige, power, glory,
valor and sovereignty over the universe came to an abrupt end when Vishnu and Siva
came into their own. The abrupt end is akin to when the politicians are voted out of
office. It further states the importance of the other elemental gods of Indo-Aryans waned
as Siva and Vishnu came to the forefront and yet the elemental gods remained as
demigods and demiurges. What they saw in nature which they could not control, the
Indo-Aryans called god: Sun, moon, earth, water, fire, air, ether, sky...At first, for the
Indo-Aryans seeing was believing, unlike the Dravidians who in addition made an
internal journey to understand and interpret god. That is how the whole repertoire of
deep-thought philosophy of Dravidians came into existence. Saiva Siddhanta is one of
the best examples of such philosophical speculation of the nature of god.

The philosophical system of Saiva Sidhdhantha, a system, which may be ranked among
the most perfect and cleverest systems of human thought--Prof. Dr. Kamil Vaclav
Zvelebil, September 17, 1927 - January 17, 2009
Primer in Saiva Siddhanta

The Indo-Aryans wandered around with makeshift shelters and hastily built fire pits for
Yagna (fire sacrifice). Joseph Campbell states they were the genetic and soul brothers
of the ancient Greeks, from whom they broke away and wandered into India (from
Central Asia). Modern Indologists dispute outside-of-India origin of Indo-Aryans. They
were constantly exposed to wind, air, fire, water, space, sky, sun, moon, stars, which
became their gods. Indra wields Vajra (the thunderbolt) and sends drenching rain which
defeats the drought demon, Vrtra. If you see parched fields with deep fissures, it is the
work of Vrta, who is waiting to be appeased by the farmers. Indra thrives on Soma; the
Indo-Aryans are the purveyors and suppliers of Soma; it is a perfect fit in the domain of
supply and demand; it is like commerce. When he imbibes Soma, he exhibits more
strength, vigor and power, which he uses to reward the suppliers of Soma and thus
provides for the welfare of mankind by sending rain and cattle. Krishna keeps the Indo-
Aryan god Indra in line all the time so that he does not puff up with pride. In one
instance, to defy Krishna's supremacy as the Paramatman, Indra sends days and days
of endless rain. The cowherds, their spouses, children, and animals (cows) face an
imminent threat of being washed away in floods. (It was worse than Katrina 2005.)
Krishna comes to the rescue and holds up a mountain, so that all the living creatures
can take shelter under its cover. They live by grace of Krishna. Indra coming to know of
it begs for forgiveness. Krishna authorized celebration of this day every year in mid
January in honor of Indra which coincides with the northern passage of the sun. (It is
like President Obama honoring and giving the jobs of VC and SOS to Biden and Clinton
after defeating them.) It is a four-day harvest festival in honor of Indra, sun god, farm
animals and farm workers and is known as Pongal (பபாங்கல்) in Tamil Nadu, Makara
Sankranti in North India, Onam, Kanumu, Lohri, Bihu, Bhogi, and Hadaga in various
parts of India. (Jan 2009)

Soma is a drink of the ancient Brahmanas and gods. The Brahmanas curried favor with
Indra by providing Soma to gods. It is better than Scotch Whiskey. When you drink it,
you get a double whammy: Inebriation and hallucination. You can't buy Soma anymore.
You may get it when you go to Indra Loka (the world of Indra). Indra has a huge cellar
fully stocked with Soma. Don't expect him to part with his Vintage Soma. No one knows
its ingredients and the art of distilling it. Indra would not reveal its ingredients as the
Coke people would not tell what Coke is made of. I know it has sugar in it, but it is not
all sugar; there is something more. It is believed by earthlings Soma was made from

The West says that this is an instance where Vishnu (Krishna) eclipses Indra totally and
irrevocably. Krishna is an Indo-Aryan, though dark-blue in complexion. Look, He is the
real Blue Blood. His father was an Indo-Aryan king and his mother was an Indo-Aryan
princess. It looks like Aryans are polychromatic. Krishna uproots (steals) the celestial
tree (Parijata tree--Erythrina Indica) from the celestial garden of Indra and mounts it on
Garuda for transportation to Dwaraka at the request of his consort, Satyabhama. The
gardeners of Indra protest and tell Indra and his wife Saci (Indrani, Aindri). Parijata is no
ordinary tree. Won't you get angry, if someone steals luscious mango tree from your
garden or grove? It came from Milk ocean. Saci loved its fragrant flowers and luscious
fruits. She wore the flowers on her tresses. She moved like a goddess (She really is)
among the trees and bushes smelling the roses. When the gardeners see her coming,
they all fall prostrate on the grounds and stay there until she leaves the garden. She is a
good goddess and exchanges pleasantries with the gardeners. Saci was heart-broken;
Indra could not bear to see an unhappy distraught wife. He fought with Krishna and lost
his weapons, elephant.... When he was standing alone on the battlefield without
weapons, Krishna let him live. Such Grace and Magnanimity can come only from
Krishna Bhagavan, the divine Thief, the Lord of the Universe.... To make things short,
Indra and Saci agreed to let Krishna take the tree (steal the tree under their nose) and
return it after Krishna's demise. (This is one of the most important tenets of
SriVaishnavism: Yes, everything is His; No, you don't own it; you have a temporary
custody of it; don't become attached to it; what He giveth, He taketh away.) Partly it
sounds like a Christian thought. As you enter the temple of Krishna in Guruvayoor, you
may say "Om Namo Narayana" besides Govinda and other Mantras. NAMO = NA +
MAHAH = No + Yes (power, perfection). The votary says to Narayana, "No, Nothing is
mine; Yes, they (all power, perfection, the universe, the souls) belong to You. The door
frame of the temple denotes this principle.
Abbe Dubois derides Gayatri Mantra, so highly regarded by Hindus. He observes
(exudes malevolent wry remark) that Gayatri Mantram removes the sins and that gods
tremble at it. The Brahmin must make sure that he always repeats it in a low voice, that
he is not overheard by a Sudra, or even by his own wife, particularly at the time when
she is in a state of uncleanness (monthly periods). The Mantram should not be imparted
to an unbeliever (like Abbe Dubois). Page 138-140: Hindu Manners, Customs and

Donald A Mackenzie says that Brahma took Gayatri, the milkmaid, as a second
wife because his chief wife, Sarasvati, despite her wisdom arrived late for a certain
important ceremony, at which the spouse of the god was required. Sarasvati cursed
Brahma so that he could only be worshipped once a year. page 44, 149 Myths &
Legends of India.
Population genetics of Indians

From The Times September 24, 2009

Researchers analysed more than 500,000 genetic markers from 132 people from 25
different groups.

The research established that modern Indians of all castes are descended from two
ancestral groups.

Indians can trace between 39 per cent and 71 per cent of their ancestry to a
population known as the Ancestral Northern Indians (ANI), who are quite closely
related to Europeans and Asians. Those with a higher ancestral contribution from the
ANI group are more likely to belong to higher castes, and to speak Indo-European
languages such as Hindi and Bengali.

The other ancient population are the Ancestral Southern Indians (ASI), who are not
genetically close to any group outside the sub-continent. People with a higher ASI
ancestry are more likely to belong to lower castes, and to speak non Indo-European
languages such as Tamil.

The research, by scientists from CCMB in India and Harvard University and the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the United States, has also
established that Indians are much more genetically diverse than Europeans.

This result indicates that many modern Indian groups are descended from a small
number of founding individuals”, whose descendants interbred among themselves to
create genetically isolated populations.
Lalji Singh, director of CCMB, said: India is genetically not a single large population,
but instead is best described as many smaller isolated populations.

This insight has important medical implications for people of Indian origin, because
groups that are descended from small founding populations often have a high
incidence of inherited diseases. Ashkenazi Jews, for example, have a high risk of
Tay-Sachs disease.

This may explain why several genetic conditions are more common in India than
elsewhere: a mutation in a gene called MYBPC3, which raises the risk of heart failure
sevenfold, is found in 4 per cent of Indians but is exceptionally rare elsewhere.

The only ethnic group who do not have this shared ancestry is the indigenous
population of the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean, who appear to be of
exclusively ASI descent.

Nick Patterson, of the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, said: The Andamanese are
unique. Understanding their origins provides a window on to the history of the
Ancestral South Indians, and the period tens of thousands of years ago when they
diverged from other Eurasians.

Mr Singh added: Our project to sample the disappearing tribes of the Andaman
Islands has been more successful than we could have hoped, as the Andamanese
are the only surviving remnant of the ancient colonisers of South Asia.

Aravinda Chakravarti, of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland,

wrote in a commentary for Nature: Greater ANI ancestry is significantly associated
with Indo-European speakers and with traditionally ‘higher’ caste membership. This
provides a model of how diversity within India came about. As such, its details are
imperfect and will surely be contested, revised and improved.

Caste and custom may be strong barriers between groups, perhaps even today. But
the common shared ancestry and rampant ANI/ASI mixture may be the strong,
invisible thread that binds all Indians.

India's caste system 'is thousands of years old', DNA shows India's caste system
stretches back thousands of years and was not largely a creation of colonial rule, as
some historians claim, a genetic study has shown.

Seven Vyahrtis represent seven levels of consciousness, starting from the

consciousness of Muladhara Chakra and ending in the realm of Superconsciousness of
Sahasrara Chakra. They also stand for seven worlds: Bhur, the physical plane; Bhuvah,
the atmosphere, sky or astral plane; Svah, heaven, the mental or astral plane; Mahar,
the world of Saints; Janah, birth-world, a world of Siddhas and Kumaras beyond the
Solar system and the world of birth of animals destroyed in cosmic fire; Tapar of seven
sages (Saptarishis); Satya of Infinite Truth. Vaikuntha is the 8th plane, the abode of
Lord Narayana, Krishna's devotees, and Kamala, consort of Narayana; Goloka is the
9th plane and the highest of all, the abode of Krishna, Radha, and Sridama (Krishna's

Savitur in Gayatri Mantra refers to the sun, worthy of worship. Without sun no life as
we know can exist; thus, sun is life and soul of this universe. All gods say that their eyes
are the sun and the moon; thus worshipping the sun is worshipping God. During Sri
Chakra worship, the fire, the moon and the sun are worshipped. Kalas (12) of sun
worthy of worship are 1) Tapinī, 2) Tāpinī, 3) Dhūmrā, 4) Marīci, 5) Jvālinī, 6) Ruci, 7)
Sudhūmrā, 8) Bhoga-dā, 9) viśvā, 10) Bodhinī, 11) Dhārinī, 12) Ksamā (heat container1,
heat emanator2, color of smoke3, Ray producer4, burner5, luster6, smoky red7,
grantor of enjoyment8, universal9, giver of knowledge10, illuminator11, patience and
forbearance12. Dharini and Ksama refer to selfless qualities of sun which drinks up the
ocean and showers it on earth in the form of rain.

Our body has all the elements in the universe and thus is a microcosm of the
macrocosm. Paramatman is the source of Light and wisdom in us and imparts light to
the sun, moon, stars, our individual soul. He resides in our spiritual heart as Light. We
have three gunas (modes, qualities) running our life on earth. Sattva is Light, goodness,
virtue; Rajas is motion and passion; Tamas is darkness, dullness and lethargy. Tamasa
elements work against us while Sattva is an agonist and Rajas gives the direction to
Sattva or Tamas. Sun stands for Light, intellect, memory, goodness, virtue and other
auspicious qualities, which Rajasa and Tamasa gunas suppress and repress. In order
to eliminate the suppressive elements and free the sun to give full expression in our
body, we perform Sandhyavandhanam in the morning and evening. By facing the sun,
chanting Gayatri Mantra to the sun, pouring water towards the sky, we destroy the
negative elements that block the sun element in our body. Pouring water (Arghyam)
from copper, silver or gold vessels is to drive the negative forces, as water is a purifying
element. (Next time you see the Catholic or Hindu Rituals (all derived and copied from
Tantrics of India), you know the salubrious effects and noble thought and idea behind

Bhagavan Krishna says in Bhagavad Gita: 10.21: Of the Adityas, I am Vishnu. Of the
lights, I am the radiant sun. Of the Maruts, I am the Marici. Of the stars, I am the moon.

Adityas are the 12 sons of Kasyapa and Aditi: Dhata, Mitra, Aryama, Rudra, Varuna,
Surya, Bhaga, Vivasvan, Pusa, Savita, Tvasta, and Vishnu. Besides the above, Aditi
bore 21 more children, 33 in all. These 33 children (Adityas) of Aditi are the progenitors
of 330 million devatas. The 12 Adityas are collectively called Tushitas, Suryas,
Dvadasadityas [(dva =2 + dasa = 10) =12] Adityas.

Savita is one of the Adityas, thus is Vishnu; Savitur, his consort is his radiant energy
or splendor (Bhargo). Lakshmi, the consort of Vishnu carries different names and
Savitur is her name in relation to Savita. Savitur reveals Savita; the sunlight reveals the
sun. Lord Narasimha has three eyes: Sun the right eye, Moon the left eye and Agni the
middle eye. The Sun and Moon came out of the respective eyes, according to Purusa
Sukta. The sun should be worshipped everyday. If anyone eats without worshipping the
sun, he is equal to the squiggly worm wriggling in the cow dung according to Vedas.
The proponents of Surya Namaskaram (Sun worship) say it helps prevent diseases
and deficiencies of the body such as heart disease, development of cataract, hearing
impairment.... Once I went visiting with an Indian octogenarian who retired from Indian
Military Service. I could not hear him or read the books he gifted me without my eye
glasses. He read the book without glasses; NO, he was not wearing contact lenses. He
heard me perfectly well without any hearing aid, though I could not hear him well without
my hearing aid. He had no arthritis; his limbs and joints were supple and he was sitting
in Lotus position without any discomfort. He pointed out to me that his health and
comfort with his body were all due to Yogas (and sun worship). Poor me, I ambled down
the staircase with my hearing aid and glasses in place holding on to the parapet wall by
the steps; my joints were creaking and complaining.

There are many Sun Temples in India. One of the famous ones is in Orissa. Sūrya or
Savitar is the Sun God; His daughter is Sūryā, who is abducted by the Asvins as their
bride. Sur or Svar is to shine. Sū is to bring forth as in creation. We won't be here if not
for the sun. Savitŗ is vivifier or animator. It is the source of light, wisdom, and dispeller
of ignorance and darkness. Saura is the sun cult. The most famous Saura cult Temple
is Konarak temple in Orissa. The Sauras wear red sandal paste on the forehead and
red flower garlands and chant Gayatri. Rohita, the Red One, is another name for sun;
His female counterpart is Rohini, the deity of cattle and the daughter of Surabhi and the
mother of Kamadhenu, the cow of plenty. Rohini, the red star in the constellation of
Taurus, is one of the 27 consorts of Soma, who stand for the 27 lunar asterisms or
Nakshatras. Soma was so enamored with Rohini he neglected the other 26 wives who
went home to their father Daksa. Soma changed his mind and asked for the return of
his 26 wives, who came on condition that he would treat all of them equally; such was
the promise extracted by Daksa. Soon Soma fell from grace and exclusively doted on
Rohini; he was struck with phthisis, a wasting disease (most likely tuberculosis). The
Adityas, the sons of Aditi, twelve in number representing 12 Solar months cured him of
his disease. Rohita and Rohini are the allegorical king and queen of heaven, earth,
space.... Etasa is the dapple horse, which draws the chariot of the sun. Tarksya is a
white horse that draws the Sun's chariot across the heaven. The goddess of dawn leads
the white horse at dawn. A troop of seven celestials, under the aegis of Vishnu, occupy
the sun dispensing cold, heat and rain as appropriate for the season. The twelve
Adityas appear as 12 suns at dissolution and thus the sun is said to have 12 souls.
Iranian hvare, Hittite šurias, Greek helios are the sun.

Savita marries Prsni, who begets three girls,

Savitri, Vyahriti, and Trayi and four boys, Agnihotra,
Pasu, soma, and Caturmasya (Mahayajnas, the
three Great sacrifices).

Vyāhriti = utterance; declaration; mystical utterance

of the names of the seven worlds, bhur, bhuvar,
svar, mahar, janar, tapar, satya.

Maha vyahriti: utterance of the names of the Great

three worlds, bhur, bhuvar, and svar.

Utterance of Vyahritis prepares the chanter of Mantra to rise from the world of
marginal spirit to a world of aspirations and expectations and further on to a world of
Grace and spirit.

The presiding deity of Gayatri is Supreme Brahman, Devi, Vishnu, the Sun, or
Saguna Brahman. The mantra is suitable for all asramas.

Om bhūr-bhuvah-svaḥ = Om, world, atmosphere and heaven (Vyahrtis)

tat savitur vareṇyaṃ = THAT Light (sun) adore

bhargo devasya dhīmahi = Splendor divine meditate

dhiyo yo naḥ prachodayāt = Intelligence who our inspires

Om, world, atmosphere and heaven, we meditate on the divine splendor as the
adorable Light (Sun). May our intelligence be inspired.

The following translation is adapted from the published discourses in Tamil by

Mukkur Lakshmi Narasimhachariyar and other sources.

Vedas say that Gayatri is Vishnu: Gayatriye Vishnu. The believers say that the daily
reciter of Gayatri Mantra has Brahma Varcas in Bhrumadya, meaning Brahman's
brilliance or power. Here Brahman is Vishnu. Thus the face is the reflector of one's
Tejas. Bhrumadya = between the eyebrows. Not all can notice the Tejas; only those
who already have that Tejas can see it. Vedas eulogize GAyatri: Ojasvathi Gayatri,
Balasvathi Gayatri.

GAyatri: Ojasvathi Gayatri, Balasvathi Gayatri = ஓஜஸ்வதி காயத்திரி,

பலஸ்வதி காயத்திரி

(Gayatri with splendor, strength). This Slokam is invoked before meditation of Gayatri
for full measure of benefits. Acharya recommends seeking a realized Guru in initiation
of Gayatri mantra. BrahmOpadesam involves initiation during Upanayanam (Sacred
thread and beginning of the study of Vedas) with Gayatri Mantra; the initiate takes the
second birth with Gayatri as another Mother and the Guru-initiator, as the father and

Gayatri is the universal benefactor of followers of all religions, persuasions and

beliefs. O Gayatri! You are endowed with strength; You have Tejas; You have brilliance;
Where are my Tejas and strength, if you are not standing by my side? All is You, O

Gayatri is the universal aggregate of all powers and brilliance, all gods, all Mantras,
all Yantras; such is the greatness of Gayatri.
Sastras say that Gayatri should not be chanted loud (and yet I can't resist the
temptation of listening to Gayatri sung by Anuradh Paudwal) Loud chanting earns poor
grades and low gains; Sotto voce begets greater benefits; lipping Gayatri Mantra earns
the highest reward. There are five stops in the course of reciting the Mantras; there are
five faces of Gayatri Devi. 1st stop is after Om; 2nd stop after Bhur, Bhuva, Svaha; 3rd
stop after tat savitur varenyam; 4th stop after bhargo devasya dhimahi; 5th stop after
dhiyo yo nah prachodayat. Chanters get Brahma Varcas (Tejas, power, splendor,
brilliance); that is why it is called Brahma Sutra. Gayatri's Tejas gives the Light to Solar,
Lunar and Stellar Mandalas and that light has spread to all that shines. It is the Light in
the eye, the heart and all the lights you see. Gayatri is so supreme that it is beyond the
Gunas. It is like the sun casting its light on the high and the low, the pure and the
impure, the sacred and the sacrilegious and yet it does not take on the character of the
object it shines on.

Here is simple way of breath control and recitation of Gayatri for the one in a hurry,
wanting to reap its full benefits.

A simple Sandhyavandanam Pranayama is performed as follows: block the right nostril

by the right thumb, breathe in with the left nostril for the duration it takes to mentally say
the Gayatri mantra. Block both nostrils, hold the breath and say the Gayatri; breathe out
through the right nostril as you block the left nostril for the duration it takes to chant

Gayatri Mantra: 1st round of Mantra, mental recitation should span the duration of
inhalation; same applies for 2nd round with retention of breath and 3rd round with
expiration. That means one should mentally recite the whole mantra once with
inhalation, once with retention and once with exhalation. Three grand rounds of a total
of nine recitations are considered suitable for a person in a hurry. Inhalation and mental
chanting takes 10 seconds; retention and exhalation take 10 seconds each. If you face
the sun and do it, it is even better.
Om -- Bhūr, Bhuvaḥ, Svahaḥ -- tat savitur vareṇyam-- bhargo devasya dhīmahi--dhiyo
yo naḥ pracodayāt-. You may stop to catch the breath after each round, if you cannot
do all nine rounds continuously. Performing all nine rounds in one session does not
usually pose any problem.

Upasana, the Puja rituals.

The cardinal features of Upasana (Puja) are as follows:

1) Bhutasuddhi: Cleansing Bhutas or gross elements of the subtle body.

2) Nyasa: By the power of Sound, Mantra and digital pressure, he invokes the
spirit to descend on his body.

3) Pranayama: Breath Control.

4) Dhyana: meditation.

5) Chantless mental worship.

6) Japa or chanting of Mantra.

Once body is cleansed and purified, the divine enters the body of the priest, who is
deity himself. The priest has to destroy his papam (sin); next he purifies his subtle body
by Pranayama (breath control). He goes on to purify the five elements in his body
(bhutasuddhi). The priest activates the Kundalini fire in Muladhara Chakra and takes it
through upper Chakras to Sahasrara Chakra for union with the spirit. This rise of
Kundalini fire power destroys the gross and subtle body, as it were, of the priest. Now
the spirit has descended on his body (of the priest) devoid of any worldly taints. The
priest is now an ethereal body, devoid of Sthula and Suksma Sarira, and occupied by
the spirit; thus, the priest has acquired Divya Sarira (divine body). The deity has taken
residence in his spiritual heart. For the divine spirit to pervade his body and organs, he
performs Nyasa.
(Nyasa follows Butasuddhi.) Nyasa is impressing of the body with fingers and mental
appropriation or assignment of various parts of the body to the tutelary deities,
according to Monier-Williams. Consider it as a painless form of acupuncture
(Digipressure, digital pressure) that infuses divine power where the fingers apply
pressure. Here you do not use Acus (needle as in ACU-PUNCTURE) but digits come in
handy for application of touch and pressure. Digital application (Nyasa) is accompanied
by chanting of Mantra and visualization of specific Devata or Bija (seed) Mantra.
Sequential touching of the body parts in a geographic progression depends on the type
of Nyasa. Once Nyasa is complete, the priest transfers the divinity from inside him to
the idol, which is known as Avahana (invitation). By Mudras (gestures), he infuses life
into the idol (Pranapratistha). Once the worship is over, the god is dismissed from the
idol (Visarjana or Udvasa) and Samhara Mudra (expressive gesture of dissolution).
Visarjana = discharging, dismissal. Udvasa = leaving empty, uninhabited. The idea of
invitation and dismissal of divinity with regards to the idol sounds apparently ridiculous
(on the surface) because god is everywhere and He or She does not need invitation or
dismissal. Avahana and Visarjana are confirmation of his presence everywhere.

Some additional points: After the deity is bathed, dressed, decorated and jeweled, the
priest keeps all articles near him. He performs ritual acamana, or purification of the
mouth before (or during) he utters the mantra. He makes a samkalpa (intention,
resolution) for welfare of any of the entities of the world: that is the purpose of worship.
(What a noble thought.) Consecration of water follows by invoking in it the seven holy
rivers of India. This Arghya (water offered reverentially to gods or devotees) is used
wherever water is necessary for rituals. In Acamana, water is sipped with chanting of
three mantras from the hollow of the right palm formed by flexing the middle three
fingers and extending the thumb and the fifth finger. The Mantras in eulogy of Vishnu-
Krishna are AcyutAya namah, AnantAya namah and GovindAya namah.

Pūja: In Hindu religion, Puja ceremony is the most common. Pūja = honor, worship,
reverence shown to the deity both in public and private, homes and temples. At home
Puja is conducted either by man or woman as the ceremony demands. In temples it is
offered on the devotee's behalf by the priest. There is no priestess. There are some
internal variations. The general principles and parts of Puja are Avahana, Asana,
Svagata, Padya, Arghya, Acamana, Madhu Parka (deity offered a mixture of honey,
sugar and milk in a vessel), Snana, Jala, Bhooshan abharanasya (offering of clothes,
jewels and ornaments), Gandha, Akshatas (grains of rice colored by saffron), Pushpa,
Dhupa, Dipa, and Naivedya, and Sandana (offering of flower, Incense, Light, Food, and
Sandal paste).

In Puja, the Tanmatras and the gross elements are symbolized by Flower, Incense,
Light, Food, and Sandal paste as depicted below.

Tanmatras Sound Touch Form Taste Odor

Gross Elements Ether Air Fire Water Earth

States of matter Ethereal Gaseous Igneous Liquid Solid

Symbols of Elements
Pushpa = Flower DhUpa = Incense DIpa = Light Naivedya = food Candana = Sandal
in worship

Rites of worship are prescribed by the Agamas: Nitya, mandatory; Naimittika,

situational, periodic, or occasional; Kamya, desire-fulfilling. There are strict set of rules
to follow and any infraction makes him a Brahma RAksasa (demon). Guru supervises
and enforces these rules. Upacara (worship) has sixteen plus components. There are
many internal variations.

Central steps of puja include: 1) acamana, water sipping for purification; 2) Ganapati
prarthana, prayers to Ganesha to remove obstacles; 3) sankalpa, declaration of intent;
4) ghanta, ringing bell, inviting devas and dismissing asuras (demons); 5) avahana,
inviting the Deity ; 6) mantras and dhyana, meditating on the Deity; 7) svagata,
welcoming; 8) namaskara, obeisance; 9) arghyam, water offerings; 10) pradakshina,
circumambulation; 11) abhisheka, bathing the murti (the deity); 12) dhupa, incense-
offering; 13) dipa, offering lights; 14) naivedya, offering food; 15) archana, chanting holy
names; 16) arati, final offering of lights; 17) prarthana, personal requests; 18) visarjana,
dismissal of the deity--farewell. Also central are pranayama (breath control), guru
vandana (adoration of the preceptor), nyasa (empowerment through touching) and
mudra (mystic gestures). Puja offerings also include pushpa (flowers), arghya (water),
tambula (betel leaf) and chandana (sandalpaste). --atmartha puja: Karana Agama, v. 2,
states: Atmartha cha parartha cha puja dvividhamuchyate, " Worship is two-fold: for the
benefit of oneself and for the benefit of others." Atmartha puja is done for oneself and
immediate family, usually at home in a private shrine. Parartha puja: "Puja for others."
Parartha puja is public puja, performed by authorized or ordained priests in a public
shrine or temple.

Those who are interested in details can go to

There are variations in procedure and ritual observances.

1. ĀVĀHANA, Avahana: invocation of the deity; holding the thumbs against the root
of the ring fingers (Mudra)

2. Āsana, Asana: the manner of sitting forming part of the eightfold observances of
ascetics. Offering a seat to the deity.

3. Pādya, padya: Offering water to wash the feet.

4. Arghya: Worthy of a hospitable reception; water given to a guest; objects of

worship. Copper, silver and gold vessels are desirable to hold water.

5. ācamana: Rinsing the mouth with water: water for that purpose. ceremonial
sipping of water.

6. Snāna, Snana: Religious lustration of idol with water.

7. Vastra: Raiment; offering garment for the idol

8. Bhūsā: Ornament and decoration of idol.

9. Gandha: Fragrance or Sandalwood paste applied to the idol.

10. Puspa: Offering flowers to the idol.

11. dhūpA, Dhupa: Incense or making smoke from aromatic gum or resin.

12. Dīpa, Dipa: Lamp; waving lamp

13. Aksata: Offering unhusked barley-corns

14. Naivedya: Offering victuals to a deity.

15. Tāmbūla, Tambula: Betel leaves and nut.

16. Pradaksinā, Pradaksina: Turning the right side towards the idol;
circumambulation from left to right, as a mark of respect.

Aratti: dissatisfaction, discontent. This ceremony is carried out by a married woman to

ward off evil. A lighted wick sitting in an oil lamp placed on a circular metal plate is
waved at eye level when a person of high station is welcomed into a house, convention
or gathering. Aratti is performed also in temples for idols. Aratti idea was practiced in
one form or another by the Romans and the French. The Romans used the statue of the
god Fascinus on the triumphal car of the returning conqueror to ward off evil eyes. The
French peasants were known to pull their children out of sight to avert evil when a
stranger passed by. This is avoiding Drishti Dosham (sight fault = illness from evil eye,
effect of the evil eye, pollution by sight.) Aratti is the preventive or counter measure for
the evil eye. Aratti or Arti is performed for temple idols, children, elephants, horses and
other domestic animals. This practice extended to automobiles. When you go to the
Bridgewater Balaji Temple in Bridgewater New Jersey or Sri Ranganatha Temple in
Pomona, NY, you will notice Indians bringing their new cars for Vahana Puja (Car
Worship), to ward off evil eye, receive blessings, and insure divine protection of the car,
occupants and others from accidents and loss of life and limb. The priest comes out to
the car in the specially marked area of the parking lot to perform the ceremony. Another
extension of Arati is to plant a pole with lime-painted pot at the top in the gardens and
cultivated fields to prevent and counteract evil eye. The evil eyes fall on the painted pot
and not on the crops; the crops and produce are saved.
Akshatas: (unhusked barley corns) Akshta in Sanskrit means unbroken or unhusked. By
tradition and convention husked rice colored with saffron and vermilion is used. There
are two kinds of Akshatas: 1) colored rice consecrated by Mantra 2) simple colored
grains. Mantra-infused grains are used in Pujas and special occasions. The latter in a
cup is offered as a sign of politeness and auspiciousness; the invited guest takes a few
grains and apply them on the forehead.

Pavitram: Filter, strainer, an article that purifies, purification by Darbha grass. Ring of
darbha grass worn on the fourth finger of the right hand on religious occasions. Darbha
= Kusa/Kaus grass--sacred grass; Poa cynosuroides. The officiating priest wears the
Pavitram on his finger before he starts the ceremony. Darbha Pavitram is used to
establish mental, moral, and spiritual purity and proper ambience in the place of
worship, religious and other ceremonial functions and for meditation. Pavitrotsavam is
performed to maintain the spiritual purity of the temple.

Catholics celebrate the Festival of Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary

commemorating the presentation of Jesus and the purification of woman in the Temple
according to the Law of Moses. The old custom is modified to 'Churching woman' which
means to perform a church service of thanksgiving for a woman six weeks after
childbirth. This dual function is known as Candlemas.

a church festival, February 2, in honor of the presentation of the infant Jesus in

the Temple and the purification of the Virgin Mary: candles are blessed on this

The presentation of Jesus (any baby) in the temple is a Jewish custom of

thanksgiving to the God who dispatched an angel of Death to destroy the
Egyptian first-borns and spared the Jewish first-borns.

Ex 13:1-3 1The LORD said to Moses, 2"Consecrate to me every firstborn male. The first offspring of every womb among the

Israelites belongs to me, whether man or animal."

The first-born son belongs to God, is offered to God and redeemed with five
shekalim paid to the priest, the representative of God.

Woman is considered impure for six weeks after the birth of the baby; Mary had
Jesus Christ in the winter solstice and was ready for purification on February 2nd. In
Hindu families, pollution lasts for forty days after the birth of a girl and thirty days in case
of a boy.

The Pagan Mother Goddess becomes the Virgin back again. (Mother Goddess has
three forms: Virgin, Mother, and Crone. The Mother Goddess (Tripurasundari) is Bala, a
girl or adolescent, Tripurasundari, a Mother, and Tripurabhairavi, a postmenarchal
Immersion in Hinduism and Judaism is a purificatory ceremony. Jewish brides (not
all) visit Mikva (ritual bath) a few days before their wedding; she follows this practice
monthly until her menopause. Ritual immersion takes place on the seventh day after the
end of menstruation; sexual relations can resume after such an act. Mikva is a
requirement before Sabbath. The tank (ritualarium) is a two feet square and six feet
deep, filled with 191 gallons of natural water and is part of Synagogue or other
buildings. The modern Mikva is a salon with hairdryers and hairdressers, cosmeticians,
and manicurists on call. A woman must present herself to Mikva site, completely
scrubbed and cleaned with bare clean skin and hair with no jewelry. All body parts
including hair on the head must come into contact with purifying water. Three dips are
required. While standing in the water after the first good dip, the woman recites the
Immersion Blessing: Thou be praised, O Lord our God, King of the universe, who has
sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the immersion."
This is the Mantra of the Jews.

Water as a great purifier.

Among Christians, water baptism is equal to spirit baptism and

Baptism is a ceremonial immersion in water, or application of
water, as an initiatory rite or sacrament of the Christian
church. RHD
Baptism is repentance, immersion in the name of Jesus
Christ, forgiveness of sins and receiving the gift of the Holy
Spirit (Acts 2:38).
Leviticus15.18: The woman also with whom man shall lie with
seed of copulation, they shall both bathe themselves in water,
and be unclean until the even.
Numbers 19.13: Whosoever toucheth the dead body of any
man that is dead, and purifieth not himself, defileth the
tabernacle of the LORD; and that soul shall be cut off from
Israel: because the water of separation was not sprinkled
upon him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon
While some in the West deride the maddening Hindus bath in
the Ganges for washing away the sins, here is something to
Acts 2.38: Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized
every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission
of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.

All of the above indicate that all cultures believe in physical

and spiritual purity before they approach God and water is the
great purifier.

Yagnopavitam or Sacred thread ceremony and Gayatri

Coming back to Hinduism, all ceremonies need initial purification; the sacred Thread
(yagnopavitam or âßø--Punnul in Tamil) ceremony (Yajnopavita Samskara, Pavitra
Aropahanam--Upanayanam of the Brahmin boys is one example. The cord has three
strands, which stand for Cit, Acit, and Isvara; three knots represent the trilateral
relationship of these three Tattvas; each strand has nine filaments, which represent
Prithvi (earth), aap (water), tejas (light), vayu (air), ether, prana (breath), atman
(individual soul), antaratman (Inner Soul), Paramatman (Supreme Atman, God). The
cord is made of cotton hand picked by a Brahmin of the same sect and spun into the
sacred thread. Once the Brahmin boy is married, six to nine strands take the place of
three strands. The three strands with mandatory knots indicate that he has gained
control over his body, mind and speech. The ceremony is Upanayanam, a purificatory
rite by which the young Brahmin boy (some other castes too) is purified, attains a
second birth, and is allowed to study Vedas. It takes place 8 years after conception for a
Brahmin, 11 years for a Ksatriya (warrior class) and 12 years for a Vaisya (trade and
agriculture). The day following the ceremony witnesses the investiture of the cord.

During the ceremony, the boy's mother wraps a loincloth around his waist and gives
him the following advice.
My son, you should regard all woman up to the age of 24 as your mother; you should
maintain celibacy, study sacred scriptures, and meditate on Gayatri Mantra which will
be given to you today. May the Universal Mother Gayatri give you protection.

The Guru invests him with the sacred thread and chants the Mantra.

This holy thread is of Supreme sacredness. Prajapatis (primary progenitors) have

blessed this thread. Wearing it over your body and shoulder confers longevity. The
Yajnopavitam (sacred thread) will endow you with strength and radiance.

This ceremony of initiation and investiture gives him the privilege of second birth and
thus makes him the twice-born (Dvija) at the age of eight, which in essence tells him
that a transformation has come upon him rendering him eligible to study Vedas, the
revelations. The three threads and or knots stand for many triunes or triads: Brahma,
Vishnu and Siva; Sarasvati, Lakshmi, and Kali; the three attributes of nature and
people, Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas; three letters of Om, A, U, M; past, present and
future; three states of the body, gross, subtle and causal; three states of consciousness,
wakefulness, dream sleep and deep sleep; three worlds, heaven, earth and
netherworld; three Nadis, Ida, Pingala and Susumna and three feet of Gayatri. The
three important Nadis in the body are Susumna, the most important and the other two,
Pingala (right) and Ida (left) Nadis. Kundalini Devi along with Prana rises through
Susumna Nadi to reach Sahasrara Chakra for union with Siva. Kundalini Power. Since
ego is sacrificed, the thread derives its name from Yajna (Sacrifice) and is called

The Brahmana boy wears white cotton thread; the Ksatriya, red hemp; Vaisya, yellow
wool. White Cotton may satisfy all.

(Brahmachari [student bachelor] wears one set of three strands; Grahastha,

(householder) two sets of 3 strands; Vanaprastha (forest recluse), three sets of three
strands; and Sannyasi (the renouncer), one or four sets.) The thread is worn on the left
shoulder and goes diagonally to the right side of the chest under the right arm: this
pattern of wear is Upavita, which (the lower loop) should not descend below the navel
line or ascend above the nipple line. The thread should be hung over the right ear while
answering calls of nature, so that it is kept pure. Praciniviti: The sacred thread hangs
over the right shoulder and under the left arm, when the Brahmana performs libations
(Tarpanam) to forefathers (pitrs). Niviti: The sacred thread is worn on the neck like a
chain or garland when he performs Tarpanas for human beings.

Tarpana = libations of water to gods, rishis and manes; satiation of gods and
deceased persons.

The priest dons him with the thread and gives him the Gayatri Mantra. The affair is
more elaborate than what I mentioned here. The young initiate goes to beg for food,
while the fire of Yajna continues. He approaches woman and says, "Om bhavati
bhikshaam dehi." (O good woman, please give me alms (food.) To the male donor he
says, Om bhavaan bhiksaam dehi." Once the alms are given, the recipient says, "Om
Svasti." Svasti = may it be well with thee.

The primary knot is Brahmagranthi, the knot of Brahma. There are three Granthis
(Junctional points, Knots, Junctions, hurdles): Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra Granthis.
Granthis are equated to the levels of consciousness. Brahma Granthi of Muladhara (and
Svadhistana and Manipura) Chakra is physical consciousness; Vishnu Granthi of
Anahata Chakra is the Sphere of the Sun and therefore of Light, the beginning of
Spiritual Consciousness; The Rudra Granthi of Ajna Chakra is the sphere of the Moon,
the center of Spiritual Consciousness. The Brahmana boy with his initiation, study and
practice of kundalini Yoga goes from human consciousness, strives towards spiritual
consciousness and blossoms out in spiritual consciousness.

The thread is exchanged for a new one once every four months and in case of death
or birth in the family with attendant purificatory rites. The old thread is removed after the
new one is in place.
Pavitram is the centerpiece of many ceremonies: Garbhadana, pregnancy
ceremony; (Nāma karma, naming ceremony 12 days after the birth; Anna prasana,
weaning ceremony at 6 months of age (Judaism: A great feast was held when Isaac
was weaned at two years of age; that is late weaning!); Chaula, head-shaving
ceremony; Simanta, purificatory ceremony of parting the hair of woman at 6-8 weeks of

Vaidika Gayatri:

Om bhūr-bhuvaḥ-svaḥ

tatsavitur vareṇyam bhargo devasya dhīmahi

dhiyo yo naḥ pracodayāt—

Om , earth, atmosphere, and heaven, we meditate on the adorable glory of the radiant
sun; may he inspire our intelligence—translation by Dr. Radhakrishnan.

Gayatri is three feet long with eight syllables in each.

Om = AUM (Brahman, the One, Supreme God or Atman)

Bhūr-bhuvaḥ-svaḥ = earth, atmosphere, and heaven

tat = that (referring to Savitri, God)

savitur = sun

vareṇyam = adore

Bhargo = radiance, splendor

devasya = divine

dhīmahi = meditate
Dhiyo = intellect

yo = who

na = ours

pracodayāt = beg, entreat, ask for

Om earth, atmosphere, and heaven, we meditate on the divine splendor of the

radiant sun. We plead with Him to inspire our intelligence (author's translation).

Sandya (junctional [transitional time zones] prayers—sunrise, noon and sunset) is

performed three times a day. A simple Sandhyavandanam Pranayama is performed as
follows: block the right nostril by the right thumb, breathe in with the left nostril for the
duration it takes to mentally say the Gayatri. Block both nostrils, hold the breath and say
the Gayatri; breathe out through the right nostril as you block the left nostril for the
duration it takes to chant Gayatri.

The presiding deity of deities, Gayatri is Supreme Brahman (Paramatma), Devi,

Vishnu, the Sun, or Saguna Brahman. It is suitable for all asramas. The seven Rishis,
Visvamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadvaja, Gautama, Atri, Vasistha, and Kasyapa are the
seers of the seven rhythms or vyāhrtis. Vyahrtis: mystic utterances. In relation to
Gayatri, Bhur, Bhuvah and Svah (earth, atmosphere, and heaven--the cosmic space
between the sun and the polar star.) are three of the seven Vyahritis or Lokas (worlds)
of the cosmos. (The Vyahritis are Bhur, Bhuvah, Svah, Mahar, Janar, Tapar and Satya.)
The presiding lesser deities are Agni (Fire god), Vayu (Wind god), Savitr (sun god),
Brhaspati (the celestial Guru), Varuna (the god of waters), Indra (the chief of gods), and
Visva deva (the Cosmic Deity). The seven lines in the following invocation depict the
seven worlds and planes of existence with their respective presiding deities, all of whom
are under one Supreme Diety, the Cosmic Purusa. The deities are invoked to help us
attain the higher spiritual worlds in their domain and realization.
Gayatri Mantra is adapted to eulogize and invoke many other deities: Ganesa, Vishnu,
Siva, Rama, Krishna, Durga, Lakshmi, Sarasvati, Sakti, Sun, and Guru.

Sandhyopaasanaa (sandhyopasana) = sandhya + upaasanaa = junctional

time + worship. Junction = morning, noon and evening; worship at dawn, noon and
dusk. Sandhyaavandana (sandhyavandana) = sandhya + vandana. Vandana =

Gayatri Nyasa are of two types: Karanyāsa and Anganyāsa. Karanyāsa is touching by
fingers and palms in various places and meditating on planets and celestials.
Anganyāsa is perceiving God or Goddess in different parts of the body. It helps in
meditating on different Chakras located in different parts of the body. Each part of the
body presided by a deity protects that part of the body. After Anganyasa, the whole
body is suffused with divine energy which radiates and purifies wherever he goes. In
Karanyasa the grace and blessings flow out of the hands and fingers of the Guru.

Karam = hand; Anga = body parts.

The palm and the fingers are a book by themselves. Different disciplines see their
own cartogram in the lines, whorls, loops, and arches. The five fingers represent ether,
air, fire, water, and earth (Mahabhutas or great elements). Thumb is Brahma; Index
finger, Ego; middle finger, Sattva Guna; the ring finger, Rajasic Guna; the fifth finger,
Tamasic Guna.

Venus occupies the base of the thumb; Jupiter, the base of index finger; Saturn, the
base of the middle finger; Apollo, the base of the ring finger; and Mercury , the base of
the fifth finger. The space between the base of the thumb (Thenar eminence) to the
wrist is Venus Mount. The opposite hypothenar eminence is the Mount of the Moon.
Between the two eminences is the cup of the palm, the region of Rahu; Ketu is between
the Mount of Moon and the Mount of Venus. There are two regions of Mars: one
between Mercury and Apollo and the other between Venus and Jupiter.
Some examples of Karanyasa, invocation of deities and religious finger gestures and
positions done with right and left fingers at the same time and palms.

These are based on Gayati Mantra.

tat savitur vareṇyam = THAT Light (sun) adore

bhargo devasya dhīmahi = Splendor divine meditate

dhiyo yo nah pracodayāt = Intelligence who our inspires

Here is the Gayatri Nyasa as done during Sandhyavandana.

Invocation of deities in fingers and palms.

Submitting to the power of Vishnu, bring the thumb over the index fingers forming
circles. The thumbs overlaps the index fingers in this procedure forming two circles, as
the chanter invokes Lord Vishnu in the index fingers (for protection).
vareṇyam. visnvātmane tarjanībhyām namah.

Tarjana = threatening finger (index finger).

Varenyam. Salutations to the Supreme Soul Vishnu, whom I adore and invoke in the
two index fingers.

Overlapping the thumbs over the middle fingers forming a circle, the chanter invokes
Rudra-Siva in the middle fingers.

Following the same procedure, the Sandhyavandana chanter invokes Transcendental

principle in his ring fingers and Lord of wisdom in the fifth fingers.

The chanter brings the right palm over the left palm and later the back of the right palm
over the back of the left palm and invokes the all-pervading God on both sides of his

(By invoking the deities in the fingers and palms, the chanter surrenders himself to the
deities, who are the protectors of the fingers, palms and their functions. Now you know
why the pianists, violinists, surgeons, typists, flutists, computer users and others need
to do this invocatory gestures to protect their fingers and palms and the whole body. If
they would do this, our soldiers may have less problems with loss of limb and life.

Now we come to Anga Nyasa, invocation of deities in body parts for protection.

Anga Nyasa (taction of body parts) is application of ritual taction over the heart,
forehead, crown, shoulder with the right or appropriate hand.

Touch the Anahata (heart) Center and chant,

Om. tat savitur. Brahmatmane hrdayaaya namah.

Om that Savituh. Brahmah in my heart, salutations.

(I meditate on that Light of lights and creator Brahma in my heart. Salutations.) Presto
Chango! your heart is now protected.

In like manner, the chanter meditates, touches and asks for protection of the forehead
from Lord Vishnu, the crown from Rudra, the shoulders from Tattvas, and the eyes from
the Light of lights. He invokes God for the third eye of wisdom and touches between the
two eyebrows. He places his opposed palms above the head, and expels evil vibrations
by saying 'phat' and simultaneously clapping four times. phat = onomatopoeic mystical
syllable; begone, crack, get lost.

Now let us explore the inner mystical meaning of Gayatri. Sandyavandanam is chanted
with Om preceding each word of Gayatri with Pranayama (breath control).

Om = The universe of sound, the word of God.

Om Bhūh = God is eternal.

Om Bhuvaḥ = God is the creator.

Om Svaḥ = God is independent.

Om Mahaḥ = God is worthy of worship

Om Janaḥ = God has no beginning.

Om Tapaḥ = God is the Light of Wisdom.

Om Satyam = God is Truth.

Om Tat = That Eternal God.

Savitur = Creative principle of Light manifesting through sun.

Vareṇyam = Supreme God adored by all gods.

Bhargo = That Light is splendor and effulgence.

Devasya = That Light is Divine.

Dhīmahi = We meditate (he is the object of meditation.)

Dhiyo = Intellect

Yo = who

Naḥ = our

Pracodayāt = inspire

Om Āpo = Om waters (He who rescues us from the karmic waters.) (Here is a
scientific thought; Karmic waters is Causal Ocean from where life originated. Life on
earth is not a dandy bed of roses. Rescue from life of bodily misery [from birth, old age
and death; from colds to cancers--all ills of the body and not of our soul] is the goal of
life on earth. Yogis know what heaven is: Life of Bliss in Spirit with pristine soul and
without the putrid-prone body.)

Jyotiḥ = He who is the Light of lights.

Raso = He who is the essence in everything.

Amrtam = He who is the nectar of immortality.

Brahma = That almighty God.

Bhūr Bhvah svar = He who is the creator of earth, atmosphere and heaven.

Om = May he inspire us with intellect and enlightenment.

Kriyas (Actions) As you chant do the accompanying actions appropriate to the

Om = The universe of sound, the word of God. Say the mantra and touch the
appropriate part of the palm and fingers. ipsilateral = same side). phalanx: finger bone
separated by the crease(s). distal = the third phalanx away from the palm. proximal =
the first phalanx close to the palm. Chant the mantras once with appropriate finger
movements (kriya). Chant the mantras seven times without kriyas.

See diagram

Om Bhūh: touch base of the ring finger with the ipsilateral thumb.

Om Bhuvaḥ: Thumb to the proximal phalanx of the fifth finger.

Om Svaḥ: Thumb to the middle phalanx of the fifth finger.

Om Mahaḥ: Thumb to the distal phalanx of the fifth finger.

Om Janaḥ: Thumb to the distal phalanx of the ring finger.

Om Tapaḥ: Thumb to the distal phalanx of the middle finger.

Om Satyam: Thumb to distal phalanx of the index finger.

Om Tat savitur vareṇyam: Thumb to the middle phalanx of the index finger.

Bhargo Devasya Dhīmahi: Thumb to the proximal phalanx of the index finger.

Dhiyo Yo Naḥ Pracodayāt: Thumb to the proximal phalanx of the middle finger.

Om Āpo Jyotiḥ: Apply tips of index, middle and ring fingers to the right eye.

Raso'mrtam: The above three fingers to the left eye.

Brahma Bhūr Bhuva Svar Om: The above fingers to the third eye.

Gayatri Mantra has three parts: praise, meditation and prayer.

After the depicted sequential religious finger tapping with accompanying mantra
chanting, enter into a state of silence. Utter the Gayatri mantra without the Kriyas. This
will open your third eye. Complete the procedure by saying Om Sāntih three times.

Tat Savitur Vareṇyaṃ = That Light Adorable (Praise) That thou Art. Adore THAT Light.

Bhargo devasya dhīmahi = Splendor divine meditate (Meditation). Meditate on the

divine splendor.

Dhiyo yonah pracodayāt = Intellect who our inspire. (Prayer) Who inspires or
illuminates our intelligence.

The Mantra advances all the essential qualities of God irrespective of affiliation: 1)
Om, 2) Bhuh = earth, 3) Bhuvah = atmosphere, 4) Svah = heaven, 5) THAT = God, 6)
Savitur = Light, power, 7) Varenyam = adorability, 8) Bhargah = splendor, 9) Devasya =

Gayatri, the mother of Vedas (Veda Māta) has three parts, powers, qualities or
expansions: Gayatri, Savitri, and Sarasvati. Gayatri is the mistress and controller of the
senses; Savitri, the mistress of Prana or life-breath; and Sarasvati, the presiding deity of
speech. Gayatri exists in each one of us in all her forms. Chanting Mantras augments
the qualities of the senses, life-breath and speech.

Gayatri has five faces which are an euphemism for five qualities: 1)Om; 2) the
Mahavyahartis-Bhur, Buvah and Svah; 3)tat savitur varenyam--Adorable Light; 4)
bhargo devasya dhimahi--Divine radiance; dhiyo yo nah pracodayat--Illuminator of
intelligence. All these qualities we realize when we praise, meditate on and offer prayer
to Her. She is also the presiding deity of the five Pranas. This prāna energy is as primal
as Tapas, OM, light and water, which were present at creation or projection of Prakriti.
Akāsa is the primal stem substance and Prāna is the primal stem force. All forces
originate from prāna and all forces subside in prāna. Udana is the grandfather, Viyana
is the father and Apana is the grandson of Udana. (up breath, equal breath, down

the seed the maha vyahartis sambandha (relationship) abhidheya (meaning is surrender) prayojana (purpose)
om bhuh, bhuvah, svah tat savitur varenyam bhargo devasya dhimahi dhiyo yo nah pracodayat

Bhūr Bhuvah Svah represent the Kundalini Chakras at three levels of existence of the
human: at the lowest human of existence in the lower chakras, the middling existence in
intermediate Anahata and Visuddha chakras and the highest spiritual existence in Ajna
and Sahasrara Chakras. They represent body, mind and soul. Tat Savitur Varenyam:
That adorable Light is present always and beyond Time. Bhargo devasya dhīmahi: Its
radiance and effulgence are so powerful that it can lift the darkness of the soul. Dhiyo
yonah pracodayāt: Let the Divine Light dispel the spiritual darkness and bring in
intelligence, wisdom, discrimination, and awareness. Sun, Light, splendor, darkness
are used as analogy. When the sun rises at dawn it removes darkness; likewise when
meditation brings on the Inner Light, it dispels the darkness of the soul and augments
intelligence. Gayatri mantra cures diseases of the body, mind and soul; removes all
three miseries, exogenous, endogenous, and Theogenous (Adibautika, Adiatmika, and
Adidaivika); fructifies all desires; bestows grace and boons; and confers intelligence,
wisdom and discrimination. The word Theo-genous is coined by me. Gayatri instills all
good qualities and eradicates all bad ones.

For the man on the go, Gayatri Mantra can be chanted any time: before awakening,
breakfast, lunch, supper, and sleeping and while showering. It gives peace, tranquility,
and happiness to body, mind and soul. You chant the Mantra in triplicate at a time.
Chanting the most secular and yet uplifting Gayatri is suitable for all irrespective of their
differences. Praise, meditation and prayer are applied to Light and not to any particular
God. If you are a Hindu, that Light is the sun, Brahman, Gayatri Devi. If you are a Jew,
Light is Adonai; Christian, the Lord; Muslim, Allah.

The sun is the medium of worship, adoration and salutation. "we meditate on the
adorable glory of the radiant sun; may he inspire our intelligence. " Dawn and dusk are
ideal times for meditation. Constant practice of Gayatri mantra expunges sins and
karmas and thus obtains moksa (liberation) for the aspirant. According to Manu, the
author of the laws of Manu, and a progenitor, the sins committed in the day are
destroyed in the evening by this Mantra and the nocturnal sins by morning meditation. A
secluded part of the house, banks of the river, temple, ocean shores are some of the
ideal places for meditation. Meditation done early in the morning when the stars are still
visible is the best form; dawn and sunrise meditations are less efficacious and yet
beneficial. It is done before meals on the empty stomach. During catastrophic and
extraordinary times, chanting the Gayatri Mantra is sufficient. Mere chanting brings
tranquility; chanting with knowing the meaning brings peace and tranquility; chanting
with knowledge and faith brings the most benefit, the Grace of God. In the morning and
evening the aspirant faces the sun, east and west and north in the noon. South is not a
favorite direction since you will be facing the Lord Death in the south.

This mantra is pleading with God to bless you with the Light of wisdom and
intelligence so that you will lead a sattvic (virtuous) life to attain moksa eventually. But
people do use this mantra for obtaining earthly goods and services. This glorifies God
as Light (Let there be Light...). He is the Light and the source of all light in the universe.
There are three places the light is present: 1) God the Primary source of Light, 2) the
stars, heavenly objects, the eye, all objects that shine or emit light and 3) the Spiritual
Heart of the individual soul.

One may memorize the mantra by repeating it loudly and clearly 36 times: This is
Vaikhari Japa. Sabda or Sound. This is the least beneficial form of prayer.

One may mutter the mantra Sotto voce 36 times; this is Upamsu Japa. This is a more
beneficial form

Chant the mantra mentally in Anahata Chakra, the place of Madhyama sound; this is
Madhyama Japa. Sabda or Sound. This is more beneficial than the last form.

The best form of chanting is LIPPING the Gayatri Mantra.

You may see the mantra in colors in Manipura chakra; this is Pasyanti or visual sound.

You may sense a high frequency sound which does not stir or produce vibrations; this is
Para Nada, mostly perceived by Yogis.

This mantra is passed on from Guru to pupil, and father to son. Now that it is
available in broadcast, music, print and books, one may use it to regularly to obtain its
benefits: intelligence, power, understanding, illumination and blessings.

Bhūr Bhuvah Svah

Earth Atmosphere Heaven
Past present Future
Morning Noon Evening
Tamas Rajas Sattva
Gross Body Subtle Body Causal Body

The procedure
Take a bath, shower or wash your hands and feet.

If you worship Gayatri as Mother Goddess, keep a picture of Her.

If you worship Gayatri as the Light of God, meditate on sun god.

If you worship Gayatri as Brahman (formless God), meditate on Ajna Chakra.

Sit on a mat placed on a hard surface.

Look at the lighted flame of a lamp or candle

Visualize a flame in the Ajna center, the midpoint between the eyebrows.

Sit facing in the proper direction; assume lotus position (padmasana). TMTM03.

Have a rosary of 108 beads and a head bead made of Tulsi, Rudraksa or sandalwood.

Let the place of meditation be clean and simple.

If you have a sacrificial fire, you pour butter after chanting svaha and after you repeat,

"Om bhūr-bhuvah-svah

tatsavitur varenyam
bhargo devasya dhīmahi

dhiyo yo nah prachodayāt.


Svaha = hail, hail.

This Mantra has universal application to fulfill all wants and needs with slight
modifications depending upon the Ishtadevata (the deity of choice).

If the family desires a child, they may chant the following divine formula (Mantra) to
fulfill their desire. Just add the Bija Mantra yam at the beginning after Om.

"Om yam yam yam bhūr-bhuvah-svah

tatsavitur varenyam

bhargo devasya dhīmahi

dhiyo yonah prachodayāt."

The couple must take a breath, hold the breath, mentally chant the mantra and
breathe out. Repeat the Mantra again and again. yam is the Bija (root or seed) mantra
of Varuna, the god of waters and the presiding deity of genitalia. Supplication to him and
chanting the mantra will bring the desired results.

Rosaries are used in Japa (muttering prayers). Counting the Japa by the tip of the
thumb brings eightfold merit; by the Tulasi or Rudraksa beads infinite results. Tulasi is
the favored bead for Vasinavites; ivory for Ganesa; Rudraksha for the Saivites and
Mother Goddess. The thread used in the rosary has its own merit: cotton brings
realization of Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksa; white thread brings peace and
tranquility; red attracts people; yellow fulfils selfish desires; black brings wealth.
Brahmin's usual choice is white; Ksatriya's, yellow; and Vaisya's, black. Red thread is
for all classes, castes or varnas.

The rosary has to have the look of a cowtail, tapering from the largest to the smallest
bead; the head bead with a tassel should be the largest. Immersion by a Guru in
Panchagavya, made of five liquids (milk, yogurt, butter, honey and water, purifies the
beads. The Guru chants the sacred mantra, Sadyojāta Mantra. Sadyojata = this instant
+ born or brought into existence; newly born. This mantra gives the aspirant an
instantaneous new spiritual birth.

(Sadyojata (Creator), Isana (Ruler, Revealer, Grace giver), Aghora (reabsorption or

involution), Tatpurusha (Obscurator), and Vamadeva (preserver) are the five names of
Siva.) Sadasiva is the Grace giver (grace = anugraha).

Tatpurusha looks east; Sadyojata looks west; Aghora looks south; Vamadeva looks
north; IsAna looks upwards. The first four revealed the Vedas and Ishana revealed
Agamas. Sadyojata = Brahma, the creator; Isana = Sadasiva, the grace giver; Aghora =
Rudra, the destroyer; Tatpurusha = Mahesvara, the obscurator; Vamadeva = Vishnu the

The Guru worships the rosary and infuses energy into it by invocation of Devi, who is
of the form of wisdom and a giver of joy, peace and blessings. He invokes the Mother
Goddess and eulogizes her as the bringer of blessings of all gods and the revealer of

One should assume the Padmasana (lotus position), hang the beads over the medial
three fingers (middle, ring and the little fingers) and roll the beads one by one by the
thumb making sure that the beads do not touch the forefinger, which represents the
individual ego of the aspirant. The Sadhaka should sit straight with the head, neck and
chest in one vertical line, concentrate his mind (and sight) on a picture, symbol, light or
even a body part of the Lord, close the eyes, and gaze on the tip of the nose or the
glabella (Bhrū madya, midpoint between the eyebrows). You may direct your mind's
eye to any one of Anahata, Ajna or Sahasrara Chakras. You may meditate on Light or

Once the chanting over the 108 beads are over, one should not crossover to the
other side. Head bead (Meru bead) is an absolute stop; one may rotate the rosary in
such a way that one may start counting in the reverse direction. Silent mental chanting
can be combined with rolling of the beads and Kumbhaka (retention of breath).

In this Kali Yuga, when meditation becomes difficult for any reason, one can engage
in Kirtana, singing the glory of Ishta Devata.

Om (AUM)

When we pray to God, we use the sound-syllable OM. OM is the first sound, first
thought, Brahman and God. OM consists of three letters: A U M, the beginning, the
middle and the end. AUM includes / contains the past, the present and the future and
also is beyond time itself. When Prajapathi was meditating on the three worlds, three
vedas originated, earth, atmosphere and sky came into existence, and the syllable AUM
came about. "Just like the leaves are held together by its stalk, so is the speech held
together by AUM". - Chandyogya Upanishad. AUM is the basis of any thought, spoken
or written word and more. AUM also represents the Hindu Holy Trinity, A: Brahma, U:
Vishnu, and M: Siva. AUM knows neither fear nor death. Men, gods and asuras take
refuge in AUM. Sing it sotto voce and have no fear of anything. In Sanskrit A and U
combine to form O sound and M gives that resonance. OM is the syllable, the utterance
of which helps a soul to penetrate Brahman proportionate to the degree of belief in it,
detachment, abrogation of desires and contact with sense objects, and awareness. Its
power is diluted by exegesis - critical evaluations. Tirumular says in Tantra Four, Verse
885, that A became the world, A and U became Sakti and Siva and AUM became the
Light (Jnana = Wisdom). M became the Maya.

OM is Bija Manta or Seed mantra and thus, the progenitor of all other mantras. All
sounds (Phonemes) of all languages, alphabets, morphemes, words, and sentence take
their origin from OM. OM vibrates in all sounds, syllables and words. The
transcendental sound of OM is audible only to Yogis. Utterance of OM proceeds from
the navel, vibrates and ends in the nostrils, where the final intonation (Anusvaara / after-
sound) takes place, which is represented by Chandrabindu ( a dot over a line or
crescent). Bindu and Nada find their repose in Chandrabindu. Bija mantra, on the
surface does not carry any outward meaning but it is mystic and the body of a devata or

( Another explanation: Aum (Om) is the mystic syllable intonated audibly, sotto
voce, or mentally; It is the fusion of three sounds beginning with aw (as in paw)
originating in Muladhara Chakra, vibrating as oo (as in coo) in the Anahata and
Visuddha Chakras and resonating as mm (as in mm, that is good) in Ajna and
Sahasrara Chakras. It is Primal Mula Mantra and thus a non-secular Mantra. Ām
(variation of Aum) in Tamil means "Yes, expressing assent.")

In Prasna Upanishad, there is a two-way conversation between Guru and disciples.

Questions are asked and answered. The sound AUM is equated to the Higher and
Lower Brahman, aka nameless or attributeless Brahman, and personal Brahman,
Isvara. Meditation on each and all component(s) of AUM brings benefits to the
meditator. Component A guarantees a quick rebirth soon after birth among men of high
caliber, and greatness associated with austerity, abstinence and faith. Meditation on the
two components, A and U, guarantees a sojourn on the moon in all its greatness with a
return to earth. Meditation on all three components, AUM, guarantees oneness with the
light of the sun, shedding of all sins, compared to the shedding of the skin by the snake,
and an entry in to the world of Brahma greeted by saama chants. (The world of
Brahman, equated to Hiranyagarbha, is a collection of individual souls, who at one time
or another are sent back to the earth in embodied forms, after their terms in satya loka
expire.) From the world of Brahma, he goes one step above, gets vision of Isvara,
qualified Personal Brahman and thereby attains eternal liberation from the world of
samsara. Meditation on the three components are better than meditating on individual
components because AUM as one triad guarantees liberation and immortality in the
world of Isvara, and A,U,M individually guarantees only rebirth in this phenomenal

In Maitri Upanishad Chapter six, the Brahman is depicted as three-footed, and three-
lettered according to the three letters of the syllable AUM. The three-footed Brahman is
rooted above and the branches are the ether, wind, fire, water, earth etc. This upside-
down tree is Asvattha or fig tree. The import is that Brahman is rooted in heaven and
the material world draws sustenance from Brahman. One has to cut asunder all
attachments to the material world in order to attain Brahman. AUM depicts Brahman in
terms of gender, light, the holy triad, mouth, knowledge, physical elements, time
elements, physical sustenance and growth, thought, and breath.

Gender Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter

Light Fire, Wind, and Sun

Holy Triad Vishnu, Brahma and Shiva

Mouth Three sacrificial fires

Knowledge Three vedas, Rg, Yajus and Saaman

Physical Elements Earth, ether and sky

Time Elements Past, Present and Future

Physical Sustenance and

Food, Water and Moon

Thought Buddhi ( Intellect), mind, and Self-sense / Ego

Praana, Apaana and Vyaana - Breath, Downward

breath, Pervading Breath

There was a rivalry between the Devas and Asuras - the gods and the demons - born of
Prajapati. The demons always fouled up anything done by the gods. The devas took
refuge in and possession of OM and used it as breath via the nose. The demons vitiated
the breath with evil and so the breath has become sweet and foul for the nose. The
Devas meditated on OM as the speech, the eyes, the ears, the mind, and the breath by
mouth, but they were all vitiated by the asuras with the result that we speak truth and
falsehood, see beauty and ugliness, hear what should be heard and what should not be
heard, entertain good and bad thoughts, and experience dissipation of life breath just
like a clod of earth shatters on impact on a stone wall. ( Khandogya Upanishad1.2.1-
8) This not only tells us the importance of chanting OM, but brings into focus the
sattva (divine) and tamas (asuric) gunas / modes of behavior of an individual.

Upanishads mention that OM is the bow, the jivatman is the arrow and the Brahman is
the target. A bow must be strong and tensile in that the faith is strong, one has depth
and breadth in vedic wisdom and life lived by sattva sharpens the arrow with
devotion. The mind is the tip of the arrow. Silence and stillness are the goals, that are

Yogi goes from sound to silence. He rides on the sound waves of OM and his goal is
silence. Sabda-Brahman and Param-Brahman

There are two kinds of knowledge: 1: Sabda-Brahman 2: Param-Brahman. Param-

Brahman is superior and Sabda-Brahman is only a means to Param-Brahman.
Knowledge of Upanishads and Vedas, sacrifices, rituals etc are essential for growth
and development of the soul or atman to a finite stage. After that stage, they have to be
given up in the same spirit of detachment from desires at early stages of development.
Here you stand alone by your own self. No props and no support. Self stands alone.
You are dead to the world, figuratively. You are divested of everything that you owned,
be it material or knowledge. Names and forms do not matter anymore. You ride the
OM sound waves of Sabda-Brahman until you reach the Param-Brahman, when the
sound-syllable OM falls into silence. Sabda-Brahman or Brahman of Sounds consists
of all book knowledge including rituals, sacrifices and vedas. (Soundless Brahman is
superior to Sound Brahman.) But the latter is the preliminary step before attainment of
Soundless Brahman. When Soundless Brahman is attained, the names, forms, books,
rituals, sacrifices, prayers, hymns etc fall / should be abandoned . It is like saying that
the raft should be abandoned once you reach the shore. It is like saying that the chaff
should be abandoned or thrown away, and that one should try to get to the rice. It is
said that the learned man, after acquiring jnana and vijnana (knowlege and intuitive
wisdom) through the study of sacred scriptures, throws away the scriptural books just
like a farmer (grain collector) throws away the straw after collecting the grain. Ramana
Maharishi says it as follows: You remove the thorn from the sole of the foot by another
thorn and when done, throw away both thorns. At this stage of development, rituals,
vedas, sacrifices have to be abandoned at the dawn of higher realization of param-
Brahman or Soundless Brahman. There is stillness. There is silence. That is the goal,
that is absorption, that is Bliss. It is like the spider climbing on its own thread to reach
the higher space; so also the yogi goes up on the sound thread of OM and reaches
his destination, silence - Param Brahman. He rides on the sound waves of OM and his
goal is silence. He goes from sound to silence. He attained Vijnana -divine, intuitive,
realized wisdom. He sheds names and forms. Speech is nothing for him. Books are
for the birds. There are no hymns and no prayers. Where he is, there is no fear, there is
no sorrow, there is tranquility, there is silence, there is bliss.

This Vijnana, by its virtue, is a nondual state, where there is a fusion of self with the
param Brahman. This is also known as Turiya, the fourth state. There are four levels of
consciousness. The four states are:

1: Waking state - perception mode (Gross Body)

2: Dream sleep - mode of images and imagination (Subtle Body)

3: Dreamless Sleep / Deep Sleep - Mode of Self or conceptualization - (Causal Body)

4: Turiya. Beyond-Deep-Sleep State- Transcendent, spiritual, pure consciousness.

(Non-Dual State).

Another way of saying 1: Wakefulness 2: REM Sleep, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
4: NREM Sleep -Non Rapid Eye Movement Sleep 4: TURIYA.
In all these states, ego and consciousness seem to be the main factors by their
presence or absence.. Ego or ahankaara is the dominant mode in the wakeful
state. Consciousness in all three states is homogenous. In deep sleep, there is no
perception; that negative perception indicates that there must have been prior
experience of events, which were missed during sleep; that knowing of negative
perception in deep sleep indicates active consciousness.

1: Waking State: A of the A U M. The 1st Sound, A. In the wakeful state, the Indriyas,
prana, manas, buddhi, ahankaaara (Ego) - Citta are all operative. This state is what we
know as life and biological functions. Accordingly, the consciousness is projected
outwards. The Self (1st part) enjoys the gross matter.

2: The Dream Sleep: U of A U M. the 2nd Sound, U. The consciousness is turned

inside. The ego is still operative as per Ramana.. The Self (2nd part) is dreaming and
enjoys subtle objects.

3: Deep Sleep: M of A U M. The 3rd sound, M. No ego play here. The sleeper
desires nothing that he usually desires during the waking state. No dreams occur. The
Self (the 3rd part) is undifferentiated consciousness, and enjoys bliss, being bliss
itself. The lower self is absorbed in the Highest Self . Buddhi is in a potential state,
and in a state of suspended animation.

4: Turiya: Silence following A U M. The 4th part of the Self. It is not undifferentiated.
It is without attributes. No ego play here. There is quietness (Santam), Peace and
Bliss (Sivam), without-a-second (advaitam). This is the realization. This is absorption.
This is beyond Kaivalya - Splendid isolation - and more. This is Samadhi. This is
oneness. This is SatChitAnanda. It is beyond time, space and form. It is beyond
consciousness. It is the source. The four parts of the Self are compared to the cow's
feet. And as said earlier Self is OM.

The four components of Self is the same four components of A U M and Silence.
Silence that comes after AUM is the fourth component / Turiya. Now we arrived at
soundless Brahman. To reiterate: A is the waking state. U is the Dream State. M is
Deep Sleep. Turiya is the fourth state. All four components form a unit or syllable or a
sound byte of Atman-Brahman - Sound Brahman / Soundless Brahman. AUM-Silence
= AUM-Turiya = Dual to Non-dual state. AUM state is a dual state for the self, and
Turiya, the fourth dimension inducts the self into a non-dual state. You become one
with Brahman.

To paraphrase Ramana Maha Rishi: When ego is extinguished, the sage is freed from
waking, dreaming and deep sleep. All that remains is Turiya, a noble state, first, last
and all- transcendent. Ramana says that the first three states are grounded in the self,
but the Turiya is Being-Awareness and non-dual. When in Turiya, you know that the
first three states are false. Know thou that Turiya is Waking Sleep. Know thou that
Turiya is Grand Sleep, that knows no waking. Know thou that Turiya is Eternal
Wakefulness untouched by slippery sleep. In the dream sleep and waking , it is the ego
and not the atman that sees a world of fancy, but that ego sees nothing in deep sleep.

Brahma Sutra (3.2.10) In a swoon it is half attainment ( ardha: half; sampattih:

attainment) meaning that it is half deep sleep and half death.

It gives an idea of the state of swoon, as in a person who is whacked on the head with
a club. He is neither in deep sleep nor dead. He is not in deep sleep, because he
cannot be awakened like a sleeping person. He is not awake, he is not dreaming, he is
not in deep sleep 100%, and he is not dead 100 %. This state is between deep sleep
and death and that is half attainment so far bliss or death is concerned . He has one
foot in death and one foot in half bliss. His karma dictates as to which way he is going to
take. This is declared not as a fifth state, since the factors pertaining to swoon are not
clearly compartmentalized. For Ramanujah, it is a half-way meeting with death. For
Nimbarka, it is death by half measure.

Sleep, and dreams according to Upanishads. The thoughts expressed here are from
the Upanishads.
States of consciousness: In this world of names, forms and images, it is all perception,
whether it is true or false. This consciousness, is wakefulness - Gross Body. Ego is in
the dominant mode. It is I against you and the world. Perceptions are distorted and
images are falsified. Reality and Truth are submerged and ignorance and ego are in full
display. The three gunas, sattva, rajas and tamas oscillate. One time you are sattvic,
next moment rajasic and the next tamasic. Your mind, thoughts, speech and deeds are
caught in the rise and fall of these three gunas. The pristine Self is the chronicler, and a
spectator. The lower self enjoys matter just like the bird eating sweet and sour fruits.

Then comes the dream sleep. Subtle Body. The Self (2nd part) is dreaming and enjoys
(experiences) subtle objects. Still the ego is operative. Never taking rest or repose. The
mind dreams impossible dreams. It is said that the dream sleep is microcosm of
heaven and hell. The ego is the director of all these moving images. The hopes and the
fears, the pleasures and the pains come to surface in the form of images. The world of
images are real to him. He cries; he laughs; he writhes; he rolls; he enjoys and he
suffers. They are unreal, but they are real to him. He talks like a learned brahmin, and
he acts like a powerful king. He is high and he is low. He thinks he controls. He
dreams of blindness, lameness, defects but the atman is not dreaming. But he knows
not. He suffers, according to Upanishads. Self is not killed when body is killed. His fears
during wakefulness translate into images during his dream sleep. That is ignorance.

Then comes Deep Sleep: Causal Body. The Self (the 3rd part) is undifferentiated
consciousness, and enjoys bliss, being bliss itself. It comes close to a state of
splendid aloofness and isolation of kaivalya. Finally the ego has taken leave. The self
asserts itself. It shines. The sleeper is absorbed in the self which is communing. He is
serene; he is calm. This is atman, this is Brahman. This is immortal, this is fearless
Brahman. The speech is on hold; the names and forms are on hold; the sound is on
hold; and the mind and its thoughts are on hold. What a repose? What a tryst with
Self. Then suddenly there is fire. The sparks fly. He is awake. The juices start flowing.
From atman, all the vital breaths flow to their destinations. His consciousness returns;
he rises; and he now knows life as he knew before he went into deep sleep.
Turiya, Spiritual Transcendental consciousness Turiya is without any attributes. It or He
is the Self. Objective consciousness is absent and its seed also is absent. That is what
is meant by Wakeful Sleep by Ramana MahaRishi. Turiya is present and functional in
the perfected ones, even when they are awake. In Turiya, there is an irreversible union
with Brahman. There is Oneness with Brahman. There is a permanent Metaphysical

Ignorance is the mire of humanity; the one who rescues us from Avidya or Ignorance is
Guru. Gu is Ignorance and Ru is light, the remover of ignorance. The medium of
removal is Supreme Spiritual knowledge; the mediator is the Guru. He sheds light
where there is darkness. Since Guru is the purveyor of spiritual knowledge and the
dispeller of spiritual darkness, he is second only to Brahman. There are variations in the
interpretation of Guru. considered in its parts: g, r, u. The g has a function of granting of
Siddhis (supernatural powers); the r has the function of expunging the sins; the u
portrays the latent unmanifested energy of Vishnu.

Guru came into place when Mantras, Tantras, Yantras had to be committed to
memory for practice and posterity. The individual soul is full of spiritual ignorance
(avidya); the accomplished Guru is full of spiritual knowledge; they found a mutual fit
which leads to Mukta (liberation) of the individual soul. Guru knows the Pinda, the Rupa,
and Rupa atitia (body, form and what is beyond the form). Pinda refers to the embodied
soul fed by Pinda, food. The form is Saguna Brahman, the visible form of Brahman:
Siva and Vishnu. Rupa-Atita is what is beyond the form and refers to Parabrahman, the
formless, the nameless and the attributeless. Take Jesus Christ, the son of God; he is
the visible form; his Father, the God in heavens, is the invisible formless God. The
Pinda is you and me, who know we have a body but ignorant of the immanent soul in
us, which is an Amsa (fragment) of the Father.

When Mantras, Tantras and Yantras were uttered, practiced and propagated, there
was a need for a Guru or teacher to hold the repository of knowledge in memory. They
also became the intermediaries between God and man, the Light and darkness. The
Gurus brought the Light of spiritual knowledge and removed the darkness that shrouded
the soul. The First Guru in this world is Siva and the First Pupil is Vishnu in the name of
Matsyendra, the teacher of Yoga.

The path of Guru is Guru-Krupā-Yoga (Guru-compassion-Yoga), the Path of Guru's


Hymns by Sankara to Guru

Isa, the Supreme Lord, having been pleased with Bhakti and Vaidika Lakshana of his
votaries in their very many previous births, incarnates out of compassion as Guru in a
living and breathing form, inculcates in them the knowledge of the ultimate Reality and
helps them cross the ocean of misery of this earthly existence.

Vaidika Laksana = Vedic marks = worship according to Vedic Scriptural injunctions.

Tirumanthiram Verse 139:

Illumination (of the soul) is to see the Holy Form of Guru, to chant Guru’s Holy name,
to hear Guru’s holy words, to reflect on the form of Guru.

Guru is the intermediary between God and man; He is the representative of God on this
earth; between God and Guru, Guru takes the precedence.

Verse 1. One's Sariram (body) may be of great form, Kalatram (wife) beautiful, dhanam
(wealth) as big as Mount Meru;. If the mind is not attached to the Lotus feet of the Guru,
of what avail is that?

Verse 2. Wife, wealth, sons, grandsons, home and relatives: all these you may have. If
the mind is not attached to the Lotus feet of the Guru, of what avail is that?

Verse 3. Satravidya (Scriptural knowledge) may be on one's lips; one may be Kavitvadi
(exponent of poetry); one may write good poetry and prose. If the mind is not attached
to the Lotus feet of the Guru, of what avail is that?
Verse 4. In foreign lands, I gain honor and fame; in my own country, I am blessed with
wealth; I am of inimitable good conduct. If the mind is not attached to the Lotus feet of
the Guru, of what avail is that?

Verse 5. Kings and emperors adore his feet; but if the mind is not attached to the Lotus
feet of the Guru, of what avail is that?

Verse 6. Virtue and generosity brought me fame and rewards from all over the world. If
the mind is not attached to the Lotus feet of the Guru, of what avail is that?

Verse 7. The mind does not dwell on Bhoga, Yoga, stallions and horses, the face of the
beloved and riches; If the mind is not attached to the Lotus feet of the Guru, of what
avail is that?

Verse 8: My mind does not abide in neither the forest, nor the house, nor the future
accomplishments, nor the body, nor the precious. If the mind is not attached to the
Lotus feet of the Guru, of what avail is that?

Verse 9. Man of virtue who studies this Guru Astakam (Octad on Guru), and whose
mind abides in his sayings--whether he is Yati (ascetic), Bhupati (Lord of the world),
Brahmachari (student), or householder-- realizes his desired goal of union with

A Guru must have certain qualifications:

He must be a householder with wife and children well versed in Tantric Sastras
and in Mantra. Guru must belong to the same locale of Sisya.

He must not be father of Sisya, Ascetic (Vanaprastha--Forest-dwelling recluse),

or Sannyasi.
Tantra Sastra says that a recluse is incapable of giving meaningful directions and
instructions to a Sisya, if the Guru has no idea of the mundane world of Samsara
he and his Sisya live in.

A Guru should have mastery over Jnana leading to Moksa. A Sisya should
abandon a Guru incapable of imparting Jnana.

The Sastras mention that the testing of both the Guru and Sisya are essential.
Depending on the caste of the Sisya, he stays with the Guru in the latter's house
for one to four years. The Guru puts him through the wringer in such ways that
he comes to know of the pupil's body, mind, speech, devotion, character and
compatibility. One year is the minimum necessary for a Guru to evaluate his
pupil of Brahmana lineage; two years for Ksatriya; three years for Vaisya; four
years for Sudra. A greedy or timorous Guru invites the wrath and curse of
Devata; initiation performed by him has no value. Mutual testing of Guru and
Sisya as to their fitnmess by each other is a dynamic process. If it does not stand
the test of the Sastras, both are reduced to the state of Pisaca (a dirty spirit).

That the Guru should be married and have children is mandatory in Tantric
System as opposed to the prevailing stipulation in Catholic religion, though there
are many ceremonies common between the two. Woodroffe is of the opinion that
ceremonial aspect of Tantric system spread from India to other parts of the world.
Only a Guru, with a full-fledged family and Jnana roiling in the ocean of
Samsara, is capable of navigating the rough seas and offering Real Jnana to
Sisya. Others like Sannyasis, Vanaprasthyas, and recluses who are not family-
centric play by different rules and therefore are not capable of offering Jnana to

One source tells that there are three kinds of Gurus: Pasu Guru, Vira Guru,
and Divya Guru; three kinds of Mantras: Pasu Mantra, Vira Mantra and Divaya
Mantra; three kinds of Bhavas: Pasu Bhava, Vira Bhava, and Divya Bhava. Divya
Bhava is the best of all and awards Siddhis to the Siddha; Vira Bhava is
mediocre; Pasu Bhava is the least worthy. Vira Bhava Sadhakas perform rituals,
pujas, charitable works, Yatras to Pithas (holy places), control of senses and
Kulachara. Vira Bhava by itself does not offer Mukti (salvation); one has to step
up to Divya Bhava for eventual Mukti. Divya Bhava consists of 1. meditation on
the form, 2. thinking of Devata as pervading the whole world with her Tejas (Light
and energy), 3. considering that the world and Atma are her body. A Pasubhava
consists of thinking of Devata, chanting of Mantras, prayer and worship
progressing to Vira and Divya Bhava.

A pupil or Sisya should have the following qualities:

1) Good upbringing, pure mind, strong body, and steadfast mind.

2) Pursue Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksa.

3) Proficient in Vedas, Sastras, and knowing their essence.

4) Pursue Kula Dharma, be good to and serve all living beings, and work for
enduring objectives.

5) Serve the Guru by body, mind, thought, speech, deed, and money

6) Should rise above passions, laziness, anger, and useless mundane


Initiation of Sisya comes after he serves his Guru for one year and Guru
decides that he is ready for initiation. Guru makes sure that the seed that he
sows hits the fertile soil and not the rock (of a Sisya).

Bhagavad Gita and Meditation according to Bhagavan Krishna as told to Arjuna

6.11: In a clean place, with a firm seat neither too high nor too low covered with Kusa
grass, deerskin and a soft cloth layer upon layer (one on top of another in that order,
cloth on the top, deerskin in the middle, Kusa grass in the bottom) (continued)
6.12: with the mind one-pointed, controlling the mind, the senses, and the activities,
sitting on the seat, he should practice yoga for self-purification.

6.13: Holding the body, the neck and the head straight and still, looking at the tip of his
nose, but not looking all around, (continued)

6.14: With serene mind and fearless, firmly resolved in celibacy, with subdued mind,
the yogi should sit concentrating his mind upon Me and only Me as the Supreme goal.

Seclusion and a clean safe place during meditation are necessary; it could be in the
house or outside with clement weather conditions. An object or objects that augment
one's spirituality should be present in the area: an image of God in the form of idol,
picture, photo, along with holy book, candles, incense, flowers and fruits. As your
spirituality becomes stronger, the external props become less and less necessary. The
seat made of Kusa Grass, deerskin and soft cloth obtund and cancel out earth
vibrations reaching the mind; you must rise above the earth plane of Muladhara Chakra
to Anahata Chakra and higher to experience spirituality. In case Kusa grass and
deerskin are not available readily, one could use folded sheets in their place. Use of
Tiger skin may be illegal in certain parts of the world. Lotus posture is the common
asana assumed during meditation.

Lotus is a sacred symbol of purity in Hinduism. The blossoming of the Lotus in

Kundalini Yoga at various levels attests to the flowering of spirituality. Lotus is a sign of
fertility, power, life, and dominion. The roots, mud, slime, grime and stem of the lotus
flower are under the surface water; the leaf floats in the water and yet water rolls off its
surface. The slimy mud represents the building blocks of the material world; its roots are
anchored in humble mud (matter); the stem grows through the water seeking the sun
(spiritual knowledge). The leaf represents freedom from attachment because water
easily rolls off its surface. The beginnings are rooted humble mud but when it blossoms
the sun of spiritual knowledge kisses it: that is transcendence.
Straight posture is conducive for easy rise of Kundalini Sakti or serpent to rise up
along the Susumna Nadi in the spinal Canal. Susumna Nadi is not an anatomical entity,
but a mystical channel in which Kundalini Devi rises. You may look at the midpoint
between the eyebrows Ajna Chakra or the tip of the nose. If this causes eyestrain you
may close your eyes and turn your mental eye to Anahata (heart), Ajna (forehead), or
Sahasrara (crown) lotus.

Brahmamuhurta between 4 to 6 AM is the auspicious time for meditation. Another

source says that Brahmamuhurta is the time 48 minutes before the sunrise. The
presiding deity of this period is Brahma and hence the name. Agni Purana (Chapter
155) gives detailed account of the code of conduct for purification and meditation.
Modifications and discretion in purification are recommended. Here are some of the
codes. The code says that one should worship Vishnu, Siva and Soma (Moon). One
should face the sun but not look at rising or setting sun. One should not utter
displeasing words to anyone. One should not throw garbage or excreta in the river. One
should not live in a place devoid of a physician, a king and a river. Speech should be
pleasant and moderate. One should act on the dictates of natural impulses of the body.

Agni Purana (Chapter 156) have some interesting advice that is good for all times.
Vessels or anything contaminated by urine and feces are made pure by heating: a good
way of killing bacteria. Common custom is that many things are purified by sprinkling
them with water.

The code says that cow is pure except in its mouth. Mouths of a horse and goat are
impure, while the mouths of women, calves of cows, birds and dogs are pure.
(Bacteriologically mouths are not really pure.) A menstruating woman becomes pure by
bathing on the fourth day.

Meditation on Gayatri

Narada is a Great Muni who travels the Trilokas (Earth, Astral and Heaven), has put
in the most frequent flier miles among the Munis and is aptly called Triloka Chanchari
(Three-world traveler). Being a traveler extraordinaire, he appears here, there and
everywhere at the same time; he does not need any visa to go anywhere; he actually
travels by thought. He was born of a maidservant who served great devotees of the
Lord. He eats the remnants and thus, he says, all his sins were destroyed, his heart is
purified and he becomes a transcendentalist. By listening to Lord Krishna's pastimes, he
becomes one of His close associates. His mother dies by snake bite and this
precipitates his travel to many places in search for the Mother and Father of all. In his
wanderings, his devotion to the Lord increases and he gets a vision of God who says
that he presented Himself to him in person to whet his appetite for more of Him and He
would appear no more until he is ready again. Bhagavan Krishna gives him a gift of the
Vina, stringed instrument which is infused with divine sound.

One day Narada Muni is in the company of Vishnu, Lakshmi, Brahma and other gods.
He thanks Mahavishnu for instructing him on rituals, austerity, fasting and penance. He
asks Him to instruct and show him the path of obtaining the Divine Grace of all deities
all at once without too much effort. Mahavishnu replies that he could obtain such Grace
by worshipping Gayatri Devi. He continues, "there is no
Mantra more auspicious and efficacious like Gayatri,
which should be recited at least three times at a time, in
the before sunrise, noon and evening before sunset to
obtain the Grace and Anugraha (divine favor) from Sun
God. This will guarantee Divine Grace form all 330 million
deities in the universe.

Bhagavan Krishna says in Bhagavad Gita,

10.35: Of the hymns in Sama Veda, (I am) Brhatsama; of meters, I am Gayatri; of

months (I am) Margasirasa (Nov-Dec); of all seasons, I am flower-bearer (spring).

I meditate of the five face of Goddess Gayatri; they have the colors of pearl, coral,
gold, blue, black and white; She has three eyes with diadem adorned with the crescent
moon consisting of syllables standing for the TRUTH. She sports Mudras, bestowing
protection, refuge and boons; she holds in her hands a goad, whip, skull, noose, conch,
discus and two lotuses.

She is of three qualities: Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. Sattva Guna became Vishnu;
Rajas, Brahma; and Tamas, Siva. All three Gods worship the Mother Goddess, Gayatri.

She put her three sons, Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva in the cradle of Akasa (ether)
which hangs by the chains tied to the four Vedas. Brahma is Rajasic, Vishnu is Sattvic
and Siva is Tamasic. She sings cradlesong to put them to sleep. Since they are
sleeping, the Mother disappears. (She would be in big trouble with the law in US for
leaving the children home alone. Being the Mother Goddess, She keeps a tab on them
constantly by Her divine vision and sustains them by Her grace. This separation has an
explanation.) The threesome wake up and cry for the Mother, wander and grow up in
the ethereal domain. The sit in meditation and the heat from their Tapas is scorching the
universe. The Mother shows up to her children in her universal form. She appears
donned in a red sari; She has a full moon-like face (in her one-headed form), a third eye
and red Bindu on her forehead; in her eight arms she holds her weapons and lotus. She
wears ankle bells, toe-rings, bangles, and other ornaments.

She holds her children in her arms and kisses them. She talks to them. "I left you to
your own devices to inculcate and develop your natural tendencies, creation
preservation and destruction. I was always with you, though you don't see my
transcendental form. Now that you realized me and obtained my grace; in like manner I
want all souls to realize me in the form of Divine Mother Goddess, Gayatri. I reward
them my grace and boons. I am happy with your devotion and appoint you to the
portfolios of creation, preservation, and dissolution. Let Rajasic Brahma do the creation;
Sattvic Visnu, preservation; and Tamasic Siva, the dissolution. I am ready to answer to
your prayers, when you need me."

This myth is to explain that Gayatri Devi is VedMata (Mother of Vedas) and controls
the three functions of the Trinity.
Meditation on Gayatri by pranayama

Puraka, Kumbhaka and Rechaka: Inspiration, Retention and Exhalation of breath.

During inspiration, meditate on Sarasvati with Brahma in the navel center. During
Kumbhaka phase, meditate on Lakshmi with Vishnu in the Anahata (heart) center.
During Rechaka phase, meditate on Parvati with Siva in the Ajna (Bhru madhya or
forehead between the eyebrows).

Gayatri Dyana is meditation on Gayatri Mantra. It purifies, offers health and protection
to the body, destroys all karmas, and opens the third eye of wisdom, discrimination and

In the preceding paragraphs, details about times, asanas, and places of meditation
are given.

Kali Yuga and Gayatri Mantra

Gayatri Mantra is the essence of three Vedas and Vishnu Sahasranamam. Daily
recitation of Gayati Mantra brings inordinate benefits to the practitioner, when
performance of Homam with recitation of Vedas in Kali Yuga is not possible. In the
morning, Gayatri Devi appears in red dress reciting Rg Veda, as Savitri with white dress
at noon reciting Yajur Veda, and as Sarasvati with black dress in the evening reciting
Sama Veda. There is a subtle Dharma expressed in Gayatri's recitation of all Vedas in
one day. Recitation of Gayatri Mantra is recitation of the three Vedas. Gayatri Devi
made it easy for us by letting us recite Gayatri Mantra (the essence of the three Vedas)
instead of the three Vedas; her compassion is inimitable.

Gayatri Mantra According to Maitri Upanishad. Translation from Sanskrit to English by

Dr. Radhakrishnan.

Chapter VI.7 Worship of the sun by means of the SAvitrI prayer.

SAvitri, yonder sun is to be sought thus, by one desirous of self, so say the expounders
of Brahma-knowledge. may we meditate on the splendor of the God. Savitri, verily, is
god. May he inspire (illuminate) our thoughts. Thoughts, verily, are meditations.May he
inspire these for us.... Sun is called Splendor or he who is the pupil in the eye. he is so
called because his course is with the rays of the light or he is Rudra because he causes
to dry up, so say the expounders of Brahma-knowledge. now Bha means that he
illumines these worlds, Ra means that he gladdens these beings, Ga means creatures
here go into him and come out of him. Therefore, because of being Bha, Ra, Ga he is
Bharga. Surya is so named because of continued squeezing out, Savitri is so named
because of its bringing forth.
Veeraswamy Krishnaraj. Contact:
About the author:
Veeraswamy Krishnaraj, M.D; F.R.C.P (Canada) is a board certified pediatrician in active practice until
the end of 1998. He immersed himself in study of Hinduism in depth. He has sufficient knowledge and
understanding of Hindu religion that he is confident to publish this book. He kept the words simple,
supple, illuminating and to the point, while retaining the original flavor, beauty and grace. Compound
words in Sanskrit are a nightmare for the beginner, as they are spliced together compactly in one
continuous stretch of characters. He parsed the compound words into digestible syllables or words with
superscripts and sequential numbers and rearranged the words in the verse in a readable form in English.
In this book, he claims ownership of shortcomings and cedes the rest to Bhagavan.
This book is good for students, and devotees reading the Bhagavad-Gita in Satsang (true company). Two
verses nestle in two boxes in one page with no break or carry-over to the next page. Diacritics help the
reader enunciate the words like a Sanskritist. The English words are reader-friendly. Wherever there is a
need for elaboration, an addendum supports it.
Simplicity, authority, universality, and profundity are the hallmark of the Bhagavadgita, the Bible of the
Hindus. The Bhagavadgita is the Song of the Lord. It provides guidelines for daily living with no dogmas
and ritual overtones. It encourages and supports your individuality. It also explains the consequence of
errant ways. Total surrender to Bhagavan releases the devotee from the ills of life on earth. Hinduism as
a term is an external appellation from non-Hindus. Its true name is Sanatana Dharma (Eternal Law or
Eternal Order) commensurate with Rta (Cosmic Order). The beauty about the Bhagavadgita is its appeal
is universal.

BGALLCOLOR.pdf 3181.08KB (3257428 bytes)

The above file has all 18 chapters of Bhagavadgita in Sanskrit, Transliteration, colorized
words for easy identification, word 4 word translation, superscription of words,
rearrangement of words in a readable form in English. This is the best you can get on
the internet in one file. This file will be uploaded and sent to you as an attachment to
your email upon payment of fees. The above file (18 Chapters and 700 verses) costs
USD 18.00 for email upload in PDF format and $22.00 for DVD within US and $25.00
for shipment outside US. Method of payment is through Paypal, the beneficiary being
Veeraswamy Krishnaraj. There is a delay between payment and upload because of
verification by paypal. You can see the sample verse below.

Sample Verse


अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिर्ज्ाानयोगव्यवद्धथिद्ध िः ।

दानं दमश्च यर्ज्श्च थवाध्यायथ प आर्ावम् ॥१६- १॥

śrībhagavān uvāca: abhayaṁ sattvasaṁśuddhir jñānayogavyavasthitiḥ

dānaṁ damaś ca yajñaś ca svādhyāyas tapa ārjavam 16.1

śrībhagavān uvāca: abhayam1 sattva-saṁśuddhiḥ2 jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ3

dānam4 damaḥ5 ca6 yajñaḥ7 ca8 svādhyāyaḥ9 tapaḥ10 ārjavam10 16.1

śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said: abhayam1 = fearlessness; sattva-

saṁśuddhiḥ2 = purity of the mind; jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ3 = steadiness in Yoga of
knowledge; dānam4 = charity; damaḥ5 = self-control [of organs]; ca6 = and; yajñaḥ7 =
sacrifices; ca8 = and; svādhyāyaḥ9 = study of the scriptures; tapaḥ10 = austerity;
ārjavam10 = rectitude... 16.1 continued.

16.1: Sri Bhagavan said: Fearlessness, purity of mind, steadiness in yoga of

knowledge, charity, self-control, sacrifice, study of scriptures, austerity, rectitude,