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Making Chemistry Fun!

A STEM Education Girl Scout Gold Award


Project
(Student Booklet)
Sarah Depew

TableofContents:
1) TheScientificProcess:IsThereaCorrectWayinwhichtoResearch?(Page3)
2) LetsBuildanAtom!(Pages48)
3) Ionicvs.CovalentBonds(Pages912)
4) HowManyDrops?(Pages1317)
5) WhataretheStatesofMatter?(Pages1822)
6) ChemicalReactions:Hotvs.Cold(Pages2326)
7) ReactionsthatareHot?(Pages2730)
8) ReactionsthatareCold?(Pages3134)
9) LetsTestforStarch!(Pages3540)
10) LetsBlowupaBalloon!(Pages4145)
11) HowDoesSurfaceAreaAffectaReaction?(Pages4651)
12) Glossary(Pages5253)
13) Bibliography(Pages5455)

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TheScientificProcess:IsThereaCorrectWayinwhichtoResearch?
Scienceisuniversal.AnexperimentthatisconductedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica
mayleadtofurtherresearchinAustralia,London,orevenChina!Thisglobalization,orglobal
spreading,ofinformationmeansmanytypesofscientistsmustbeableto"speak"thesame
scientificlanguage.Thislanguagecomesintheformofasixstepprocedure,calledthescientific
process,andiswhatmanyscientistsusewhentheyconducttheirexperiments.
First,ascientistasksaquestionheorshewouldliketoanswer.Questionsarevitally
importanttoscience,becauseinquiryisthewayinwhichmanfurtherstheirspheresof
knowledge.Asquestionsareposed,thescientistsettlesonthespecificideaheorshewouldlike
toknowmoreabout.
Then,inordertogatherinformationaboutthetopic,thescientistinvestigates
backgroundinformationconcerningthequestion.Analysispermitstheresearchertoseeif
someonehasconductedtheexperimentpreviously.Too,thisprocessofinvestigationmeansthe
researcherbecomesevenmorefamiliarwithcertainaspectsoftheexperimentandlearnsabout
specificareasaboutwhichheorshemaywanttoknowmore.
Afterheorshehasdoneasmuchresearchthatscientistdeemsnecessary,the
researcherdevelopsahypothesis.Ahypothesisisastatementintheformof"if.then"that
intelligentlypredictstheoutcomeoftheexperimentusingbackgroundinformationfromthe
researchandintelligentguessing.Forexample,onehypothesisascientistcoulduseinorderto
studytheeffectsofwateronplanthealthwouldbe"ifIdonotwatermyplantforoneweek,then
itwilldie."Hypothesessolidifythequestioninatestablemannerwhereitcanbeeitherproven
ordisproven.
Next,thescientisttestshisorherhypothesisbyconductinganexperiment.Usually,
scientistshavetosetupanddesignexperimentsthemselves.However,inthisbooklet,Ihave
writtenmultipleexperimentsforyouandyoudoneitherhavetosetupnordesignthe
experiments.
Finally,scientistsmustcollecttheirdata,analyzeit,andpresenttheirfindings.The
dataheorshecollectsduringtheexperimentpermitsthescientisttoeitherproveordisprovethe
hypothesis.Thewholepointofscientificinquiryistoinvestigateandlearnaboutsometopicthat
interestsyou;byprovingordisprovingahypothesis,yourpathoflearningishonedandrefined.
EversinceamannamedFrancisBacondevelopedastandardizedmethodof
conductingscientificexperimentsandresearch,manyscientistshavefollowedhisscientific
process.Thisstepbystepmeansofconductingexperimentsusessixbasicstepstolayout
scientificinquiryinastandardizedmanner.Althoughthetopicisoftendifferent,thescientific
processorganizesexperimentsinareproducibleandrelatablemanner.

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LetsBuildanAtom!
BackgroundforExperiment:
Thesmallestbuildingblocksofmatterareatoms.Whenatomscombine,theyformmolecules.
Atomsaremadeupofthreedifferentcomponents:protons,neutrons,andelectrons.
Protonsandneutronsmakeupthecentralpartofanatom,whichiscalledthenucleus.
Electronstravelaroundthenucleus.
Tosymbolizethelocationandenergylevelofanatomselectrons,scientistsusecircularshaped
orbitals.
Inanatom,twoelectronscanbeinthefirstorbitalandeightelectronscanexistinall
subsequentorbitals.Incarbon12,theatomyouwillbebuildinginthisexperiment,itsfirst
orbitalhousestwoelectronsanditssecondorbitalhousesfourelectrons,orsixelectronstotal.
Definitions:

Atom:Themostbasic,fundamentalcomponentofmatter.
Molecule:Asubstancethatformsfromthecombinationoftwoormoreatoms.
Proton:Thepositivelychargedpartofanatom.
Neutron:Theuncharged,orneutrallycharged,partofanatom.
Electron:Thenegativelychargedpartofanatom.
Nucleus:Thecentralpartofanatomthatismadeupofbothprotonsandneutrons.
Orbital:Awayofdrawingtheenergylevel(s)atwhichanatomselectronsexist.

MaterialsList:
CraftGlue
Multicoloredjellybeans(anybrand,buttheremustbeatleastthreecolors)
Twopiecesofblank,whitepaper
Coloredpens,markers,orcrayons

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Procedure:
1) First,layoutalltherequiredmaterialsthatwerelistedinthematerialslistlocatedabove.
(Youritemsmayvaryfromtheonesfoundbelow.)

1) Next,youshouldopenthebagofjellybeans.

2) Afteropeningthebag,countoutsixjellybeansofthethreedifferentrequiredcolors.

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3) Onceyouhaveyourthreecolorsofjellybeans,organizeeachcoloredgroupofsixjelly
beansinitsownpileonthefirstpieceofpaper.

4) Followingthis,placethepieceofpaperwiththejellybeanpilesonittoyourright.
5) Next,takethesecondpieceofwhitepaperandlayitinfrontofyou.
6) Inthecenterofthispieceofwhitepaper,glueamixtureoftwoofthecolorsofjellybeans.
Thisisyournucleus.Intotal,thereshouldbetwelvegluedjellybeansthataretwodifferent
colorsandonecolorofsixungluedjellybeansremainingonthefirstpieceofpapertoyour
right.

7) Next,drawtwoorbitalsaroundthenucleusyoujustcreated.Eachorbitalshouldbe
approximatelytheshapeofacircle.Whendrawingtheorbitals,youshoulddrawthefirst
orbitalclosertothenucleus.Thisfirstorbitalshouldbesmallerthanthesecondorbital,
whichyoudrawfurtherawayfromthenucleus.
PleasenotethatIlabeledthepartsofthephotographincludedbelow.Youdonothaveto
labelyourpictureifyoudonotwanttodoso.

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8) Inthefirstcircularorbital,gluetwooftheremainingcoloredjellybeans.Withthisstep,
rememberthatthefirstorbitalcanonlyhousetwoelectrons.

9) Aftercompletingstepnine,gluetheremainingfourelectronsinthesecondorbital.

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10) Finally,usingyourcompletedproject,answerthecomprehensionquestions.
ComprehensionQuestions:
Today,youbuiltacarbon12atom!Carbonisoneofthemostimportantelementsintheuniverse
anddistinguisheslivingcreaturesfromnonlivingobjects.Now,youwillanswerafewquestions
totestyourknowledgeonhowatomsarebuilt!
1) Howmanyprotonsdidyouglueinyournucleus?Howmanyneutrons?Whatcolorofjelly
beandidyouusetorepresenteachatomicparticle?
2) Howmanyelectronorbitalsdidyouhaveinyourdrawing?Howmanyelectronswereineach
orbital?Howmanytotalelectronsdoesaneutralcarbonatomhave?
3) First,countthenumberoftotalneutronsandprotonsyouhaveinthenucleusofyouratom.
Howmanytotalprotonsandneutronsdoyouhave?
4) Whatdoyouthinkwouldhappenifyouaddedtwomoreprotons?Rememberthateach
protonhasa+1positivecharge.Hypothetically,howwouldapositivelychargedatomic
particleaffectthechargeoftheatominquestion?

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Ionicvs.CovalentBonds
BackgroundforExperiment:
Therearetwotypesofmolecularinteraction:intramolecularbondsandintermolecularforces.
Thisexperimentillustratesintramolecularbonding.
Intramolecularbondsincludeionicbonds,covalentbonds,andmetallicbonds.Eachofthese
typesofbondsoccurswithinmolecules.Asaresult,intramolecularbondsaffectthechemical
propertiesofcompounds.
Ionicbondscreateions.Inotherwords,sinceatomsthatengageinionicbondingareso
horribleatsharingelectrons,oneatomorpartofthemoleculebecomespositivelychargedand
onepartoftheatomormoleculebecomesnegativelycharged.Asaresult,theseionscancreate
additionalionicbondswithotherionstoforminterestingandintricatestructures!
Covalentbonds,ontheotherhand,arereallygoodatsharingelectrons!Asaresult,molecules
thatarecovalentlybondedsharetheirelectronsbetweentheiratoms.
Definitions:

Intramolecularbonds:Thisisatypeofbondingthatoccurswithinmoleculesonthe
atomiclevel.
Intermolecularforces:Thisisatypeofbondingthatoccursbetweenmolecules.
Ionicbonds:Atypeofintramolecularbondinwhichoneatomtransferselectronsto
anotheratom.
Covalentbonds:Atypeofintramolecularbondinwhichatomsshareelectronsbetween
oneanother.
Ion:Aneitherpositivelyornegativelychargedparticle.

MaterialsList:
Gumdrops(youhavetoatleasthavefourdifferentcolors)
Toothpicks(atleastfifteen)
Pen(torecorddata)

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Procedure:
1) Layoutallthematerialsinfrontofyouonatable.(Youritemsmayvaryfromtheones
foundbelow.)

2) Openanyexternalpackaging,thencountoutonecolorofonegumdrop,twoofanothercolor
ofgumdrop,fiveoftwoothercolorsofgumdrops,andfifteentoothpicks.

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3) Afteryouhavedonethis,choosethegumdroppilewhereyoucountedoutonecolor,the
gumdroppilewhereyoucountedouttwocolors,andtwotoothpicks.
4) Next,assemblethegumdropsandthetoothpickstolooklikethepicturebelow.
Themoleculeyoujustbuildwasacovalentlybondedwatermolecule.Thechemicalequation
forawatermoleculeisH2O.CovalentlybondedH2Omoleculesshareelectrons;inother
words,inawatermolecule,electronsaresharedbetweenthehydrogenatomsandoxygen
atom.Inthispicture,theyellowgumdropsrepresenthydrogenatoms,thepinkgumdrop
representsanoxygenatom,andthetoothpicksrepresentcovalentbonds.

5) Afteryouhaveassembledthecovalentlybondedwatermolecule,assembleonegumdrop
fromeachoftheremainingtwocolorsofgumdroppilesandonetoothpickfromthe
remainingtoothpickstolooklikethepicturebelow.
Themoleculeyoujustbuiltwasamoleculeofsodiumchloridesalt.Thechemicalequation
forsodiumchlorideisNaCl.NaClisbondedbyionicbonds.Tocreatetheionicbond,the
chlorineatomtakesanelectronfromsodium.Asaresult,sodiumbecomesapositively
chargedionandchlorinebecomesanegativelychargedion.Inthispicture,thegreen
gumdroprepresentsachlorineatom,theorangegumdroprepresentsasodiumatom,andthe
toothpickrepresentanionicbond.

6) Followingthis,assembletheremaininggumdropslikethepictureaboveintomoresodium
chloridemolecules.Afterdoingso,youshouldhaveafewremainingtoothpicks.Usesaid
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toothpickstocreatethecubelikestructureofbondedsodiumchloride(NaCl)pictured
below.
Duethefactthatthesodiumandthechlorineinthesodiumchloridesaltbecomecharged
ions,theyattractothersodiumandchlorineionstoformanintricatestructureliketheone
modeledbelow.

7) Finally,usingyourcreations,answerthecomprehensionquestions.
ComprehensionQuestions:
1) Whatcharacterizesanionicbond?Areionsgoodatsharingelectrons?
2) Whatcharacterizesacovalentbond?Arecovalentlybondedatomsgoodatsharingelectrons?
3) Whatisanotherexampleofanionicmolecule?Whatisanotherexampleofacovalently
bondedmolecule?
(Ifyoucannotanswerthisquestion,youmaydoanInternetsearchwithyourinstructors
permission.)

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HowManyDrops?
BackgroundforExperiment:
Therearetwotypesofmolecularinteraction:intramolecularbondsandintermolecularforces.
Thisexperimentillustratesintermolecularforces.
Intermolecularforcesactbetweenmoleculesandaffectphysicalpropertiesofthesubstance
suchassurfacetension,boilingpoint,andviscosity.Differenttypesofintermolecularforces
includehydrogenbonds,Londondispersionforces,anddipoledipoleforces.
Definitions:

Intramolecularbonds:Thisisatypeofbondingthatoccurswithinmoleculesonthe
atomiclevel.
Intermolecularforces:Thisisatypeofbondingthatoccursbetweenmolecules.
Hydrogenbonds:Atypeofintermolecularbondingwhereahydrogenatomthatispartof
alargermolecule,suchasH2O(water),becomesmomentarilypositiveandisattractedto
anotherverynegativeatomonanothermolecule,suchasoxygenonanotherH2O
molecule.

MaterialsList:
Penny
Dropper(pipetteswouldbepreferable)
Cupofwater
Paperorplasticplate
Papertowels
Notepad
Coloredpensand/orpencils(todrawandtorecorddata)

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Procedure:
1) Layoutallthematerialsyouneedtoconductthisexperimentonacountertopinfrontofyou.
(Youritemsmayvaryfromtheonesfoundbelow.)

2) Fillthepipette/dropperwithwater.

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3) Placethepennyontheplateandslowly,countingeachdrop,dropdropletsofwaterontothe
surfaceofthepennyuntilthedropletbreaksandspillsoverontotheplate.Thepicturebelow
illustrateswhatapennywithabrokenwaterdropletlookslike.

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4) Rememberthenumberofdropsittookbeforeyoumadethedropletbreakandrecordthat
numberinthetable.Thisvaluecanbefoundbysubtractingonedropfromthetotalnumber
ofdropsyoudroppedontothepennybeforethewaterdropletspilledoverthesideofthe
penny.
5) Dryoffthepennyandtheplatewiththepapertowel,and,then,repeattheexperiment.This
timedropwaterontothepennyandstopbeforethewaterdropletspillsoffthesurfaceofthe
penny.
6) Next,geteyeleveltothesurfaceofyourpenny.Onceyouareateyelevel,drawapictureof
yourpennywiththedropletofwateronitbelow.Thepennyyoudrawshouldlook
somethingliketheoneinthepicturebelow.Specifically,youpennyshouldalsohavea
roundedwaterdropletontop.

7) Onceyouhavecompletedyourdrawing,answerthecomprehensionquestionsbelow.
DataChart:
Material

Numberofdrops(beforethewater
dropletbroke)

Penny

Drawing:

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ComprehensionQuestions:
Inthisexperiment,youobservedtheresultofoneofchemistrysmostimportantintermolecular
forces:hydrogenbonds.Asyouweredroppingmoreandmoredropsofwaterontothesurfaceof
thepenny,youshouldhavenoticedthewatermadeadomeshapeontopofthepenny.Thisdome
shapeistheresultofthesurfacetensioncausedbythehydrogenbonds.Arentbondsinteresting?
1) Whenthewaterdropletbrokewasthechangesuddenordidthewaterleakoffslowly?Why
doyouthinkthewaterdropletbroke?Werethehydrogenbondsstrongenoughtokeepthe
waterdroplettogether?

2) Whatotherliquidscouldyouusetotesttheirsurfacetension?Goaheadandtestoneother
liquid.Whatdidyoufind?Diditbehavelikewaterdidintheexperiment?

3) Doyouthinkthisexperimentwouldworkbetterifyouusedamaterialwithevenstronger
intermolecularforces?Wouldstrongerintermolecularforcespermitmoredropsofliquidsto
accumulateonthesurfaceofthepenny?

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WhataretheStatesofMatter?
BackgroundforExperiment:
Therearethreemainobservablestatesofmatterintheuniverse:solids,liquids,andgasses.
Solidshaveatomsthatareessentiallylockedinpositionandareunabletomoveveryreadily.
Solidshaveadefinitevolumeandshapeanddonotcompresseasily(StatesofMatter).
Examplesofsolidsincludeice,glass,aluminumfoil,salt,andsugar.
Liquidshaveatoms/moleculesthatarenotlockedintopositionandhavemorefreeform
movement.Liquidsmaintaintheshapeoftheircontainersandfloweasily;however,likesolids,
liquidsarenoteasilycompressibleanddohaveadefinitevolume(StatesofMatter).Examples
ofliquidsincludewater,ammonia,isopropylalcohol,andmilk.
Gasseshaveatoms/moleculesareabletomovepastoneanotherveryreadily,evenmorereadily
thaninliquids.Gassesdonothaveadefinitevolumeordefiniteshapeandareextremely
compressible(StatesofMatter).Examplesofgassesincludewatervapor(H2O),carbon
monoxide(CO),carbondioxide,(CO2),andoxygen(O2).
Whenheated,asolidmeltsandturnsintoaliquid.Then,theliquidcanvaporizeintoagas.
Eventually,thegascancondenseintoliquidonceagain.Finally,theliquidcanfreezebackinto
asolid.
Definitions:

Atom:Themostbasic,fundamentalcomponentofmatter.
Molecule:Thisisasubstancethatformsfromthecombinationoftwoormoreatoms.
Solid:Astateofmatterinwhichatomsormoleculesarearrangedinadefinitestructure.
Liquid:Astateofmatterinwhichatomsormoleculesareabletomovearoundmore
readilythaninsolids.
Gas:Astateofmatterinwhichatomsormoleculeshavenodefinitestructure.Inthis
stateofmatter,atomsandmoleculesareabletomoveevenmorereadilythaninliquids.
Vaporize:Theprocessduringwhichaliquidturnsintoagas.
Condense:Aprocessduringwhichagasturnsbackintoaliquid.

MaterialsList:
Oneseethrough,clearplasticorglasscontainerwithalid
Icecubes(four)
Sunnywindowsillorcountertop
Towel
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Stopwatchtokeeptrackofhours(orwatchthatcanfunctionasastopwatch)

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Procedure:
1) First,layoutallthenecessarymaterials.(Youritemsmayvaryfromtheonesfoundbelow.)

2) Next,aftermakingsurethelidisoffofthecontainer,placethefouricecubesintothejarand
securethelidontothecontainer.

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3) Afteryouhaveplacedtheicecubesinthejarandclosedit,placethecontainerinthesunon
awindowsillorcountertop.Tomakesurethewaterdoesntmelteverywhere,placeatowel
underneaththecontainer.

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4) Foraboutanhourortwo,checkontheicecubeseveryfifteenminutesuntiltheyhave
melted.Oncetheyhavemelted,recordthetimeittooktomeltinthedatachart.Youjust
witnessedasolidturnintoaliquid!

5) Now,waitanotherhouroruntilyouseedropletsofwaterformonthetopofthelidorthe
sidesofthecontainer.Inordernottomissanything,checkthejareveryfifteenminutes.
Afterthedropletshaveformed,recordthetimeittookforthistooccurinthedatachart.

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6) Usingyourdataandunderstandingofthestatesofmatter,answerthecomprehension
questions.
DataRecordChart:
Stateofmatter

Timeittookforthatstateofmatterto
appear

Ice(solid)
Water(liquid)
Waterdroplet(s)(whichisaliquidand
alsothecondensedformofwatervapor)
ComprehensionQuestions:
Inthisexperiment,youwatchedassolidwatermeltedintoliquidwaterandasliquidwater
evaporatedintoagasandcondensedonthelidorsidesofyourcontainer.Althoughyoucouldnt
seethewatervapor,sinceitwasclear,youwereabletoseetheresultofevaporationand
condensation!Arentthestatesofmatterinteresting!
1) Whenyouplacedtheicecubesinthecontainer,didtheystaythesameshape?Ordidthey
conformtothesizeandshapeofthecontainer?
(Hint:Dosolidshavedefiniteshapesandvolumes,ordotheirshapesandvolumeschange
dependinguponthecontainer?)

2) Oncetheicecubeshadmelted,didthewaterstayinthesameshapeastheshapetheice
cubes?Or,didtheliquidconformtotheshapeofthecontainer?
(Hint:Doliquidshavedefiniteshapesandvolumes,ordotheirshapesandvolumeschange
dependinguponthecontainer?)

3) Ifyoucouldseethewatervapormolecules,doyouthinktheywouldstayinthesameshape
astheicecubes?Or,doyouthinktheywouldtaketheshapeofthecontainer?
(Hint:Dogasseshavedefiniteshapesandvolumes,ordotheirshapesandvolumeschange
dependinguponthecontainer?)
4) Whatotherexamplesofsolids,liquids,andgassescanyoulist?
(Ifyoucannotthinkofanotherexampleofeach,feelfreetodoanInternetsearchwithyour
instructor'spermission.)
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ChemicalReactions:Hotvs.Cold
BackgroundforExperiment:
Thesmallestbuildingblocksofmatterareatoms.Whenatomscombine,theyformmolecules.
Chemicalreactionsoccurwheneitheratomsormoleculesofareactant,thestartingsubstance,
collideandformproducts,thesubstanceyougetattheendofachemicalreaction.
Inordertoformtheproduct,thereactantsmustcollidewithoneanother.
Whenyoucrackaglowstick,youreleasealiquidthatwaspreviouslytrappedinatubeand
allowittocombinewithanotherliquid.
Thesetwoliquidreactantsgiveofflightwhentheyreacttoformaproduct.Thefactthatlight
emitsfromtheglowstickletsyouknowachemicalreactionisoccurring.
Eachofthereactantatomsormoleculeshaskineticenergy,whichistheenergyofmovement.
Whenyoumeasurethetemperatureofsomething,youaremeasuringtheaveragekineticenergy
ofthemoleculesoratoms.
Withthisinformation,whatdoyouthinkwillhappenwhenyouraisethetemperatureofa
chemicalreaction?
Definitions:

Atom:Themostbasic,fundamentalcomponentofmatter.
Molecule:Asubstancethatformsfromthecombinationoftwoormoreatoms.
ChemicalReaction:Theprocessofchangingsomeelementorelementsintoanother
form.
Reactant:Thechemicalelements,molecules,orsubstancesthatareusedinthebeginning
ofanexperiment.
Product:Thechemicalmoleculesorsubstancesthatresultfromachemicalreaction.
KineticEnergy:Thenamefortheenergyofmotion.

MaterialsList:
Glowsticks(threeofthesamecolor)
Roomtemperaturewater(approximatelysixcups)

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Kettleinwhichtoboilwater
Onecupmeasure
Thermometer
Icecubes(six)
Coffeemugs(three)
Stopwatchorclock(tokeeptrackoftime)
Pen(torecorddata)
Anadulttohelpwithstepthree
Procedure:
1) First,collectandlayoutalloftherequiredmaterials.(Youritemsmayvaryfromtheones
foundbelow.)

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2) Afteryouhavedonethis,boilaboutthreecupsofwater.
3) Followingthis,usethemeasuringcuptopouronecupoftheboilinghotwaterintooneofthe
coffeemugs.Inthisstep,pleaseaskanadultforassistanceinpouringtheboilinghotwater,
soyoudonotgetburned.

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4) Afterthis,fillthesecondcoffeemugwithonecupofroomtemperaturewater.
5) Finally,fillthethirdcoffeemugwithonecupofroomtemperaturewaterandaddthesixice
cubestothewater.

6) Next,crackthethreeoftheglowsticksandinsertoneglowstickintoeachmug.

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7) Now,recordthetemperatureindegreesFahrenheitofthewaterineachofthethreemugs.
8) Finally,recordyourcolorobservationsfortheglowsticksandanswerthecomprehension
questions.
DataChart:
Glowstickinhot
water

Glowstickinroom
temperaturewater

Glowstickincold
water

Temperatureof
water(F)
Colorobservations

ComprehensionQuestions:
1) Wasthereacolordifferencebetweentheglowstickswhenyoulookedathowtheyglowedin
thecups?Ifso,whichglowstickwasmostvibrant?Whichwastheleast?
2) Whateffectwouldyousaythethermalenergy(heatenergy)hadontheglowsticks?
3) Onamolecularlevel,whichreactantmolecules,thecolderonesorthehotterones,were
movingthefastest?Whichweremovingtheslowest?
4) Whatdoyouthinkwouldhappenifyouloweredthetemperatureofanotherchemical
reactionsuchasabakingsodaandvinegarreaction?Whatifyouraisedthetemperatureof
thebakingsodaandvinegarreaction?

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ReactionsthatareHot?
BackgroundforExperiment:
Chemicalreactionsoccurwheneitheratomsormoleculesofareactant,thestartingsubstance
collideandformproducts,thesubstanceyougetattheendofachemicalreaction.
Onewayinwhichtoknowachemicalreactionisoccurringisthatthereactiongivesoffheat.
Inthisinstance,whenthereactantscollidetoformproducts,energyisreleasedasheatenergy.
Thistypeofreactioniscalledanexothermicchemicalreaction.(Ifyouremember,inanearlier
reaction,energywasgivenoffintheformoflight.)
Withthisinformation,whatdoyouthinkishappeninginsideofahandwarmer?Isthisan
exampleofanexothermicchemicalreaction?
Definitions:

ChemicalReaction:Theprocessofchangingsomeelementorelementsintoanother
form.
Atom:Themostbasic,fundamentalcomponentofmatter.
Molecule:Thisisasubstancethatformsfromthecombinationoftwoormoreatoms.
Reactant:Thechemicalelements,molecules,orsubstancesthatareusedinthebeginning
ofanexperiment.
Product:Thechemicalmoleculesorsubstancesthatresultfromachemicalreaction.
ExothermicChemicalReaction:Thisisatypechemicalreactionthatgivesoffenergyin
theformofheat.

MaterialsList:
Airactivatedhandwarmer
Stopwatch(orwatchthatcanfunctionasastopwatch)
Pen(torecorddata)

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Procedure:
1) Layoutalloftherequiredmaterials.(Youritemsmayvaryfromtheonesfoundbelow.)

2) Next,openthehandwarmerandtakeitoutofanypackaging.

3) Onceyouhaveremovedthehandwarmerfromanypackaging,shakethehandwarmer
vigorouslyinordertomixtheinnercontents.
4) Startthestopwatch.
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5) Inthetablebelow,recordyourobservationsabouttheinitialtemperatureofthehandwarmer.
6) Aftertenminutes,recordnewinformationaboutthetemperature.Includeinformationsuch
asithasgottenhotter,itisnowlukewarm,and/orthetemperaturehasincreased.
Pleasenoteyoudonothavetofillouttheactualtemperaturevalue.Rather,allyouhaveto
doisrecordanobservationsimilartotheonespreviouslylisted.
7) Followinganothertenminuteinterval,ortwentyminutestotal,recordyourobservations.
8) Finally,afteranothertenminutes,orthirtyminutestotal,recordyourfinalobservations.
9) Usingyourinformation,answerthecomprehensionquestions.
DataChart:
Handwarmer
Initialobservationsoftemperature
Observationsoftemperatureincreaseafter
10minutes
Observationsoftemperatureincreaseafter
10moreminutes,or20minutestotal

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Observationsoftemperatureincreaseafter
10moreminutes,or30minutestotal
ComprehensionQuestions:
1) Whatdoyouthinkcausedthisreactiontobegin?Towhatextentdoyouthinkairmighthave
hadsomethingtodowithit?
2) Whatotherexamplesofexothermicchemicalreactionscanyouthinkofthatoccuraround
you?(Ifyoucannotthinkofanyexamples,youmaydoaquickInternetsearchwithyour
instructorspermission.)
3) Doyouthinkthattherearereactionsthatabsorbheat,too?Whatdoyouthinkthosetypesof
reactionswouldbecalled?(Hint:endoisaprefixthatmeanswithin,whereasexoisaprefix
thatmeansexternal.)

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ReactionsthatareCold?
BackgroundforExperiment:
Chemicalreactionsoccurwheneitheratomsormoleculesofareactant,thestartingsubstance
collideandformproducts,thesubstanceyougetattheendofachemicalreaction.
Onewayinwhichtoknowachemicalreactionisoccurringisthatatemperaturechangeoccurs.
Thistemperaturechangecanoccurintheformofatemperatureincreaseofthechemicalreaction
oratemperaturedecreaseofthechemicalreaction.
Inthisinstance,whenthereactantscollidetoformproducts,energyisabsorbed,sothereaction
iscoldtothetouch.Thistypeofreactioniscalledanendothermicchemicalreaction.(Ifyou
remember,inearlierreactions,energywasgivenoffbothaslightandasheat.)
Withthisinformation,whatdoyouthinkishappeninginsideofahandwarmer?Isthisan
exampleofanendothermicchemicalreaction?
Definitions:

ChemicalReaction:Theprocessofchangingsomeelementorelementsintoanother
form.
Atom:Themostbasic,fundamentalcomponentofmatter.
Molecule:Thisisasubstancethatformsfromthecombinationoftwoormoreatoms.
Reactant:Thechemicalelements,molecules,orsubstancesthatareusedinthebeginning
ofanexperiment.
Product:Thechemicalmoleculesorsubstancesthatresultfromachemicalreaction.
EndothermicChemicalReaction:Thisisatypechemicalreactionthatabsorbsenergyand
is,asaresult,coldtothetouch.

MaterialsList:
Instanticepack(onethatrequiresyoutoreleaseaninnerliquidpouchtogetcold)
Stopwatch(orwatchthatcanfunctionasastopwatch)
Pen(torecorddata)

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Procedure:
1) Layoutalloftherequiredmaterials.(Youritemsmayvaryfromtheonesfoundbelow.)

2) Next,removetheicepackfromanypackaging.

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3) Afterremovingtheicepackfromanypackaging,followtheinstructiontobreakthesealed
innerliquid.

4) Onceyouhavereleasedtheinnerliquid,shaketheicepackvigorouslytomixtheinner
contents.
5) Startthestopwatch.
6) Recordobservationsabouttheinitialtemperatureoftheicepackinthetablebytouchingit
withyourhandtofeelhowcolditeitherisorisnot.
7) Aftertenminutes,recordnewinformationaboutthetemperaturebyagaintouchingtheice
packtoseehowcolditeitherisorisnot.Includeinformationsuchasithasgottencolder,
itisnowfreezing,and/orthetemperaturehasdecreased.Pleasenoteyoudonothaveto
fillouttheactualtemperaturevalue.Rather,allyouhavetodoisrecordanobservation
similartotheonespreviouslylisted.
8) Followinganothertenminuteinterval,recordadditionalobservations.Youshouldagainuse
atouchtestmethodtoseehowcoldtheicepackeitherisorisnotatthispointinthe
experiment.

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9) Finally,afteranothertenminutes,orthirtyminutestotal,recordyourfinalobservationsabout
theicepackusingthetouchmethod.
10) Usingyourinformation,answerthecomprehensionquestions.
DataChart:
Icepack
Initialobservationsoftemperature
Observationsoftemperaturedecreaseafter
10minutes
Observationsoftemperaturedecreaseafter
10moreminutes,or20minutestotal
Observationsoftemperaturedecreaseafter
10moreminutes,or30minutestotal
ComprehensionQuestions:
1) Whatdoyouthinkwerethereactantsinthisreaction?Howdoyouthinkthereactionwas
activated?
2) Whatotherexamplesofendothermicchemicalreactionscanyouthinkofthatoccuraround
youorareusefultoyou?
(Ifyoucannotthinkofanyexamples,youmaydoaquickInternetsearchwithyour
instructorspermission.)
3) Whatdoyouthinkareotherindicatorsofchemicalreactions?Youhavealreadyseen
chemicalreactionsthatareindicatedbytemperaturechangeandthereleaseofheat.
(Ifyoucannotthinkofanyexamples,youmaydoaquickInternetsearchwithyour
instructorspermission.)

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LetsTestforStarch!
BackgroundforExperiment:
Chemicalreactionsoccurwheneitheratomsormoleculesofareactant,thestartingsubstance
collideandformproducts,thesubstanceyougetattheendofachemicalreaction.
Chemicalreactionsareusedinbothusefulandeducationalmanners.Mostimportantly,
chemicalreactionsarefuntowatch,participatein,andstudy!
Oneofthemostenjoyable,andfun,experimentstowatchisthechemicalreactionthatoccurs
betweeniodineandplantstarch.Plantstarch,whichismadeupofatypeofplantsugarcalled
glucose,canbeseparatedintotwocomponents:amyloseandamylopectin(StarchandIodine).
Iodine,whichisachemicalelementontheperiodictable,reactswheninthepresenceofthe
plantstarchcomponentamylose(StarchandIodine).Thisamyloseiswhatcausestheiodine
toturnavibrantcolor.Asaresult,scientistsuseiodineasanindicatorforplantstarchandsocan
we!
Whatcolordoyouthinkiodineturnsinthepresenceofstarch?Don'tyouwanttofindout?
Definitions:

ChemicalReaction:Theprocessofchangingsomeelementorelementsintoanother
form.
Atom:Themostbasic,fundamentalcomponentofmatter.
Molecule:Thisisasubstancethatformsfromthecombinationoftwoormoreatoms.
Reactant:Thechemicalelements,molecules,orsubstancesthatareusedinthebeginning
ofanexperiment.
Iodine:Achemicalelementthatchangescolorinthepresenceofamylose.
Amylose:Achemicalcomponentofplantstarchthatcausesiodinetochangecolordueto
achemicalreactionbetweentheiodineandtheamylose.

MaterialsList:
Liquidiodinesolution(thiscanbefoundatalocaldrugstore)
Permanentmarker
Styrofoamorplasticdisposableplates
Apron
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Plastictableclothorcovering(papertowelscanwork)
Pen(torecorddata)
Rulerortapemeasure(thatmeasuresmm)
Dropperorpipette
Paper
Potatoslice(thinslice)
Carrot(thinslice)
Papertowelornapkin(towipeuppotentialspills)
Penny
Sodacap(orotherplasticobject)
Knife
Anadulttohelpwithstepthree
Procedure:
1) Collectandlayoutallnecessarymaterialsonaneasilycleanablecountertop.Sinceiodine
stainsclothesandcountertopsveryeasily,besuretoputonanapronandcoveryour
workspacewithaplastictableclothoranotherformofprotectivecovering.(Youritemsmay
varyfromtheonesfoundbelow.)

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2) Ifyouneedto,slicethepotatoandthecarrotnowwithanadult'shelp.Youshouldhavea23
mmthicksliceofeachbeforeyoumoveontostepthree.

3) TakethestackofplasticorStyrofoamplatesand,usingthepermanentmarker,labeleach
platewiththenameoftheitemyouwilltestonthatplate.

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4) Placeeachtestitemonitsrespectivelabeledplate.

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5) Takingthefirstplate,openthebottleofiodinesolutionandusethedroppertodropabout
fourdropsofiodineontothetestitem.Whenyouareusingtheiodine,remembertobevery
careful,becauseiodinestainsclothingandcountertopsveryeasily.
6) Followingthis,recordanycolorchangesorobservations.Ifthetestitemcontainsstarch,the
coloroftheiodinewilldarkenlikeinthephotographbelow.Ifthetestitemdoesnotcontain
starch,theiodinesolutionwillsimplystaythesamecolorasitwasoriginally.

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7) Finally,repeatstepsfourandfiveuntilyouhavetestedeachoftheitems.
8) Afterthis,concludewhetherornoteachitemcontainsstarchandwriteyourconclusionin
thedatachart.(Noteagainthatiftheiodinechangescolorafteritisdroppedontothetest
object,thereisstarchpresent.)
9) Usingtheinformationyourecordedinthedatatable,answerthecomprehensionquestions.
DataChart:
Testitem

Colorchange?(Ifyes,what
color?)

Starchpresent?

Paper
Potato
Carrot
Penny
Sodacap

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ComprehensionQuestions:
Inthisexperiment,youusedthechemicalelementiodinetotestdifferenthouseholditemstosee
iftheycontainedstarch.Asyounowknow,thechemicalreactionthatoccursbetweeniodineand
starchcreatesavibrantcolorchange.Isntchemistryinteresting!
1) Intheitemswherestarchwaspresent,whatcolorchangeoccurredintheiodine?Wasthe
colorchangeimmediate,ordidittakealongtimetooccur?

2) Ofthetestitems,whichcontainedstarch?Whichdidnotcontainstarch?Howcouldyoutell
whetherornottheitemscontainedstarch?

3) Howcouldyoutellachemicalreactionoccurredbetweeniodineandstarch?Doyouthink
oneoftheindicatorsofachemicalreactionisacolorchange?Why?

4) Iftherewerenocolorchange,didachemicalreactionstilloccur?
(Hint:Ifyoucannotanswerthisquestion,thinkbacktohowyouknowachemicalreaction
occurredbetweentheiodineandthestarch.)

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LetsBlowupaBalloon!
BackgroundforExperiment:
Chemicalreactionsoccurwheneitheratomsormoleculesofareactant,thestartingsubstance
collideandformproducts,thesubstanceyougetattheendofachemicalreaction.
Bydefinition,matterundergoescertainchangesduringachemicalreactionthatcanresultin
structurereorganizationand/ortransferofelectrons.Thesechangescanbeillustratedby
changingtemperatures,lightemissions,and/ortransformationsbetweenstatesofmatter.
Forexample,whenachangeinmatteroccurs,youcanstartwithtwoliquidreactantsandendup
withaliquidproductandasolidprecipitate.Or,youcanwatchachemicalreactionthathasa
solidreactantandaliquidreactantthatresultsinaliquidproductandagaseousproduct.
Howdoyouthinkyoucanapplytheseideastoblowupaballoonviaachemicalreaction?
Definitions:

ChemicalReaction:Theprocessofchangingsomeelementorelementsintoanother
form.
Atom:Themostbasic,fundamentalcomponentofmatter.
Electron:Thenegativelychargedpartofanatom.
Molecule:Thisisasubstancethatformsfromthecombinationoftwoormoreatoms.
Reactant:Thechemicalelements,molecules,orsubstancesthatareusedinthebeginning
ofanexperiment.
Product:Thechemicalmoleculesorsubstancesthatresultfromachemicalreaction.
StatesofMatter:Threestatesofmatteraresolids,liquids,andgasses.
Precipitate:Anothernameforthesolidproductthatmayresultfromachemicalreaction.

MaterialsList:
Teaspoonmeasure
Measuringcupthatmeasurescup
Bottleofwhitevinegar(enoughforcup)
Emptyplasticcontainer(besuretowashtheinsideout,sothecontainerisclean)
Rubberballoon(havetwoonhand,justincaseoneofthembreaks)
Bakingsoda(enoughfortwoteaspoons)
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Pieceofpaper(touseasafunneltotransferthebakingsodaintotheballoon)
Pen(torecorddata)
Tape
Stopwatch(orwatchthatcanfunctionasastopwatch)
Anotherperson(ifyouneedhelpwithstepfiveoftheexperiment)
Procedure:
1) Layoutallthenecessarymaterialsoutonaneasilycleanablecountertop.(Youritemsmay
varyfromtheonesfoundbelow.)

2) Afteryouhavecompletedstepone,curlthepaperintoafunnelandplaceapieceoftapeon
thesidetosecurethefunnel.Ifyouneedhelp,seethephotobelow.

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3) Placethebottomofthepaperfunnelintothemouthoftheballoonand,usingthetablespoon
measure,measureandpourtwoteaspoonsofbakingsodaintothefunnel.Ifyouneedto,tap
thefunnelorflickthesideofthefunnelwithyourfingertomakesureallthebakingsoda
getsintothebodyoftheballoon.

4) Next,usingthemeasuringcup,pouraboutacupofwhitevinegarintotheempty,rinsed
bottle.

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5) Afteryouhavepouredacupofwhitevinegarintotheplasticbottle,havesomeonehold
thenowfilledbottlewhileyouplacethebottomoftheballoonaroundthetopoftheplastic
bottle.Whileyouaredoingthis,becarefultonotletanyofthebakingsodaemptyintothe
vinegar.

6) Beforeyouemptytheballoonintothevinegar,recordyourinitialobservationsofthe
chemicalreactioninthedatachart.
7) First,emptytheballoonintothevinegarandstartthestopwatch.Then,recordadditional
observationsofwhattakesplaceduringthechemicalreaction.
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8) Watchthereactionuntilitstopsandrecordthetimeinformationandyourobservations.

9) Finally,answerthecomprehensionquestionsusingtheinformationyouwroteinyourdata
chart.
DataChart:
Stepofthechemicalreaction
Beforeemptyingtheballoon

Observations

Howlongdidittakeforthechemical
reactiontostart?
Afteremptyingtheballoon
Howlongdidittakeforthechemical
reactiontostop?
Afterthechemicalreactionstopped

ComprehensionQuestions:
Inthischemicalreaction,yousawmatterundergoatransformation,asaresultofthechemical
reaction.Specifically,youwitnessedachemicalreactionwhereoneofthereactantsdidnot
retainitsoriginalstateofmatter.Whilenotallchemicalreactionsoccurinthismanner,all
chemicalreactionschangematterinsomeway,shape,orform.
1) Whatchangeofstatedidyouwitness?Whatoriginalreactantsdidyouhave?Whatwere
theirstatesofmatter?Whatwerethefinalstatesofmatteroftheproducts?
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(Hint:Howdoyouthinktheballoonfilledup?)

2) Usingwhatyouhavelearnedaboutchemicalreactions,howdoyouthinkweknowa
chemicalreactionoccurredwhenyouemptiedtheballoonintothebottle?Whatkindof
observablechangesdidyounotice?
(Hint:Didbubblesappear?Didtheballoonfillupwithagas?Wasagasoneoftheoriginal
reactants?)
3) Whatisthebalancedchemicalequationfortheexperimentyoujustsaw?Inthebalanced
chemicalequation,whatstatesofmatterdotheydenotefortheproducts?
(Tohelpanswerthisquestion,youmaydoanInternetsearchwithyourinstructors
permission.Iwouldrecommendsearchingsomethingalongthelinesofbakingsodaand
vinegarchemicalreactionequationwithstatesofmatter.)

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HowDoesSurfaceAreaAffectAReaction?
BackgroundforExperiment:
Thesmallestbuildingblocksofmatterareatoms.Whenatomscombine,theyformmolecules.
Chemicalreactionsoccurwheneitheratomsormoleculesofareactant,thestartingsubstance,
collideandformproducts,thesubstanceyougetattheendofachemicalreaction.
Inordertoformtheproduct,thereactantsmustbeabletocollidewithoneanother.
Whenyouhaveachemicalreactionthathasatleastonereactantthatisintheformofasolid,
youcansaythesolidreactanthasasurfacearea.
Whatdoyouthinkwillhappenwhenmoreofareactantsolidssurfaceareaisexposedand
availabletoengagewithanotherreactant,ormultiplereactants,inachemicalreaction?
Definitions:

Atom:Themostbasic,fundamentalcomponentofmatter.
Molecule:Asubstancethatformsfromthecombinationoftwoormoreatoms.
ChemicalReaction:Theprocessofchangingsomeelementorelementsintoanother
form.
Reactant:Thechemicalelements,molecules,orsubstancesthatareusedinthebeginning
ofanexperiment.
Product:Thechemicalmoleculesorsubstancesthatresultfromachemicalreaction.
SurfaceArea:Theamountofasolidssurfacethatisexposed.

MaterialsList:
FourAlkaSeltzertablets
Metalspoon
Hardsurface
Fourclearplasticcups
Pitcherofroomtemperaturewater
Measuringcup(onecupmeasure)
Stopwatch(orwatchthatcanfunctionasastopwatch)

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Thermometer
Permanentmarker
Pen(torecorddata)
Procedure:
1) First,collectandlayoutalltherequiredmaterialsonatableorcountertop.(Youritemsmay
varyfromtheonesfoundbelow.)

2) Next,takethetemperatureofthewaterandrecordtheinformationinthedatachartfound
below.
3) Now,tearthewrapperoffofthefourAlkaSeltzertabletsandlaythetabletsinfrontofyou.

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4) Inthesenexttwosteps,youwillincreasethesurfaceareaofthreeofthetablets.Breakthe
firsttabletintotwolargepieces.Breakthesecondtabletintomultipletinypieces.

5) Usingthemetalspoon,crushthethirdtabletintopowder.Finally,leavethefourthtabletin
onewholepiece.

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6) Next,labeleachofthecups.Thefirstcupshouldsaywholetablet.Thesecondcupshould
saytablethalves.Thethirdcupshouldsaytabletpieces.Finally,thefourthcupshould
saytabletpowder.

7) Now,youwilldistributethetablets/piecesoftablets.Placethewholetabletintoitscup.
8) Then,placethetablethalvesintothecorrectcup.
9) Next,placethecrushedtabletintoitscup.
10) Finally,putallofthepowderfromthepowderedAlkaSeltzertabletintoitscup.

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11) Followingthis,usethemeasuringcupandmeasureonecupofroomtemperaturewaterinto
eachofthefourclear,labeledplasticcups.
12)Startthestopwatchassoonasyouhavefinishedpouringwaterintothecups.
13)Watchthereactionsandrecordyourobservationsinthetableaboutthereactionthatappears
tobeoccurringmostquickly.(Youwillknowthatthereactionistakingplace,becausetherewill
bebubblesforminginthewaterjustlikeinthephotographbelow.)

14)Assoonasthefirstreactionisdone,recordthetime.Followthissameprocedureandrecord
thetimeeachsubsequentreactionfinishes.(Youwillknowwhenthereactionstops,becausethe
watervirtuallystopsfizzingjustlikeinthephotographbelow.)

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15)Now,usingyourdata,answerthecomprehensionquestions.

DataChart:
AlkaSeltzerreaction
Initialtemperatureofwater(F)
Observationsofchemicalreaction
occurringatthebeginning(Recordthe
speedatwhichbubblesrisetothesurface)
Recordofhowmuchtimeittookforthe
reactionstoend
ComprehensionQuestions:
Inthisexperiment,youchangedthesurfaceareaofAlkaSeltzertabletsandobservedhowthe
increasedsurfaceareaaffectedthereactionbetweentheAlkaSeltzertabletsandwater.The
tabletthatyoucrushedintopowderhadthelargestsurfacearea.Thewholetablethadthe
smallestsurfacearea.
1) Whichtabletreactedmostquickly?Howwouldyoudescribethesurfaceareaofthistablet?
2) Whichtabletreactedleastquickly?Howwouldyoudescribethesurfaceareaofthistablet?
3) Howwouldyouspeedupanotherreactionbetweenasolidandaliquid?Whichdoyouthink
wouldmakethereactiongomorequickly?Increasingordecreasingthesurfacearea?

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Glossary:

Amylose:Achemicalcomponentofplantstarchthatcausesiodinetochangecolorduetoa
chemicalreaction.

Atom:Themostbasic,fundamentalcomponentofmatter.

ChemicalReaction:Theprocessofchangingsomeelementorelementsintoanotherform.

Condense:Aprocessduringwhichagasturnsbackintoaliquid.

Covalentbonds:Atypeofintramolecularbondinwhichatomsshareelectronsbetweenone
another.

Electron:Thenegativelychargedpartofanatom.

EndothermicChemicalReaction:Thisisatypechemicalreactionthatabsorbsenergyandis,
asaresult,coldtothetouch.

ExothermicChemicalReaction:Thisisatypechemicalreactionthatgivesoffenergyinthe
formofheat.

Gas:Astateofmatterinwhichatomsormoleculeshavenodefinitestructure.Inthisstateof
matter,atomsandmoleculesareabletomoveevenmorereadilythaninliquids.

Hydrogenbonds:Atypeofintermolecularbondingwhereahydrogenatomthatispartofa
largermolecule,suchasH2O(water),becomesmomentarilypositiveandisattractedto
anotherverynegativeatomonanothermolecule,suchasoxygenonanotherH2Omolecule.

Intramolecularbonds:Thisisatypeofbondingthatoccurswithinmoleculesontheatomic
level.

Intermolecularforces:Thisisatypeofbondingthatoccursbetweenmolecules.

Iodine:Achemicalelementthatchangescolorinthepresenceofamylose(ifneeded,see
definitionforamyloseabove).

Ion:Aneitherpositivelyornegativelychargedparticle.

Ionicbonds:Atypeofintramolecularbondinwhichoneatomtransferselectronstoanother
atom.

KineticEnergy:Thenamefortheenergyofmotion.

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Liquid:Astateofmatterinwhichatomsormoleculesareabletomovearoundmorereadily
thaninsolids.

Molecule:Asubstancethatformsfromthecombinationoftwoormoreatoms.

Nucleus:Thecentralpartofanatomthatismadeupofbothprotonsandneutrons.

Orbital:Awayofdrawingtheenergylevel(s)atwhichanatomselectronsexist.

Precipitate:Anothernameforthesolidproductthatmayresultfromachemicalreaction.

Product:Thechemicalmoleculesorsubstancesthatresultfromachemicalreaction.

Proton:Thepositivelychargedpartofanatom.

Reactant:Thechemicalelements,molecules,orsubstancesthatareusedinthebeginningof
anexperiment.

Solid:Astateofmatterinwhichatomsormoleculesarearrangedinadefinitestructure.

StatesofMatter:Threestatesofmatteraresolids,liquids,andgasses.

SurfaceArea:Theamountofasolidssurfacethatisexposed.

Vaporize:Theprocessduringwhichaliquidturnsintoagas.

Neutron:Theuncharged,orneutrallycharged,partofanatom.

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