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The Problem

Construction Safety
For ME Students

Accident Statistics (Common performance


Contributing factors to the problem

Analysis of construction site hazards
Safety improvement initiatives taken by
key players of the Industry
Efforts to improve the safety situation

Applicable legislative requirement

The Safety Problem of

Construction Industry
Accident Rate and Fatality Rate are
unacceptably high

Accident Statistics

Comparisons Among Industries

Injury Rates

Fatality Rates

All Occupations



All Industries









Things to Ponder

Things to Ponder
According to the figures, there have been significant
reduction of injury and fatality rates
The accident and fatality rates still should not be
Can the downward trend continues or be sustained?
The accident rate seemed to have reached a plateau for
quite some years, and start rising again. What more can
be done?
The long term solution and the real measure is
A safety culture in the industry.

Factors leading to high accident rate

in Construction Industry
Competitive tendering system leads to low
bids being made (and accepted!) at the
expense of health and safety standards.
Subcontracting system makes control
more difficult.
A transient labour force which never gets
properly or fully trained.
Time pressure and the effect of heavy
penalty for delay (liquidated damage).

Factors leading to high accident rate

in Construction Industry (cont.)
The often inherently dangerous and
challenging nature of construction work
(e.g. work at height), including the ever
changing work conditions.
Exposure to often difficult weather
A traditional macho attitude by many in the
industry brought about by its inherently
tough nature.

Major Construction Site


Major Construction Site Hazards (I)

Major Construction Site Hazards (II)

Fall of person
Falling objects
Stepping on or striking against objects
Fall of ground

Use of Tools
Fire & Explosion

Causes for Fatal Accidents

Causes for Most Frequent Accidents

Stepping on or striking
against objects
Manual handling

Fall of persons
Falling objects

Fall of person
Falling objects

Legal Requirements
Factories & Industrial Undertakings

Fire and explosion


F & I U Regulations
30+ sets of Subsidiary Regulations
Governing specific industrial activities and
controlling specific hazards.

Subsidiary regulations

A Construction Site is classified as an

industry undertaking.

F&IU Regulations applicable to

Construction Activities (I)

Construction Site (Safety) Regulations

F&I U Regulations
Confined Spaces
Blasting by Abrasives
Woodworking Machinery
Lifting Appliances and Lifting Gears
Abrasive Wheels
Work in Compressed Air

F&IU Regulations applicable to

Construction Activities (II)

Spraying of Flammable Liquids

Cartridge -operated Fixing Tools
Protection of Eyes
Safety Officers & Safety Supervisors
Dangerous Substances
Noise At Work
Suspended Working Platforms
Loadshifting Machinery
Gas Welding & Flame Cutting
F&IU (Safety Management) Regulations

Mandatory Safety Training Requirements for

Construction Works
Licensed To Work
Green Card (Mandatory Safety Training)
Confined space works
Competent Person
Certified Worker

Safety Practice/Initiatives in

Gas welding and flame cutting

Operation of specified machines and

Construction Safety Related

Labour Department (Enforcement)
Safety related legislation administered by
Labour Department:
Factories and Industrial Undertakings
Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance
Boilers and Pressure Vessels Ordinance

Occupational Safety & Health Council

Established in 1988 under the Occupational Safety &
Health Council Ordinance
Responsible for:

Funded by a levy on EC Insurance

Occupational Safety Officers

Occupational Hygienists

Hong Kong Construction Association


Construction Industry Council Training

Academy (CITCA) formerly CITA
Provide all sorts of construction related skill
training, including safety training
Provide Trade test facilities

Public Clients
Works Bureau
Housing Authority
Buildings Department

Safety Initiatives from Various

Authorities / Bodies
Housing Authority
Performance Assessment Scoring System

Works Bureau
Pay for Safety Scheme
Requirement for implementation of specific
safety measures
Requirement for safety audit (Pay for safety)

Buildings Department
Site Supervision Plan System

The PASS System

Performance Assessment Scoring System

Measurement of both quality & safety

Periodic (Monthly) assessment to
ensure compliance with contract
Compare contractor with contractor
Affect tendering opportunity

Site Supervision Plan

Operates by Buildings Department
Involves every party (3 Streams) in the building
Authorized Persons
Registered Structural Engineers
Registered Geotechnical Engineers
Registered Building Contractors
Supervision plans to be submitted with building
Appointment of Technical Competent Persons
(TCP T1 to T5)

Pay for Safety

Operates by Works Bureau
Pay a % of contract sum as expense for
Encouragement for contractors
Implementation of safety management
Requirements on Safety Audits

Construction Workers Registration

Legislation enacted in July 2004
Effective in end 2006

Construction Workers Registration

Ordinance (Highlights)

Construction Workers Registration

Ordinance (Highlights) 2
Types of registration:

A person cannot personally carry out

construction work of specific kind on a
construction site without an appropriate
An employer cannot employ anyone without
appropriate registration to carry out
construction work on a construction site.

Construction Workers Registration

Ordinance (Highlights) 3
The Registration Process:
Registration to be carried out by the CIC
Funded by a levy imposed upon contractors
Workers have to apply for registration and a fee
is required
Have to meet specified qualifications set out in
a schedule of the legislation
Assessment interviews may be needed
There is an appeal mechanism
Re-registration needed every 4 years.

General worker
Skilled worker for a designated trade
There are about 100 different types of trades
requiring specific registrations

Provisional skilled workers for a designated

Provisional semi-skilled worker for a
designated trade.