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BigFivepersonalitytraits
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Inpsychology,theBigFivepersonalitytraitsarefivebroaddomainsordimensionsofpersonalitythat
areusedtodescribehumanpersonality,thefivefactormodel(FFM)[1]Thefivefactorsareopenness,
conscientiousness,extraversion,agreeableness,andneuroticism.Acronymscommonlyusedtoreferto
thefivetraitscollectivelyareOCEAN,NEOAC,orCANOE.Beneatheachglobalfactor,aclusterof
correlatedandmorespecificprimaryfactorsarefoundforexample,extraversionincludessuchrelated
qualitiesasgregariousness,assertiveness,excitementseeking,warmth,activity,andpositiveemotions.[2]
TheBigFivemodelisabletoaccountfordifferenttraitsinpersonalitywithoutoverlapping.Empirical
researchhasshownthattheBigFivepersonalitytraitsshowconsistencyininterviews,selfdescriptions
andobservations.Moreover,thisfivefactorstructureseemstobefoundacrossawiderangeof
participantsofdifferentagesandofdifferentcultures.[3]

Contents
1Fivefactors
1.1Opennesstoexperience
1.1.1Sampleitems
1.2Conscientiousness
1.2.1Sampleitems
1.3Extraversion
1.3.1Sampleitems
1.4Agreeableness
1.4.1Sampleitems
1.5Neuroticism
1.5.1Sampleitems
2History
2.1Earlytraitresearch
2.2Hiatusinresearch
2.3Renewedattention
3Biologicalfactors
3.1Heritability
3.2Agedifferences
3.3Brainstructures
4Groupdifferences
4.1Genderdifferences
4.2Birthorderdifferences
5Culturaldifferences
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6Relationships
6.1Personalitydisorders
6.2Commonmentaldisorders
6.3Education
6.3.1Academicachievement
6.3.2Learningstyles
6.4Worksuccess
7Nonhumans
8Measurements
9Criticisms
9.1Limitedscope
9.2Methodologicalissues
9.3Theoreticalstatus
10Seealso
11References
12Externallinks

Fivefactors
AsummaryofthefactorsoftheBigFiveandtheirconstituenttraits,suchthattheyformtheacronym
OCEAN:[4]
Opennesstoexperience:(inventive/curiousvs.consistent/cautious).Appreciationforart,
emotion,adventure,unusualideas,curiosity,andvarietyofexperience.Opennessreflectsthe
degreeofintellectualcuriosity,creativityandapreferencefornoveltyandvarietyapersonhas.It
isalsodescribedastheextenttowhichapersonisimaginativeorindependent,anddepictsa
personalpreferenceforavarietyofactivitiesoverastrictroutine.Somedisagreementremains
abouthowtointerprettheopennessfactor,whichissometimescalled"intellect"ratherthan
opennesstoexperience.
Conscientiousness:(efficient/organizedvs.easygoing/careless).Atendencytobeorganizedand
dependable,showselfdiscipline,actdutifully,aimforachievement,andpreferplannedrather
thanspontaneousbehavior.
Extraversion:(outgoing/energeticvs.solitary/reserved).Energy,positiveemotions,surgency,
assertiveness,sociabilityandthetendencytoseekstimulationinthecompanyofothers,and
talkativeness.
Agreeableness:(friendly/compassionatevs.analytical/detached).Atendencytobe
compassionateandcooperativeratherthansuspiciousandantagonistictowardsothers.Itisalsoa
measureofone'strustingandhelpfulnature,andwhetherapersonisgenerallywelltemperedor
not.
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Neuroticism:(sensitive/nervousvs.secure/confident).Thetendencytoexperienceunpleasant
emotionseasily,suchasanger,anxiety,depression,andvulnerability.Neuroticismalsorefersto
thedegreeofemotionalstabilityandimpulsecontrolandissometimesreferredtobyitslowpole,
"emotionalstability".
TheBigFiveModelwasdefinedbyseveralindependentsetsofresearchers.[5]Theseresearchersbegan
bystudyingknownpersonalitytraitsandthenfactoranalyzinghundredsofmeasuresofthesetraits(in
selfreportandquestionnairedata,beerratings,andobjectivemeasuresfromexperimentalsettings)in
ordertofindtheunderlyingfactorsofpersonality.[4][6][7][8][9]TheBigfivepersonalitytraitswasthe
modeltocomprehendtherelationshipbetweenpersonalityandacademicbehaviors.[10]
TheinitialmodelwasadvancedbyErnestTupesandRaymondChristalin1961[11]butfailedtoreachan
academicaudienceuntilthe1980s.In1990,J.M.Digmanadvancedhisfivefactormodelofpersonality,
whichLewisGoldbergextendedtothehighestleveloforganization.[12]Thesefiveoverarchingdomains
havebeenfoundtocontainandsubsumemostknownpersonalitytraitsandareassumedtorepresentthe
basicstructurebehindallpersonalitytraits.[13]Thesefivefactorsprovidearichconceptualframework
forintegratingalltheresearchfindingsandtheoryinpersonalitypsychology.
Atleastfoursetsofresearchershaveworkedindependentlyfordecadesonthisproblemandhave
identifiedgenerallythesamefivefactors:TupesandCristalwerefirst,followedbyGoldbergatthe
OregonResearchInstitute,[14][15][16][17][18]CattellattheUniversityofIllinois,[7][19][20][21]andCostaand
McCraeattheNationalInstitutesofHealth.[22][23][24][25]Thesefoursetsofresearchersusedsomewhat
differentmethodsinfindingthefivetraits,andthuseachsetoffivefactorshassomewhatdifferent
namesanddefinitions.However,allhavebeenfoundtobehighlyintercorrelatedandfactoranalytically
aligned.[26][27][28][29][30]StudiesindicatethattheBigFivetraitsarenotnearlyaspowerfulinpredicting
andexplainingactualbehaviorasarethemorenumerousfacetorprimarytraits.[31][32]
EachoftheBigFivepersonalitytraitscontainstwoseparate,butcorrelated,aspectsreflectingalevelof
personalitybelowthebroaddomainsbutabovethemanyfacetscalesthatarealsopartoftheBig
Five.[33]Theaspectsarelabeledasfollows:VolatilityandWithdrawalforNeuroticismEnthusiasmand
AssertivenessforExtroversionIntellectandOpennessforOpenness/IntellectIndustriousnessand
OrderlinessforConscientiousnessandCompassionandPolitenessforAgreeableness.[33]

Opennesstoexperience
Opennessisageneralappreciationforart,emotion,adventure,unusualideas,imagination,curiosity,and
varietyofexperience.Peoplewhoareopentoexperienceareintellectuallycurious,opentoemotion,
sensitivetobeautyandwillingtotrynewthings.Theytendtobe,whencomparedtoclosedpeople,
morecreativeandmoreawareoftheirfeelings.Theyarealsomorelikelytoholdunconventionalbeliefs.
Aparticularindividual,however,mayhaveahighoverallopennessscoreandbeinterestedinlearning
andexploringnewculturesbuthavenogreatinterestinartorpoetry.Thereisastrongconnection
betweenliberalethicsandopennesstoexperiencesuchassupportforpoliciesendorsingracial
tolerance.[34]Anothercharacteristicoftheopencognitivestyleisafacilityforthinkinginsymbolsand
abstractionsfarremovedfromconcreteexperience.Peoplewithlowscoresonopennesstendtohave
moreconventional,traditionalinterests.Theyprefertheplain,straightforward,andobviousoverthe

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complex,ambiguous,andsubtle.Theymayregardtheartsandscienceswithsuspicionorviewthese
endeavorsasuninteresting.Closedpeoplepreferfamiliarityovernoveltytheyareconservativeand
resistanttochange.[24]
Sampleitems
Ihavearichvocabulary.
Ihaveavividimagination.
Ihaveexcellentideas.
Iamquicktounderstandthings.
Iusedifficultwords.
Iamfullofideas.
Iamnotinterestedinabstractions.(reversed)
Idonothaveagoodimagination.(reversed)
Ihavedifficultyunderstandingabstractideas.(reversed)[35]

Conscientiousness
Conscientiousnessisatendencytoshowselfdiscipline,actdutifully,andaimforachievementagainst
measuresoroutsideexpectations.Itisrelatedtothewayinwhichpeoplecontrol,regulate,anddirect
theirimpulses.Highscoresonconscientiousnessindicateapreferenceforplannedratherthan
spontaneousbehavior.[36]Theaveragelevelofconscientiousnessrisesamongyoungadultsandthen
declinesamongolderadults.[37]
Sampleitems
Iamalwaysprepared.
Ipayattentiontodetails.
Igetchoresdonerightaway.
Ilikeorder.
Ifollowaschedule.
Iamexactinginmywork.
Ileavemybelongingsaround.(reversed)
Imakeamessofthings.(reversed)
Ioftenforgettoputthingsbackintheirproperplace.(reversed)
Ishirkmyduties.(reversed)[35]

Extraversion
Extraversionischaracterizedbybreadthofactivities(asopposedtodepth),surgencyfromexternal
activity/situations,andenergycreationfromexternalmeans.[38]Thetraitismarkedbypronounced
engagementwiththeexternalworld.Extravertsenjoyinteractingwithpeople,andareoftenperceivedas
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fullofenergy.Theytendtobeenthusiastic,actionorientedindividuals.Theypossesshighgroup
visibility,liketotalk,andassertthemselves.[39]
Introvertshavelowersocialengagementandenergylevelsthanextraverts.Theytendtoseemquiet,
lowkey,deliberate,andlessinvolvedinthesocialworld.Theirlackofsocialinvolvementshouldnotbe
interpretedasshynessordepressioninsteadtheyaremoreindependentoftheirsocialworldthan
extraverts.Introvertsneedlessstimulationthanextravertsandmoretimealone.Thisdoesnotmeanthat
theyareunfriendlyorantisocialrather,theyarereservedinsocialsituations.[40]
Sampleitems
Iamthelifeoftheparty.
Idon'tmindbeingthecenterofattention.
Ifeelcomfortablearoundpeople.
Istartconversations.
Italktoalotofdifferentpeopleatparties.
Idon'ttalkalot.(reversed)
IthinkalotbeforeIspeakoract.(reversed)
Idon'tliketodrawattentiontomyself.(reversed)
Iamquietaroundstrangers.(reversed)[35]
Ihavenointentionoftalkinginlargecrowds.(reversed)

Agreeableness
Theagreeablenesstraitreflectsindividualdifferencesingeneralconcernforsocialharmony.Agreeable
individualsvaluegettingalongwithothers.Theyaregenerallyconsiderate,kind,generous,trustingand
trustworthy,helpful,andwillingtocompromisetheirinterestswithothers.[40]Agreeablepeoplealso
haveanoptimisticviewofhumannature.
Becauseagreeablenessisasocialtrait,researchhasshownthatone'sagreeablenesspositivelycorrelates
withthequalityofrelationshipswithone'steammembers.Agreeablenessalsopositivelypredicts
transformationalleadershipskills.Inastudyconductedamong169participantsinleadershippositionsin
avarietyofprofessions,individualswereaskedtotakeapersonalitytestandhavetwoevaluations
completedbydirectlysupervisedsubordinates.Leaderswithhighlevelsofagreeablenessweremore
likelytobeconsideredtransformationalratherthantransactional.Althoughtherelationshipwasnot
strong,(r=0.32,=0.28,p<0.01)itwasthestrongestoftheBigFivetraits.However,thesamestudy
showednopredictivepowerofleadershipeffectivenessasevaluatedbytheleader'sdirectsupervisor.[41]
Agreeableness,however,hasbeenfoundtobenegativelyrelatedtotransactionalleadershipinthe
military.AstudyofAsianmilitaryunitsshowedleaderswithahighlevelofagreeablenesstobemore
likelytoreceivealowratingfortransformationalleadershipskills.[42]Therefore,withfurtherresearch
organizationsmaybeabletodetermineanindividual'spotentialforperformancebasedontheir
personalitytraits.
Disagreeableindividualsplaceselfinterestabovegettingalongwithothers.Theyaregenerally
unconcernedwithothers'wellbeing,andarelesslikelytoextendthemselvesforotherpeople.
Sometimestheirskepticismaboutothers'motivescausesthemtobesuspicious,unfriendly,and
uncooperative.[43]
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Sampleitems
Iaminterestedinpeople.
Isympathizewithothers'feelings.
Ihaveasoftheart.
Itaketimeoutforothers.
Ifeelothers'emotions.
Imakepeoplefeelatease.
Iamnotreallyinterestedinothers.(reversed)
Iinsultpeople.(reversed)
Iamnotinterestedinotherpeople'sproblems.(reversed)
Ifeellittleconcernforothers.(reversed)[35]

Neuroticism
Neuroticismisthetendencytoexperiencenegativeemotions,suchasanger,anxiety,ordepression.[44]It
issometimescalledemotionalinstability,orisreversedandreferredtoasemotionalstability.According
toEysenck's(1967)theoryofpersonality,neuroticismisinterlinkedwithlowtoleranceforstressor
aversivestimuli.[45]Thosewhoscorehighinneuroticismareemotionallyreactiveandvulnerableto
stress.Theyaremorelikelytointerpretordinarysituationsasthreatening,andminorfrustrationsas
hopelesslydifficult.Theirnegativeemotionalreactionstendtopersistforunusuallylongperiodsof
time,whichmeanstheyareofteninabadmood.Forinstance,neuroticismisconnectedtoapessimistic
approachtowardwork,confidencethatworkimpedespersonalrelationships,andapparentanxiety
linkedwithwork.[46]Furthermore,thosewhoscorehighonneuroticismmaydisplaymoreskin
conductancereactivitythanthosewhoscorelowonneuroticism.[45][47]Theseproblemsinemotional
regulationcandiminishtheabilityofapersonscoringhighonneuroticismtothinkclearly,make
decisions,andcopeeffectivelywithstress.Lackingcontentmentinone'slifeachievementscancorrelate
withhighneuroticismscoresandincreaseone'slikelihoodoffallingintoclinicaldepression.[48]
Moreover,individualshighonneuroticismtendtoexperiencemorenegativelifeevents,[44][49]but
neuroticismalsochangesinresponsetopositiveandnegativelifeexperiences.[44][49]
Attheotherendofthescale,individualswhoscorelowinneuroticismarelesseasilyupsetandareless
emotionallyreactive.Theytendtobecalm,emotionallystable,andfreefrompersistentnegative
feelings.Freedomfromnegativefeelingsdoesnotmeanthatlowscorersexperiencealotofpositive
feelings.[50]
NeuroticismissimilarbutnotidenticaltobeingneuroticintheFreudiansense(i.e.neurosis.)Some
psychologistsprefertocallneuroticismbythetermemotionalstabilitytodifferentiateitfromtheterm
neuroticinacareertest.
Sampleitems
Iameasilydisturbed.
Ichangemymoodalot.
Igetirritatedeasily.
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Igetstressedouteasily.
Igetupseteasily.
Ihavefrequentmoodswings.
Iworryaboutthings.
Iammuchmoreanxiousthanmostpeople.[51]
Iamrelaxedmostofthetime.(reversed)
Iseldomfeelblue.(reversed)[35]

History
Earlytraitresearch
SirFrancisGaltonin1884madethefirstmajorinquiryintoahypothesisthatbysamplinglanguageitis
possibletoderiveacomprehensivetaxonomyofhumanpersonalitytraits:thelexicalhypothesis.[4]In
1936GordonAllportandS.OdbertputSirFrancisGaltonshypothesisintopracticebyextracting4,504
adjectiveswhichtheybelievedweredescriptiveofobservableandrelativelypermanenttraitsfromthe
dictionariesatthattime.[52]In1940,RaymondCattellretainedtheadjectives,andeliminatedsynonyms
toreducethetotalto171.[7]Heconstructedapersonalitytestfortheclustersofpersonalitytraitshe
foundfromtheadjectives,calledSixteenPersonalityFactorQuestionnaire.Then,in1961,ErnestTupes
andRaymondChristalfoundfiverecurringfactorsfromthis16PFQuestionnaire.Therecurringfive
factorswere:"surgency","agreeableness","dependability","emotionalstability",andculture.[8]This
workwasreplicatedbyWarrenNorman,whoalsofoundthatfivemajorfactorsweresufficientto
accountforalargesetofpersonalitydata.Normannamedthesefactorssurgency,agreeableness,
conscientiousness,emotionalstability,andcultureandthesefactorsarethroughwhichfivefactor
consensushasgrown.[9]

Hiatusinresearch
Forthenexttwodecades,thechangingzeitgeistmadepublicationofpersonalityresearchdifficult.Inhis
1968bookPersonalityandAssessment,WalterMischelassertedthatpersonalitytestscouldnotpredict
behaviorwithacorrelationofmorethan0.3.SocialpsychologistslikeMischelarguedthatattitudesand
behaviorwerenotstable,butvariedwiththesituation.Predictingbehaviorbypersonalitytestswas
consideredtobeimpossible.
Emergingmethodologieschallengedthispointofviewduringthe1980s.Insteadoftryingtopredict
singleinstancesofbehavior,whichwasunreliable,researchersfoundthattheycouldpredictpatternsof
behaviorbyaggregatinglargenumbersofobservations.[53]Asaresult,correlationsbetweenpersonality
andbehaviorincreasedsubstantially,anditwasclearthat"personality"didinfactexist.[54]Personality
andsocialpsychologistsnowgenerallyagreethatbothpersonalandsituationalvariablesareneededto
accountforhumanbehavior.[55]Traittheoriesbecamejustified,andtherewasaresurgenceofinterestin
thisarea.
By1980,thepioneeringresearchbyTupes,Christal,andNormanhadbeenlargelyforgottenby
psychologists.LewisGoldbergstartedhisownlexicalproject,independentlyfoundthefivefactorsonce
again,andgraduallybroughtthembacktotheattentionofpsychologists.[56]Helatercoinedtheterm
"BigFive"asalabelforthefactors.
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Renewedattention
Ina1980symposiuminHonolulu,fourprominentresearchers,LewisGoldberg,NaomiTakemoto
Chock,AndrewComrey,andJohnM.Digman,reviewedtheavailablepersonalitytestsoftheday.They
concludedthatthetestswhichheldthemostpromisemeasuredasubsetoffivecommonfactors,justas
Normanhaddiscoveredin1963.[57]Thiseventwasfollowedbywidespreadacceptanceofthefive
factormodelamongpersonalityresearchersduringthe1980s.[58]PeterSavilleandhisteamincludedthe
fivefactor"Pentagon"modelwiththeoriginalOPQin1984.Pentagonwascloselyfollowedbythe
NEOfivefactorpersonalityinventory,publishedbyCostaandMcCraein1985.

Biologicalfactors
Heritability
Twinstudiessuggestthatheritabilityandenvironmentalfactors
equallyinfluenceallfivefactorstothesamedegree.[59]Among
fourrecenttwinstudies,themeanpercentageforheritabilitywas
calculatedforeachpersonalityanditwasconcludedthat
heritabilityinfluencedthefivefactorsbroadly.Theselfreport
measureswereasfollows:opennesstoexperiencewasestimated
tohavea57%geneticinfluence,extraversion54%,
conscientiousness49%,neuroticism48%,andagreeableness
42%.[60]

Agedifferences

Personalityresearchconductedon
twinsubjectssuggestthatboth
heritabilityandenvironmentalfactors
contributetotheBigFivepersonality
traits.

Manystudiesoflongitudinaldata,whichcorrelatepeople'stest
scoresovertime,andcrosssectionaldata,whichcompare
personalitylevelsacrossdifferentagegroups,showahigh
degreeofstabilityinpersonalitytraitsduringadulthood.[61]Itis
shownthatthepersonalitystabilizesforworkingageindividualswithinaboutfouryearsafterstarting
working.Thereisalsolittleevidencethatadverselifeeventscanhaveanysignificantimpactonthe
personalityofindividuals.[62]Morerecentresearchandmetaanalysesofpreviousstudies,however,
indicatethatchangeoccursinallfivetraitsatvariouspointsinthelifespan.Thenewresearchshows
evidenceforamaturationeffect.Onaverage,levelsofagreeablenessandconscientiousnesstypically
increasewithtime,whereasextraversion,neuroticism,andopennesstendtodecrease.[63]Researchhas
alsodemonstratedthatchangesinBigFivepersonalitytraitsdependontheindividual'scurrentstageof
development.Forexample,levelsofagreeablenessandconscientiousnessdemonstrateanegativetrend
duringchildhoodandearlyadolescencebeforetrendingupwardsduringlateadolescenceandinto
adulthood.[64]Inadditiontothesegroupeffects,thereareindividualdifferences:differentpeople
demonstrateuniquepatternsofchangeatallstagesoflife.[65]

AnotherareaofinvestigationisthedownwardextensionofBigFivetheoryintochildhood.Studieshave
foundBigFivepersonalitytraitstocorrelatewithchildren'ssocialandemotionaladjustmentand
academicachievement.Morerecently,theFiveFactorPersonalityInventoryChildren[66]was
publishedextendingassessmentbetweentheagesof9and18.Perhapsthereasonforthisrecent
publicationwasthecontroversyovertheapplicationofthefivefactormodeltochildren.Studiesby
OliverP.Johnetal.withadolescentboysbroughttwonewfactorstothetable:"Irritability"and
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"Activity".InstudiesofDutchchildren,thosesametwonewfactorsalsobecameapparent.Thesenew
additions"suggestthatthestructureofpersonalitytraitsmaybemoredifferentiatedinchildhoodthanin
adulthood",[67]whichwouldexplaintherecentresearchinthisparticulararea.
Inaddition,someresearch(Fleeson,2001)suggeststhattheBigFiveshouldnotbeconceivedofas
dichotomies(suchasextraversionvs.introversion)butascontinua.Eachindividualhasthecapacityto
movealongeachdimensionascircumstances(socialortemporal)change.Heisorsheisthereforenot
simplyononeendofeachtraitdichotomybutisablendofboth,exhibitingsomecharacteristicsmore
oftenthanothers:[68]
Researchregardingpersonalitywithgrowingagehassuggestedthatasindividualsentertheirelderyears
(7986),thosewithlowerIQseearaiseinextraversion,butadeclineinconscientiousnessandphysical
wellbeing.[69]
ResearchbyCobbClarkandSchurerindicatesthatpersonalitytraitsaregenerallystableamongadult
workers.Theresearchdoneonpersonalityalsomirrorspreviousresultsonlocusofcontrol.[70]

Brainstructures
Someresearchhasbeendonetolookintothestructuresofthe
brainandtheirconnectionstopersonalitytraitsoftheFFM.Two
mainstudiesweredonebySatoetal.(2012)[71]andDeYounget
al.(2009).[72]Resultsofthetwoareasfollows:
Neuroticism:negativelycorrelatedwithratioofbrain
volumetoremainderofintracranialvolume,reduced
volumeindorsomedialPFCandasegmentofleftmedial
temporallobeincludingposteriorhippocampus,increased
volumeinthemidcingulategyrus.
Extraversion:positivelycorrelatedwithorbitofrontal
cortexmetabolism,increasedcerebral,volumeofmedial
orbitofrontalcortex.
Agreeableness:negativelycorrelatedwithleftorbitofrontal
lobevolumeinfrontotemporaldementiapatients,reduced

Importantresearchonpersonality
traitsandbrainstructureshavebeen
conducted,providingcorrelations
betweentheBigFivepersonality
traitsandspecificareasofthebrain.

volumeinposteriorleftsuperiortemporalsulcus,increased
volumeinposteriorcingulatecortex.
Conscientiousness:volumeofmiddlefrontalgyrusinleftlateralPFC.
Opennesstoexperience:Noregionslargeenoughtobesignificant,althoughparietalcortexmay
beinvolved.

Groupdifferences
Genderdifferences

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CrossculturalresearchhasshownsomepatternsofgenderdifferencesonresponsestotheNEOPIR
andtheBigFiveInventory.[73]Forexample,womenconsistentlyreporthigherNeuroticism,
Agreeableness,warmth(anextraversionfacet)andopennesstofeelings,andmenoftenreporthigher
assertiveness(afacetofextraversion)andopennesstoideasasassessedbytheNEOPIR.[74]
Astudyofgenderdifferencesin55nationsusingtheBigFiveInventoryfoundthatwomentendedtobe
somewhathigherthanmeninneuroticism,extraversion,agreeableness,andconscientiousness.The
differenceinneuroticismwasthemostprominentandconsistent,withsignificantdifferencesfoundin
49ofthe55nationssurveyed.Genderdifferencesinpersonalitytraitsarelargestinprosperous,healthy,
andmoregenderegalitariancultures.Aplausibleexplanationforthisisthatactsbywomenin
individualistic,egalitariancountriesaremorelikelytobeattributedtotheirpersonality,ratherthanbeing
attributedtoascribedgenderroleswithincollectivist,traditionalcountries.[74]Differencesinthe
magnitudeofsexdifferencesbetweenmoreorlessdevelopedworldregionswereduetodifferences
betweenmen,notwomen,intheserespectiveregions.Thatis,meninhighlydevelopedworldregions
werelessneurotic,extraverted,conscientiousandagreeablecomparedtomeninlessdevelopedworld
regions.Women,ontheotherhandtendednottodifferinpersonalitytraitsacrossregions.[75]The
authorsofthisstudyspeculatedthatresourcepoorenvironments(thatis,countrieswithlowlevelsof
development)mayinhibitthedevelopmentofgenderdifferences,whereasresourcerichenvironments
facilitatethem.Thismaybebecausemalesrequiremoreresourcesthanfemalesinordertoreachtheir
fulldevelopmentalpotential.Theauthorsalsoarguedthatduetodifferentevolutionarypressures,men
mayhaveevolvedtobemorerisktakingandsociallydominant,whereaswomenevolvedtobemore
cautiousandnurturing.Ancienthuntergatherersocietiesmayhavebeenmoreegalitarianthanlater
agriculturallyorientedsocieties.Hence,thedevelopmentofgenderinequalitiesmayhaveactedto
constrainthedevelopmentofgenderdifferencesinpersonalitythatoriginallyevolvedinhuntergatherer
societies.Asmodernsocietieshavebecomemoreegalitarian,again,itmaybethatinnatesexdifferences
arenolongerconstrainedandhencemanifestmorefullythaninlessdevelopedcultures.Currently,this
hypothesisremainsuntested,asgenderdifferencesinmodernsocietieshavenotbeencomparedwith
thoseinhuntergatherersocieties.[75]

Birthorderdifferences
FrankSullowayarguesthatfirstbornsaremoreconscientious,moresociallydominant,lessagreeable,
andlessopentonewideascomparedtolaterborns.Largescalestudiesusingrandomsamplesandself
reportpersonalitytests,however,havefoundmildereffectsthanSullowayclaimed,ornosignificant
effectsofbirthorderonpersonality.[76][77]

Culturaldifferences
TheBigFivehavebeenreplicatedinavarietyoflanguagesandcultures,suchasGerman,[78]
Chinese,[79]Indian,[80]etc.[81]Forexample,ThompsonhasdemonstratedtheBigFivestructureacross
severalculturesusinganinternationalEnglishlanguagescale.[82]Cheung,vandeVijver,andLeong
(2011)suggest,however,thattheOpennessfactorisparticularlyunsupportedinAsiancountriesandthat
adifferentfifthfactorissometimesidentified.[83]
RecentworkhasfoundrelationshipsbetweenGeertHofstedesculturalfactors,Individualism,Power
Distance,Masculinity,andUncertaintyAvoidance,withtheaverageBigFivescoresinacountry.[84]For
instance,thedegreetowhichacountryvaluesindividualismcorrelateswithitsaverageextraversion,

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whereaspeoplelivingincultureswhichareacceptingoflargeinequalitiesintheirpowerstructurestend
toscoresomewhathigheronconscientiousness.Althoughthisisanactiveareaofresearch,thereasons
forthesedifferencesareasyetunknown.
AttemptstoreplicatetheBigFiveinothercountrieswithlocaldictionarieshavesucceededinsome
countriesbutnotinothers.Apparently,forinstance,Hungariansdonotappeartohaveasingle
agreeablenessfactor.[85]Otherresearchershavefoundevidenceforagreeablenessbutnotforother
factors.[86]

Relationships
Personalitydisorders
Asof2002,therewereoverfiftypublishedstudiesrelatingtheFFMtopersonalitydisorders.[87]Since
thattime,quiteanumberofadditionalstudieshaveexpandedonthisresearchbaseandprovidedfurther
empiricalsupportforunderstandingtheDSMpersonalitydisordersintermsoftheFFMdomains.[88]
Inherseminalreviewofthepersonalitydisorderliteraturepublishedin2007,Dr.LeeAnnaClark
assertedthat"thefivefactormodelofpersonalityiswidelyacceptedasrepresentingthehigherorder
structureofbothnormalandabnormalpersonalitytraits".[89]
Thefivefactormodelhasbeenshowntosignificantlypredictalltenpersonalitydisordersymptomsand
outperformtheMinnesotaMultiphasicPersonalityInventory(MMPI)inthepredictionofborderline,
avoidant,anddependentpersonalitydisordersymptoms.[90]
ResearchresultsexaminingtherelationshipsbetweentheFFMandeachofthetenDSMpersonality
disorderdiagnosticcategoriesarewidelyavailable.Forexample,inastudypublishedin2003titled
"Thefivefactormodelandpersonalitydisorderempiricalliterature:Ametaanalyticreview",[91]the
authorsanalyzeddatafrom15otherstudiestodeterminehowpersonalitydisordersaredifferentand
similar,respectively,withregardtounderlyingpersonalitytraits.Intermsofhowpersonalitydisorders
differ,theresultsshowedthateachdisorderdisplaysaFFMprofilethatismeaningfulandpredictable
givenitsuniquediagnosticcriteria.Withregardtotheirsimilarities,thefindingsrevealedthatthemost
prominentandconsistentpersonalitydimensionsunderlyingalargenumberofthepersonalitydisorders
arepositiveassociationswithneuroticismandnegativeassociationswithagreeableness.

Commonmentaldisorders
Neuroticismisaprospectiveriskfactorforthecommonmentaldisorders,includinganxiety,depression,
andsubstanceusedisorders,[92]andalsoshowssubstantialconcurrentoverlap.[49][92]

Education
Academicachievement
Personalityplaysanimportantrolethataffectsacademicachievement.Astudyconductedwith308
undergraduateswhocompletedtheFiveFactorInventoryProcessesandofferedtheirGPAsuggested
thatconscientiousnessandagreeablenesshaveapositiverelationshipwithalltypesoflearningstyles
(synthesisanalysis,methodicalstudy,factretention,andelaborativeprocessing),whereasneuroticism
hasaninverserelationshipwiththemall.Moreover,extraversionandopennesswereproportionalto
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elaborativeprocessing.TheBigFivepersonalitytraitsaccountedfor14%ofthevarianceinGPA,
suggestingthatpersonalitytraitsmakegreatcontributionstoacademicperformance.Furthermore,
reflectivelearningstyles(synthesisanalysisandelaborativeprocessing)wereabletomediatethe
relationshipbetweenopennessandGPA.Theseresultsindicatethatintellectualcuriousnesshas
significantenhancementinacademicperformanceifstudentscancombinetheirscholarlyinterestwith
thoughtfulinformationprocessing.[93]
Studiesconductedoncollegestudentshaveconcludedthathope,whichislinkedtoagreeableness,hasa
positiveeffectonpsychologicalwellbeing.Individualshighinneurotictendenciesarelesslikelyto
displayhopefultendenciesandarenegativelyassociatedwithwellbeing.[94]Personalitycansometimes
beflexibleandmeasuringthebigfivepersonalityforindividualsastheyentercertainstagesoflifemay
predicttheireducationalidentity.Recentstudieshavesuggestedthelikelihoodofanindividual's
personalityaffectingtheireducationalidentity.[95]
Learningstyles
Learningstyleshavebeendescribedas"enduringwaysofthinkingandprocessinginformation."[96]
Althoughthereisnoevidencethatpersonalitydeterminesthinkingstyles,theymaybeintertwinedin
waysthatlinkthinkingstylestotheBigFivepersonalitytraits.[97]Thereisnogeneralconsensusonthe
numberorspecificationsofparticularlearningstyles,buttherehavebeenmanydifferentproposals.
Smeck,Ribicj,andRamanaih(1997)definedfourtypesoflearningstyles:
synthesisanalysis
methodicalstudy
factretention
elaborativeprocessing
Whenallfourfacetsareimplicatedwithintheclassroom,theywilleachlikelyimproveacademic
achievement.[98]Thismodelassertsthatstudentsdevelopeitheragentic/shallowprocessingor
reflective/deepprocessing.Deepprocessorsaremoreoftenthannotfoundtobemoreconscientious,
intellectuallyopen,andextravertedwhencomparedtoshallowprocessors.Deepprocessingisassociated
withappropriatestudymethods(methodicalstudy)andastrongerabilitytoanalyzeinformation
(synthesisanalysis),whereasshallowprocessorspreferstructuredfactretentionlearningstylesandare
bettersuitedforelaborativeprocessing.[98]Themainfunctionsofthesefourspecificlearningstylesare
asfollow:
Name
Synthesis
analysis:

Function
processinginformation,formingcategories,andorganizingthemintohierarchies.Thisis
theonlyoneofthelearningstylesthathasexplainedasignificantimpactonacademic
performance.[98]

Methodical
methodicalbehaviorwhilecompletingacademicassignments
study:
Fact
focusingontheactualresultinsteadofunderstandingthelogicbehindsomething
retention:
Elaborative
connectingandapplyingnewideastoexistingknowledge
processing:
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Opennesshasbeenlinkedtolearningstylesthatoftenleadtoacademicsuccessandhighergradeslike
synthesisanalysisandmethodicalstudy.Becauseconscientiousnessandopennesshavebeenshownto
predictallfourlearningstyles,itsuggeststhatindividualswhopossesscharacteristicslikediscipline,
determination,andcuriosityaremorelikelytoengageinalloftheabovelearningstyles.[98]
AccordingtotheresearchcarriedoutbyKomarraju,Karau,Schmeck&Avdic(2011),
conscientiousnessandagreeablenessarepositivelyrelatedwithallfourlearningstyles,whereas
neuroticismwasnegativelyrelatedwiththosefour.Furthermore,extraversionandopennesswereonly
positivelyrelatedtoelaborativeprocessing,andopennessitselfcorrelatedwithhigheracademic
achievement.[99]
Besidesopenness,allBigFivepersonalitytraitshelpedpredicttheeducationalidentityofstudents.
Basedonthesefindings,scientistsarebeginningtoseethattheremightbealargeinfluenceoftheBig
Fivetraitsonacademicmotivationthatthenleadstopredictingastudent'sacademicperformance.[100]
RecentstudiessuggestthatBigFivepersonalitytraitscombinedwithlearningstylescanhelppredict
somevariationsintheacademicperformanceandtheacademicmotivationofanindividualwhichcan
theninfluencetheiracademicachievements.[101]Thismaybeseenbecauseindividualdifferencesin
personalityrepresentstableapproachestoinformationprocessing.Forinstance,conscientiousnesshas
consistentlyemergedasastablepredictorofsuccessinexamperformance,largelybecause
conscientiousstudentsexperiencesfewerstudydelays.[100]Thereasonconscientiousnessshowsa
positiveassociationwiththefourlearningstylesisbecausestudentswithhighlevelsof
conscientiousnessdevelopfocusedlearningstrategiesandappeartobemoredisciplinedand
achievementoriented.
However,theAmericanPsychologicalSocietyrecentlycommissionedareportwhoseconclusion
indicatesthatnosignificantevidenceexiststomaketheconclusionthatlearningstyleassessments
shouldbeincludedintheeducationsystem.TheAPAalsosuggestedintheirreportthatallexisting
learningstyleshavenotbeenexhaustedandthattherecouldexistlearningstylesthathavethepotential
tobeworthyofbeingincludedineducationalpractices.[102]Thus,itispremature,atbest,toconclude
thattheevidencelinkingtheBigFiveto"learningstyles"or"learningstyles"tolearningitselfisvalid.

Worksuccess
ItisbelievedthattheBigFivetraitsarepredictorsoffuture
performanceoutcomes.Joboutcomemeasuresincludejoband
trainingproficiencyandpersonneldata.[103]However,research
demonstratingsuchpredictionhasbeencriticized,inpart
becauseoftheapparentlylowcorrelationcoefficients
characterizingtherelationshipbetweenpersonalityandjob
performance.Ina2007article[104]coauthoredbysixcurrentor
formereditorsofpsychologicaljournals,Dr.KevinMurphy,
ProfessorofPsychologyatPennsylvaniaStateUniversityand
EditoroftheJournalofAppliedPsychology(19962002),states:
Theproblemwithpersonalitytestsisthatthevalidityof

Controversyexistsastowhetheror
nottheBig5personalitytraitsare
correlatedwithsuccessinthe
workplace.

personalitymeasuresaspredictorsofjobperformanceis
oftendisappointinglylow.Theargumentforusingpersonalityteststopredictperformancedoes
notstrikemeasconvincinginthefirstplace.
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SuchcriticismswereputforwardbyWalterMischel,[105]whosepublicationcausedatwodecades'long
crisisinpersonalitypsychometrics.However,laterworkdemonstrated(1)thatthecorrelationsobtained
bypsychometricpersonalityresearcherswereactuallyveryrespectablebycomparativestandards,[106]
and(2)thattheeconomicvalueofevenincrementalincreasesinpredictionaccuracywasexceptionally
large,giventhevastdifferenceinperformancebythosewhooccupycomplexjobpositions.[107]
Therehavebeenstudiesthatlinknationalinnovationtoopennesstoexperienceandconscientiousness.
Thosewhoexpressthesetraitshaveshowedleadershipandbeneficialideastowardsthecountryof
origin.[108]
Somebusinesses,organizations,andinterviewersassessindividualsbasedontheBigFivepersonality
traits.Researchhassuggestedthatindividualswhoareconsideredleaderstypicallyexhibitlower
amountsofneurotictraits,maintainhigherlevelsofopenness(envisioningsuccess),balancedlevelsof
conscientiousness(wellorganized),andbalancedlevelsofextraversion(outgoing,butnot
excessive).[109]Furtherstudieshavelinkedprofessionalburnouttoneuroticism,andextraversionto
enduringpositiveworkexperience.[110]Whenitcomestomakingmoney,researchhassuggestedthat
thosewhoarehighinagreeableness(especiallymen)arenotassuccessfulinaccumulatingincome.[111]

Nonhumans
TheBigFivepersonalitytraitshavebeenassessedinsomenon
humanspecies.Inoneseriesofstudies,humanratingsof
chimpanzeesusingtheChimpanzeePersonalityQuestionnaire
(CPQ)revealedfactorsofextraversion,conscientiousnessand
agreeablenessaswellasanadditionalfactorofdominance
acrosshundredsofchimpanzeesinzoologicalparks,alarge
naturalisticsanctuary,andaresearchlaboratory.Neuroticismand
opennessfactorswerefoundinanoriginalzoosample,butwere
notreplicatedinanewzoosampleorinothersettings(perhaps
reflectingthedesignoftheCPQ).[112]Astudyreviewfoundthat
markersforthethreedimensionsextraversion,neuroticism,and
agreeablenesswerefoundmostconsistentlyacrossdifferent
species,followedbyopennessonlychimpanzeesshowed
markersforconscientiousbehavior.[113]

TheBig5personalitytraitscanbe
seeninchimpanzees.

Measurements
SeveralmeasuresoftheBigFiveexist:
InternationalPersonalityItemPool(IPIP)[114]
NEOPIR
BigFiveInventory
Selfdescriptivesentencequestionnaires[86]
Lexicalquestionnaires[115]
Selfreportquestionnaires[116]
RelativescoredBig5measure[117]
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ThemostfrequentlyusedmeasuresoftheBigFivecompriseeitheritemsthatareselfdescriptive
sentences[86]or,inthecaseoflexicalmeasures,itemsthataresingleadjectives.[115]Duetothelengthof
sentencebasedandsomelexicalmeasures,shortformshavebeendevelopedandvalidatedforusein
appliedresearchsettingswherequestionnairespaceandrespondenttimearelimited,suchasthe40item
balancedInternationalEnglishBigFiveMiniMarkers[82]oraverybrief(10item)measureoftheBig
Fivedomains.[118]Researchhassuggestedthatsomemethodologiesinadministeringpersonalitytests
areinadequateinlengthandprovideinsufficientdetailtotrulyevaluatepersonality.Usually,longer,
moredetailedquestionswillgiveamoreaccurateportrayalofpersonality.[119]Thefivefactorstructure
hasbeenreplicatedinpeerreports.[120]However,manyofthesubstantivefindingsrelyonselfreports.
MuchoftheevidenceonthemeasuresoftheBig5reliesonselfreportquestionnaires,whichmakes
selfreportbiasandfalsificationofresponsesdifficulttodealwithandaccountfor.[116]Ithasbeen
arguedthattheBigFivetestsdonotcreateanaccuratepersonalityprofilebecausetheresponsesgiven
onthesetestsarenottrueinallcases.Forexample,questionnairesareansweredbypotentialemployees
whomightchooseanswersthatpainttheminthebestlight.[121]Thisbecomesespeciallyimportantwhen
consideringwhyscoresmaydifferbetweenindividualsorgroupsofpeopledifferencesinscoresmay
representgenuineunderlyingpersonalitydifferences,ortheymaysimplybeanartifactofthewaythe
subjectsansweredthequestions.
ResearchsuggeststhatarelativescoredBigFivemeasureinwhichrespondentshadtomakerepeated
choicesbetweenequallydesirablepersonalitydescriptorsmaybeapotentialalternativetotraditional
BigFivemeasuresinaccuratelyassessingpersonalitytraits,especiallywhenlyingorbiasedresponding
ispresent.[117]WhencomparedwithatraditionalBigFivemeasureforitsabilitytopredictGPAand
creativeachievementunderbothnormalandfakegoodbiasresponseconditions,therelativescored
measuresignificantlyandconsistentlypredictedtheseoutcomesunderbothconditionshowever,the
Likertquestionnairelostitspredictiveabilityinthefakingcondition.Thus,therelativescoredmeasure
provedtobelessaffectedbybiasedrespondingthantheLikertmeasureoftheBigFive.
AndrewH.Schwartzanalyzed700millionwords,phrases,andtopicinstancescollectedfromthe
Facebookmessagesof75,000volunteers,whoalsotookstandardpersonalitytests,andfoundstriking
variationsinlanguagewithpersonality,gender,andage.[122]Schwartz'sresearchisadeparturefrom
manyoftheeffortsthatotherresearchershavemadeinthatitusesdatathatwasnottakenspecificallyin
ordertodeterminepersonality.

Criticisms
MuchresearchhasbeenconductedontheBigFive.Thishasresultedincriticism[123]andsupport[124]
forthemodel.CriticsarguethattherearelimitationstothescopeofBigFiveasanexplanatoryor
predictivetheory.ItisarguedthattheBigFivedoesnotexplainallofhumanpersonality.The
methodologyusedtoidentifythedimensionalstructureofpersonalitytraits,factoranalysis,isoften
challengedfornothavingauniversallyrecognizedbasisforchoosingamongsolutionswithdifferent
numbersoffactors.AnotherfrequentcriticismisthattheBigFiveisnottheorydriven,itismerelya
datadriveninvestigationofcertaindescriptorsthattendtoclustertogetherunderfactoranalysis.

Limitedscope
OnecommoncriticismisthattheBigFivedoesnotexplainallofhumanpersonality.Some
psychologistshavedissentedfromthemodelpreciselybecausetheyfeelitneglectsotherdomainsof
personality,suchasreligiosity,manipulativeness/machiavellianism,honesty,sexiness/seductiveness,
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thriftiness,conservativeness,masculinity/femininity,snobbishness/egotism,senseofhumour,andrisk
taking/thrillseeking.[125][126]DanP.McAdamshascalledtheBigFivea"psychologyofthestranger,"
becausetheyrefertotraitsthatarerelativelyeasytoobserveinastrangerotheraspectsofpersonality
thataremoreprivatelyheldormorecontextdependentareexcludedfromtheBigFive.[127]
Inmanystudies,thefivefactorsarenotfullyorthogonaltooneanotherthatis,thefivefactorsarenot
independent.[128][129]Orthogonalityisviewedasdesirablebysomeresearchersbecauseitminimizes
redundancybetweenthedimensions.Thisisparticularlyimportantwhenthegoalofastudyistoprovide
acomprehensivedescriptionofpersonalitywithasfewvariablesaspossible.

Methodologicalissues
Factoranalysis,thestatisticalmethodusedtoidentifythedimensionalstructureofobservedvariables,
lacksauniversallyrecognizedbasisforchoosingamongsolutionswithdifferentnumbersoffactors.[130]
Afivefactorsolutiondependsonsomedegreeofinterpretationbytheanalyst.Alargernumberof
factorsmay,infact,underliethesefivefactors.Thishasledtodisputesaboutthe"true"numberof
factors.BigFiveproponentshaverespondedthatalthoughothersolutionsmaybeviableinasingle
dataset,onlythefivefactorstructureconsistentlyreplicatesacrossdifferentstudies.[131]

Theoreticalstatus
AfrequentcriticismisthattheBigFiveisnotbasedonanyunderlyingtheoryitismerelyanempirical
findingthatcertaindescriptorsclustertogetherunderfactoranalysis.[130]Althoughthisdoesnotmean
thatthesefivefactorsdonotexist,theunderlyingcausesbehindthemareunknown.
JackBlocksfinalpublishedworkbeforehisdeathinJanuary2010drewtogetherhislifetime
perspectiveonthefivefactormodel.[132]
Hesummarizedhiscritiqueofthemodelintermsof:
theatheoreticalnatureofthefivefactors.
their"cloudy"measurement.
themodelsinappropriatenessforstudyingearlychildhood.
theuseoffactoranalysisastheexclusiveparadigmforconceptualizingpersonality.
thecontinuingnonconsensualunderstandingsofthefivefactors.
theexistenceofunrecognizedbutsuccessfuleffortstospecifyaspectsofcharacternotsubsumed
bythefivefactors.
Hewentontosuggestthatrepeatedlyobservedhigherorderfactorshierarchicallyabovetheproclaimed
BigFivepersonalitytraitsmaypromisedeeperbiologicalunderstandingoftheoriginsandimplications
ofthesesuperfactors.

Seealso
Coreselfevaluations
Goalorientation
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HEXACOmodelofpersonalitystructure
MyersBriggsTypeIndicator
Personalitypsychology
Szonditest
Traittheory
DISCassessment

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Externallinks
InternationalPersonalityItemPool(http://ipip.ori.org/),publicdomainlistofitemskeyedtothe
bigfivepersonalitytraits.
Selectionfromthe"Handbookofpersonality:Theoryandresearch"
(http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~johnlab/bigfive.htm)forresearchers
Video(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=avoCvBR_zk)YouTubevideoshowingthe
distributionoftheBigFivepersonalitytraitsonaworldmap.
Video(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2SrPoIsI42U)YouTubevideoshowingthehistoryand
statisticsoftheBigFivepersonalitytest.
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