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INTERFACING PROGRAMS FOR 8085

PROGRAM TO INTERFACE 16 LEDS TO 8255 PORTS AND


DISPLAY THEM AS PER THE SPECIFIED PATTERN.
0

LA

AAH

LB

55H

THE PROGRAM BELOW IS USED TO DISPLAY PATTERN AS


ABOVE AND CERTAIN SEQUENCES.

8000
8001
8002
8003
8004
8005
8006
8007
8008
8009
800A
800B
800C
800D
800E
800F
8010
8011
8012
8013
8014
8015

MVI A 80
OUT CW
MVI A AA
OUT PA
CALL DLY
CMA
OUT PB
CALL DLY
MVI C 08
RRC
OUT PB

3E
80
D3
43
3E
AA
D3
40
CD
00
85
2F
D3
41
CD
00
85
0E
08
0F
D3
41

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8016
8017
8018
8019
801A
801B
801C
801D
801E
801F
8020
8021
8022
8023
8024
8025
8026
8027
8028
8029
802A
802B
802C
802D

CALL DLY
DCR C
JNZ 8013
MVI A AA
MVI C 08
RRC
OUT PA
CALL DLY
DCR C
JNZ 8021
JMP 8004

CD
00
85
0D
C2
13
80
3E
AA
0E
08
0F
D3
40
CD
00
85
0D
C2
21
80
C3
04
80

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INTERFACING 8085 TO DAC


A)TO GENERATE SQUARE WAVEFORM
TO GENERATE SQUARE WAVEFORM USING DAC JUST WE
HAVE TO SEND TWO DIFFERENT VALUES TO DAC THAT IS
FOR LOW LEVEL AND HIGH LEVEL AND A PROPER
DELAY.THE DELAY DEFINES THE FREQUENCY OF SQUARE
WAVE.THE PROGRAM IS AS FOLLOWS :
0000
0001
0002
0003
0004
0005
0006
0007
0008
0009
000A
000B
000C
000D
000E
000F
0010
0011

LXI SP8500
MVI A 80
OUT CW
MVI A 00
OUT PA
CALL DLY
CMA
JMP 0009

31
00
85
3E
80
D3
40
3E
00
D3
41
CD
00
85
2F
C3
09
00

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B)

PROGRAM TO GENERATE TRIANGULAR WAVE


USING DAC

0000
0001
0002
0003
0004
0005
0006
0007
0008
0009
000A
000B
000C
000D
000E
000F
0010
0011
0012
0013
0014
0015
0016
0017
0018
0019
001A
001B
001C
001D
001E

LXI SP8500
MVI A 80
OUT CW
MVI A 00
OUT PA
CALL DLY
INR A
CPI FF
JNZ 0009
OUT PA
DCR A
CALL DLY
JNZ 8014
JMP 8009

31
00
85
3E
80
D3
40
3E
00
D3
41
CD
00
85
3C
FE
FF
C2
09
00
D3
41
3D
CD
00
85
C2
14
00
C3
09

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001F
00 ;
C)PROGRAM TO GENERATE SAWTOOTH WAVEFORM USING
DAC
0000
0001
0002
0003
0004
0005
0006
0007
0008
0009
000A
000B
000C
000D
000E
000F
0010
0011

LXI SP8500
MVI A 80
OUT CW
MVI A 00
OUT PA
CALL DLY
INR A
JMP 0009

31
00
85
3E
80
D3
40
3E
00
D3
41
CD
00
85
3C
C3
09
00

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D)PROGRAM TO GENERATE STAIRCASE WAVE USING DAC


TO GENERATE STAIRCASE WAVEFORM IT IS REQUIRED
TO CALUCLATE THE STEP SIZE. THE STEPSIZE IS
CALUCLATED AS FOLLOWS :
IF NUMBER OF STEPS = N
THEN STEP SIZE = (MAX. AMPLITUDE / N)
THE MAXIMMUM VALUE OF AN 8-BIT SYSTEM IS FFH.
AND THE MAXIMUM AMPLITUDE IS 5V. SO FOR 5 STEPS
THE STEPSIZE IS
FF/N = 255/5 = 51 = 33H
0000 MVI A 80
3E
0001
80
0002 OUT CW
D3
0003
40
0004 MVI A 00
3E
0005
0006 OUT PA
0007

000D
JNC
000E
000F
0010 JMP 0004
0011

;
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00 ;
D3 ;

0006
06 ;
00 ;
C3 ;
04 ;

41 ;
0008 CALL DLY
0009
000A
000B ADI 33
000C
33 ;
D2 ;

CD
00
85
C6

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0012

00 ;

E) PROGRAM TO GENERATE EXPONENTIAL WAVEFORM


USING DAC.

0000
0001
0002
0003
0004
0005
0006
0007
0008
0009
000A
000B
000C
000D
000E
000F
0010
0011
0012
0013
0014
0015
0016
0017
0018
0019
001A
001B

LXI SP8500
MVI A 80
OUT CW
MVI A 00
STC
RAL
OUT PA
CALL DLY
CPI 40
JNZ 000A
RAR
OUT PA
CALL DLY
CPI 01

31 ;
00 ;
85 ;
3E ;
80 ;
D3 ;
40 ;
3E ;
00 ;
37 ;
17 ;
D3 ;
41 ;
CD ;
00 ;
85 ;
FE ;
40 ;
C2 ;
0A ;
00 ;
1F ;
D3 ;
41 ;
CD ;
00 ;
85 ;
FE ;

001C
001D JNZ 0015
001E
001F
0020 JMP 000A
0021
0022

01
C2
15
00
C3
0A
00

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F) PROGRAM TO GENERRATE SINUSOIDAL WAVE USING


DAC.
TO GENERATE SINUSOIDAL WAVEFORM WE USE LOOKUP
TABLE METHOD.
LET V = VPSIN + VO IF WE SELECT THE AVERRAGE
VALUE OF THE SINE WAVE (THAT IS = 0O) AT THE MIDDLE
OF THE AVAILABLE RANGE THE WAVEFORM CAN BE OF
MAXIMUM POSSIBLE AMPLITUDE. THE FULL SWING IS
LIMITED TO FFH IN AN 8-BIT SYSTEM. IF AVERAGE LEVEL
V0IS SELECTED TO BE 80H THE VP (PEAK EXCURSION) CAN
BE FFH 80H = 7FH. THUS THE WAVEFORM WILL TAKE FFH
AT ITS POSITIVE PEAK(AT 90O)AND 01H(80H 7FH) AT ITS
NEGATIVE PEAK(AT 270O). PUTTING THE VALUES IN ABOVE
EQUATION,
V = 7FH SIN + 80H
IF WE CALUCLATE SAMPLES WITH 5O INTERVALS V
WILL TAKE VALUES AS FOLLOWS :

8000
8001
8002
8003
8004
8005
8006
8007
8008
8009
800A
800B
800C
800D
800E

MVI A 80
OUT CW
LXI H 8500
MVI C 72
MOV A M
OUT PA
CALL DLY

3E
80
D3
40
21
00
85
0E
72
7E
D3
41
CD
00
85

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800F
8010
8011
8012
8013
8014
8015
8016
(DEG)
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90

INX H
DCR C
JNZ 8009
JMP 8004

V
8BH
96H
A1H
ABH
B6H
C0H
C9H
D2H
DAH
E1H
E8H
EEH
F3H
F7H
FAH
FDH
FFH
FFH

(DEG)
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180

23
0D
C2
09
80
C3
04
80

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V
FFH
FDH
FAH
F7H
F3H
EEH
E8H
E1H
DAH
D2H
C9H
C0H
B6H
ABH
A1H
96H
8BH
80H

(DEG)
185
190
195
200
205
210
215
220
225
230
235
240
245
250
255
260
265
270

V
75H
6AH
5FH
55H
1AH
41H
37H
2EH
26H
1FH
18H
12H
0DH
09H
05H
03H
01H
01H

(DEG)
275
280
285
290
295
300
305
310
315
320
325
330
335
340
345
350
355
360

THE SAMPLED VALUES ARE KEPT IN THE MEMORY


STARTING FROM 8500 AND CALLED ONE BY ONE TO

V
01H
03H
05H
09H
0DH
12H
18H
1FH
26H
2EH
37H
41H
4AH
55H
5FH
6AH
75H
80H

OBTAIN A SINUSOIDAL WAVEFORM THE FREQUENCY OF


SINUSOIDAL WAVEFORM DEPENDS ON THE DELAY
CALUCLATION.
8255 PROGRAMMABLE PERIPHERAL INTERFACE
D7

D6

D5

PORT C PC3
PC0
1 = INPUT
0 = OUTPUT
PORT B PB7
PB0
1 = INPUT
0 = OUTPUT
MODE
0 MODE 0
1 MODE 1

1 I/O MODE
0 BSR MODE

PORT C PC7
PC4
1 = INPUT
0 = OUTPUT

D4

D3

D2

D1

D0

PORT A PA7
PA0
1 INPUT
0 OUTPUT
MODE
00 MODE 0
01 MODE 1
1X MODE

WE KNOW THAT 8085 MICROPROCESSOR DOES NOT


CONTAIN ANY PORTS TO IT TO INTERFACE PERIPHERAL
DEVICES HENCE IT REQUIRES AN ADDITIONAL CHIP SO AS
TO INTERFACE PERIPHERAL DEVICES FOR THIS TO BE
ACHIEVED WE USE A PROGRAMMABLE PERIPERAL
INTERFACE 8255 IC.
THIS IC CONSISTS OF 3 PORTS NAMELY PORT A, PORT
B, PORT C EACH OF WIDTH 8-BIT . HERE IN THIS CHIP TWO
PORTS(PORT A AND PORT B) WORK AS 8-BIT PORTS BUT
PORT C CAN WORK AS 8-BIT PORT OR AS TWO 4-BIT
PORTS.
HERE WE CAN CONCLUDE THAT OUR 8255 PROVIDES
US THE TOTAL OF 24 LINES (3 PORTS) WHICH CAN BE USED
EITHER AS INPUT OR OUTPUT PORTS.
BUT TO DEFINE ALL THIS PORTS AND MODES WE
REQUIRE A WORD TO DEFINE ALL THIS WHETHER TO
SELECT PORTS AS INPUT OR OUTPUT OTHERWISE FOR
MODE SELECTION ETC., THIS WORD IS KNOWN AS
CONTROL WORD.
THE 8085 CAN OPERATE IN THREE MODES OF
OPERRATION
1. SIMPLE I/O MODE.
2. STROBED I/O MODE.
3. BIDIRECTIONAL DATA TRANSFER.
DURING INTERFACING WE USE SIMPLE I/O MODE FOR
INTERFACING DACS, ADCS, LED DISPLAYS ETC.,
STEPS TO INTERFACE EXTERNAL DEVICES WITH 8255
1. WRITE THE PROPER CONTROL WORD TO CONTROL
WORD REGISTER

2. IDENTIFY THE ADDRESSES OF THE PORTS (PORT A,


PORT B, PORT C)
FROM THE MANUAL.
3. THE ADDRESSES FOR THE PORTS AND CONTROL
WORD REGISTER FOR THE KIT WE ARE USING ARE AS
FOLLOWS :
CONTROL WORD PORT A

PORT B

PORT C

BY USING THIS ADDRESSES WE CAN EITHER ACCEPT


DATA AS INPUT OR WE CAN SEND DATA OUTPUT TO
CONTROL THE DEVICE.
THE LAST STEP IS TO PREPARE THE ALGORITHM AND
WRITE THE PROGRAM AS PER THE REQUIREMENT.

INTERFACING ADC TO 8085

TO INTERFACE ADC TO MICROPROCESSOR WE REQUIRE


TO FOLLOW THE FOLLOWING STEPS:
The analog part of the circuit consists of a high input
impedance buffer a1, precision integrator a2 and a
voltage comparator.

The converter first integrates the analog input signal


va for a fixed duration of 2n clock periods.

Then it integrates an internal reference voltage vr of


opposite polarity until the integrator output is zero.

The number n of clock cycles required to return the


integrator to zero is proportional to the value of va
averaged over the integration period.

Hence, n represents the desired output code.


The operation of the circuit is as follows :

Before the start command arrives, the switch sw1 is


connected to ground and sw2 is closed. Any offset
voltage present in the a1, a2, comparator loop after
integration, appears across the capacitor caz till the
threshold of the comparator is achieved.

The capacitor caz thus provides automatic


compensation for the input offset voltage of all the
three amplifiers.

When sw2 opens, caz acts as a memory to hold the


voltage required to keep the offset nulled.

At the arrival of start command at t=t1 , the control


logic opens sw2 and connects sw1 to va and enables
the counter starting from zero.

The circuit uses an n-stage ripple counter and


therefore the counter resets to zero after counting 2n
pulses.

The analog voltage va is integrated for a fixed number


2n counts of clock pulses after which the counter
resets to zero.

If the clock period is t, the integration takes place for


a time t1 = 2n x t and the output is ramp going
downwards as in fig 2.

The counter resets itself to zero at the end of the


interval t1 and the switch sw1 is connected to the
reference voltage (-vr). The output voltage vo will
now have a positive slope. As long as vo is negative ,
the output of the comparator is positive and control
logic allows the clock pulse to be counted. However,
when vo becomes just zero at time t=t3, the control

logic issues an end of conversion(eoc) command and


no further clock pulses enter the counter.

It can be shown that the reading of the counter at t s


is proportional to the analog input voltage va
In fig 2,
t1 = t2 t1 = (2n counts / clock rate)
And t3 t2 = (digital count n / clock rate)
For an integrator,
v0 = (-1/rc)v(t)

The voltage vo will be equal to v1 at the instant t2 and


can be written as
v1 = (-1/rc ) va(t2 t1)
So,

va (t2 t1) = vr (t3 t2)

Putting, the values of (t2 t1) = 2n and (t3 t2) = n, we


get,
va = (vr) (n/2n).
The main disadvantage of the dual slope ADC is long
conversion time.

Program to Interface ADC to 8085 Microprocessor :


8000 MVI A 82

3E ;

8001
8002
8003
8004
8005
8006
8007
8008
8009
800A
800B
800C
800D
800E
800F
8010
8011
8012
8013
8014
8015
8016
8017
8018
8019
801A
801B
801C
801D
801E
801F
8020
8021
8022
8023

OUT 43
MVI A 02
OUT 40
NOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
MVI A 01
OUT 40
LXI H 02C0
DCX
MOV
ORA
JNZ

H
A H
L
8015

MVI A 04
OUT 40
MVI B 00
INR B
IN 41

82
D3
43
3E
02
D3
40
00
00
00
00
00
00
3E
01
D3
40
21
C0
02
2B
7C
B5
C2
15
80
3E
04
D3
40
06
00
04
DB
41

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8024
8025
8026
8027
8028
8029
802A
802B
802C
802D
802E
802F
8030
8031

Integrator o/p
voltage Vo

ANI 01
JNZ 8021
MVI A 02
OUT 40
MOV A B
STA 8501
HLT

E6
01
C2
21
80
3E
02
D3
40
78
32
01
85
76

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AUTOZER
t1

T1 = 2n
T

N-Cycles
t3

t2

Time T

V1
Integrate Va

Integrate (-VR)

Fig :- 2 :- integrated o/p waveform of dual slope ADC

START

Control

N
STAGE

d
0

EOC

Fig : 1 Functional diagram of a dual slope ADC

INTERFACING STEPPER MOTOR TO 8085 :


MOTOR ELECTRICAL BASICS
A step motor is a constant output power transducer, where power is defined as torque
multiplied by speed. This means motor torque is the inverse of motor speed. To help
understand why a step motors power is independent of speed, we need to construct
(figuratively) an ideal step motor.
An ideal step motor would have zero mechanical friction, its torque would be
proportional to ampere-turns and its only electrical characteristic would be inductance.
Ampere-turns simply mean that torque is proportional to the number of turns of wire in
the motors stator multiplied by the current passing through those turns of wire.
Anytime there are turns of wire surrounding a magnetic material such as the iron in the
motors stator, it will have an electrical property called inductance. Inductance describes
the energy stored in a magnetic field anytime current passes through this coil of wire.
Inductance (L) has a property called inductive reactance, which for the purposes of this
discussion may be thought of as a resistance proportional to frequency and therefore
motor speed.
According to ohms law, current is equal to voltage divided by resistance. In this case we
substitute inductive reactance for resistance in ohms law and conclude motor current is
the inverse of motor speed.

Since torque is proportional to ampere-turns (current times the number of turns of wire
in the winding), and current is the inverse of speed, torque also has to be the inverse of
speed.
In an ideal step motor, as speed approaches zero, its torque would approach infinity
while at infinite speed torque would be zero. Because current is proportional to torque,
motor current would be infinite at zero speed as well.
Electrically, a real motor differs from an ideal one primarily by having a non-zero winding
resistance. Also the iron in the motor is subject to magnetic saturation, as well as having
eddy current and hysteresis losses. Magnetic saturation sets a limit on current to torque
proportionality while eddy current and hysteresis (iron losses) along with winding
resistance (copper losses) cause motor heating.

Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. A


stepper motor converts electrical pulses into specific rotational
movements. The movement created by each pulse is precise and
repeatable, which is why stepper motors are so effective for
positioning applications.
Permanent Magnet stepper motors incorporate a permanent
magnet rotor, coil windings and magnetically conductive stators.
Energizing a coil winding creates an
electromagnetic field with a north and south pole as shown in
figure 1. The stator carries the magnetic field which causes the
rotor to align itself with the magnetic field. The magnetic field can
be altered by sequentially energizing or stepping the stator coils
which generates rotary motion.

Figure 2 illustrates a typical step sequence for a two phase motor.


In Step 1 phase A of a two phase stator is energized. This
magnetically locks the rotor in the position shown, since unlike
poles attract. When phase A is turned off and phase B is turned
on, the rotor rotates 90clockwise. In Step 3, phase B is turned off
and phase A is turned on but with the polarity reversed from Step
1. This causes another 90rotation. In Step 4, phase A is turned
off and phase B is turned on, with polarity reversed from Step 2.
Repeating this sequence causes the rotor to
rotate clockwise in 90steps.
The stepping sequence illustrated in figure 2 is called one phase
on stepping.
A more common method of stepping is two phase on where
both phases of the
motor are always energized. However, only the polarity of one
phase is switched
at a time, as shown in figure 3. With two phase on stepping the
rotor aligns itself
between the average north and average south magnetic
poles. Since both
phases are always on, this method gives 41.4% more torque than
one phase on
stepping, but with twice the power input.

Half Stepping
The motor can also be half stepped by inserting an off state
between
transitioning phases. This cuts a steppers full step angle in half.
For example, a

90stepping motor would move 45on each half step, figure 4.


However, half
stepping typically results in a 15% - 30% loss of torque depending
on step rate
when compared to the two phase on stepping sequence. Since
one of the windings
is not energized during each alternating half step there is less
electromagnetic
force exerted on the rotor resulting in a net loss of torque.

Bipolar Winding
The two phase stepping sequence described utilizes a bipolar
coil winding.
Each phase consists of a single winding. By reversing the current
in the windings,
electromagnetic polarity is reversed. The output stage of a typical
two phase bipolar drive is further illustrated in the electrical

schematic diagram and stepping sequence in figure 5. As


illustrated, switching simply reverses the current flow
through the winding thereby changing the polarity of that phase.

Unipolar Winding
Another common winding is the unipolar winding. This consists of
two
windings on a pole connected in such a way that when one
winding is energized a
magnetic north pole is created, when the other winding is
energized a south pole is
created. This is referred to as a unipolar winding because the
electrical polarity,
i.e. current flow, from the drive to the coils is never reversed. The
stepping sequence is illustrated in figure 6. This design allows for
a simpler electronic drive.
However, there is approximately 30% less torque available
compared to a bipolar
winding. Torque is lower because the energized coil only utilizes
half as much
copper as compared to a bipolar coil.

Accuracy

The accuracy for can-stack style steppers is 6 - 7% per step, noncumulative.


A 7.5stepper will be within 0.5of theoretical position for every
step, regardless
of how many steps are taken. The incremental errors are noncumulative because
the mechanical design of the motor dictates a 360movement for
each full
revolution. The physical position of the pole plates and magnetic
pattern of the
rotor result in a repeatable pattern through every 360rotation
(under no load
conditions).

Resonance

Stepper motors have a natural resonant frequency as a result of


the motor
being a spring-mass system. When the step rate equals the
motors natural frequency,
there may be an audible change in noise made by the motor, as
well as an

increase in vibration. The resonant point will vary with the


application and load,
but typically occurs somewhere between 70 and 120 steps per
second. In severe
cases the motor may lose steps at the resonant frequency.
Changing the step rate
is the simplest means of avoiding many problems related to
resonance in a system.
Also, half stepping or micro stepping usually reduces resonance
problems. When
accelerating to speed, the resonance zone should be passed
through as quickly as
possible.

Torque
The torque produced by a specific rotary stepper motor is a
function of:
The step rate
The current through the windings
The type of drive used
(The force generated by a linear motor is also dependent upon
these factors.)
Torque is the sum of the friction torque (Tf) and inertial torque
(Ti).
T= Tf + Ti
The frictional torque (ounce-inches or gram-cm) is the force (F), in
ounces or
grams, required to move a load multiplied by the length, in inches
or cm, of the
lever arm used to drive the load (r) as shown in figure 8.

Tf = F r

Figure 8. Frictional torque is the force (F)


required to move a load multiplied by the length
of the lever arm (r).

The inertial torque (Ti) is the torque required to accelerate the


load (gram-cm2).

It should be noted that as the step rate of a motor is increased,


the back electromotive force (EMF) (i.e. the generated voltage) of
the motor also increases. This restricts current flow and results in
a decrease in useable output torque.

AC Synchronous Motors

Stepping motors can also be run on AC (Alternating Current).


However,
one phase must be energized through a properly selected
capacitor. In this case
the motor is limited to only one synchronous speed. For instance,
if 60 hertz is
being supplied, there are 120 reversals or alterations of the power
source. The
phase being energized by a capacitor is also producing the same
number of alterations at an offset time sequence. The motor is
really being energized at the

equivalent of 240 steps per second. For a 15rotary motor, 24


steps are required
to make one revolution (24 SPR). This becomes a 600 RPM
synchronous motor.

In the case of a linear actuator the linear speed produced is


dependent on the
resolution per step of the motor. For example if 60 hertz is
supplied to a .001/
step motor the resulting speed is .240 per second (240 steps per
second times
.001/step). Many of HSIs stepping motors are available as 300 or
600 RPM
AC synchronous motors.

Drives
Stepper motors require some external electrical components in
order to run.
These components typically include a power supply, logic
sequencer, switching
components and a clock pulse source to determine the step rate.
Many commercially available drives have integrated these
components into a complete package. Some basic drive units
have only the final power stage without the controller electronics
to generate the proper step sequencing.

Bipolar Drive

This is a very popular drive for a two phase bipolar motor having
four leads.
In a complete driver/controller the electronics alternately reverse
the current in
each phase. The stepping sequence is shown in figure 5.

Unipolar Drive

This drive requires a motor with a center-tap at each phase (6


leads). Instead of reversing the current in each phase, the drive
only has to switch current from one coil to the other in each phase
(figure 6). The windings are such that this switching reverses the
magnetic fields within the motor. This option makes for a simpler
drive but only half of the copper winding is used at any one time.
This results in approximately 30% less available torque in a rotary
motor or force in alinear actuator as compared to an equivalent
bipolar motor.

L/R Drives
This type of drive is also referred to as a constant voltage drive.
Many of
these drives can be configured to run bipolar or unipolar stepper
motors. L/R
stands for the electrical relationship of inductance (L) to
resistance (R). Motor coil
impedance vs. step rate is determined by these parameters. The
L/R drive should
match the power supply output voltage to the motor coil
voltage rating for continuous duty operation. Most published
motor performance curves are based on
full rated voltage applied at the motor leads. Power supply output
voltage level
must be set high enough to account for electrical drops within the
drive circuitry for optimum continuous operation.
Performance levels of most steppers can be improved by
increasing the applied
voltage for shortened duty cycles. This is typically referred to as
over-driving
the motor. When over-driving a motor, the operating cycle must
have sufficient
periodic off time (no power applied) to prevent the motor
temperature rise
from exceeding the published specification.

Chopper Drives

A chopper drive allows a stepper motor to maintain greater torque


or force

at higher speeds than with an L/R drive. The chopper drive is a


constant current
drive and is almost always the bipolar type. The chopper gets its
name from the
technique of rapidly turning the output power on and off
(chopping) to control
motor current. For this setup, low impedance motor coils and the
maximum voltage power supply that can be used with the drive
will deliver the best performance. As a general rule, to achieve
optimum performance, the recommended ratio between power
supply and rated motor voltage is eight to one. An eight to one
ratio was used for the performance curves in this catalog.

Microstepping Drives
Many bipolar drives offer a feature called microstepping.
Microstepping
electronically divides a full step into smaller steps. For instance, if
one step of a
linear actuator is 0.001 inch, this can be driven to have 10
microsteps per step. In
this case, one microstep would normally be 0.0001 inch.
Microstepping effectively
reduces the step increment of a motor. However, the accuracy of
each microstep
has a larger percentage of error as compared to the accuracy of a
full step. As
with full steps, the incremental errors of microsteps are noncumulative.

Fatigue / Life

With proper application, HSIs linear actuators deliver up to 20


million cycles
and HSIs rotary motors provide up to 25,000 hours of service.
Ultimately motor
fatigue and resultant life are determined by each customers
unique application.
The following definitions are important for understanding motor
life
and fatigue.

Continuous Duty: Running a motor at its rated voltage.


25% Duty Cycle: Running a motor at double its rated voltage on
an L/R
drive. The motor is on approximately 25% of the time. The
motor
generates about 60% more output than at rated voltage. Note,
duty
cycle is not related to the load placed on the motor.
Life: A linear actuators life is the number of cycles that the motor
is able to
move at a prescribed load and maintain step accuracy. Rotary
motor life
is the number of hours of operation.
One Cycle: A linear actuators cycle consists of extending and
retracting
back to the original position.

Terminology :

Detent or residual torque: The torque required to rotate the


motors output
shaft with no current applied to the windings.
Drives: A term depicting the external electrical components to run
a Stepper
Motor System. This will include power supplies, logic sequencers,
switching components and usually a variable frequency pulse
source to determine the step rate.
Dynamic torque: The torque generated by the motor at a given
step rate. Dynamic
torque can be represented by PULL IN torque or PULL OUT torque.

Holding torque: The torque required to rotate the motors output


shaft while the
windings are energized with a steady state D.C. current.
Inertia: The measure of a bodys resistance to acceleration or
deceleration.
Typically used in reference to the inertia of the load to be moved
by a motor or the
inertia of a motors rotor.
Linear step increment: The linear travel movement generated by
the leadscrew
with each single step of the rotor.
Maximum temperature rise: Determined by the resistance rise
method, motor
unmounted in free air and energized with a steady state D.C.
current.
Pull in torque: The load a motor can move without missing steps
when started
at a constant pulse rate.
Pull out torque: The load a motor can move when at operating
speed. This is
normally substantially greater than the Pull in torque.
Pulse rate: The number of pulses per second (pps) applied to the
windings of the
motor. The pulse rate is equivalent to the motor step rate.
Pulses per second (PPS): The number of steps that the motor
takes in one
second (sometimes called steps per second). This is determined
by the frequency
of pulses produced by the motor drive.

Ramping: A drive technique to accelerate a given load from a low


step rate, to a
given maximum step rate and then to decelerate to the initial
step rate without the
loss of steps.
Single step response: The time required for the motor to make
one
complete step.
Step: The angular rotation produced by the rotor each time the
motor receives
a pulse. For linear actuators a step translates to a specific linear
distance.
Step angle: The rotation of the rotor caused by each step,
measured in degrees.
Steps per revolution: The total number of steps required for the
rotor to
rotate 360.
Torque to inertia ratio: Holding torque divided by rotor inertia.

0000
0001
0002
0003
0004
0005
0006
0007
0008
0009
000A
000B
000C
000D
000E

MVI A 80

8050
8051
8052
8053
8054
8055
8056
8057
8058
8059
805A
805B
805C
805D
805E
805F
8060
8061

PUSH PSW
LXI H 0001

OUT 43
MVI A 88
OUT 40
CALL8050
RLC
JMP 0006

LXI D 0FFF
DCX
MOV
ORA
JNZ

D
A D
E
8057

DCX
MOV
ORA
JNZ

H
A H
L
8054

3E
80
D3
43
3E
88
D3
40
CD
50
80
07
C3
06
00

;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;

F5
21
01
00
11
FF
0F
1B
7A
B3
C2
57
80
2B
7C
B5
C2
54

;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
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;

8062
8063 POP
8064 RET

PSW

80 ;
F1 ;
C9 ;