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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING PROGRAM

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH

KE 26803
ELECTROMAGNETICS (2014/15)
Assignment 1

PREPARED BY:
Ramanan A/L Thangasalvam (BK13160570)

PREPARED FOR:
Lecturer: Dr. Bablu K. Gosh

Question:
Utilizing electrostatic concepts, how can we develop faster active and good
energy storage devices? The faster device concept based to relaxation time
minimization and storage device concept based on more charge density system
with minimizing drainage
Answer:
We must develop advanced communication and management tools to
address the challenge posed by potentially large amount of PEVs and PHEVs and
to allow utility to actively manage and control these distributed assets. In
addition, significant improvements in various subsystems such as battery, power
electronics and motors are needed to continue the revolution towards gasoline
free

transportation.

ATEC

will

establish

research,

development

and

demonstration of these advanced technologies.


Vehicle to grid:
Vehicle to grid (V2G) concept envisions the plug-in hybrid or plug-in
electric vehicle as a resource for the electric grid, where power can be absorbed
or sourced by the vehicle energy storage system. However, there are many
intermediary steps that have to be achieved, before this vision comes to fruition.
ATEC will research and implement various technologies that will allow for V2G to
become a reality. We will look at the benefits and the issues with each stage of
V2G implementation. The three stages we have identified are explained below.
Each provides additional flexibility to the electrical distribution system.

Smart Charging (V1G):


The vehicle charging rate is controlled remotely based on grid conditions
and user preferences. The benefits include:

Using electricity when it would otherwise be wasted

Minimize additional load at peak times (load as spinning reserve)

Allow easier integration of intermittent renewable resources (such as wind


and solar) to the grid

Vehicle to Building (V2B):


This system would allow for the charger to be controlled remotely; in
addition, the charger would be able to feed power back to the home to which it is
plugged in. This means that the charger will have to be bi-directional. Such a
system boasts additional benefits
compared to V1G:

Provide back-up power for buildings

Ensure high power quality for buildings

Help supply power to building when grid power is costly


Vehicle to Grid (V2G):
Allows for the vehicle to feed power back directly to the grid. In addition,
the power converters used to charge the vehicle can also be used to support the
stability of the grid by providing ancillary services. Such a system would require
constant bi-directional communication between the charger and the grid. V2G
offers:

Grid-stabilizing ancillary services (reactive power and voltage control, loss


compensation, energy imbalance)

Supply power to grid when economically viable

Allow easier integration of renewable resources by ensuring high power


quality from the resource

Advanced vehicles:
Modern vehicles design is becoming more of a multidisciplinary field. We
plan to incorporate automotive research of the many faculty at NCSU. The
developed technologies will be showcased on a vehicle test bed. In particular,
ATEC research will focus on improving the electronic components of the vehicle
electric drive train.

Electric motor:

Currently permanent magnet motors and induction motors are typically


used on vehicles with electric propulsion. We will look at how we can improve the
efficiency, and reduce the cost of these electric motors. ATEC will also work on
developing other motor types such as reluctance motors for electric propulsion,
as well as on developing novel concepts such as integration of the electric motor
with the power electronics and placing the motors in the vehicles wheels (hub
motors).

Power electronics:
There are a number of power conversion and conditioning devices on the
electric vehicle (eg. motor drivers, voltage boosters, on-board battery charger).
We will research into methodologies to simplify these electronics systems, make
them more efficient, more robust and smaller. In addition, we are developing the
next generation post-silicon devices that operate more efficiently and at higher
temperatures. The use of SiC devices will enable us to make the power
electronics systems more compact, more efficient, and to require a smaller
cooling unit.

Energy storage devices:


In addition to extensive research on batteries with the goal of increasing
life and fast charging capability, ATEC will also investigate other power sources
such as super capacitors, fuel cells and flywheels. Super capacitors in particular
are of interest due to their long life and very fast charging characteristics.

System studies:
PHEVs and PEVs are complex systems that are made of a number of subcomponents. To maximize vehicle efficiency, a control strategy has to be
developed where each subsystem operates at its most efficient point. In addition,
the overall vehicle performance can be tailored to the driving conditions to
improve the system efficiency.. By considering the vehicle as a system the

vehicle overall efficiency can improve dramatically without cost increments or


technological breakthroughs.

Batteries:
The stumbling block to introducing all-electric vehicles on the road today
is the fact that the batteries are not up to the task to mimic all of the
conveniences that we have come to expect from vehicles powered by internal
combustion engines. The issues with the commercially available batteries in the
vehicle application are:

Battery energy and power densities need to improve. To match gasoline,


energy and power densities of batteries have to increase significantly.

Batteries need to be charged in a time that is comparable to the refueling


time of the gasoline tank. Therefore batteries must accept charge at high rates
safely.

Battery life is an issue. Vehicle owners expect their batteries to last as


long as the vehicle. Even though some batteries are able to last for thousands of
cycles, when hundreds of batteries are put in a vehicle pack, in some cases, one
failure makes the pack unusable.

Battery safety must be assured, especially during fast charging and in hot
weather.

Battery cost needs to be reduced.


ATEC research will attempt to address all of these issues. At the fundamental
level, Dr. Zhang and his research team are developing lithium-ion batteries
based on nanofiber electrodes. Dr. Zhang synthesizes these electrodes by using
an inexpensive electro spinning process. When these nanofiber electrodes are
used in lithium-ion batteries, the stable nanofiber structure eliminates the
existence of inactive materials such as polymer binders and carbon black
conductors, so they can hold more energy for a longer time; this implies higher
energy density and more stable capacity. In addition, the large surface area of
the nanofibers implies better charge acceptance and therefore faster charging.

To improve the charging time of the pack, each battery will be managed at the
individual level to insure safety during fast charging. Algorithms will be
developed to charge the battery at the fastest rate at which the chemistry is able
to absorb the charge safely. To improve the life of the pack to match that of a
single battery, weak batteries will be taken out of the circuit electronically.
Finally, as the vehicles retire, used PHEV batteries can be deployed to electric
substations to support the grid. ATEC research will also consider alternative
energy sources other than batteries. For instance, super capacitors exhibit very
long life, great charge and discharge characteristics, and very high power
density. On the other hand they typically have low energy density. Therefore,
combining batteries and super capacitors in one storage