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DEPARTMENT OF QUANTITY SURVERYING FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, PLANNING & SURVEYING REPORT B: LABOUR COST NAME MATRIX

DEPARTMENT OF QUANTITY SURVERYING FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, PLANNING & SURVEYING

REPORT B:

LABOUR COST

NAME MATRIX NO GROUP

: KHAIRUL AZMAN BIN ANUAR : 2013239324 : AP114 5F

INTRODUCTION

Construction and Manufacturing

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this report is:-

3.0 DEFINITION OF LABOUR

SOURCES OF LABOUR

The sources of labour in Malaysia can be divided into two categorized which is:

SKILLED LABOUR

LABOUR CATEGORIES

Skilled labourers are labourers who have certain skills in certain trades.

1) Bricklayer

2) Concreter

3) Masonry

4) Carpenter

5)

Steel bar & welder

6) Plasterer 7) Pavior 8) Painter 9) Glazier 10) Plumber 11) Drain layer 12) Operator 13) Lorry driver 14) Bitumen worker

UNSKILLED LABOUR

The unskilled labourers have two categories:

i.

Male

ii.

Female

The rate for male unskilled labour is higher compared female unskilled labour. This is because male unskilled labourers can do more work as compared female unskilled labour as they are genetically more superior physically. The rate for unskilled labour (male) is a RM 50 to RM 65 while the female is in between RM 45 to RM 60 per day. Not only that, their rates depends on the task given to them whether they work under a foreman or under a skilled labourer.

SUB-CONTRACT LABOUR

A subcontractor labour is a person or a company hired by a general contractor to perform part of the work of a construction job and they do the specific work based on the skills and expertise. The different of both sub contractorlabour and skilled labour can be seen based on their different rate wages.

TYPES OF SUBCONTRACTOR

SUB-CONTRACT LABOUR A subcontractor labour is a person or a company hired by a general contractor
DOMESTIC
DOMESTIC
NOMINATED
NOMINATED

DIAGRAM 2.5 The diagram above shows 2 types of subcontractor

Domestic subcontractor

Nominated subcontractor

LABOUR BY TRADE

In the construction industry, labour is the important aspect for the contractor to ensure the project is completed follow the plan. Labours can be divided into their own trades. There are many trades can be found in the construction works. These trades are specified based on their experienced and skilled in that works. The trade are:-

A) CONCRETER

 Domestic subcontractor  Nominated subcontractor LABOUR BY TRADE In the construction industry, labour is the

The concreter is responsible in ensuring the concrete mixing for a building is following the standard specification and they also responsible to ensure the strength of the building the concrete test done.

  • B) BRICKLAYER

B) BRICKLAYER  The bricklayer is expert in arrangement and bonding of bricks for the building

The bricklayer is expert in arrangement and bonding of bricks for the building wall. They are expert in Flemish bond, English bond and stretcher bond. Bricklayers build walls, chimneys and other structures from masonry units such as brick, block, glass block or stone.

  • C) DRAIN LAYER

 Drain layers are responsible for sewerage, sump, manhole and other things concerning the sewerage system.

Drain layers are responsible for sewerage, sump, manhole and other things concerning the sewerage system. It must be done perfectly to ensure that the sewerage system in the building does not be in function when it is used.

The drain layer must be skillful in deciding depth.

the pitch for the drains and its

D) MASONRY

 
 The drain layer must be skillful in deciding depth. the pitch for the drains and

It is almost similar to bricklayer except the sizes of the bricks and stones are different.The main purpose of the masonry is to prepare a rubble retaining wall, arches, fair face, sundries and any masonry work such as lintel, jambs, and quoins. Normally these works are done externally. These works must be done very carefully as the main purpose of this is to make it look tidy and clean.

The skill that they must have is to properly arrange the stones and because of this,

they must know the installation inside out. They must also prepare any shape required by the client or employer.

E) PLUMBER

 The skill that they must have is to properly arrange the stones and because of

A plumber is the trade that installs and connects pipes as there are many types of pipes such as soil and waste pipe and service pipes. The installation of cold-water pipes is included in the works of a plumber where the work must follow the specifications of the provided drawings. After the work is done, the plumber is to install pipes and equipments based on the layout plan. Examples of the appliances used by this trade are auger, spanner, braces, bits, rules, blowtorches, squares and electrical cutter.

  • F) CARPENTER

F) CARPENTER  Carpenters in the construction industry are responsible for works concerning woodwork such as

Carpenters in the construction industry are responsible for works concerning woodwork such as window frame, installation of formwork, doorframe and others.

  • G) PAINTER

F) CARPENTER  Carpenters in the construction industry are responsible for works concerning woodwork such as

This trade involved in paint work to external and internal surfaces like wall, ceiling, frame, windows, doors and etc.Painter not just having the skill of painting but also the knowledge of it. Painters first prepare the surface to be covered, so that the paint will adhere properly. This may require removing the old coat of paint by stripping, sanding, wire brushing, or water and abrasive blasting.

  • H) BAR BENDER

 This trade involved in paint work to external and internal surfaces like wall, ceiling, frame,

Bar bender or also known as a steel bar bender is working by bending reinforcement bars. Although reinforcement bar usually arrive ready to use, ironworkers from time to time must cut bars with metal shears or acetylene torches, bend them by hand or machine, or weld them with arc-welding equipment. They fasten the bars together by tying wire around them using pliers. When reinforcing floors, ironworkers place spacers under the bar to hold the bars off the deck. Some concrete is reinforced with welded wire fabric.

  • I) ROOFER

I) ROOFER  In this trade, rooter is responsible to place the root finishes and the

In this trade, rooter is responsible to place the root finishes and the installation of the trusses. The trusses must strong enough to support all load of the peaces or sheets at rooting material. The bad installation might cause the leakage or bending. That’s why, during the installation at the rooting material, the rooter must install it patiently andfollow the manufacture’s instruction. It is important because the root is the top element at building and open to the sunlight and rain.

  • J) PLASTERER

I) ROOFER  In this trade, rooter is responsible to place the root finishes and the

The role

of

a plasterer

is

to

plaster the

walls of

building after the wall has been

constructed.

 

This work is normally carried out after the construction of the wall is completed and the plaster is used to cover the brick wall for a smoother finish. Special skills are needed to ensure that the plaster is laid out evenly. Floors and ceilings are other examples of components that can be plastered. Plastering works also include items such as ‘skirting’, ‘gutter’, ‘on cornices’, ‘curves’, ‘arches’, ‘column’ and ‘beam’. The true purpose of plastering is actually to cover small spaces and holes in the wall, floor or ceiling.

K) WELDER

This work is normally carried out after the construction of the wall is completed and the

Welder is involve in steel work where they will heat the steel until molten and fused or soft enough to hammer or pressed together, the welder must wear goggles for eye’s safety. They will use electrical power to heat the steel and tie the reinforcement bar.

SCHEDULE RATES OF PRICE LABOUR PREPARED BY STATES

ITEM

DESCRIPTIO

UNIT

STATES

N

         

KUALA

PAHANG

PERAK

TERENGGANU

 

LUMPUR

  • 1. GENERAL

DAY

RM 60.00

RM 50.00

RM 50.00

RM 55.00

LABOUR

  • 2. MASON

DAY

RM 85.00

RM 75.00

RM 95.00

RM 75.00

3. CARPENTER DAY RM 100.00 RM 80.00 RM 120.00 RM 80.00 4. JOINER DAY RM 100.00
3.
CARPENTER
DAY
RM 100.00
RM 80.00
RM 120.00
RM 80.00
4.
JOINER
DAY
RM 100.00
RM 80.00
RM 120.00
RM 80.00
5.
CONCRETER
DAY
RM 100.00
RM 70.00
RM 95.00
RM 75.00
6.
STEEL BAR
DAY
RM 100.00
RM 80.00
RM 100.00
RM 80.00
BENDER
7.
PAINTER
DAY
RM 80.00
RM 70.00
RM 110.00
RM 75.00
8.
PLASTERER
DAY
RM 80.00
RM 70.00
RM 120.00
RM 70.00
9.
FITTER
DAY
RM 120.00
RM 80.00
RM 100.00
RM 60.00
10.
WELDER
DAY
RM 85.00
RM 85.00
RM 100.00
RM 80.00
11.
BRICKLAYER
DAY
RM 100.00
RM 75.00
RM 100.00
RM 75.00
140
120
100
GENERAL LABOUR
MASON
CARPENTER
JOINER
80
CONCRETER
STEEL BAR BENDER
PAINTER
60
PLASTERER
FITTER
WELDER
40
BRICKLAYER
20
0
KUA LA
LU MPU R
PA H A N G
PER A K
TER EN G G A N U

GRAPH SHOWS PRICE LABOUR BY STATES

Chart above shows the distribution of labour rate between four difference region which is Kuala Lumpur, Perak, Pahang and Terengganu. This three labour rate, priced on 2014 from 4 difference contractor which is Nine Hundred Builder Sdn. Bhd (Kuala Lumpur),

Teras Khidmat Niaga (Perak),Syarikat Yusof Yasin Sdn. Bhd (Terengganu) and Ijhraa Sdn. Bhd.(Perak) .

From the figure , we can see that the labour prices at Perak are higher than labour prices at Kuala Lumpur, Pahang and Terengganu for most of the trades. For example, the labour price for a plasterer in Perak is RM120.00 while in Kuala Lumpur is RM 80.00, Pahang and Terengganu are RM70.00 for both which it is lower than the price at Perak.

As a conclusion, the location of the project also affected the labour cost. Usually, the price of labour in rural area is lower than in urban area. It is because the cost for living is higher in the city. However, sometimes labour for project in a distant area is much higher to cover overhead costs such as travel and communication.

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LABOUR PRICES

Labour rate will change along with time. From analysis before we can see difference contractor will have several differences between their rates. This is due to below factors:

I.

Location

The location of the project will influence labour prices. Examples, comparison between construction in cities and rural areas, most labour hired in city will get higher payment than labours working at rural areas. This is because, the cost of living in cities are much higher than rural areas and small town. Sometimes, labour rate can be higher when the location of the construction area is difficult to get labour.

II.

High-risk project

The risky project will influence the price of labour. Workers generally receive higher compensation when the task they must complete are more complex or difficult. It is because the labours need to face the high-risk situation on site.As for the risk taken, the insurance need to be cover the workers and highskill needed to handle a risky situation, as not many labour is willing to take a big risk.

III.

Competition among the contractors

There are many contractor companies in our construction industry. It is divided to a certain level or class of contractors, followed by the reputation and experience of the contractors. For the tender competition, contractors will tackle the client by offering them a lower rate for labours. There is why the competition among the contractors also is the one of the factors towards the labour rate.

IV.

Labours market

Local labour cant fulfill domestic demands thus government allow foreign labour to be imported to work as labour. In some situation foreign labour wage is much lower than the local labours but their imported fees has being a big issued, thus many contractor use illegal foreign worker to cut their wages expenses.

.

  • V. Size of projects

Sizes of projects also influence the labour price. For example, in multimillion projects the rate of labour usually expensive than smaller project depends on the difficulty of the projects as contractor want to avoid any losses if there is variance of works.

VI.

Government policy

Malaysia Government by the Ministry of Human Resource has started that the labour rate for the local labour must be higher than the foreign labours. The purpose of the policy is to attract our local people to involve with the construction sectors. The policy also wants the local labour to get the specialty. By this causes, it will be a different in the labour price rate in the industry.

VII.

Completion period

The completion period of a project could affect the labour price. The more time needed in completion a project required the more cost on labour price. For those project which the client want to complete in short period of time, the rates of labour will be increased. It is because sometimes the labour will do extra work or overtime which require a payment.

VIII.

Expertise

The labour cost is depends on their expertise and skills in performing a certain tasks. Skilled labour will get a higher amount of wages comparing with semi-skilled and unskilled labour. This is because skilled labour can perform their work perfectly and always do a complicated work such as bricklayer, carpenter, and others.

They have used all the energy to complete the work on times specified. Besides that, they have to work in night that is very risky and they are exposed with an accident. At least, the increasing of their rates will balance with their work. All these factors are considered to determine their rates