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November 8, 2012

A Penton Media Publication


Tune in to EngineeringTV.com

HOW HOT RODDERS SOUP


UP ELECTRIC MOTORS,
page 20
HOW TO MAKE CAM
FOLLOWERS IN PLASTIC,
page 38
HOW TO MAKE PLASTIC
OUT OF PLANTS,
page 46
HOW TO DODGE DANGER
WITH AIR LOGIC,
page 60

Microhydraulics.
Macro capabilities.
So much reliability and performance, in so little space.
Creating high-performance ow control on a micro scale has been
The Lee Companys exclusive focus for more than 50 years. And
its been a successful mission, as evidenced by thousands of applied
Lee Microhydraulics designs ranging from less than 0.10 in. to 1.00 in.
in diameter, and 0.1 to 68 grams, for operating pressures to 8,000 psi.
But small size and light weight are just the beginning.Theres
also absolute reliability built into every Lee component through
100 % testing and inspection. Zero defects. Its a production benchmark
that has enabled Lee to meet demanding application needs in all
sorts of industries. Aerospace, medical instrumentation, automotive,
machine tools and oil drilling, to name a few.
The innovative problem solvers.
We dont just satisfy requirements. We also solve problems
whether by simple modication, or ground-zero design engineering.
The Lee Company is the worlds most capable and proven source
for hydraulic-component innovation. And weve documented this
claim in extensive detail with the Lee Technical Hydraulic Handbook.
An invaluable reference, the Lee handbook contains essential data
on the entire Microhydraulics product line, which includes:
Lee Shuttle Valves. Detented, spring-biased, inverse,
loose ball and zero leak shuttle valves from 50-700 Lohms.

Lee Safety Screens. Best protection for critical system


elements. 75 to 500 micron hole size. Pressures to 7,500 psid.

Lee Pri. Pressure relief valves in insert form.


50 to 400 Lohm capacity. 20 to 5,400 psid cracking pressures.

Lee Directional Flow Control. 40 to 20,000 Lohms


in metered direction. 12 to 470 Lohms in free-ow direction.

Lee Restrictors. Single and multi-orice restrictors.


200 to 2.2 million Lohms.

Lee Shuttle
Valve. Shown
actual size.
Designed to
isolate the
normal from
the emergency
hydraulic system. So small,
it ts right
into the head
of an actuator.

Lee Plugs. The best way to seal drilled holes to 32,000 psi.
No O-rings, threads or sealants required.

Lee Cheks. All-metal and zero-leak check valves.


4 to 400 Lohms.

Innovation in miniature.

Essential reading
for designers of
hydraulic systems.
Send for your
free copy.

Westbrook

The Lee Company


2 Pettipaug Rd, Westbrook CT 06498-0424
860-399-6281 Fax: 860-399-2270
1-800-LEE PLUG
www.TheLeeCo.com

Gerrards

Cross

RS# 101

Paris

Frankfurt

Milan

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omega.com

Because of transmission frequency regulations, these wireless products


may only be used in the United States, Canada and Europe.



RS# 102

COPYRIGHT 2012 OMEGA ENGINEERING, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

VOLUME 84
ISSUE 17
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

MOTION CONTROL
Rollers with polymer
bearing surfaces work
with aluminum rails, which
cost far less than groundhardened-steel versions.

How to

GET BETTER
MOTION with

plastic parts

Nylon 12: The plastic


of choice

Polymer bearing
surfaces resist
wear, dont need
maintenance,
and can run
surprisingly fast.

FEATURES
to get better motion
38 How
with plastic parts
Rollers, cam followers, and other
components used for moving parts can make
good use of polymers to increase speeds,
reduce wear, and resist chemicals and harsh
environments. Theyre also quieter than
metal components.

The polymer advantage


Many engineers still believe that heavily loaded applications need metal rollers and cam followers. They are
unaware that polymer bearing surfaces withstand enormous forces if designed properly. At Intech Power Core,
Closter, N. J., for example, weve delivered polymer rollers that withstand 8-ton loads. These rollers have been
used in ski lifts and rigs that can raise an entire building. But the primary task of most rollers and cam fol-

46 A biodegradable alternative to foam is grown

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

ACHINE

How to

AVOID
ELECTRICAL
HAZARDS with

Pneumatic controls are


a viable option when
electrical hazards cant
be tolerated.

air logic

Authored by:

Kenneth J. Korane
Managing Editor

Key points:
Air logic functions like relays, switches, and
counters, but uses compressed air instead of
electricity.
Air-logic controls are preferred in wet or dusty
conditions because they pose little danger of
electrical explosion or shock.

Resources:
AOP Technologies, www.aoptec.com
Clippard Instrument Laboratory,
www.clippard.com

from mushroom roots and agricultural waste.

D
s
49 MLiterature
Express

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

FLUIDPOWER TECHNOLOGY GUIDE

clutches and brakes

How to rid foam of petroleum

MACHINE DESIGN.com

lowers is to transmit motion rather than support loads.


Regardless of their purpose, rollers and followers are
commonly hybrid designs with polymer load-bearing surfaces over metal roller bearings or structural hubs. These
hybrid components, often sized as drop-in replacements
for standard-sized all-metal components, offer compelling
technical advantages due to their use of polymers:
Self-lubricating. Engineering polymers best suited for
rollers are self-lubricating, a property that last the life of
the component.
Bearing surfaces
Authored by:
made from these
George Bartosh
polymers never
President
require lubrica- Intech Power Core
tion between the Closter, N. J.
roller and rail.
Edited by Stephen J. Mraz
When combined
stephen.mraz@penton.com
with lubed-forResources:
life bearings,
polymer surfaces Intech Power Core, www.intechpower.com
For another feature on
eliminate mainplastic parts, scan this
tenance costs
code or go to: http://
associated with
machinedesign.com/
regular lubricaarticle/plastic-gearstion, even those
outlast-metal-0506
scheduled after
washdowns.

38

to design suppression
42 How
circuits for electric
Back-EMF in clutches and brakes may lead to
erratic operation and a shortened life.

Cam followers and rollers


from Intech put a gravitycast nylon 12 bearing surface
on metal hubs and roller bearings.
Using nylon eliminates the need for
lubrication and makes the components
quieter than their all-metal counterparts.

Engineers might only glance at the dimensions and load


capacities of roller and cam followers to ensure they will
fit in their design before placing an order. But they should
pay closer attention because these components can make
or break the performance of motion subsystems critical
to a host of industrial machines.
Choose the wrong roller or cam follower and your
design can be destined for a shortened life plagued with
maintenance headaches, contamination issues, and speed
limitations. The wrong component can also drive up operating and manufacturing costs. The right components, by
contrast, will contribute to a longer life of reliable motion
that engineers and buyers expect.
But how do you pick the right roller or cam follower for
the job at hand?
The trick is considering not just sizes and loads but also
the materials that make up the rollers bearing surface.

38

More importantly, self-lubrication puts an end to the loss


of performance and catastrophic failures common when metal rollers and rails
arent regularly lubricated.
Wear resistance. Metal-on-metal contact, even when both metal surfaces
are lubricated, can result in excessive wear and galling. Metal-on-metal wear
affects rollers and rails, which are far more expensive to replace. Plastic rollers
eliminate this wear.
Clean running. Self-lubricated polymers eliminate two potential sources of
contamination stray
lubricant and particulates from metal-onmetal contact. For this
reason, polymer cam folFrom cheap plastics to the worlds most-exlowers and rollers are a
pensive composites, many types of polymers have
good choice for medical, been machined, molded, or cast into rollers, cam
semiconductor, foodfollowers, and other power-transmission compoprocessing, and cleannents. Engineers at Intech focused their developroom applications.
ment eorts on a proprietary, gravity-cast nylon
Smooth and quiet oper12 called Power-Core PA12GC. It combines several
ation. Unlike metals,
advantageous material properties.
polymers can dampen
From a materials standpoint, Power-Core mainshocks and vibrations. In
tains its physical properties in a variety of operating
cam followers, polymers
conditions. This stability lets engineers accurately
absorb the damaging
predict the materials behavior and life even when
shocks and vibrations
its exposed to varying moisture, temperature, and
caused by reciprocating chemical levels.
motion. This prolongs
In particular, Power-Cores stability despite
the life of machine bear- high-humidity and even total immersion, makes
ings, especially in high- it well suited to power-transmission applications.
speed applications.
Most high-performance polymers absorb moisIn rollers, damp- ture, swell, and lose tensile strength. Power-transing contributes to quiet
mission components made from moisture-absorbmotion. Polymer roll- ing (hygroscopic) polymers can end up too weak
ers typically run about to carry the loads they were designed for and too
10 dB quieter than their swollen to work with mating components.
metal counterparts.
Power-Core also dampens vibrations, which
They run smoothly too,
lets it reduce noise and absorb shock loads that
thanks to their precise power-transmission components commonly see.
roundness. For example,
To make these components, Intech gravity
total runout on a macasts nylon 12 over metal hubs or thermally installs
chined nylon 12 cam it over rollers bearings to create the beginnings
follower with a 1.5-in.
of a cam follower, roller, or gear. These blanks are
OD would be less than then precision machine into nished components.
0.001-in.
Gravity casting contributes to Power-Cores low
Speed and efficiency.
internal stresses that gives the polymer a uniform
Polymer rollers facilitate
crystalline structure. As a result, nished compohigh-speed, energy-effinents have a consistent machining resistance that
cient motion in a three
improves precision during manufacture and use.
ways. First, polymer And under external load, the dense crystalline
rollers weigh about 40%
structure helps thwart stress-induced cracks and
less than similarly sized swelling that sometimes lead to premature failure.
metal rollers, reducing

RS# 621

Magnum Venus Plastech, www.mvpind.com

ESIGN

Electrical and electronic devices such as logic circuits,


programmable controllers, and PCs normally control
fluid-power and fluid-handling circuits. Such systems
can also operate with air logic, controls that function
like relays, switches, time delays, and counters. However,
while the circuitry is similar, compressed air is the control medium instead of electric current.
Air-logic controls are often preferred in wet or dusty
environments because they pose practically no danger of
explosion or electrical shock. Likewise, air controls cannot ignite explosive or flammable gases and vapors. And
theyre rugged. Water can splash on the controls without
affecting operations, and they tolerate dust and dirt. Air

to avoid electrical
60 How
hazards with air logic
Pneumatic controls are a viable option when
electrical hazards cant be tolerated.

60

MACHINE DESIGN.com

Air-logic controls for composites


manufacturing rely on miniature valves,
manifolds, and other components from
Clippard Instrument Laboratory.

logic can also be used on machines with fluid-power components but no electrical supply.
Air logic does have disadvantages. Most common is
a lack of understanding among maintenance personnel
on how to read schematics and troubleshoot problems.
Also, air logic with long control lines responds noticeably slower than electronics. Thats because control lines
longer than 10 to 15 ft fill and exhaust slowly compared to
near-instantaneous electrical signals. In addition, it takes

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

60
Access our Reader Service
Web site to quickly find and
request information on the
products and services found
in the pages of MACHINE DESIGN.
www.machinedesign.com/rsc

MACHINE DESIGN.com

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

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RS# 103

DEPARTMENTS

ON THE COVER
Photo by R.L.Rubenking

8 EDITORIAL
More green cards, more H-1B visas

10 EDITORIAL STAFF
12 LETTERS
16 SCANNING FOR IDEAS
Liquid cooling for servers also supplies hot water
Gimbal mount expands drones view

20 REPORTERS NOTEBOOK
26 LOOKING BACK
33 SENSOR SENSE
Metal-faced inductive sensors for durability

35 COMMENTARY
Googles got nothing on Cat

36 INVENTORS CORNER
Compact engine packs a powerful punch

68 PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT
Linear actuators

72 PRODUCTS
74 BUSINESS INDEX
76 STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP
77 AD INDEX
78 CLASSIFIEDS
78 BUSINESS STAFF

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79 BACKTALK

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NOVEMBER 8, 2012

POSTMASTER: Send change of address notice to


Customer Service, MACHINE DESIGN, P.O. Box 2100, Skokie,
IL 60076-7800.

EXAIR Blows Away The Competition!

S e Over
Save
Ov r $1,200
P r Year
Y r
200 Per
R p i g One
O Outdated
O d d Air Nozzle!
By Replacing
Weve all seen at air nozzles. Some are yellow. Others are orange. The oldest
ones are blue or metal. Those other manufacturers want you to believe youll
save money by conserving compressed air while protecting your workers from
harmful noise levels. In reality, those colorful air nozzles that blow the air out
of holes consume enormous amounts of air. The plastic ones often break o.
Some might even get you an OSHA ne due to the dangerous dead ended
pressures that exist if someone blocks the air exhaust.
EXAIRs award winning 2" Super Air Nozzle has been engineered to replace
those outdated at nozzles. There are no dangerous holes. EXAIRs patented,
award winning design is ecient, maintaining a precise amount of airow
through a thin slot. The result is a forceful stream of high velocity, laminar
airow with minimal air consumption and noise. You can increase or decrease
the force of each at air nozzle using shims to tune it to the application so
youll never waste compressed air.
Flat nozzles from other manufacturers can consume over 30 SCFM
(a refrigerator sized compressor) and arent adjustable. Some manufacturers
oer dierent ow rates but you need to guess at which one will do the job since
you cant adjust them once youve made the purchase. By default, most users feel
bigger is better and go with the highest ow rate, wasting compressed air.

COMPARE

Heres how:
One popular flat nozzle consumes
31 SCFM @ 80 PSIG.
EXAIRs 2" Super Air Nozzle with .015" shim
consumes 21.8 SCFM @ 80 PSIG.
31 SCFM (theirs) 21.8 SCFM (EXAIRs) =
9.2 SCFM compressed air saved/min.
Most large plants know their cost per 1,000
standard cubic feet of compressed air. If
you dont know your actual cost per 1,000
SCF, 25 is a reasonable average to use.
SCFM saved x 60 minutes x cost/1,000 SCF =
dollars saved per hour.
In this case, 9.2 SCFM x 60 x .25/1,000 SCF=
13.8 cents saved per hour.
13.8 cents per hour x 24 hours =
$3.31 saved per day.
$3.31 per day x 365 days =
$1,208.88 saved in one year
(in this 24/7 operation).

And, This Savings Is For One Nozzle!


Air
Nozzle
Yellow

Air Consumption Noise Level lbs. of Force


@ 80 PSIG
dBA
@ 80 PSIG
29 SCFM

83

1.7

Orange

28 SCFM

82

1.7

Blue

26 SCFM

78

1.5

Metal (machined)

29 SCFM

82

1.7

Metal (cast)

31 SCFM

EXAIR 2" Super Air Nozzle *7.3- 30 SCFM

80

1.9

62-81

0.5 1.9

*Air consumption dependent upon shim size.

EXAIRs 2" Super Air Nozzle can


pay for itself in less than 15 days.
Put the 2" Super Air Nozzle to work
in your blowoff, cooling or drying
application. Were sure youll agree
that it blows away the competition!
RS# 104
11510 Goldcoast Drive Cincinnati, OH 45249-1621
Phone (800) 903-9247 FAX (513) 671-3363
E-mail: techelp@exair.com

www.exair.com/45/42san.htm

@EXAIR

The

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Power everything via USB


The president of the USB Implementers Forum gives an overview of the new
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EDITORS WEB PICKS

Roller and
conveyor chains

A new 140-page catalog from iwis


drive systems covers the design,
selection, and application of a wide
range of chains. Content includes
roller, conveyor, accumulation, flyer,
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versions, modular belts for industrial
applications, and products for timing
drives. Theres also a section on
lubricants and lubrication methods.
Request or download a copy at www.
iwis.de/catalogues.

Power-supply site
Mouser Electronics has launched
a new Power Supply site. It contains
technical and design information,
including the benefits of switchedmode power supplies such as high
efficiency, small size, and light
weight. It also provides details on
UPS and ac/dc applications. Content
includes product data, white papers,
a library of technical resources,
and info on products from major
manufacturers. Visit www.mouser.
com/power-supply-technology.

Dealing with digital


The Agilent Technologies HighSpeed Digital site (www.agilent.

MACHINE DESIGN.com

com/find/HSD) covers test and


measurement products such as
oscilloscopes, analyzers, and meters.
It delves into topics such as signal
integrity, design and simulation,
and high-speed digital analysis, and
offers debugging tips. The technical
support area includes a library,
FAQs, and discussion forums. And
a new white paper, Crossing the
Digital-Analog Divide, explains how
digital signals are idealized at high
data rates, as well as how to cope
with the physical nature of signals
that engineers might prefer to think
of as bits and bytes.

Bearings info
Kilian Manufacturing, an Altra
Industrial Motion company,
has a new Web site on bearings
and assemblies for demanding
automotive and industrial
applications. It covers products
such as ball, needle, roller, and
thrust bearings, as well as customengineered specialty bearings
and polymer assemblies. Content
included downloadable brochures,
catalogs, industry specific
application profiles, service manuals,
and articles. Visit www.KilianBearings.
com.

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

UPCOMING WEB
EVENTS
BASICS OF MOTION
CONTROL WITH PLCs
AND STEPPERS
Online tutorial videos detail
motion-control theory and
application using PLCs as the
supervisory controller.
A new 11-part Motion Control
video series features the
DirectLogic 05 PLC, SureStep
stepping system components,
and C-more micro HMI. It starts
with the basics of the hardware,
describes typical motion
applications, then moves through
demonstrations using equipment
such as a linear slide.
To view individual segments
of this series, visit http://learn.
automationdirect.com and look
under the Drives/Motors tab.
Four new Do-more PLC videos
focus on using the new CPU with
the latest high-speed counter
module to perform motion
applications using switches or
encoders, as well as details on
hardware setup and software
functions such as trapezoidal
moves.
To view this series, visit http://
learn.automationdirect.com and
look under the PLCs tab for Domore PLC-Live demos.
Or find them all at: www.youtube.
com/automationdirect. Become
a subscriber and get alerts when
new videos are uploaded.

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If you need a quality valve, cylinder or tting but


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Miniature Pneumatic Air Cylinders, Electronic Valves, Control Valves, Acrylic Subplates, Air Preparation Eqt., Fittings, Hose and More
RS# 106

EDITORIAL
More green cards,
more H-1B visas
Microsoft was recently in the news because it came up with a new scheme
for more H-1B visas. H-1B, of course, lets U.S. companies employ foreign
workers in such highly specialized occupations as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Microsoft not only wants Congress to
permit more H-1B visas but also to reallocate 20,000 green cards for workers
with such technical skills.
In return for boosting H-1B quotas, Microsoft would have Uncle Sam
charge companies $10,000 per additional H-1B worker. It also suggests charging employers $15,000 per STEM green card over the current quota. So far, so
good. Employers should be willing to pay a stiff fee if they feel their needs are
urgent enough to hire outside the U.S. Id even suggest setting the fee at levels
far higher than what Microsoft has in mind as a way of making employers
show they are serious.
But interestingly enough, Microsoft also wants fees collected from greencard permits to be invested in STEM education. Microsoft claims such measures are necessary because it has 3,400 open jobs for scientists and engineers
while the U.S. last year minted only 1,603 new computer science Ph.Ds.
Of course, industry has for decades leveled allegations of shortages as a rationale for letting more foreign skilled workers enter the U.S. But researchers
at the Bureau of Labor Statistics have studied the impact of letting in foreign
Ph.Ds. and concluded that the result is a downward pressure on Ph.D. salaries.
This downward pressure tends to discourage aspiring scientists from pursuing
higher degrees. The result: The smartest of them go where the money is, which,
today, is still in finance. There, new financial engineers can still earn six-figure
bonuses in the first year on the job.
Thus, Microsofts idea for new H-1B fees seems self-defeating. The education it funds would create more workers in areas now being filled by foreigners.
But filling jobs with foreign workers reduces pay scales and makes jobs in that
area less attractive. One might be excused for seeing this whole process as a
negative feedback loop for the process of minting STEM Ph.Ds. in the U.S.
So here is an off-the-wall idea for what to do with U.S. STEM graduates
in an era when STEM jobs get filled by foreign workers: make it easy for U.S.
technical personnel to become Canadians.
Workers with easy access to our Northern neighbor would have more options if salary levels take a hit from an influx of foreign workers. And indications are that Canada might be open to this idea. The Government of Canada
is committed to building an immigration system that actively recruits talent,
said a Canadian minister recently. This is the next frontier in Canadian immigration: looking at opportunities to attract the best talent and going out there
and getting it, he continued.
A representative of the Canadian government even went to Ireland a few
months ago to beg STEM graduates there to try living in Canada. The labor
situation for STEM workers in Canada is so tight that its government officials
are entertaining the idea of instituting special benefits for Canadian STEM
personnel willing to work past the age of 65 not because they lack the money
to retire, but because they are so difficult to replace.
One other point in Canadas favor: Theres no out-of-control financial sector in that country run by individuals making obscene salaries.
Leland Teschler, Editor

RS# 107

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

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RS# 108

Moving Assembly Lines


for the Heaviest Products

EDITORIAL STAFF

Powered by Proven, Versatile Air Film Technology


EDITOR
Leland E. Teschler
leland.teschler@penton.com

MANAGING EDITOR
Kenneth J. Korane
ken.korane@penton.com

SENIOR EDITORS

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RS# 109

Leslie Gordon
leslie.gordon@penton.com
Stephen J. Mraz
stephen.mraz@penton.com

ASSOCIATE EDITORS
Lindsey Frick
lindsey.frick@penton.com
Robert J. Repas, Jr.
robert.repas@penton.com

INDUSTRY COVERAGE:
AUTOMOTIVE, PACKAGING,
MEDICAL
Stephen J. Mraz

CAD/CAM, MANUFACTURING
Leslie Gordon

ELECTRICAL, ELECTRONICS
Robert J. Repas, Jr.

FASTENING & JOINING,


MATERIALS
Lindsey Frick

FLUID POWER
Kenneth J. Korane

MECHANICAL
Lindsey Frick
Kenneth J. Korane

EDITORIAL PRODUCTION
Denise Greco
Editorial Production Manager
Randall L. Rubenking
Art Director

1300 E. 9th St. Cleveland, OH 44114-1503


10

MACHINE DESIGN.com

RS# 110
NOVEMBER 8, 2012


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LETTERS

Dont tread on Tennessee

Stop dissin Tennessee


After I read a letter to the editor (Everyone Loves LA, Sept. 6), I knew
that I would have to comment. The
reader says that the reason that only
42% of Nissans workforce relocated to Franklin, Tenn., is because
people dont want to live in secondrate locations. Im not sure what
he means by this, but it is obvious
he has never been to Franklin and
probably doesnt know it is a suburb
of Nashville.
Franklin has consistently been
rated in the top cities in the country to live based on cost of living,
education, quality of life, and other
factors. In fact, quite a number of
large corporations are located in
or near Nashville, and many have
their headquarters in the Nashville
area. These include companies
like Mars Petcare, Caterpillar Financial, Bridgestone/Firestone,
Louisiana Pacific, Caremark, and
Asurian. Its also home to Nissans
Smyrna plant and General Motors
Spring Hill plant. And although
many of these companies do not
necessarily have a lot of engineers
located in Middle Tennessee, they
understand that the quality of life
for their employees, the low cost of
living and tax rates, and access to a
highly educated workforce make it
a great place to set up shop. (There
are 18 institutions of higher education in Middle Tennessee.) In addition, middle Tennessee is within 650
miles of over 150 million people.
And by the way, I was born
and raised in the Detroit area and
couldnt wait to leave. I didnt consider it a first rate place to live.
And as far as LA is concerned, you
couldnt pay me enough to live
there.
Jim Johnson
Making snide remarks about Tennessee is not helpful. We are all in
this together, and when people talk
like that about the heartland, they
only increase the resentment felt
by Midwestern conservatives. They
are already mad enough at the rest
of us.
And as far as the comment that
12

MACHINE DESIGN.com

Many readers volunteered


to stick up for Tennessee
against an earlier letter
writer who didnt seem to
have too high an opinion
of that southern state. Another reader bemoans the
small print in his employment agreement.

no high-tech work gets done in Tennessee, thats where the Manhattan


Project was carried out.
By the way, I live in New Jersey, a
part of the country that gets almost
as much abuse as the south.
Dudley M. Jones
I would advise the reader who
didnt like Tennessee that if he
doesnt already live in California,
then please do the rest of us a favor and move there. To insinuate
that smart people dont want to be
anywhere but California shows just
how ignorant you are. And please
dont try to imply that all engineers
share your opinion.
I believe Nissan is on the right
track by relocating. They will probably attract a substantial amount
of engineering talent that would be
much happier in Tennessee (both
on and off the job) than in the freak
show called California.
Cadiero Gregg
To paraphrase my mother, if you
cant say something nice about a
state, dont say anything at all.
Editor

Theyre stifling me,


and you
Most scientists, engineers, and
technical employees who have jobs
dont control their creative brains
anymore. Their employers do.
For example, I developed a new
farm product in my own basement
shop that was totally unrelated to
my day job in the defense industry.
My employer claimed my invention based on the fine print in the

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

crippling Employee Agreement I


had signed earlier as a condition of
employment. He didnt even want
the invention. He just wanted to
crush any inkling of outside entrepreneurship arising from any of his
employees. No wonder we are stuck
with millions unemployed despite
adding $3 billion to the national
debt every day.
We need a federal Use or Return
law to restore creative incentives
and protection intended by our
Founding Fathers when they established the U.S. Patent Office back in
1790. It might give American employees the creative freedom necessary to create the new business
and private-sector jobs we so urgently need.
Robert Nepper
It has been my experience after
working with manufacturers all
over the world, that U.S. has the
best and most-creative engineering talent in the world. Our biggest
problem is that our management
does not understand or accept
this talent. Most engineering talent is not recognized but, in fact,
repressed, is because it would involve company politics.
The head of a large manufacturing company once commented
to me, We have been doing it our
way for 50 years, so why would
we change? Ive also heard: We
tried something 30 years ago and
it didnt work. What they really
mean is that many manufacturing
companies want to run production
the same way theyve always run
it. And they expect engineers to

RS# 112

LETTERS
keep fixing old equipment when it
clearly is no longer fixable.
It seems theres always that one
guy in the big corner office that
doesnt want to evolve and is just
waiting it out until retirement.
But that same guy will hound every employee for better production rates, less maintenance issues,
and so on. The last thing he wants
is to invest in new equipment to
run leaner and smarter production through modern engineering
ideas and technology. After all, he
might make a mistake.
Paul Pfundtner

Bring on the TechShops


I do hope this TechShop effort prospers and spreads (Manufacturing
for the Masses, Sept. 6).
There use to be a business called
MonkeyWrench, which rented out
tool shops to do-it-yourself auto
repairmen (and women). But the

business didnt do as well as I had


hoped. One set of reasons for the
lack of success was the increasing difficulty of working on cars
and trucks for those not trained
to deal with the computerization
of todays vehicles, the need for
electronic-analysis equipment,
and densely packed engine compartments in almost all new cars. I
presume and hope that TechShops
will not run into similar problems.
I would love to see them become
commonplace. In my humble
opinion, the business deserves
public funding and support. If we
are to be a more innovative country, this kind of facility ought to
help. From personal experience,
I know that getting parts from
machine shops is not easy or inexpensive. With the small budget
most inventors have, this kind of
resource could be a real boon to
me and people like me.
Mark Stapelton

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR


Please include your name, address, and
daytime phone number. Letters may
be edited for brevity and to focus on
essential points.
Mail: Letters, MACHINE DESIGN,
1300 E. 9th St., Cleveland, OH 441141503, Fax: 216-621-8469
E-mail, Editorial:
mdeditor@penton.com

Corrections:
Acquisitions The Lord
Corp., Cary, N.C., is purchasing
MicroStrain Inc., Williston, Vt.
(Company News, Oct. 4).
B-2 Bomber The fine news
item on UAVs (More competition for carrier-based UAVs, Sept.
20) has a small but notable error.
Northrop Grumman is the designer and developer of the B-2
Spirit, not Boeing.
Jack Fagan

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NOVEMBER 8, 2012

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RS# 113

MACHINE DESIGN.com

Dont forget to request your own sample:


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2012

RS# 114

SCANNING FOR IDEAS


Edited by Stephen J. Mraz

Liquid cooling for servers


also supplies hot water
Heated coolant exits at top of rack
The CarnotJet from
Green Revolution
Cooling, Austin
(grcooling.com), uses
a liquid coolant to
remove heat from
CarnotJet
data-center servers,
rack
including highdensity and blade
servers. The coolant
is a nonproprietary
odorless, white
mineral oil which was
chosen for its clarity,
low viscosity, high
flash point, and high
specific heat capacity.
To ensure
servers can survive
submersion in
the coolant, GRC
removes the fans and
encapsulates the hard
drives. Also, servers
typically use thermal
grease to help heat
sinks remove heat.
In the CarnotJet, it
Coolant
gets replaced with a
pump
covering of indium,
a soft metal foil with
high-heat conductivity.
Coolant is pumped
through a heat exchanger,
where it gives up its heat to a
Coolant-to-water
stream of water. A pump module
heat exchanger
containing variable-speed, digitally
controlled pumps and heat exchangers
can handle the thermal demands of up to
four racks of servers. And the coolant should last
10years or more, roughly the life of the system.
Using this equipment instead of an arsenal of chassis
and power-supply fans cuts a servers energy use by 5to25%
and reduces the amount of energy used for cooling by 90to95%.
It also lets the servers be packaged in a smaller enclosure. The
closed-loop liquid cooling and pump are also significantly quieter than
the fans they replace. And water comes out of the heat exchanger at
122F and can be sent to an evaporative cooler or serve as a source of hot
waste for a secondary purpose such as heating nearby buildings.
RS# 401
16

MACHINE DESIGN.com

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

Servers
vertically
installed in
coolant bath

Evaporative
cooling tower
releases
heat to the
atmosphere

r
formation via ou
Request free in Web site at
Reader Service
c
design.com/rs
ww w.machine

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RS# 115

SCANNING FOR IDEAS

Gimbal mount expands drones view


Faceplate

Ball-andsocket
joints

Throughholes

Harmonic-drive
actuator

Preloaded
tapered-roller
bearings
Ball-and-socket
joint

The new gimbal designed by


engineers at Ross-Hime Design
Inc. in Minneapolis (anthrobot.
com), will give cameras and other
sensors mounted on military
UAVs 180 of horizon-to-horizon
tracking. The device, dubbed the
Omni-Wrist VI, also uses fewer
motors and other expensive

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components than previous


designs.
This version eliminates the
keyhole or gimbal lock, as well as
any rotary joints, twist capsules,
and other rotary wire-handling
devices. Instead, a simple
through-hole lets wires, cables,
and fiber optics pass through

the faceplate to the base of


the unit. The new gimbal has
a repeatability of 35 arc-sec, a
twofold improvement over its
10-year-old predecessor. The cost
and size of the Omni-Wrist VI will
be similar to those of previous
designs.
RS# 402


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18

MACHINE DESIGN.com

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

RS# 116

RS# 117

REPORTERS NOTEBOOK
How to

HOT ROD
an

electric motor
Dennis Berubes
Current Eliminator V
electric dragster.
Berube doesnt discuss
construction details of
this, his latest race car,
but an earlier version
hit about 160 mph in
a quarter-mile run of
under 8 sec.

The 200-mph drag bike sitting in


Shawn Lawless shop sports an
electric motor that once was rated
at 29 hp. Today, the bikes power
plant, made by GE and salvaged
from an old forklift, puts out somewhere north of 800 hp.
Welcome to the world of electric drag racing, where racers modify their motors in ways analogous
to how traditional hot-rodders
boost engine displacement and
crank stroke. But dont expect to
find many tips on electric motor
hot rodding in online forums or
magazines. Today, many of those
tricks come close to being black
arts practiced by a few gurus.
One of the most accomplished
of these practitioners, at least in
the eyes of drag-biker Lawless, is
Dennis Berube. Berube souped-up
the electric motor that sits in Lawless 200-mph drag bike. Berube
20

MACHINE DESIGN.com

also claims to be the fastest electric drag racer on four wheels, having piloted an electric dragster he
built to 159.85 mph in a 7.956-sec
run down the quarter mile.
Berube had his first inklings
of how electric motors could be
modified two decades ago when
he got a job repairing and rewinding armatures. While learning his
craft, he worked with a German
engineer who gave me a lot of
good tips about dc motors, he
says. But most of his knowledge
comes from 23 years of experimenting with his own race cars. In
evaluating an idea, you have to be
diligent about documenting your
setups. And you have to try the
idea for one or two months, not
change something after every run,
he says.Thats why I have over
4,000 time slips from quarter-mile
runs with my electric dragsters.

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

As you might expect, both


Berube and Lawless are a bit
cagey about discussing the details
of their motor modifications. But
they are willing to broadly outline
how to turn an old motor from the
scrap yard into something ready to
challenge quarter-mile records.
All electric motors for drag
racing are dc series-wound motors, rather than induction motors
or something else more exotic,
because dc motors are torque
monsters. They have extremely
high-starting torques from 0 rpm,
notes Lawless.
Modification typically starts
with installing low-friction, lowdrag bearings on the motor shaft.
Next, parts within the motor that
are nonconductive get extra insulation, such as a layer of powder
coating, to minimize the potential
for arcing. This step is not taken

Brush motor in cross section


Commutator
Series eld
windings

Resources:

Brushes

Dennis Berubes Current Eliminator site:


http://www.currenteliminator.net/index.htm

Armature

Lawless Industries Ltd., www.paradefloats.


com/orange.html
MACHINE DESIGN covered Shawn Lawless electric
drag bike earlier this year: machinedesign.com/
article/electric-motorcycle-tops-200-mph-0809

Armature
windings

EngineeringTV also did videos of the Lawless


bike: www.engineeringtv.com/video/All-ElectricDrag-Racing-Motorc

Case
Leads

Motor components dont appear


to scale in this basic diagram of
a dc series-wound motor. Motors
modified for racing typically
contain severely beefed-up
conductive components.

lightly. After all, we are taking


a motor designed for 200 A and
putting 2,000 A through it, says
Lawless.
Meanwhile, all the motors conductive parts are typically replaced
with beefed-up versions. The commutator gets special attention.
You can run direct leads into each
commutator mounting point
in other words, get rid of parallel
links within the commutator itself
or just make them a lot bigger,
explains Lawless.
Racers sometimes modify the
motor windings as well. Some
people change the field windings
depending on the specific rpm
and torque levels they are trying
to get. They may also shim the
field windings to put them closer
to the armature, but that depends
on whether you are optimizing for
torque or rpm. You are effectively

Wanna race? When Dennis Berube isnt


working on his electric race cars, he cruises
around town in this street-legal S-10 electric
pickup. The modified Chevy has hit 124 mph in
an 11.08-sec quarter-mile run.

altering the motor gearing when


you tweak design parameters like
that, explains Lawless.
Finally, drag racers know when
to shut things down. You cant
run the motor long because it
only has so many windings, says
Berube. You are eventually going
to overheat. MD
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

MACHINE DESIGN.com

21

REPORTERS NOTEBOOK

How to convert
technical manuals

Authored by:

James I. Finkel
Engineering Manager

It sometimes becomes necessary to convert a technical Wallace Cranes


manual from Format A to Format B as, for example, from Malvern, Pa.
MS Word to Framemaker. There are ways to avoid making a career out of this job. The techniques suggested below are relevant
to any massive data conversion. Your goal is to achieve 100% fidelity, fast.
The takeaway in any data migration project is that the process moves
best with the least excess information. In most cases, there is a source
document or example that shows what the new format should look like.
To ensure content fidelity, save the content as a format-free, straight text
file. In any document, the body is the bulk of the content. Titles, captions,
comments are all separate formats, but you will still make just one or two
lines per page in a different format.
Next create an empty shell document (as you would create a blank
CAD file). This shell should have all the existing standards (such as page
layout, paragraph types, font choices, pagination, and so on) built in. The
content for each chapter is then inserted as a cut-and-paste. One further
hint in this process is to save each dummy chapter as body or plain paragraph text. This way, when you import the unformatted text file, the bulk
of the material is already in the correct format.
Some text applications, such as Framemaker, support the use of keystroke commands for changing formats. The mouse-and-menu process for
making format changes is cumbersome but to those with extensive CAD
experience, keystrokes are much faster. To further simplify the process,
you will, of course, have already printed out a copy of the source document so you can pattern-match the original and revised documents.
In the case of a 350-page manual initially in MS Word that had to be
turned into Framemaker, use of the above techniques led to finishing the
conversion in two days. Each chapter took about a minute/page to format,
or 20 min/chapter. On a historical note, at one point IBM computed that
it took 8 hr to write, edit, and format each page in a technical manual. But
this number was from the 1970s, quite a few years before the advent of
word processing. MD

How to upgrade a CAD file


Your best bet in upgrading a CAD file from one format to another is to
first store the source CAD file in a neutral file format, such as IGES or
STEP. A useful step might be to reorient the piece to a set of standard
datum planes before the file is translated. If you are sufficiently skilled,
you may want to put in some highlighted or extra lines to ensure that
hole centers and radii stand out.
The trick in creating the neutral file format is that while you will
make use of the key points, the final goal is to completely delete this
intermediate content. You will use the entire imported file as a mass of
construction lines. Using the tools in the target CAD system, you will
then rebuild the part. Independent of the CAD system, you should try
to use similar techniques to build similar parts. For example, all tubes
should be constructed from a part profile in the front plane. A common
orientation makes the creation of shop drawings and parts assemblies
easier.
RS# 118
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

How to build
an airplane at
home
An artists rendering shows
In a trend called personal manufacturing, local
what the MakerPlane
shop facilities like The TechShop have given ev- aircraft will look like.
eryday people access to tools typically available
only to industry. The shops let individuals more easily make everything from
furniture to cargo bikes. Well, hold on to your hats. MakerPlane.org wants
to help DIYers build airplanes at its facilities, dubbed makerspaces, or even
at home. The Web site invites educated visitors to submit improvements to
the basic Light Sport Aircraft open-source design, MakerPlane Version 1.0,
introduced last year. When the final design is complete, MakerPlane engineers will build the craft and the site will let users download plans and 3D
animated instructions for free.
Until now, a big problem has been that nearly three out of four aircraft
projects started by home builders either from kits or from parts are
abandoned before they ever fly, says MakerPlane founder John Nicol. Reasons include poor instructions and complicated assembly, plus it takes more
tools and skills than many people realize. So we decided to use collaborators
from around the world to develop a design that would let home builders
take advantage of modern personal-manufacturing equipment such as CNC
machines and 3D printers. This makes sense because makerspaces are cropping up almost everywhere.
Nicol points out that MakerPlane does not intend that people build structural components using 3D printers, just items like door handles and knobs.
And in terms of safety, We are not letting just anyone make design changes
to the aircraft, he says. Our aeronautical engineer, JefResources:
frey Meyer, acts as a gatekeeper for all design activities
MakerPlane,
and, as such, must approve changes.
makerplane.org
In addition, every experimental aircraft must be approved and inspected before it flies. In the U.S., the FAA
Submit your ideas for
handles this. It sends an FAA staffer to your house and
the plane design or
instruments through
they check your aircraft for compliance. It is up to you as
the online forum or
the pilot and builder to be safe, says Nicol. But there are
at IdeaForge (under
all sorts of regulatory hurdles to overcome before you
Tools) on the Web site.
can fly. You must even have a pilot license.
To sustain itself and maybe
Authored by:
make a profit, MakerPlane
What you get in
will sell kit sets, avionics, and
James I. Finkel
return is a CAD file
other parts. Users can also
Engineering Manager
Wallace Cranes
in the new native
source parts from anywhere.
format. And this file Malvern, Pa.
There will always be people
can be edited. To be
who will build the aircraft
sure the file is absolutely free of any extrafrom scratch and who have all
neous data, you can select the new CAD
the resources they need, says
geometry and place this in an empty file.
Nicol. But there will be others
While you want the geometric fidelity, the
who want to shorten the time
last thing you want to import in a live file
it takes to build a craft by usis extraneous data, or in the case of a docuing a kit or parts.
ment file, extraneous formatting.
MakerPlane intends to
The hazard of this whole process is that
have a nonflying prototype
when you re-create the assembly, you will
at the AirVenture air show in
likely see errors as the parts might not
Oshkosh, Wis., July through
quite match. Finding and fixing these error
August 2013. It hopes to have
is an entirely different problem. MD
an aircraft flying at the 2014
show. MD
RS# 119
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

REPORTERS NOTEBOOK

Nanotube transistors fit for space


Researchers at the U.S. Navy Research Laboratory in Washington,
D.C., are designing single-walled
carbon nanotube-based transistors (SWCNT) that are protected against the ionizing
radiation found in outer
space and the Van Allen
Belt, a ring of charged particles circling Earth. This
radiation can degrade ICs,
interfere with their proper
operation, and lead to premature failures.
Radiation affecting ICs
takes two forms. In one, an
ionizing particle makes a direct hit on the transistor, which can corrupt
data and signals. But the chances of such a hit on a SWCNT is small due
to their tiny size, low density, and inherent isolation from other SWCNTs
in a device, according to Navy scientists. The other form results from the
cumulative effect of charges trapped in electronic devices oxides, including the gate oxide and those that isolate adjacent devices. These trapped
charges shift the voltage needed to turn the transistor on or off, which
leads to power leaks and eventual failure of the entire circuit.
To prevent charges from accumulating, researchers built a SWCNT with
a thin gate oxide layer made of silicon oxynitride. This hardened dielectric
material keeps out stray charged particles.
Making SWCNT spaceproof means future circuitry on spacecraft will
have less redundancy and error-correction circuity than todays spacebound ICs and electronic equipment. This would reduce costs and power
consumption while improving performance, even if SWCNTs operate at
the same speed as present day circuits. MD

Resources
U. S. Navy Research
Lab, www.nrl.navy.mil

A dielectric layer is locally


etched in the active region
of a back-gated field-effect
transistor. A gate dielectric
material is then deposited
(depicted in red) over
the entire substrate. This
protective layer prevents
build up of radiation-inducedcharges, which can damage
MOS devices.

RFID vs.
Barcode:
Which track and
trace technology is

better for your application?


2012 TURCK

askTURCK.com

RS# 120

We Mold Ideas
Into Reality.

High tolerance components and assemblies are


what we work with everyday at Minnesota Rubber
and Plastics. Our experience in design, sealing and
manufacturing complex devices has made us the
preferred partner for industry leaders throughout

Minnesota Rubber & Plastics


(952) 927-1400

North America, Europe and Asia. The next time


your component or assembly seems impossible,
there's no one better to partner with than Minnesota
Rubber and Plastics. We'll make your tough
application a reality.

Engineered to improve performance.


Designed to reduce costs.

www.mnrubber.com
RS# 121

REPORTERS NOTEBOOK
LOOKING BACK
10 YEARS AGO 2002
Practicing to the extreme: If
you ever wanted to learn extreme
sports such as skateboarding,
snowboarding, or surfing, nows
your chance. Pivit LLC, Franklin
Lakes, N.J., has designed a durable
fiberglass balance board called Pivit

that lets riders


jump, flip, balance, and spin. The
board is supported underneath by
one wheel in the center. The design
lets riders safely practice tricks, foot-

6HUYR%HDP&RXSOLQJ
=HUR%DFNODVK

Made in USA
A

Misalignment
7 angular .025 radial .050 axial

Phone 1-888-260-7466
Fax 516-771-6444
sales@ondrivesUS.com
www.ondrivesUS.com/ServoBeam
26

MACHINE DESIGN.com

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

polymer ex member

.US Corp.

30 YEARS AGO 1982


Handymans tool pinpoints air leak:
A $20 energy-audit tool called Thermo
Guard by Metrifast, New Hyde Park,
N. Y., locates drafts around windows,
doors, electrical outlets, fireplaces, and
other places heat losses occur. It even
detects impossible-to-see insulation
breaks behind walls, according to
the company. The
batterypowered
instrument
is operated by
unscrewing the
protective probe cover and setting the
meter indicator to normal.When the
heat-sensitive tip is pointed at a heatloss (or heat-gain) area from a distance
of about in., the dial indicator clearly
indicates the source of the problem.
Temperature sensitivity is 1/25 of a degree and effective operating range is
from 58 to 167F.

50 YEARS AGO 1962

ersion
hort v

s
10,000 RPM
300 in-lb torque
High torsional stiness
Low weight to size ratio
Short and long versions
Flex member available in
420SS or Engineered Polymer

ings, and techniques. Removable bumper-style stabilizers help ease first-time


riders through the learning process.
Optional built-in LED timers let riders
measure their skills and practice for
competition.

Watering the lawn requires setting a


few dials with Moist OMatic, made by
a subsidiary of Toro Mfg. Corp., Minneapolis. The unit can be programmed
for 14 days and controls up to 11separate watering stations. Days for watering, hour of the day, and duration of
watering for each station are preselected. A hydrostat a porous ceramic
vessel available with the system is
buried in the ground. It senses when
the soils moisture content is too low
and triggers the Moist OMatic into
action. Watering can be
controlled by
the hydrostat;
by the preset
program; or
manually, for
special watering needs. MD

tick tock

Less downtime with every valve.

Power. Precision.
Performance.

Continental Hydraulics knows that time is money, thats why we offer a


complete line of Proportional Directional Valves with integrated digital
electronics for maximum precision, durability and reduced hysteresis.
Our high performance valves are available in all standard NFPA mounting
patterns and ow ranges. The on-board microprocessor provides fast
response times, seamless interchangeability among valves and supports
software-based, hydraulic parameter modications to ensure optimal
load movement. Factory calibrated for time-savings, output range
assurance and easy valve-to-valve exchange, our proportional valves
offer a smooth, shock-less motion and precise position control to reduce
down time, increase production rates and make every second count.

PUMPS

VALVES

POWER UNITS

RS# 122

952. 895. 6400 | www.continentalhydraulics.com

REPORTERS NOTEBOOK
COMPANY NEWS
ACQUISITION
Lord Corp., Cary, N.C., has purchased MicroStrain Inc., Williston, Vt. MicroStrain will continue
to operate at that location as
MicroStrain, a Lord Co.
Lord specializes in adhesive,
coating, and motion-manage-

ment technologies for the aerospace, defense, automotive, and


industrial markets. MicroStrain
develops and supplies sensing solutions to the aerospace, defense,
agriculture and construction,
energy, and consumer-electronics
industries.

INNOVATION
MAKES
GGB THE
PRODUCT
LEADER

PROGRAMMING PLCs
Omron Automation and Safety
is offering PLC
programming
training courses
that let attendees complete
basic and intermediate levels
in one week. The
training will be
at Omrons headquarters in Schaumburg, Ill.
Dates for the
Fall schedule
are: Nov. 29-30 Advanced PLC
Programming (Course #IA-TRNOES118); Dec. 35 Basic PLC
Programming (Course #IA-TRNOES110); Dec. 67 Intermediate
PLC Programming (Course #IATRN-OES112)
Go to http://www.omron247.
com/Industrial-Automation/Store/
OmronTrngOmronUniversityView_1_10051_10051?location=US for
registration information.

EXPANSION
The Global Leader in High
Performance Bearing Solutions
GGB listens to our customers.
The result is superior bearings
that eliminate problems.
To learn more, visit
ggbearings.com or scan
the QR code below.

Omega Engineering Inc., Stamford, Conn., has opened a new


office in Shanghai, China. Omega
was recently acquired by Spectris
plc, a supplier of productivity
enhancing instrumentation and
controls. Omega manufactures
products that measure and control
temperature, humidity, pressure,
strain, force, flow, level, pH, and
conductivity.

NEW SERVICE

Get a QR code reader


at http://getscanlife.com

2012 GGB. All rights reserved.

28

MACHINE DESIGN.com

RS# 123
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

Agilent Technologies, Santa


Clara, Calif., has been designated
as the first nongovernment calibration agency under Japan Radio
Law by the Minister of Internal
Affairs and Communications. Under Japan law, calibration service
is required for all test equipment
used to maintain radio stations
in the country. Agilent provides
measurement services in the areas
of chemical analysis, life sciences,
diagnostics, electronics, and communications.

RS# 124

REPORTERS NOTEBOOK
COMPANY NEWS
SOLUTION FACTORY OPENS
SKF USA Inc., Lansdale, Pa., has
opened its SKF Solution Factory
in Highland Heights, Ohio. It is the
second to open in the U. S., joining
17 others worldwide. Services the
facility offers includes bearing
application support, customized

machined sealing solutions, spindle


and ball-screw repair, mechanical
equipment services, engineering
consultancy, remote diagnostics

and monitoring, and training courses.


SKF is a supplier of bearings,
seals, mechatronics, lubrication
systems, and services.

AWARD

&86720(1*,1((5('
63,1'/(6 6/,'(6
'(6,*1(' 0$18)$&785('
72<28563(&,),&$7,216

The Texas Workforce Commission


presented Wichita Clutch,
Wichita Falls, Tex., with its Texas
Manufacturing Star Award, which
acknowledges outstanding privatesector employers that contribute to
the growing manufacturing base in
Texas. Wichita Clutch designs and
manufactures heavy-duty industrial
pneumatic and hydraulically
actuated clutches and brakes.

PERSONNEL
New England Wire Technologies,
Lisbon, N.H., has appointed
Kelly MacKay as Sales Director,
and Nick DAgostino as Business
Development Manager. New
England Wire Technologies
develops, designs, and
manufactures technologically
advanced wire and cable products.

SOFTWARE INTEGRATION
SpaceClaim, Concord, Mass., and
First Trace, Phoenix, Ariz., have
integrated SpaceClaim Engineer and
Kinnosa. SpaceClaim is a provider 3D
software for engineering design and
manufacturing, and First Trace offers
Kinnosa, an Engineering Document
Management (EDM) system for
managing complex CAD documents,
Office files, and business processes.

ZZZVHWFRFRPGHVLJQ
/HW8V+HOS<RX

30

MACHINE DESIGN.com

RS# 125
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

AS9100 REV C
CERTIFICATION
BEI Sensors, Goleta, Calif., has
been awarded the AS9100 Rev C
quality standard for aerospace.
The company met the nearly 100
additional rigorous criteria required
to meet the stringent, complex,
and unique demands of aerospace
manufacturing, from commercial
to defense aviation. BEI Sensors
provides speed and position
sensors. MD

TOGGLE CLAMPS
EXCLUSIVELY MADE IN THE USA

You can count on Carr Lane to provide you with top quality,
American made toggle clamps in a variety of types, sizes and styles.
Free 3D solid CAD drawings
New, optional safety locks
on some styles
Fast shipping
RS# 126

Visit CarrLane.com to view toggle clamps in our online catalog.

EVERY PLANT NEEDS A PARTNER TO


KEEP THINGS BUZZING
Well work hard to keep your plant buzzing using
the most advanced sensing technologyall from
a single-source partner. Weve stayed busy as a
bee for over half a century developing innovative
products that take the sting out of applying
sensors. Our sensors are crafted using state-ofthe-art components and the latest technologies
to ensure precision, reliability, and functionality.
In addition, we offer a wide selection of
accessories to meet all your application needs.
Go to www.sensing.net/buzz1 or give us a buzz
at 330.486.0001 and well devote a swarm of
technical experts to go to work for you.

Pepperl+Fuchs Inc.
Twinsburg, Ohio
330.486.0001
www.pepperl-fuchs.com

RS# 127

5)&"#*-*5:508*5)45"/%
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SENSOR SENSE

Metal-faced
inductive sensors for durability
In quick review, an inductive sensor generates an electromagnetic wave at
a specific tuned frequency. The tuned circuit inside the sensor has a high
impedance at that frequency, creating a high ringing voltage. When any
metal is brought near the output coil of the sensor, the coil becomes detuned. This shifts the oscillator frequency and, more importantly, reduces
the ringing voltage in the sensors tuned oscillator circuit. The lower voltage triggers the output that indicates the presence of the metal target.
Most metal-detecting inductive sensors use plastic sensing faces. Plastic facings are inexpensive and do not interfere with the metal-sensing
ability of the sensor. These
products are an option when a
sensing area is relatively benign.
But plastics lack of durability
may create problems in some
situations.
Inductive sensors feature
comparatively short sensing
ranges, often under a half-inch.
Such close proximity to the target means even slight variations
in target clearances or vibration
may subject the sensor to damaging physical abuse. The life
span of a plastic-faced sensor
After a 20-hr abrasion test by a wire brush on
is greatly reduced under these
plastic and metal-faced sensors, the metalcircumstances.
face sensor on the left shows wear but still
If an inductive sensor is to be
works while the plastic-face sensor on the
used in abusive environments
right is totally destroyed.
where impact and abrasion are
commonplace, its now more common for the inductive sensor to have a
metallic face specifically, stainless steel.
The question arises, How does the sensor detect the metal in the target, yet ignore the metal at the tip of its own housing? To understand
how requires a quick look into electrical physics. The trick hinges on the
oscillator frequency and the wavelength of the signal it produces.
Metals such as copper, aluminum, and stainless steel tend to block or
shield electromagnetic waves. The waves travel along and around the
surface of the metal by a process known as skin effect. By reducing the
frequency, the electromagnetic field no longer stops at the sensors metal
surface, but extends beyond the surface into the surrounding space. Sensors with a stainless-steel face use such low-frequency alternating fields
that their detection area extends well through the metal face of the sensor
to detect metallic objects on the other side.
Laboratory tests compared the survivability of plastic and metal-face
products to metal-brush abrasion and hammer impacts. The tests showed
stainless versions withstood exposure levels more than 20 beyond their
plastic-face counterparts. Considering stainless models cost only 25 to
30% more than plastic, they can be an economical replacement over an
extended time with no trade-off in durability versus sensing distance. MD
Pepperl+Fuchs (www.pepperl-fuchs.us) supplied information for this column.
Edited by Robert Repas

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RS# 128
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

Innovation distinguishes between


a leader and a follower.
- Steve Jobs

As the leading manufacturer of OEM pumps


and compressors, our innovation in design and
technology has helped our customers create
new innovative products and become leaders
in their marketplace.
For more information on
how Thomas innovation
can help you lead
your industry, go to

gd-thomas.com/md11.

Improving Lives through InnovationTM

RS# 129

COMMENTARY

Googles got
nothing on Cat

2450Z SERIES BLDC PUMP

Kenneth J.
Korane
Much has been made of Googles self-driving cars. Fitted Managing Editor

with AI software and an array of sensors, the computercontrolled fleet recently surpassed 300,000 road miles
without an accident. The company says robot drivers
react faster than humans and dont get sleepy, distracted,
or intoxicated, and would boost road capacity by letting cars drive more
safely and be spaced closer together. But right now, the experimental vehicles
require a human in the drivers seat. Most experts say practical autonomous
cars are years away from affordability and mass production.
With less fanfare, several mining operations have been running autonomous haul trucks with considerable success. Caterpillar is operating a few
small fleets in the U.S. and abroad, and will soon have 45 unmanned haulers at an iron-ore mine in Australia. Komatsu has likewise deployed such
vehicles in Chile and Australia. It expects to have 150 driverless trucks at a
Rio Tinto mine in Western Australia within the next four years, run from an
operations center in Perth, nearly 1,000 miles away.
These ultraclass dump trucks the size of a small house and carrying
payloads up to 400 tons rely on sophisticated controllers, GPS, obstacledetection systems, and a wireless-communications network. Software algorithms tell the machines where to go and what to do, while seamlessly and
safely working with and around other equipment and personnel.
Its mining of the future, today. Driven by a booming demand for minerals, autonomy is seen as a way to get more ore out of the ground quickly and
efficiently. Trucks can be programmed to back under a shovel to within a few
inches of the same spot, all day long, to speed loading. Cycle times are always the same, with no time lost from operator fatigue, rest breaks, and shift
changes. And consistently operating trucks within design specs can maximize fuel economy, lessen mechanical breakdowns, and improve tire life.
While up-front costs are higher, these benefits offer potential savings in
the millions, say OEMs and mine operators alike. Autonomy also addresses
a growing shortage of skilled workers as mine sites move into more remote
areas. It may attract a new generation of employees who have grown up with
powerful computers, video games, and the Internet and would otherwise
never consider a career in mining.
Users are learning lessons as they gain experience. One is that humans
intuitively sense surroundings in ways that todays smart machines cannot.
For instance, a driver who hears an unusual noise or sees a broken component can stop the truck or call maintenance. Computers cant monitor in the
same way. Condition-monitoring systems help, but safety checks are needed
at regular intervals.
Another aspect is dealing with mine regulations that werent written with
unmanned vehicles in mind. For instance, MSHA codes say cab windows
must be kept clean, and mobile equipment cannot be left unattended unless
the brakes are set. Obviously, they make little sense with unmanned vehicles.
Cat has had to work with local agency officials to overcome these hurdles.
Granted, mining trucks arent dealing with the same level of complexity as
Googles cars, but theyre actually getting work done and growing ever-more
sophisticated. The ultimate goal: completely autonomous mines with not
only unmanned haulers, but drill rigs, shovels, and loaders, too. Some say
that could happen within the next 5 to 20 years. MD

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

An Illustration
in Innovation
The innovative 2450Z BLDC
pump is perfect for medical
and other applications
requiring a small lightweight
pump with a high performance
to weight ratio.
Efficient, variable speed brushless
DC motor conserves power by
matching output to requirement
Lightweight 6.8 lbs. vs. 9.5 lbs
with AC motor
Small footprint 8.32" x 6.75"
x 4.08"
Oil-less design
Maximum flow 3.3 CFM @
2200 RPM
Maximum pressure 35 PSIG

For more information on the


innovative 2450Z BLDC pump
go to gd-thomas.com/md11.

Improving Lives through InnovationTM

RS# 130
MACHINE DESIGN.com

35

INVENTORS CORNER
Edited by Leslie Gordon

Compact engine
packs a powerful punch

Paul Karlan is holding a disc


valve and a cam.

The Karlan Cam Engine is


running on a bench with
the cam-case panels
removed to show the
mechanism. Ordinarily, this
would be enclosed for the
lubrication system, as it is
in the Karlan Car.
36

MACHINE DESIGN.com

Paul Karlan first thought up his Karlan Cam Engine for surface vehicles about
50years ago when he was trying to figure out a different way to change the reciprocating motion of pistons to rotary motion. Instead of using a crankshaft, his engine
uses two cams attached to the output shaft. The engine has four cylinders, two
banks of two cylinders each, parallel to the output shaft. Both the opposite cylinders
fire every 180 (both sides), for four cycles/rev, as opposed to a crankshaft engine,
which is two cycles/rev. A disc valve is keyed to the output shaft between the two
cylinder banks. The disc valve meters the four cycles in and out of the cylinders. The
pistons connect to the connecting plate which rides on the cams. The cam lobes are
tapered to provide true rolling motion between the cam followers and the cam. The
connecting plates on each side of the cylinder blocks reciprocate equal and opposite to each other, giving balanced motion.
According to Karlan, his barrel engine is the only one with two cams and four cylinders. The only other barrel engine he knows about the Hermann engine has
one cam that sits in the center of the output shaft, and two banks of six cylinders on
each side of the block. The Hermann engine design has disadvantages, says Karlan.
It uses poppet valves, which have intake/exhaust overlap. The Karlan engine has a
disc valve with little intake/exhaust overlap. The clearance between the disc valve
and the cylinder heads in the Karlan engine is just a couple of tenths. This minimal
clearance is maintained by floating seals i.e., the thin layer of air so there is
no friction and almost no compression leakage. This patented feature has been well
tested in the running prototypes.
Another advantage pertains to side pressure, says Karlan. Piston side pressure on
the side of the cylinder wall is what turns the output shaft on the power stroke. The
connecting plates on the Karlan engine reciprocate on bronze bushings with hardsurfaced, lubricated guide rods, which take all the side pressure, with little sliding
friction. And, there is no side pressure on the pistons. True, a significant weight goes
back and forth, but the momentum of the reciprocating plate goes into the flywheel,
says Karlan. The only energy lost is in the friction of the slides and there is little
friction. His special cam followers have high-speed, heavy-duty radial and thrust
bearings mounted in an aluminum housing (not needle bearing cam followers). His
engine output shaft, thus, provides low rpm with high torque.
In addition, the length of the connecting rod determines the compression ratio. Users can, thus, adjust the compression ratio. Karlan believes his
engine is more efficient than current designs because it entails almost no
intake/exhaust overlap and less internal sliding friction. Although the working prototype has not yet been tested for extended operation, Karlan says it
shows no inherent weak spots, and is a sturdy mechanism.
The Karlan Cam engine has a low and long configuration which could
apply to aircraft and more. Karlan feels his engine could be an alternate to
the polluting turbojet engine, which many scientists link to global warming.
Propulsion could be by ducted fan or gasoline electric.
The engine can have pistons with small or large diameters, up to 10 in. or
more. Karlans prototype engine, which is running on gasoline on a bench,
shown at http://tinyurl.com/9setjoa, has 2-in. bores. The Karlan Cam Engine Car,
shown at http://tinyurl.com/9gcbhnd, has 31/8-in. bores.
The Karlan engine has relatively few parts. It has no gears, no timing belts, no
springs, and no gaskets. The engine can be air or water cooled. The Karlan Car was
water cooled and had a pressurized lubrication system. Karlan plans on applying
several improvements, including a special supercharger. Karlan can be reached at
cam511boy@optonline.net. MD
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

RS# 131

MOTION CONTROL

How to

GET BETTER
MOTION with

plastic parts
Polymer bearing
surfaces resist
wear, dont need
maintenance,
and can run
surprisingly fast.

Cam followers and rollers


from Intech put a gravitycast nylon 12 bearing surface
on metal hubs and roller bearings.
Using nylon eliminates the need for
lubrication and makes the components
quieter than their all-metal counterparts.

Engineers might only glance at the dimensions and load


capacities of roller and cam followers to ensure they will
fit in their design before placing an order. But they should
pay closer attention because these components can make
or break the performance of motion subsystems critical
to a host of industrial machines.
Choose the wrong roller or cam follower and your
design can be destined for a shortened life plagued with
maintenance headaches, contamination issues, and speed
limitations. The wrong component can also drive up operating and manufacturing costs. The right components, by
contrast, will contribute to a longer life of reliable motion
that engineers and buyers expect.
But how do you pick the right roller or cam follower for
the job at hand?
The trick is considering not just sizes and loads but also
the materials that make up the rollers bearing surface.

The polymer advantage


Many engineers still believe that heavily loaded applications need metal rollers and cam followers. They are
unaware that polymer bearing surfaces withstand enormous forces if designed properly. At Intech Power Core,
Closter, N. J., for example, weve delivered polymer rollers that withstand 8-ton loads. These rollers have been
used in ski lifts and rigs that can raise an entire building. But the primary task of most rollers and cam fol38

MACHINE DESIGN.com

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

lowers is to transmit motion rather than support loads.


Regardless of their purpose, rollers and followers are
commonly hybrid designs with polymer load-bearing surfaces over metal roller bearings or structural hubs. These
hybrid components, often sized as drop-in replacements
for standard-sized all-metal components, offer compelling
technical advantages due to their use of polymers:
Self-lubricating. Engineering polymers best suited for
rollers are self-lubricating, a property that last the life of
the component.
Bearing surfaces
Authored by:
made from these
George Bartosh
polymers never President
require lubrica- Intech Power Core
tion between the Closter, N. J.
roller and rail.
Edited by Stephen J. Mraz
When combined stephen.mraz@penton.com
with lubed-forResources:
life bearings,
polymer surfaces Intech Power Core, www.intechpower.com
For another feature on
eliminate mainplastic parts, scan this
tenance costs
code or go to: http://
associated with
machinedesign.com/
regular lubricaarticle/plastic-gearstion, even those
outlast-metal-0506
scheduled after
washdowns.

Rollers with polymer


bearing surfaces work
with aluminum rails, which
cost far less than groundhardened-steel versions.

More importantly, self-lubrication puts an end to the loss


of performance and catastrophic failures common when metal rollers and rails
arent regularly lubricated.
Wear resistance. Metal-on-metal contact, even when both metal surfaces
are lubricated, can result in excessive wear and galling. Metal-on-metal wear
affects rollers and rails, which are far more expensive to replace. Plastic rollers
eliminate this wear.
Clean running. Self-lubricated polymers eliminate two potential sources of
contamination stray
lubricant and particulates from metal-onmetal contact. For this
reason, polymer cam folFrom cheap plastics to the worlds most-exlowers and rollers are a pensive composites, many types of polymers have
good choice for medical, been machined, molded, or cast into rollers, cam
semiconductor, foodfollowers, and other power-transmission compoprocessing, and cleannents. Engineers at Intech focused their developroom applications.
ment efforts on a proprietary, gravity-cast nylon
Smooth and quiet oper- 12 called Power-Core PA12GC. It combines several
ation. Unlike metals,
advantageous material properties.
polymers can dampen
From a materials standpoint, Power-Core mainshocks and vibrations. In
tains its physical properties in a variety of operating
cam followers, polymers
conditions. This stability lets engineers accurately
absorb the damaging
predict the materials behavior and life even when
shocks and vibrations
its exposed to varying moisture, temperature, and
caused by reciprocating chemical levels.
motion. This prolongs
In particular, Power-Cores stability despite
the life of machine bearhigh-humidity and even total immersion, makes
ings, especially in highit well suited to power-transmission applications.
speed applications.
Most high-performance polymers absorb moisIn rollers, dampture, swell, and lose tensile strength. Power-transing contributes to quiet
mission components made from moisture-absorbmotion. Polymer rolling (hygroscopic) polymers can end up too weak
ers typically run about
to carry the loads they were designed for and too
10 dB quieter than their swollen to work with mating components.
metal counterparts.
Power-Core also dampens vibrations, which
They run smoothly too,
lets it reduce noise and absorb shock loads that
thanks to their precise power-transmission components commonly see.
roundness. For example,
To make these components, Intech gravity
total runout on a macasts nylon 12 over metal hubs or thermally installs
chined nylon 12 cam it over rollers bearings to create the beginnings
follower with a 1.5-in.
of a cam follower, roller, or gear. These blanks are
OD would be less than then precision machine into finished components.
0.001-in.
Gravity casting contributes to Power-Cores low
Speed and efficiency.
internal stresses that gives the polymer a uniform
Polymer rollers facilitate crystalline structure. As a result, finished compohigh-speed, energy-effinents have a consistent machining resistance that
cient motion in a three
improves precision during manufacture and use.
ways. First, polymer And under external load, the dense crystalline
rollers weigh about 40%
structure helps thwart stress-induced cracks and
less than similarly sized swelling that sometimes lead to premature failure.
metal rollers, reducing

Nylon 12: The plastic


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RS# 132

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

MOTION CONTROL

Tensile strength (N/mm2 )

Dimensional change (%)

8IFO
JUNBUUFST

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Nylon 6
Nylon 6.6

Nylon 11
0

Power-Core
4
6
8
10
Moisture content (%)
Power-Core nylon does not absorb much water and, as a
result, it is more dimensionally stable than other plastics.
2

80
70
60
50
Nylon 6.6
40 Power-Core
30
Nylon 6
20
10
0
0
1.5
3
6
9
Moisture content (%)
Power-Core components also maintain their
tensile strength by not absorbing water.

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HPSFDPNFNJ

inertia. Second, polymer rollers typically use high-speed roller bearings,


which have less rolling resistance than greased needle bearings found in metal
rollers. Finally, polymers eliminate viscous drag caused by lubricants and worn
metal surfaces.
Withstand harsh environments. Polymer rollers do not swell in moisture
and resist chemicals and temperature fluctuations. They also do not corrode.
These characteristics make them well suited to washdown applications, outdoor exposure and other harsh environments. (Specify cam followers with
enclosed stainless-steel bearings and shafts whenever corrosion is likely.)
Lower costs. The true cost of cam followers and rollers has little to do with
their purchase price and everything to do with their life-cycle costs. Polymers
save over the long haul by eliminating the need for lubrication, extending
maintenance intervals, and reducing energy costs. An even greater payback,
however, comes from doing away with metal-on-metal wear. Polymer rollers,
for example, pay for themselves many times over by extending the life of a
motion systems rails.
Polymer cam followers and rollers let designers use low-cost aluminum rails
rather than expensive case-hardened and ground steel. Polymers also let machines be built without central lubrication subsystems, reducing costs even more.

RS# 133

&.*("4,&54"/%
(306/%*/(1"%4

Not just any plastic


Keep in mind that not all plastics make good cam followers and rollers. Even
different grades of plastic within the same polymer family perform differently as
bearing surfaces in followers, rollers, and other power-transmission components.
When evaluating plastics for use in rollers, its important to look at stated load
capacities as well as the polymers likely stability under expected operating conditions. All polymers have properties that change with variations in moisture,
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

Intech makes its polymer/metal followers and rollers


in standard sizes, which lets them serve as drop-in
replacements for conventional metal versions.
temperatures, loads, and chemical exposure. With power-transmission
components, all these factors can trigger losses in physical properties and lead to premature failures.

The type of exposure engineers most often neglect is


moisture. Many polymers lose much of their tensile
strength 50% is not uncommon after long-term
exposure to moisture. Hygroscopic polymers also
swell substantially, sometimes by as much 3%
or more, impeding the
smooth motion needed
for parts to work together.
Power-Core rollers have found uses in applications rangPower-transmission
ing from industrial machines to transportation. Most of
comp onents t hat are
them are found in linear-motion subsystems of one kind
weakened and out of dior another, but theres no reason nylon 12 rollers cannot be
mensional tolerance can
used in rotary subsystems such as an index table.
doom an otherwise wellDesigned for OEMs making servosystems, this index
designed motion subsystable makes extensive use of rollers and gearing made
tem. Yet, engineers often
from Power-Core nylon 12. For example, the tables drive
fail to account for the efuses a plastic, pinion-driven ring gear with helical-tooth
fects of moisture uptake.
profiles that eliminate wear and backlash. The PowerOr if they know of moisCore rollers mount on the units base plate, supporting
tures harmful effects,
the rotating gear and mounting surface. They feature
they simply avoid polyenclosed stainless-steel bearings, letting the unit survive
mers altogether.
washdowns and other corrosive environments.
The same goes for
Using nylon 12 for the drive and bearings helps this
other types of environrotary table outperform all-metal designs in several ways:
mental exposures. Engi Less wear without lubrication. Power-Core contains a
neers either fail to recoglubricant, so no external lubricants are needed. This denize that polymers change
sign also avoids metal-on-metal contact that can shortin response to operating
en the working life of motion components.
conditions or simply steer
Backlash-free. Power-Core gears dimensional stability
clear of polymers.
eliminates the need for backlash compensation assoAt Intech, weve found
ciated with plastics that swell when they absorb water
we can design around
and other liquids. The tooth profiles are machined for
problems with moisture
backlash reduction, a feat that would be difficult to
and other environmenachieve in metal.
tal exposures by picking
Fast and smooth. The gearing and rollers low-inertia lets
the right type of polymer.
the table operate at high speeds. By producing a tighter
We use gravity cast and
inertia ratio between the motor and driven load, the
machined nylon 12 aldrive components also make it easier to tune controls
most exclusively. Based
for smooth, precise motion, particularly when moving
on its balance of physilight payloads.
cal properties and cost,
Resists washdowns and chemicals. Power-Cores dimengravity cast nylon 12 is
sional and thermal stability withstand washdowns, high
the gold standard when
humidity, and temperatures that would prohibit using
it comes to plastic power
less-capable polymers.
transmission bearing
Clean-room friendly. Power-Core 12 does not throw
surfaces.
off particulates associated with metal components. So
More exotic engineerclean-room use is a natural fit for this rotary table.
ing polymers will also
Scalable. By manipulating the size of the gears and rollwork in roller and cam
ers, the table can be scaled to handle payloads ranging
follower applications too,
from ounces to tons.
but expect to pay more
for them. MD

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BOPQUJPO

Plastic components
improve a rotary table

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

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RS# 134

8*3&"/%$"#-&

MOTION CONTROL & MECHATRONICS

How to

DESIGN
SUPPRESSION
CIRCUITS for

Electric clutches and brakes


sometimes fail for lack of
proper electrical-suppression
circuitry. But its not difficult
to design a suppressor.

electric clutches
and brakes
The past decade
has seen a
growing trend
toward powering
electromagnet ic clutches
and brakes with
programmablecontroller outputs.
Clutch and brake
manufacturers make
power supplies and controls for their products
that are designed to integrate
cleanly into many applications.
But some applications need only a
programmable controller to do the job almost
as well as the OEM hardware. It is the almost in that
statement that is the area of concern.
Before proceeding, let me provide a quick review
of electromagnetic clutch and brake operation. Electromagnetic clutches and brakes work on dc power.
Power supplies convert ac power to dc power through
a rectification circuit. Typically these supplies provide
an on-off function: either full power or no power.
42

MACHINE DESIGN.com

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

Proper and prolonged


operation of electrical
brakes like this ER
Series from Warner
Electric hinges
on an adequate
electricalsuppression
network to
minimize voltage
spikes and speed
engagement.

The most common supplies produce an output of


24 or 90 Vdc. Clutch and brake
controls not only provide the acto-dc conversion, but may also provide
a way to change the output voltage applied to
the clutch or brake. Applying less than full voltage to
an electromagnetic unit creates less than full engagement force within the clutch or brake, with lower
torque transmitted through the device. For a given
load, lower torque means longer engagement times
which may be desirable. For example, slower acceleration can help keep loads upright or prevent a spill
induced by sudden starts and stops.
Power supplies or controls built by electric-

clutch/brake manufacturers contain a suppression circuit.


This circuit provides two functions. The first is to protect
the electronics in the system from the inductive spikes
generated when coil power abruptly shuts off. Its second
function is to make the clutch or brake respond more
quickly to the controlling voltage.
When current flow is abruptly cut off in an inductive
circuit, the collapsing magnetic field of the inductive coil
generates a high voltage spike. This voltage spike (VS),
sometimes incorrectly called a back electromotive force,
can reach 7 to 10 the value of the applied voltage. A coil
that operates on a 90-V supply could easily generate a VS
of over 600 V. Over time, a voltage spike that high will
break down insulation and damage electrical components.
A simple suppression circuit that limits the VS to the supply voltage consists merely of a single diode, sometimes
referred to as a flyback diode, placed in opposing polarity
across the winding of the brake or clutch.
However, the addition of a flyback diode maintains a
current flow through the clutch for a short period after
removal of the applied voltage as the magnetic field of the
winding collapses. This extends the time the coil remains
energized after power is removed, delaying the response
of the clutch or brake to the removal of power.
The energy stored in the magnetic field of the coil must
be dissipated quickly if the device is to respond quickly. A

Authored by:

Greg Cober
Product Training Manager
Warner Electric LLC
South Beloit, Ill.
Edited by Robert Repas
robert.repas@penton.com

Key points:
Electric brakes and clutches operated directly
from PLCs frequently lack proper suppression
circuitry.
Without proper suppression, the operating
life of an electric brake or clutch may be
drastically reduced.
Suppression circuits can be made using offthe-shelf components.

Resources:
Heavy-duty clutch/brake, machinedesign.
com/article/heavy-duty-clutchbrake-warnerelectric-0527
Warner Electric LLC, www.warnerelectric.com

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RS# 135
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

MACHINE DESIGN.com

43

MOTION CONTROL & MECHATRONICS

Suppression circuit schematics


+
1N4004

Switch
signal

Brake
coil

CIRCUIT A

resistance inserted in series with the coil and flyback diode


can dissipate the energy, but at the cost of raising the VS.
Another option is the addition of a Zener diode to the
suppression circuit. The Zener diode acts as a variable resistor, changing its conductance value to limit the value of
the VS. Overall, the Zener shortens the decay time needed
to dissipate the magnetism within the clutch or brake. The
lack of a proper suppression circuit extends the release
time for the unit leading to possible damage and a shorter
life as for example in cycling applications, which may see
inaccurate starts and stops as well as aggressive wear of the
clutch or brake.
Programmable controllers, by the nature of their versatility, do not contain this suppression circuitry. The solution for this is quite simple. When a clutch/brake is used

Brake apply/release time


(typical values)

+
24 V 1N5368
90 V 1N5378

Brake
coil

Model

1N4004
Switch
signal

ERS-26
ERS-42
ERS-49
ERS-57
ERS-68

CIRCUIT B

24 V

90 V

Brake-apply time (msec)


SuppressionSuppressioncircuit A
circuit B
24 V
90 V
24 V
90 V

30
50
70
110
160

30
60
80
110
200

40
100
150
150
200

Brake-release
time (msec)

40
100
150
150
200

10
10
20
20
30

10
20
20
20
30

Note: Release and apply times are armature engagement


and release only.

Circuit A uses a flyback diode to suppress a back-EMF


voltage that can reach 7 to 10 the applied voltage
generated every time power is removed from the
circuit. Circuit B improves on the design by adding
a Zener diode to speed the collapse of the coils
magnetic field.

This table shows the approximate times needed to engage and


disengage a simple spring-set brake. The time needed to apply
the brake directly relates to the time it takes for the magnetic
field to dissipate. A properly designed suppression circuit can
reduce engagement time by 80% or more.

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RS# 136
44

MACHINE DESIGN.com

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

Air Cylinder

with a programmable controller, designers should include


The 1N5378 has a VZ of 100V and its IZSM can handle
the suppression circuitry as needed in the wiring harness
2.7A for 8.3msec. This IZSM is more than adequate to
of the machine.
handle 0.239A for 20msec. If a 24-V device is used, then
The process of choosing the proper flyback diode for
a proper Zener diode choice would be the 1N5368. The
the suppression circuit is quite simple. First, determine
Zener and flyback diodes are wired in series cathode-tothe current the clutch or brake demands. For example, the
cathode, and then across the winding. The anode side of
Warner ERS-42 electrically released brake needs 0.239A
the Zener diode connects to the positive voltage terminal
at 90V to release its total maximum holding torque of
of the coil. MD
7lb-ft. The specifications of the flyback diode should, at a minimum,
double those values: a continuous
forward current (If) of at least 0.478A
with a peak inverse voltage (PIV) rating of 180V. A common diode used
in this application is the 1N400x Series. The IN4004 has an If of 1A, with
a PIV of 400V, or four times the demand of the brake.
Low-voltage brakes usually need
more current to operate. The release
current for the 24-V version of the
ERS-42 is 0.973A. So it needs a diode
that can handle at least 1.946-A If. In
that case, switch to the 1N540x Series
specifically the 1N5404 with a PIV
of 400V and an If of 3A. Note that
the 1N5401 would also work in this
When traditional fasteners wont do
application, though its PIV rating is
the trick,theres Fabricos engineered
only 100V. That is still over 4 the
24-V applied to the brake. The cost of
materials and adhesives.Using the
the 1N5401 and 1N5404 diodes are
most trusted suppliers like 3M,
typically the same and the 1N5404
can serve in place of the 1N4004 if
DuPont,and Loctite,Fabrico provides
necessary, even if its physical size is
quality,affordable assembly solutions
slightly larger. A higher PIV rating
does not affect circuit operation in
for electronics,medical,military/
this application.
aerospace,and transportation.
The choice of Zener diode for the
suppression circuit does take a little
bit more work. Zener diodes remain
Metal fasteners too time-consuming?
in an open-circuit or high-resistance
Need to drive cost out of current
mode until the voltage applied to them
equals or exceeds their Zener voltage
products? Turn your toughest
(VZ). So a 90-V device should use a
assembly challenge into a competitive
Zener diode with a VZ slightly over 90V.
When selecting the current ratadvantage.Choose Fabrico for
ing of the Zener diode, one must use
unmatched materials expertise,
the maximum Zener surge current
(IZSM). The IZSM rating is the maxifabrication,assembly,
mum current the diode can withstand
and kitting.
in Zener mode for a given amount of
time. The table shows that the ERS800-351-8273
42 brake takes approximately 20msec
E-Mail: info@fabrico.com
to engage when power is lost. So the
Go to www.fabricoforum.com or visit
Fabrico is a trademark of EIS, Inc.
Zener must withstand an IZSM value
of 0.239A for at least 20msec. The
1N53xx Series of Zener diodes seems
to fill this need.

www.fabrico.com

RS# 137
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

MACHINE DESIGN.com

45

MATERIALS

How to

RIDof FOAM

petroleum
Mushroom-based foam is
the new polystyrene.

Mushroom roots and


agricultural waste grow
to form a protective,
sustainable wine shipper.

Debris continues to collect


on the U. S. Pacific coast
from last years Japanese
tsunami. On lo okers are
surprised by the amount of
Styrofoam and foam insulation. In fact, these materials
accounted for over half (by
volume) of the 2 tons of tsunami detritus collected along
2 miles of Alaskan coastline.
This wave of pollution illustrates why there is widespread interest in biodegradable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics. One recent development in this area
is a material called EcoCradle. Developed by Ecovative
Design LLC, Green Island,
N.Y., the material replaces
synthetic, petroleum-based
foams such as expanded polypropylene (EPP), expanded
polyethylene (EPE), and expanded polystyrene (EPS).
Containing fungus rather
than petroleum, EcoCradle
isnt so much manufactured
as it is grown.

Authored by:

Lindsey Frick
Associate Editor
lindsey.frick@penton.com

Key points:
Mushroom roots digest
and bind agricultural waste
to form a cohesive material
that acts like polystyrene.
The method to grow and
form EcoCradle material
consumes less energy
than the process to make
expanded foams.
EcoCradle material can be
custom formulated to serve
a variety of applications
like protective packaging
and insulation.

Resources:
Center for Alaskan Coastal
Studies, akcoastalstudies.
org

Start at the root


EcoCradle begins as a combination of living fungi and
agriculture waste. The fungi called mycelium, or mushroom roots is mixed with inedible and unusable agricultural by-products such as seed hulls or seed husks from
staples like rice or oats.
Ecovative grows and forms the material by first cleaning the agricultural waste, mixing it with mycelium, and
46

MACHINE DESIGN.com

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

At the top, the mushroom


mixture grows inside
plastic molds. Material is
then released from the
molds and dried on racks.

Ecovative Design LLC,


ecovativedesign.com
Mushroompackaging.com
TEDxPresidio,
tedxpresidio.org

Eco Cable
Lighte

r
le

cy

Re

Toug

b
la

her

&20,1*)$//

Visit www.alphawire.com/
ecocable for free samples and more.
2012 AlphaWire

RS# 138

MATERIALS

pouring it into plastic molds. Over the course of five days


furniture such as the structural cores found in tabletops.
and without light or water, the mycelium digests some of
Or, it can serve as a sustainable alternative to seating
the waste particles and binds to the others. Every cubic
foams. The material is inherently fire retardant, which
inch of the mixture contains a matrix of 8 miles of mycelial
alone is a breakthrough in the seating-foam industry as
fibers. These tiny fibers let the mixture grow in tight corconcern continues
Continued on page 57
ners of the mold.
After material is released from the mold, it gets
dehydrated and steam-heat treated to stop it from
growing and to eliminate the formation of spores. (A
Ecovative Design has served-up custom mushroom packaging for
spore is a reproductive structure of fungus which can
Fortune 500 companies like Puma, Crate and Barrel, and Steelcase. In
continue growing and cause allergens.) The result is
addition, Dell and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
a brownish-white piece of material that works like
are on the path to replace petroleum packaging with EcoCradle.
polystyrene.
Ecovative modifies the weight, density, texture,
and strength of EcoCradle simply by blending different ratios and types of agricultural waste. The company has fine-tuned the mixture to yield a material
that weighs around 2.5 lb/ft3. Traditional synthetic
foams weigh between 1 to 3 lb/ft3.

Fungus in action

Mushrooms sound expensive


The cost of EcoCradle is competitive with the cost
of synthetic expanded foams and can even be less
expensive at times. Synthetic foams depend on finite
resources like petroleum. EcoCradle can be made
from different types of agriculture waste which lets
the company switch out ingredients. For example,
oat hull will work if there is a price constraint on rice
hull.
The growing and forming of EcoCradle entails
no complex machinery and requires less energy than
manufacturing synthetic foams. In fact, its fabrication process consumes one-tenth
the energy used to make foam
packaging.
Ecovative is trying to improve
that number to one-fortieth by
working on a new energy-efficient
sterilization treatment to replace
steam-heating. The treatment is
said to use natural oils from cinnamon bark, thyme, oregano, and
lemongrass.
EcoCradle can be composted,
mulched, or simply thrown away
because the material is 100% biodegradable. Depending on temperature, moisture, and biological
activity, the material breaks down
over the course of four to 12 weeks
in a healthy, active compost. The
material breaks down faster when
broken into smaller pieces and
thrown in a compost heap ranging
from 100 to 140F.
Though you can eat the material, Ecovative believes its technology is better suited for applications
other than food. The material can replace parts of
48

MACHINE DESIGN.com

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

Dell Inc., Round Rock, Tex., manufactures a multipack of four servers


that weigh in at around 200 lb. The EcoCradle packaging will replace
fabricated EPE parts used to dampen vibration and protect the
heavy servers during drop tests.
The National Oceanic
and Atmospheric
Administrations
Pacific Marine
Environmental
Laboratory (PMEL)
uses oceanographic
buoy arrays to collect
data about the ocean.
DART-ETD, Deepocean Assessment
and Reporting of
Tsunamis Easy To
Deploy, will detect and
communicate early
warnings of tsunamis.
The PMEL plans to use
EcoCradle to protect
the DART-ETD system
when the buoy drops
from the deck of a ship
into the ocean. The
material can withstand
tropical shipping
conditions as well as direct exposure to rain and sea spray. The
material breaks down in both fresh and saltwater within five months,
so it will not contribute to plastic pollution found in the ocean.

NOVEMBER 2012


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Email: sales@oydbell.com
Web: www.oydbell.com

(847) 719-5900
Email: info@smalley.com
Web: www.smalley.com/getcatalog

NEW SDP/SI INCH MASTER CATALOG IS BIGGER THAN EVER!


Request your free copy today SDP/SI 2012 Inch Master Catalog, D810, is available online
and in print, now features over 87,000 components including an entirely new section of industrial quality leveling foot mounts. Many new items
and sizes included. For fifty years, SDP/SI has been
providing precision components for industrial, medical,
defense, and aerospace applications. Stock Drive Products is ISO 9100 registered. Sterling Instrument is both
ISO 9100 and AS9100C Registered.

FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

Floyd Bell Inc

Smalley Steel Ring Company

SDP/SI Stock Drive Products/


Sterling Instrument
New Hyde Park, NY
Phone: (800) 819-8900
Web: www.sdp-si.com
Email: sdp-sisupport@sdp-si.com

(614) 294-4000
Fax: (614) 291-0823
Email: sales@oydbell.com
Web: www.oydbell.com

(614) 294-4000
Fax: (614) 291-0823
Email: sales@oydbell.com
Web: www.oydbell.com

Farmington Hills, MI
(800) 521-3320 (248) 476-0213
Email: shocks@acecontrols.com
Web: www.acecontrols.com

FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

Floyd Bell Inc

Floyd Bell Inc

ACE Controls Inc.

FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

AUDIOLARM II PIEZOELECTRIC ALARMS

The industrys largest selection of piezoelectric whoops, warbles, sirens, beeps and more. Available in variety of voltages and output up to
103dB! Rugged panel mount products are
IP68 and NEMA 4X when used with optional gasket. ISO 9001:2000 registered
company all products made in the USA.

FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

ULTRA LOUD PIEZOELECTRIC ALARMS

Ultra Loud selection of piezoelectric whoops, warbles, sirens, beeps and


more offers 100Hz lower frequency than industry counterparts. Available
in variety of voltages and output up to
108dB! Rugged panel mount products are
IP68 and NEMA 4X when used with optional gasket ISO 9001:2000 registered
company all products made in the USA.
Floyd Bell Inc
(614) 294-4000
Fax: (614) 291-0823
Email: sales@oydbell.com
Web: www.oydbell.com

FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

MACHINE Design.com

8
51

The NEW

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In the past, weve been told by our design
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find out everything that is happening at these
important events.

CHECK US OUT TODAY:


www.engineeringtv.com

CROSS-REFERENCED TO METAL CAM FOLLOWERS FOR EASY REPLACEMENT

Only our patent pending iCamFollowers offer all these advantages: plastic tire eliminates rail wear; no lubrication is required in the bearing or on the rail; reduce noise
up to 10dB; absorb shock and vibration; high
load capacity; ball bearings permit higher linear
speeds; lighter weight reduces inertia; are suitable for use in clean rooms; wash downs; work
well in subzero temperatures (-40F). For load ratings and sizes go to www.intechpower.com/icam.

aMsp-All Metric Small Parts

Intech Corp.
250 Herbert Ave., Closter, NJ 07624
(201) 767-8066
Fax: (201) 767-7797
Web: www.intechpower.com
FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

FREE INDUSTRIAL HARDWARE CATALOG


All Metric Small Parts (aMsp) has just released the latest industrial hardware and
enclosure components catalog, M110.This new catalog details over 11,000
items including KIPP handles, Tochigiya locks,
NBK knobs, Silver handles, GeTech adjustable
feet, Martin foot mounts and various other components. All components are RoHS compliant.
Request your fee copy today!

New Hyde Park, New York


Phone: (516) 302-0152
Fax: (516) 302-0153
Email: amspsupport@amsp.biz
Web: www.allmetricsmallparts.com
FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

13

PULLEY CATALOG B216

HELICAL COUPLINGS, U-JOINTS AND MACHINED SPRINGS

The domestic source for perfect meshing timing belts and pulleys. BRECOflex CO., L.L.C. is
announcing their new pulley catalog B216 for made-to-order and stock pulleys. The new
domestic CNC state of the art pulley manufacture allows for very precise machining
standards, leading to superior product quality and quick product availability. BRECOflex CO.,
L.L.C., is providing finished precision pulleys made-tospecification and stock pulleys with pilot bores, for
immediate delivery. Made-to-order pulleys are available with
normal backlash, reduced backlash SE or zero backlash
0 tooth gap design.

Helicals 28-page catalog features miniature flexible couplings, u-joints, power transmission couplings and machined springs. Couplings are available in high strength
17-4PH stainless steel or 7075-T-6 aluminum.
Quick-reference, product summary chart highlights features and technical data. Easy-touse part number builders make ordering easy.

Helical Products Co., Inc.

BRECOH[ CO., L.L.C.


Call for our free engineering support!
Toll free at 888-463-1400
Phone: 732-460-9500
Email: info@brecoex.com
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10

ELECTRIC CYLINDERS
RACO Electric Linear Cylinders with ballscrews or acme screws are an environmentally safe
and low maintenance replacement for hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders. Thrusts to 200,000
lbs., speeds to 30/second, and strokes to 20 ft. Modular system allows custom built units using the special high torque RACO actuator motor or servo and
stepper motors. Cylinders are built for heavy duty industrial applications. Other types of cylinders are available
for high speed, high positioning accuracy applications.

RACO International L.P.


Bethel Park, PA
(888) 289-7226, (412) 835-5744
Fax: (412) 835-0338
Email: raco@racointernational.com
Web: www.racointernational.com
FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

Santa Maria, CA
Toll Free: (888) 211-9589
(805) 928-3851
Fax: (805) 928-2369
Web: www.Heli-Cal.com
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VALVES & FITTINGS PROVIDE LEAKPROOF


PROTECTION TO 6,000 PSI

O-Seal System valves and fittings are rated for heavy-duty liquid or gas services and provide
years of reliable leakproof operation. The unique O-Seal System design allows operators to
change out valves and other ocmponents for maintenance with the simple turn of a union
nut. The flat-faced fittings are joined with a resilient O-ring in a close tolerance groove -- so
the higher the pressure, the tighter the seal. These fittings are rated for 6,000 psi, at temperatures from -20
to 225 F.

CPV Manufacturing
Philadelphia, PA
(888) 278-8339, FAX: (215) 387-9043
Email: sales@cpvmfg.com
Web: www.cpvmfg.com

11

ADVANCED CERAMIC SOLUTIONS


Astro Mets unique advanced ceramics provide cost effective solutions to material
performance problems in a wide range of demanding applications. Amalox 68 a
99.8% alumina ceramic and Amzirox 86 an yttria
stabilized zirconia provide superior wear resistance,
corrosion resistance, high temperature stability,
low thermal expansion, high stiffness to weight ratio, biocompatibility and high dielectric strength.

FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

DEUBLIN ROTATING UNION CATALOG AVAILABLE

Deublin Company

Cincinnati, OH
(513) 772-1242
Fax: (513) 772-9080
Email: fgorman@astromet.com
Web: www.astromet.com

2050 Norman Drive West


Waukegan, IL 60085
Phone: (847) 689-8600
E-mail: info@deublin.com
Web: www.deublin.com

12

15

Deublin, the leading manufacturer of rotating unions,has a new, updated 56-page catalog that
includes complete information for selecting unions for a variety of applications, from water and
steam, to air and hydraulic, oil and coolant. Both operating data and dimensional specifications are provided in one comprehensive catalog, along
with installation and service information. This reference catalog provides detailed information on over 50
application categories and over 500 models. The catalog is available free via reader response, phone or email.

Astro Met, Inc.

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14

FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

MACHINE Design.com

16
53

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(9(5<:+(5(

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DQGZHUHDOORYHULW
Electronic Design | Machine Design | Microwaves & RF | Medical Design | Source ESB | Hydraulics
& Pneumatics | Global Purchasing | Distribution Resource | Power Electronics Technology | Mobile
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SELF-LUBRICATING GEAR SOLUTIONS CALCULATED FOR LIFE


The Intech Power-Core gears are precision machined and offer solutions to applications in which lubrication, wear, noise, vibration, inertia, shock load, moisture
and chemicals present a problem for nylon, Delrin
or metal gears. Metal Core provides for a secure
attachment to the shaft and higher torque transmission. Gear design and sizing is backed by
durability calculation using proprietary software.

Intech Corp.,
250 Herbert Ave., Closter, NJ 07624
(201) 767-8066
Fax: (201) 767-7797
Web: www.intechpower.com
FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

METRIC GEAR COMPONENTS

Bill Baumann Vice President/Market Leader


Paul Milnamow Brand Director
Virginia Goulding Online Sales & Marketing Manager
Jane Maloney Cooper Marketing Manager

17

New 528-page catalog Q420 has technical specs for 3,800+ standardized stock metric
gear components, including spur, helical and internal gears, straight and helical racks,
straight and spiral bevel gears, worm and worm
gears, ratchets, splines and gear couplings in modules 0.5 to 10. Materials include carbon & chromemoly steel, brass, bronze, nylon and cast iron.

Adrian Piazza Marketing & Event Specialist


QTC Quality Transmission
Components

Julie Ritchie Research Manager

Garden City Park, NY


Phone: (516) 437-6700
Fax: (516) 328-3343
Web: www.qtcgears.com

Debbie Brady Audience Development Manager

FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

Carey Sweeten Group Production Manager

18

913-967-1823
Courtney Denison Production Coordinator

913-967-1738

Corporate Officers
David Kieselstein Cheif Executive Officer
Bob MacArthur Senior Vice President
Nicola Allais Chief Financial Officer

FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

19

MINITURE THREADED CHECK VALVES

1300 East 9th Street


The Penton Media Building
Cleveland, Ohio 44144
(216) 696-7000
www.penton.com
www.machinedesign.com

An economy line of check valves and checked orifices which can be installed
in female threads in sizes 6/32, 10/32, 1/420 and 5/1618. Comparable
metric sizes are M3.5, M5, M6 and M8. Valves
are available in all metal construction, brass or
stainless steel or also with resilient seating Buna
N or Viton.




&$7$/2*7&9

OKeefe Controls Co.


(800) 533-3285
Email: sa@okcc.com
Web: www.okccbo.com
FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER

MACHINE Design.com

20
55

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS
ADVERTISER. . . . . . . . PAGE

FLOYD BELL INCORPORATED 51

RACO INTERNATIONAL, L.P.. . . 53

ACE CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

HELICAL PRODUCTS COMPANY,

SMALLEY STEEL RING

INC.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

COMPANY . . . . . . . . . . . 51

COMPONENTS . . . . . . . 51

INTECH TRADING CORP . . 53, 55

STOCK DRIVE PRODUCTS. . . . 51

ALL METRIC SMALL PARTS . . . 53

OKEEFE CONTROLS, INC. . . . 55

TRIM-LOK INC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

ALTECH CORP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

QUALITY TRANSMISSION

ADVANCED ANTIVIBRATION

ASTRO MET ASSOCIATES INC 53


BRECOFLEX CO LLC . . . . . . . . 53
CPV MFG. INC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
DEUBLIN COMPANY. . . . . . . . . 53

COMPONENTS . . . . . . . 55

To receive the catalogs or brochures described in this


issue of Machine Designs Literature Express, simply
circle the inquiry number on the Reader Service Card and
mail or go to http://www.machinedesign.com/rsc

While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this index,
the publisher cannot be held responsible for any errors or omissions.

FOR A FREE COPY, CIRCLE NUMBER


56

MACHINE Design.com

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

21

MATERIALS

to build over the use of toxic fire retardants.


Ecovative has used the material as insulation in a number of commercial and residential buildings. The company
is also developing a mushroom material capable of absorbing and dissipating energy for use in vehicle door panels
and bumpers.
This summer, packaging giant Sealed Air Corp.,
Elmwood Park, N.J., licensed the technology for protective applications in North America.
Sealed Air is known for its packaging brands such as Bubble Wrap
cushioning and Cryovac food packaging. The company is already seeing widespread use for the material.
Sealed Air Product Manager Tim
McInerney says, Thus far, we have
seen a demand in white goods, automotive, and lighting. Additionally, electronics, such as computerdisplay monitors, are a perfect fit
due to the antistatic properties of
the packaging.

its expertise with living fungus to create reusable circuits. In a recent TEDx talk, Ecovative cofounder Gavin
McIntyre describes studying the natural formation of
mushrooms around toxins as a way to develop a reusable
circuit.
Research started with an abandoned open-pit copper
mine in Montana called the Berkeley Pit, which spans one
mile long by half a mile wide. A natural spring fills the pit

Lubriplate .com


SPECIFY THE
SYNTHETIC
ADVANTAGE ...

The future of mushrooms


In an effort to reduce the toxic
waste associated with the disposal
of electronics, Ecovative plans to use

LUBRIPLATE
PGO SERIES
POLYALKYLENE GLYCOL
(PAG)-BASED GEAR OILS.
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Ultra High-Performance Lubrication for Gear Reducers
operating under the most demanding conditions.
They Reduce Friction, Wear, and Thermal Build-Up
(Reductions up to 15F in Worm Gear Reducers).
Exceeds 12 Stages of FZG Test.

Conserves Resources - ECO-Friendly


Extended Service Life and Drain Intervals,
reduces lubricant requirements over time.
Low Coefcient of Friction - Reduced Energy
Consumption (Up to 7% in Worm Gears).
Free of zinc and other additives that may be
undesirable in environmentally sensitive areas.

PGO-FGL - H-1 Class Food Grade


Same Great Benets in Food Machinery Grade.
NSF H-1 Registered, Meets FDA Regulations
21 CFR 178.3570.

A Better Lubrication Solution


Than Petroleum-Based Lubricants!

Lubriplate
Mushrooms are naturally composed
of an insulative biopolymer called
chitin. When mushrooms are grown
with conductive copper solution, the
mushroom works like a circuit.

Synthetic Lubricants
Contact: Ellen Girard / OEM Marketing Analyst
Tel: 973-465-5731 / E-mail: egirard@lubriplate.com
For Equipment Recommendations and Lubricant Specications
RS# 141
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

MACHINE DESIGN.com

57

MATERIALS

with about 900ft of water laden with heavy metals and dangerous chemicals that leach from rock. Mushrooms form
around the Berkeley Pit because fungi grow naturally around
metal toxins. They grow around metal toxins because the
mycelium within the fungi contain complex proteins that
bind to surrounding materials and store toxins within their
cell walls. When fungi grow on materials without the presence of a metallic solution, toxins are stored outside their cell

Custom
formulated
EcoCradle
material
can insulate
commercial
and residential
buildings.

COMSOL Version 4.3a


Now Available!
www.comsol.com /4.3a

Verify and optimize


your designs with
COMSOL Multiphysics.

Multiphysics tools let you build simulations that accurately


replicate the important characteristics of your designs.
The key is the ability to include all physical effects that
exist in the real world. Download a free product booklet
at www.comsol.com/booklet

2012 COMSOL.

BOLTED CONNECTION: A ange with prestressed


bolts subjected to an external tensile force is modeled.
Results show how the stress state in the bolts varies
with the applied load.

58

MACHINE DESIGN.com

RS# 140
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

walls, producing excess spores.


To replicate the model of storing toxins within cell walls, Ecovative grew fungi on potato media in a
solution with a heightened concentration of copper. The fungi did not
produce spores, but more importantly, 80% of the metal ions in the
solution were absorbed and stored
within the cell walls. This amount of
metal within the cell walls makes the
fungi highly conductive.
Standard mycelium is composed
of chitin, a biopolymer found in fungi
and on arthropods like crabs. Chitin
acts as a natural electrical insulator.
An electric charge cannot travel across
this insulative material by itself, thus
copper solution is introduced to create
conductivity. The combination of the
insulative and conductive properties
within the fungi combine to make a
biological circuit.
Ecovative creates biological circuits by mimicking and scaling this
discovery. The team makes a copperfilled solution and mixes mycelium
with agricultural waste. The waste
serves as the nutrition source to grow
the conductive fungal tissue. Scientists
and chemists dry out the tissue and
use proprietary methods to make the
brittle tissue more elastic. Elasticity is
needed so the tissue can be cut and
etched to make a circuit pattern. The
etched tissue can now connect to an
LED and a battery pack to make the
first mushroom flashlight.
Circuits at the end of their life can
reenter Ecovatives fermentation process. The mycelium becomes nutrition for more mycelium and the copper passes along to become the conductive agent in a new circuit. MD

RS# 139

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FLUIDPOWER TECHNOLOGY GUIDE

How to

AVOID
ELECTRICAL
HAZARDS with

Pneumatic controls are


a viable option when
electrical hazards cant
be tolerated.

air logic

Authored by:

Kenneth J. Korane
Managing Editor

Key points:
Air logic functions like relays, switches, and
counters, but uses compressed air instead of
electricity.
Air-logic controls are preferred in wet or dusty
conditions because they pose little danger of
electrical explosion or shock.

Resources:
AOP Technologies, www.aoptec.com
Clippard Instrument Laboratory,
www.clippard.com

RS# 621

Magnum Venus Plastech, www.mvpind.com

Electrical and electronic devices such as logic circuits,


programmable controllers, and PCs normally control
fluid-power and fluid-handling circuits. Such systems
can also operate with air logic, controls that function
like relays, switches, time delays, and counters. However,
while the circuitry is similar, compressed air is the control medium instead of electric current.
Air-logic controls are often preferred in wet or dusty
environments because they pose practically no danger of
explosion or electrical shock. Likewise, air controls cannot ignite explosive or flammable gases and vapors. And
theyre rugged. Water can splash on the controls without
affecting operations, and they tolerate dust and dirt. Air
60

MACHINE DESIGN.com

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

Air-logic controls for composites


manufacturing rely on miniature valves,
manifolds, and other components from
Clippard Instrument Laboratory.

logic can also be used on machines with fluid-power components but no electrical supply.
Air logic does have disadvantages. Most common is
a lack of understanding among maintenance personnel
on how to read schematics and troubleshoot problems.
Also, air logic with long control lines responds noticeably slower than electronics. Thats because control lines
longer than 10 to 15 ft fill and exhaust slowly compared to
near-instantaneous electrical signals. In addition, it takes

06')4#6'&16+101.76+105

(Purchase Order to Shipment)

Groschopp uses the Fast Track department to quickly build motors/gearmotors to meet customers demands. Because
Groschopp stocks components rather than nished motors/gearmotors, we can easily make modications to the motor/
gearmotor to meet your requirements. Modications include:
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t

Various bolt hole patterns


Face/foot mountings with special ange
Shaft size/diameter/shape
Special bearings and seals
Terminal box
Insulation
Keyway
Threading

48 HOUR

Fast Track Gearmotors

Because our Fast Track designs are based on standard product lines our experienced, on site machinists can quickly
alter bolt hole patters, create custom shafts, threadings and more.
After the entire build process is complete the Fast Track department has two rooms designated for testing the motors/
gearmotors. Computers and high tech testing equipment allow them to perform accurate tests on the hand-built motors.
From there the motors are packed with the help of a sophisticated Styrofoam packaging system.
Need a few motors quickly? Submit your application specs at www.groshcopp.com/specs or call (800) 829-4135 and
ask to speeak with a regional account manager.

999T)415%*122T%1/
)3/

$15!,)49
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4)

Phone
Toll Free
Fax
Email

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(712) 722-4135
800.829.4135
(712) 722.1445
sales@groschopp.com

100'%69+6*75U

%34

Groschopp Inc.
420 15th St. NE
Sioux Center, IA 51250-2100 USA

2%')34%2%$

RS# 142

IN D US T RY -L E ADING
M OT I ON CO NT ROL

GET
IT ALL
FROM
PMD

FLUIDPOWER TECHNOLOGY GUIDE

a high-quality, filtered air supply to


ensure long life.
Air-logic controls are basically
miniature three and four-way air
valves. Components include the familiar and, or, not, yes, and flip-flop
elements, as well as timers and delays. Valves provide on or off functions like relays or switches, and
also exhaust the spent signals. Heres
how one OEM uses air logic to its
advantage.

Molding composites

PMD offers a complete range


of motion control products and
solutions. Recognized as a top
innovator and leader in the motion
control industry, we have over 5
million axes installed worldwide.
If you have an application in need
of a solution, weve probably
already solved it.
WORLD-CLASS PRODUCTS:
Q

CHIPS

CARDS

DRIVES

DEVELOPERS KITS

RS# 143
PERFORMANCE MOTION DEVICES, INC.
80 CENTRAL ST. | BOXBOROUGH, MA 01719
P: 978.266.1210 | WWW.PMDCORP.COM

Molded composite parts are commonplace in products ranging from


boat hulls and hot tubs to storage
tanks and wind turbines. However,
regulatory pressures are affecting
composites-manufacturing processes, and that has producers turning to pneumatic controls.
Traditionally, fiberglass and
composite parts have been made
in an open-molding process, explains Jeff Austad, vice president of
distribution and specialty sales for
Magnum Venus Plastech (MVP),
a Clearwater, Fla.-based manufacturer of pumping and meter-mix
equipment used to make composites.
Typically, workers spray a gel-coated
mold with a mixture of catalyzed
resin and glass fibers, then the part
is oven cured, cooled, and removed
from the reusable mold.
Over the last couple of decades,
regulations have gotten a lot tougher
regarding worker exposure to hazardous materials such as styrene, as
well as emissions of noxious fumes
into the environment, says Austad.
Safety concerns have grown, too. The
resins are flammable, so minimizing
fire hazards and, in turn, insurance
costs, are also taking center stage.
That has spurred a move to
closed-mold processing. As the name
implies, instead of spraying material
to make a part, the resin and other
constituents are injected into a closed
and sealed mold. Versions of this
process include resin-transfer molding (RTM), light RTM (vacuum-assisted), vacuum-infusion molding,
and closed-cavity bag molding.
Closed molding, first of all, lowers
emissions, says Austad. It results in a
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

Pneumatic circuits precisely control


resin-injection rate and pressure.

much cleaner work environment and


reduces the need for protective clothing, respirators, and expensive ventilation systems. The automated process also reduces manual labor and
improves part quality dramatically.
Open-molded parts might vary
by 15 to 20%, depending on the skill
of the operator, and that can generate considerable waste. Closed molding takes that out of the equation by
injecting the same amount of resin
into the mold every time, resulting in
minimal trim waste and less finishing after the part is made, says Austad. Closed molding better controls
component thickness and produces
a higher-quality part thats smooth
and shiny on both sides, he adds. On
open-molded parts, one side usually
has a rough, unfinished surface.
But closed molding requires precisely controlled metering and mixing of the resin and catalyst, as well
as the amount of catalyzed resin injected into the mold. While its possible to use PLC-based controls with
flowmeters, the resins are flammable

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RS# 144

FLUIDPOWER TECHNOLOGY GUIDE


The widest range of gearboxes,
gearheads, gearmotors
and reducers available from
a single source...
Gearmotors & Reducers

Air logic minimizes


fire and explosion
hazards in composites
molding operations.

Servo Gearheads

so that would require explosionproof


electrical systems, and they are quite
expensive. Instead, MVPs engineers
opted for all-pneumatic controls using valves and logic components
from Cincinnati-based Clippard Instrument Laboratory.

Spiral Bevel Gearboxes

Air-logic controls

Special Design Gearboxes

... and the experience


to help you select the
right one for your needs.
Let DieQua be an extension
of your design team.
RS# 145

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The Innovator II control box is an


air-logic panel with no electronics.
It is used primarily with MVPs Patriot mix/meter dispensing system,
the companys newest generation of
resin-dispense equipment specifically designed for closed molding.
This meter-mix system delivers precise quantities of resin and catalyst
to the mixing head, blends them, and
injects the mixture into the mold.
The pneumatic controls perform
three major tasks, explains Tim DeLuca, vice president of MVPs RTM
Div. The first is to repetitively inject
the same shot size into the cavity every time, eliminating guess work on
the part of the operator. Once userdesignated injection parameters are
reached, a counter circuit shuts off
injection.
Second, the controls manage injection pressure and prevent overpressure conditions which could
blow out clamps or resin seals, says
DeLuca. A pneumatic switch called
a PV switch can be mounted in
the mold to sense resin pressure for
closed-loop control.
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

Customers who require higher


precision, say for aircraft or automobile parts held to tight tolerances,
are more likely to want this option,
notes Austad. Overpressure can result in parts with inconsistent thickness. So sensing pressure lets the controller slow the pump, shut off the
injector, or both.
The last, and perhaps most important, function is the control interlock. At no time can operators accidently push the wrong button and
botch the process. During certain
cycles, some functions are locked out
and not usable. This prevents costly
mistakes, says DeLuca.

Precise pumping
Precise metering was a key objective when the Patriot was developed.
It ensures a catalyst-to-resin variance
ratio of 1% or less. A pneumatic motor drives the resin pump which, in
turn, is connected by a slave arm to
the catalyst pump. In this way, the
catalyst pump is directly slaved to the
resin pump, ensuring accurate metering as both catalyst and resin are
delivered to the mix head.
The air motor driving the pumps
uses line-pressure pilot valves, which
shift a four-way valve spool to reverse
the pump. Keys for quickly reversing the pump are a light spring load
on the pilots and large exhaust ports
on the valve. Also, the air cylinder
has a 2-in. stroke that minimizes

Technology You Can Trust

Avago Encoders
From Miniature Modules to
Complete Housed Encoders

Avago has the industrys broadest


range of absolute and incremental
encoders for motion control. Choose from
encoder modules or complete housed encoders in a
wide range of resolution, shaft sizes, mounting options, and
output formats.
AEDR-8500 Worlds Smallest 3-Channel Reflective Encoder
t Miniature size ideal for motors 6mm to 35mm in diameter
t Flexible resolution by changing code wheel size
t Built-in interpolation at 1X, 2X, and 4X to achieve higher resolution
Avago Housed Encoders
t Comprehensive selection of housed encoders for any application
t Wide range of resolution, shaft sizes, and mounting options
t 2 or 3 channel versions with single-ended or differential output signals
t Drop-in replacements for housed encoders from US Digital and other
manufacturers
For further information, visit us at: www.avagotech.com/encoders

RS# 146

FLUIDPOWER TECHNOLOGY GUIDE

the volume of air that


must exhaust when
the pump reverses.
Older versions used 4
and 6-in. stroke cylinders, which take longer to exhaust due to
the greater volume of
compressed air. All
this adds up to faster
pumping with quick
changes in direction.
Low-friction seals,
along with a balanced
power ratio pneumatic
drive, help ensure uniform material
delivery at high and low flow rates,
says DeLuca.

COATED
INDUSTRIAL
DEVICE

The Leader
in Coating
Industrial,
Medical, and
Aerospace
Components.

51 Parmenter Road, Hudson, MA 01749


(800) 258-0110
www.boydcoatings.com/MachD

Innovative design
The Innovator II is based on
controls originally built in the
United Kingdom for a specific
model of MVPs meter/mix equipment. That unit used European-standard components and metric tubing.
We wanted an Americanized version for North America with Clippard valves, standard tubing, and
other components that are readily
available, says Austad.
And MVP wanted the controls to
work with a variety of its equipment.
Looking to build greater versatility
and functionality into the controls,
engineers from MVP and Clippard
distributor AOP Technologies, Auburn, Wash., made key improvements, notes DeLuca. We changed
all the control lines to 1/8-in. OD to
get faster reaction times on the circuits. All of the valves that actually
control outside sources were upsized
to allow for more flow so that we
could use longer trigger lines outside
the box, he says.
Using stand-alone brass valves
from Clippard, we arranged valves
into banks. Four of the valve banks
are essentially complete circuits, to
ease troubleshooting. The fifth is an
overall control circuit with flow controls for system tuning. Some redundancies were removed and common
valves were used when possible to reduce the number of different parts,
notes DeLuca.
Another important feature: the

RS# 147
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

MVPs
Innovator
II controls
are shipped
worldwide
and built for
durability
and low
maintenance.

solvent flush cannot back up


into the air supply and ruin
the entire controller, thanks
to a sacrificial blocking valve
added to the circuit.
In addition to converting
to inch-size fittings and tubing, the plumbing was streamlined
and secured with clips for a better
appearance and easier troubleshooting. Also, all 70+ lines and valves are
labeled for identification versus the
schematic.
Finally, the control box can handle
remote-control pendant operation,
multiple feedback devices, and different styles of mix-meter equipment.

Ensuring reliability
Although the box is designed primarily for the North American market, MVPs machines are shipped
worldwide. This makes reliability,
along with minimal maintenance, essential, according to Austad. From
MVPs standpoint, we have used
Clippard products in our pumping
systems for many years, with good
results, he says. The design relies on
standard components and Clippard
has worldwide distribution. So in
case there is a problem, users can go
to their local distributor and get it repaired and up and running as soon as
possible.
Because of the proven reliability
and durability of Clippard air-logic
valves, we expect these systems to be
trouble-free for many years, adds
DeLuca. Other than cleaning the air
filter, no maintenance is required.
MD

RS# 148

RS# 136

RS# 149

RS# 150

SPOTLIGHT LINEAR
High-force linear
actuator
The High Force Linear Actuator Model
LA100-93-000A packs a 500-lb peak
force a level that typically requires two
actuators and a continuous force of
292lb with 2-in. total stroke. The device
features a semihoused construction with
built-in shaft and bushings that orient
the coil assembly concentric to the field
assembly, which makes actuator
mounting fast and easy.
The unit measures
10in. in diameter
and 9.3in. long
at mid stroke.
BEI Kimco
Magnetics,
1499 Poinsettia Ave., Suite
160, Vista, CA
92081, (800)
572-7560, www.
beikimco.com
RS# 446

ACTUATORS

Linear actuator for


food-grade
applications
The stainless-steel Hygienic Green Drive linear
actuator is suitable for
food-grade applications as well as
clean-room environments. The actuator comes with a
16 or 25-mm-diameter shaft. Available with a variety of coil
windings, it features rated forces between 8.4 and 96.1N,
acceleration forces (peak force) from 33.7 and 384.5N,
and rated currents between 0.53 and 1.85A.
The Drive offers built-in feedback electronics, including position sensors, interpolation electronics, and temperature sensors.
Nippon Pulse America Inc., 4 Corporate Dr.,
Radford, VA 24141, (540) 633-1677,
www.nipponpulse.com
RS# 447
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formation via ou
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design.com/rs
ww w.machine

Linear units
First in the companys new family of Actuatorline
products, the ELM Series linear units feature highspeed and low-noise operation
The units come in several sizes offering a range of
stroke lengths, load capacities, and shuttling speeds.
ELM units are made of anodized aluminum extrusions
for high mechanical strength and low weight, and
have a steel-reinforced polyurethane timing belt with
either an AT pitch or parabolic profile. The units have
polyurethane sealing strips to protect internal parts
against dust and foreign matter, with an optional bellows for critical environments.
The units feature a maintenance-free ball bearing
guide within the extruded body and offer speeds to
5m/sec, high-load capacity and bending moments,
low friction, and a 20,000-km service life without relubrication. Measuring 50 50 mm to 110 110 mm,
the units maximum axial loads range from 530 to
2,650 N, with stroke lengths from 100 to 3,700 mm,
depending on the model. All units support loads in
any direction and may be installed in any position.
Units may be fitted with a variety of drive systems
based on application needs, with the driving pulley
attached to the reduction gear shaft by a tapered
coupling for high accuracy and long life. For highly
68

MACHINE DESIGN.com

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

dynamic robotic, automation, and material-handling


applications involving stress cycles and high-precision
requirements, a model with planetary gearing is available. Standard models feature 3 to 15-ft clearance
and reduction ratios of 1:3 to 1:1,000. Versions with
worm gears are suitable for applications involving low
speeds and accelerations.
Rollon Corp., 101 Bibly Rd., Suite B, Hackettstown, NJ
07840, (973) 300-5492, www.rollon.com/USA/
RS# 448

IF YOURE STILL USING A ROTARY PHONE...

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Low volume resistivity
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RS# 151

Ultra Small Formed Metal Parts


Photoetching combined
with precision metal bending
to create extremely small
features in thin metal
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RS# 153

SPOTLIGHT LINEAR

ACTUATORS

Linear-motion platform
The SIMO (Simultaneous Integral Milling Operation) Series linear-motion
platform lets design engineers meet multiple application requirements
within a single platform. Its consistent geometry creates a platform of
interchangeable options, including.

Rail heights low profile for


tight spaces or a tall version for
structural integrity. Each aluminum base rail features the SIMO
process for substantially less bow
and twist, and better flatness.
Three bearing tribologies; selflubricating FrelonGold plain
bearings, which are suitable for
contaminated environments;
V-wheel roller bearings for high
speed applications; and profile
rail linear guideways with recirculating ball bearings for rigidity
and precision.
Three drive types leadscrew
with machined nut or antibacklash nut, ball screw, or two versions of belt drives.
The mix-n-match feature lets
engineers test multiple configurations and easily adapt to changing
requirements dependent upon
load, speed, accuracy, environment, and life considerations.
PCB Linear, 6402 Rockton Rd.,
Roscoe, IL 61073, (888) 389-6266,
www.pbclinear.com/SIMO-SeriesLinear-Motion-Platform
RS# 449
70

MACHINE DESIGN.com

RS# 154
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

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PRODUCTS

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Hypoid gearmotor
The PowerSTAR is a hypoid, maximumefficiency, right-angle gearmotor
capable of energy-efficient operation
for applications include packaging equipment, conveyors, light industrial equipment,
and food processing.
The gearmotors improved energy efficiency and maximum
power density allow for a compact profile without compromising performance, unlike conventional worm and competing hypoid gearmotors. Additional features include ground gearing for whisper-quiet operation, low backlash
precision, external finned edges for cooler operating temperatures, and multiple
mounting configurations to support easy interchangeability.
The gearmotor includes both / and /-hp, single-phase 115-V, and threephase 230-V inverter-duty motor options on the 725 gearbox in 13 standard
ratios with output torque from 59-878 lb-in.
Bison Gear and Engineering, 3850 Ohio Ave., St. Charles, IL 60174, (800) 2824766, www.bisongear.com
RS# 465

RTD temperature data logger


OM-CP-RTDTEMP101A precision RTD
temperature data loggers accept two, three, or
four-wire 100-pt RTD input. The unit features a
10-yr battery life, multiple start/stop function,
ultrahigh-speed download, 670,000 reading
storage capacity, memory wrap, and programmable high and low alarms.
Omega Engineering Inc., One Omega Dr., Stamford, CT 06907, (800)-826-6342,
www.omega.com/pptst/OM-CP-RTDTEMP101A.html
RS# 466

Stainless-steel air cylinders


Three new styles of stainless-steel air cylinders
are now available. One, called the
Pancake, is a round cylinder of unibody
construction with a smooth outside surface that doesnt trap washdown solution
or allow bacteria growth. The other two, NFPA
tie-rod cylinders and F Series throw-away styles,
provide an interchange for applications requiring the
upgrade to complete stainless-steel protection. The cylinders are suitable for
medical, packing, filling, food-processing, and dairy applications.
Fabco-Air Inc., 3716 N. E. 49th Ave. Gainesville, FL 32609, (352) 373-3578,
www.fabco-air.com
RS# 467

Ball screws and nuts


A new line of ball screws, ball nuts, and related accessories includes standard
screw diameters up to 4 in. and screw lengths up to 24 ft. The ball nuts come
in a wide range of sizes to meet various applications, and available accessories
include flanges, bearing mounts, and wiper kits.
Joyce/Dayton Corp., 3300 S. Dixie Dr., Kettering, OH 45439, (800) 523-5204,
www.joycedayton.com
RS# 468
72

RS# 158
MACHINE DESIGN.com

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

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RS# 160

8 AXES in ONE
MSEP
8-axis Controller
for

Approx.

60% smaller

Achieving High-Performance in a Compact Design


Network Connectable Controller
RS# 161

IAI America, Inc.

California: 800-736-1712

www.IntelligentActuator.com/MSEP
Illinois: 800-944-0333

Georgia: 888-354-9470

BUSINESS INDEX
Agilent Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 28
AOP Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Asurian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
AutomationDirect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
BEI Kimco Magnetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
BEI Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Boeing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Boerhaave Museum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Bridgestone/Firestone . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Bureau of Labor Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Caremark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Caterpillar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Caterpillar Financial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Center for Alaskan Coastal Studies . 46
Christies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Clippard Instrument Laboratory. . . . 60

REAL PRODUCTS
for real problems
solutions with advanced pneumatic technology

Pneumatic
Linear Slides
Precision linear slides withstand side loads
SE Series Linear Slides are designed to fit precision motion applications where
overall length is limited. A bearing block houses four pre-loaded, sealed linear
bearings that support hardened guide shafts attached to a front toolbar. An integral, repairable air cylinder at the rear of the bearing block powers the toolbar.

Adjustable strokes
1245 lb. maximum thrust rod locks
Precision machined toolbar surfaces
Slip fit dowel hole & slot mountings
Multiple mounting surfaces
Magnetic position sensing
Limit switches & electronic sensors
Cylinder bores: 1/2" to 31/4"
Guide shaft diameters: 1/4" to 11/2"
Tandem cylinder options (3 position)
Multi-Power options yield thrusts
to 31/2 times that of standard cylinders

Custom slide solutions shown

FABCO-AIR solves problems. Let us help!


www.fabco-air.com (Tel: 1-352-373-3578)

74

MACHINE DESIGN.com

RS# 162
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

Crate and Barrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48


Ecovative Design LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
First Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
GE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
General Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Google. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Government of Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Green Revolution Cooling. . . . . . . . . . 16
IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Intech Power Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
iwis drive systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Kilian Manufacturing, an
Altra Industrial Motion Co. . . . . . . . 6
Komatsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Lord Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. 28
Louisiana Pacific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
MSHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Magnum Venus Plastech . . . . . . . . . . . 62
MakerPlane.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Mars Petcare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Metrifast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Microsoft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
MicroStrain Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 28
MicroStrain, a Lord Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Mouser Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration, The . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
New England Wire Technologies . . . 30
Nippon Pulse America Inc. . . . . . . . . . 68
Nissan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Northrop Grumman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Omega Engineering Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Omron Automation and Safety. . . . . 28
PCB Linear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Pepperl+Fuchs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Pivit LLC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Puma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Rio Tinto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Rollon Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Ross-Hime Design Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
SKF USA Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Sealed Air Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
SpaceClaim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Spectris plc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Steelcase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Stober Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
TechShop, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Texas Workforce Commission . . . . . . 30
Toro Mfg. Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
U. S. Navy Research Laboratory. . . . . 24
USB Implementers Forum. . . . . . . . . . . 6
Wallace Cranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 23
Warner Electric LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Wichita Clutch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
This index includes all significant
references to parent companies
mentioned in feature editorial material
within this issue of MACHINE DESIGN. It
doesnt cite companies listed solely
in the Products and Lit Section. Page
numbers listed refer to the pages where
the articles begin.

RS# 164

RS# 163

RS# 136

RS# 165

STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP
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76

MACHINE DESIGN.com

NOVEMBER 8, 2012

ADVERTISER INDEX
RS#. . . . . . COMPANY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PAGE
109. . . . . . . .Airfloat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
136. . . . . . . .Airpot Corp/Airpel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
169. . . . . . . .All Metric Small Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
138. . . . . . . .Alpha Wire Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
103. . . . . . . .Automationdirect.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
105. . . . . . . .Automationdirect.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
146. . . . . . . .Avago Technologies U.S. Inc . . . . . . . . . . . .65
139. . . . . . . .Avnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
171. . . . . . . .Baldor Electric Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC
110. . . . . . . .BEI Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
172. . . . . . . .Bimba Manufacturing Company . . . . . . BC
147. . . . . . . .Boyd.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
126. . . . . . . .Carr Lane Manufacturing Co. . . . . . . . . . . .31
151. . . . . . . .Centricity Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
106. . . . . . . .Clippard Instrument Laboratory, Inc. . . . . 7
140. . . . . . . .Comsol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
122. . . . . . . .Continental Hydraulics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
145. . . . . . . .Diequa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
156. . . . . . . .Dynaflo, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
165. . . . . . . .Dynetic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
160. . . . . . . .Eagle Stainless & Fabrication, Inc. . . . . . . .73
108. . . . . . . .EBM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
17 . . . . . . . . .Epson America Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
104. . . . . . . .Exair Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
116. . . . . . . .Excel Gear Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
135. . . . . . . .Exlar Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
162. . . . . . . .Fabco Air, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
137. . . . . . . .Fabrico. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
123. . . . . . . .GGB Llc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
142. . . . . . . .Groschopp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
131. . . . . . . .Haydon Kerk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
144. . . . . . . .Helical Products Company, Inc. . . . . . . . . .63
161. . . . . . . .IAI America Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
148. . . . . . . .Innovate3d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
158. . . . . . . .Intech Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
149. . . . . . . .KNF Neuberger, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
101. . . . . . . .Lee Company. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IFC
141. . . . . . . .Lubriplate Lubricants Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
152. . . . . . . .Master Bond, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
154. . . . . . . .Metal Powder Ind Federation. . . . . . . . . . .70
166. . . . . . . .Minalex Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
121. . . . . . . .Minnesota Rubber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
111. . . . . . . .Moog Components Group . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
113. . . . . . . .Nason Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
112. . . . . . . .National Instruments Corporation. . . . . .13
167. . . . . . . .Novotechnik U.S., Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
102. . . . . . . .Omega Engineering Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
. . . . . . . . . . . .Ondrives.us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
127. . . . . . . .Pepperl+Fuchs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
128. . . . . . . .Pepperl+Fuchs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
143. . . . . . . .Performance Motion Devices, Inc. . . . . . .62
150. . . . . . . .Peter Paul Electronics Co. Inc. . . . . . . . . . . .67
131. . . . . . . .Pittman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
159. . . . . . . .Quality Bearings & Components. . . . . . . .73
163. . . . . . . .Quality Transmission Components . . . . .75
114. . . . . . . .Schaeffler Group USA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
118. . . . . . . .Schneider Electric Motion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
119. . . . . . . .Schneider Electric Motion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
164. . . . . . . .Seal Master Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
125. . . . . . . .Setco USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
170. . . . . . . .Shimpo Drives Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
117. . . . . . . .Smalley Steel Ring Company . . . . . . . . . . .19
107. . . . . . . .Spirol International Corporation. . . . . . . . . 8
132. . . . . . . .Steinmeyer, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
124. . . . . . . .TDK-Lambda Americas Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
153. . . . . . . .Tech-etch Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
129. . . . . . . .Thomas Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
130. . . . . . . .Thomas Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
157. . . . . . . .Trim-Lok Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
120. . . . . . . .Turck Incorporated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
168. . . . . . . .Vesco Plastics Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
155. . . . . . . .VIC Controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
133. . . . . . . .W.L. Gore & Associates Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
134. . . . . . . .W.L. Gore & Associates Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41

RS# 166

  

 
Linear Position Sensors With
Attachment Options
Novotechniks TEX Series has the
mounting and connection
configurations needed to be
plug-in compatible with
your existing or new
application. The TEX Series is designed
for use in tough environments like industrial, off-road automotive and others.
The TEX Series is available in stroke
lengths of 10 to 300 mm. Repeatability is better than
0.01 mm and the TEX Series has outstanding linearity
to 0.05%. A wide range of standard configurations for
mounting are featured including:
return spring
bolt through flanges
bushing mount

pivot head mount


snap clamps
rod end bearing

zero backlash ball coupling


flange mount
cable and connector options

For complete information, visit www.novotechnik.com/tex


Novotechnik U.S., Inc.
155 Northboro Road Southborough, MA 01772
Telephone: 508-485-2244 Fax: 508-485-2430

RS# 167

CLASSIFIEDS

BUSINESS STAFF

EDITORIAL

PRODUCTS/SERVICES
THE ORIGINAL

INSTANT

THUMBSCREW

EDITOR IN CHIEF: LELAND TESCHLER


MANAGING EDITOR: KENNETH J. KORANE
EDITORIAL PRODUCTION MANAGER: DENISE GRECO
ART DIRECTOR: RANDALL L. RUBENKING

(216) 931-9221, leland.teschler@penton.com


(216) 931-9412 , ken.korane@penton.com
216 9319402, denise.greco@penton.com
(216) 931-9857, randall.rubenking@penton.com

A R T D E PA R T M E N T
CREATIVE DIRECTOR: DIMITRIOS BASTAS
GROUP DESIGN DIRECTOR: ANTHONY VITOLO

dimitrios.bastas@penton.com
tony.vitolo@penton.com

PRODUCTION
GROUP PRODUCTION DIRECTOR: CAREY SWEETEN
PRODUCTION COORDINATOR: COURTNEY DENISON

(913) 967-1823, carey.sweeten@penton.com


(913) 967-1738, courtney.denison@penton.com

AUDIENCE MARKETING
AUDIENCE DEVELOPEMENT MANAGER: DEBBIE BRADY

(216) 931-9882, debbie.brady@penton.com

ONLINE
ONLINE SALES & MARKETING MANAGER: VIRGINIA GOULDING
CLIENT SERVICES COORDINATOR: JOANN MARTIN

(216) 931-9893, virginia.goulding@penton.com


(216) 931-9624, joann.martin@penton.com

SALES & MARKETING

In most cases, advertisements contained


in Machine Design employment section
indicate that the companies are equal
opportunity employers. The Federal Civil
Rights Act of 1964, and other laws, prohibit
discrimination in employment based on
race, color, religion, national origin, sex, or
for any reason other than lack of professional
qualification for the position being offered.
It should be noted that employment
advertisements in Machine Design are
published for the readers convenience and, in
no way, to the best of our knowledge, promote
unlawful discrimination.

<W)L^MZ\Q[MQV
5)+016-,-;1/6;
+TI[[QML[;MK\QWV

BRAND DIRECTOR: PAUL MILNAMOW


(312) 840-8462 paul.milnamow@penton.com
AZ, CA, ID, OR, NV, UT, WA, British Columbia: Jim Theriault,
jim.theriault@penton.com (408) 857-0322, Fax: (925) 736-8706
AL, AR, FL, GA, KS, LA, NM, MS, MO, OK, TX: FRANNY SINGLETON,
franny.singleton@penton.com (678) 947-8563, Fax: (913) 514-6884
CO, IA, S. IN, KY, MN, MT, NE, ND, S. OH, SD, TN, WI, WV, WY: PAUL MILNAMOW,
paul.milnamow@penton.com (312) 840-8462, Fax: (913) 514-3957
IL: MELINDA HURLEY,
melinda.hurley@penton.com (847) 784-9825, Fax: (913) 514-6625
N. IN, N. OH, MI, NY, PA, Ontario: BILL RODMAN,
bill.rodman@penton.com (216) 931-9636, Fax: (913) 514-6841
DE, DC, MD, NJ, NC, SC, VA: BRANDY BISSELL,
brandy.bissell@penton.com (919) 773-1875, Fax: (913) 514-6357
CT, ME, NH, MA, RI, VT, Quebec: LIZ STOTT,
liz.stott@penton.com (857) 636-9737, Fax: (913) 514-6914
INTERNATIONAL SALES DIRECTOR: MIKE HANCOCK,
mike.hancock@penton.com
011-44-1372-824284, Fax: 011-44-1372-824322
United Kingdom, Scandinavia, France, Spain, Portugal: STUART PAYNE,
stuart.payne@husonmedia.com, +44 (0)1932 564999, Fax: +44 (0)1932 564998
Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg: RODRIC LEERLING,
rodric.leerling@husonmedia.com, 011-31-229-841882 , Mobile 31-683-232625,
Germany, Austria, and Switzerland: CHRISTIAN HOELSCHER,
christian.hoelscher@husonmedia.com, 011-49-89-95002778, Fax: 011-49-89-95002779
Italy: CESARE CASIRAGHI,
Casiraghi Pubblicit Estera, 011-390-31-261407, Fax: 011-390-31-261380
Tokyo, Japan: YOSHINORI IKEDA, Pacic Business, Inc., 011-81-03-3661-6138, Fax: 011-81-03-3661-6139
DESIGN ENGINEERING & SOURCING GROUP
VICE PRESIDENT & MARKET LEADER:
RESEARCH MANAGER:
BILL BAUMANN
JULIE RITCHIE
GROUP DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS:
MARKETING & EVENTS MANAGER:
CHRISTINA CAVANO
ADRIAN PIAZZA
GROUP DIRECTOR OF MARKETING:
MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS SPECIALIST:
JANE COOPER
CYNTHIA RODRIGUEZ

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78

MACHINE DESIGN.com

PENTON MEDIA, INC.


CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER: DAVID KIESELSTEIN
CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER/EXECUTIVE VP: NICOLA ALLAIS
SENIOR VP, DESIGN ENGINEERING GROUP: BOB MACARTHUR
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NOVEMBER 8, 2012

david.kieselstein@penton.com
nicola.allais@penton.com
bob.macarthur@penton.com

BACKTALK

300-year-old
thermometer resurfaces
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit had a strong interest
in natural science and a fascination with new
inventions. In 1714, he invented the mercury
thermometer. It divided the freezing and boiling
points of water into 180.
The top of the 300-year-old brass instrument,
thought to have been lost to history, resurfaced
when it went up for sale at Christies in London.
In a private collection for more than 40 years, it is
one of only three known examples in existence
today. The 4-in.-tall instrument sold for more
than 67,000 (~$107,386,00 in U.S. dollars). The
scale on the thermometer is marked from 0 to
132F and is so small that the numbers had to be
written on both sides of the mercury tube.
James Hyslop, speaking on behalf of Christies, said,
Until now, only two originals were thought to exist.
And these are both in the Boerhaave Museum in the
Netherlands. So to have this one emerge is very exciting. It is impossible to pinpoint exactly when it was
made, but one in the museum is dated 1718, and this
was probably made between 1715 and 1730.
He made barometers with thermometers on the

side, but this was one


was a special scientific thermometer.
The mercury tube is
not the original and
has been replaced,
but it was clearly designed so the tubes
could be taken out.
It was a thermomThe thermometer is eter for scientific purposes, perhaps for
signed Fahrenheit
Amst, from the time measuring the temthe inventor worked perature of liquids.
in Amsterdam,
Fahrenheits other
where he made it.
great invention was
the Fahrenheit scale.
It was the first widely used temperature scale. 32F was
the freezing point of water and 212F was the boiling
point of water, set by Fahrenheit himself. 0F was based
on the temperature of an equal mixture of water, ice,
and salt. Fahrenheit based his scale on the temperature
of the human body.
Fahrenheit was born 1686 in Danzig in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He began training as a chemist,
and his personal interest in natural science led to his

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RS# 168
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

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RS# 169
MACHINE DESIGN.com

79

BACKTALK
studies and experimentation in the
field. He later moved to the Dutch
Republic, where he spent the rest of
his life. He died in The Hague in 1736.
The Celsius scale was invented
in 1742 by Swedish astronomer
Anders Celsius. The scale has 100
between the freezing point (0C)

and boiling point (100C) of pure


water at sea-level air pressure. The
term Celsius was adopted in 1948
by an international conference on
weights and measurements. The
scales simplicity led to it superseding the Fahrenheit as the universal
temperature scale. MD

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MACHINE DESIGN.com

RS# 170
NOVEMBER 8, 2012

Letters to the editor: Please


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The First Name in


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RS# 171

WE SET
THE STANDARD.
NOW WEVE
DOUBLED THE LIFE.
RS# 172

INTRODUCING THE BLUE & IMPROVED ORIGINAL LINE


FINALLY A CYLINDER THAT GOES THE EXTRA MILE.

After leading the way for more than 50 years, the best just got better. Clocking in at
an industry-leading 3000+* miles of travel, the new Bimba Original Line cylinders are designed
to leave the competition in the dust. These new, non-repairable, round body cylinders are
also lubricated for life to ensure less hassle for the long haul. To follow the new OL on its
cross-country road trip and register for a free sample, visit bimba.com/OLroadtrip
PNEUMATIC t HYDRAULIC t ELECTRIC t WWW.BIMBA.COM
* This life estimate may not include cylinders with design modications, those exposed to harsh operating conditions or any unintended applications.