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A Teacher Support Material for Reading

Developing Reading
Comprehension Skills
Using the Critical
Thinking Approach

by the Philippines-Australia Hastening the Impact of PROBE (HIP)
under the AusAID Vulnerable Groups Facility (VGF)



A resource produced through the support of AusAID

on behalf of the Australian Government

Published by the
Department of Education
Region VII, Central Visayas
Cebu City
Copyright 2000
Reprint Edition 2002


Section 9 of Presidential Decree No. 49 provides:

No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Republic of the
Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein
the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit.

This material has been developed within the Project in Basic Education (PROBE)
implemented by the Educational Development Projects Implementing Task Force
(EDPITAF) of the Department of Education (DepEd) in collaboration with the Bureau
of Elementary Education, Bureau of Secondary Education and the Commission on
Higher Education. Prior approval must be given by the PROBE Management Unit
lodged at EDPITAF and the source must be clearly acknowledged.


US Peace Corps Volunteer


The production of this Teacher Support Material (TSM) has been made possible with
the assistance of the PA-PROBE RLMC VII Staff.

A Teacher Support Material for Reading

Developing ReadingComprehension Skills

Using the Critical Thinking Approach


This material is to be used in a lesson intended to help

students improve their English reading comprehension
skills by carefully analyzing the structure of a text in order
to understand it. The strategy used to analyze the text
model advances critical thinking methods.

Target Audience

First Year students

Subject Matter


Learning Competencies



3.1. Abstract information from the text

3.4. Cite evidence to support a general statement

one (1) English class period (40 minutes)

After using this material, the students are expected to:

answer yes - no questions about the text read and support/explain their answers
get information from the text read.

Activity 1
1. Divide the class into pairs.
2. As a whole, show the class some pictures of different
areas of Manila. Let the whole class give their comments about the place. Call on volunteers.
3. Distribute Worksheet 1 to each pair and let them work
on the task indicated. Give the dyads seven (7) minutes
to do the task.
4. After the pairs have done the task, call one member of

the dyad to read to the class the output of the pair.

Activity 2
1. Using the same dyadic group, give each pair a copy of
the reading text Manila (Appendix A). Allow the pair ten
(10) minutes to read the text silently to give them time
to check their work in the first activity
2. After reading the text, give each pair Worksheet 2. Let
each pair work on the task indicated in the worksheet
for seven (7) minutes.
3. After the pairs have done the task indicated in Worksheet 2, ask a member of the pair to read to the class
the answers to the questions contained in Worksheet
4. Distribute to each pair a copy of Worksheet 3. Then,
let a partner read the output to the whole class.


Teaching Hints

Before using this material, the teacher shall have:

reproduced Worksheets 1, 2, 3 and Appendix A for the

Critical thinking skills (especially high-level analysis skills)

crucial for a strong democratic society. As such, it is then
imperative for teachers to consider them in their formation
of questions in the different areas of study.
Blooms Taxonomy of Critical Thinking Questions is listed
here in the hope that it will be useful for the teachers in
their future lessons.
First Level Questions
1. Knowledge - This level of question is asked to check if
students remember information as previously learned
facts. Students may be asked to define, recall or rec-

ognize. Questions in this level usually start with who,

what, where, or when.
2. Comprehension - This level requires students to rephrase and compare information in their own words.
Students are asked to describe, compare or contrast.
3. Application - In this level, students are asked to identify
one correct answer using facts. Students may be asked
to apply, solve, classify or choose.
Higher Level Questions
1. Analysis - This level requires critical and in-depth thinking. Students are asked about motives of the characters, causes of problems. They may be also asked to
support ideas and analyze the situation.
2. Synthesis - This level requires students to produce
original and creative materials as well as to predict
outcomes. Students here may be asked to produce,
develop, or design materials and projects.
3. Evaluation - This level requires students to determine
the merit/s of an idea or propose a solution to a problem.
Students are asked to judge, argue their opinion,
evaluate, assess or develop a criteria.
Tips for improving questions and critical thinking. To
improve the art of questioning, the following considerations
are suggested:
1. Wait time - Wait at least 5 seconds before calling on
someone. Wait again after a response.
2. Follow up question - Go beyond basic response. Let
students expand, explain defend their answers.
3. Dont judge. - Acknowledge the response but do not
judge its correctness.
4. Summarize - Encourage and facilitate efficient listening.

Paraphrase each others response.

5. Survey - Involve students opinion in discussion.
6. Encourage - Challenge responses. Encourage student
7. The devils advocate - Offer contradictory points of view
to provide opportunities and/or challenge students to
defend their responses.


Resource List

The learning of the students gained from using this material

can be measured through the manifestation of students
skill in:
Answering yes - no questions and supporting their answers with statements taken from the reading text
getting required information from a text read.

Appendix A (reading text Manila)

Worksheet 1
Worksheet 2
Worksheet 3
Users Guide

Appendix A


Metro Manila is located on the east coast of Luzon Island on the
Pasig River. It is the capital of the Philippines. The population of the city
and its suburbs is increasing rapidly. It was about 10 million in 1997.

Manila is a sprawling city and has a number of centers. Intramuros,
for example, is where many events in Manilas history took place, while
Makati is the business center. Many parts of the city are beautiful, but
like New York, Caracas, Mexico City and other large cities in the world,
Manila has many problems.

Traffic is one of these problems. The main streets are crowded with
cars, buses, jeepneys and trucks. The traffic often moves very slowly
or not at all. Another problem is housing. Thousands of families cannot
find a suitable house and they are living in difficult conditions. However,
the city government is working to find solutions for these problems.

One place of interest in Manila is Rizal Park. It is also known as
Luneta Park. It is in the center of Manila and is one of the citys main
meeting places. The park with its flowers, fountains, wide lawns and
music attracts thousands of strolling Filipinos every day in the late
afternoon and evening. Sunday is family day and offers a chance to listen
to the free concert at five in the afternoon. At the side of the park facing
Manila Bay is a playground where beautiful sunsets can be enjoyed.


What do you know about MANILA? Write them below.

We think Manila is :


We are not sure if Manila is



Now that you have read about Manila, answer the following questions. Write your answer on the first space after
each question. Then on the second space provided, copy
the sentence in the paragraph that supports your answer.
1. Is the capital of the Philippines on the west coast of Luzon?
2. Is the present population of Manila ten million?
3. Is Makati a historical center of Manila?
4. Is the city government ignoring the traffic problem in the city
of Manila?
5. Is Rizal Park attractive because of its golf course and shopping malls?

Now that you have already read about Manila, write on the space provided below what you already know about the place.

Now, we know that Manila is :

We are sure that Manila is: