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P-Com AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized

Installation

Guide

D

Rev

P-Com AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Installation Guide D Rev
© COPYRIGHT 1994-1999 P-Com Inc. World Rights reserved. P-Com Inc. provides this Installation Guide "as

© COPYRIGHT 1994-1999 P-Com Inc. World Rights reserved.

P-Com Inc. provides this Installation Guide "as is," without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.

P-Com Inc. may make improvements and changes to the product described in this manual at any time and without any notice. P-Com Inc. assumes no responsibility for its use, nor any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties that would result.

This publication may contain technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Periodic changes are made to the information contained herein. These changes, and mechanical corrections, will be incorporated in subsequent revision levels of the publication.

No part of this publication may be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or reproduced in any way, including but not limited to photocopy, photograph, magnetic or other records, without the prior written permission of P-Com Inc.

AirPro and AirLink are trademarks of P-Com Inc.

All other brand and product names are the trademarks of their respective holders.

P/N 81915-010 Rev D

TPN 81915-00D

December 1998

STATEMENT OF WARRANTY

This product, except as stated otherwise in an applicable price list, is warranted against defects in workmanship and material for a period of three (3) years from date of delivery as evidenced by the manufacturer’s packing slip or other transportation receipt.

The manufacturer’s sole responsibility under this warranty shall be to either repair or replace, at its option, any component which fails during the applicable warranty period because of a defect in workmanship and material, provided PURCHASER has promptly reported same to the manufacturer

in writing. All replaced Products or parts shall become property of the manufacturer.

P-Com shall honor the warranty at its repair facility. It is PURCHASER’s responsibility to return, at its expense, the allegedly defective Product to the manufacturer. PURCHASER must obtain a Return Materials Authorization (RMA) number and shipping instructions from the manufacturer prior to returning any Product under warranty. Transportation charges for the return of the Product to PURCHASER shall be paid by the manufacturer within the United States. For all other locations, the warranty excludes all costs of shipping, customs clearance and other related charges. If the manufacturer determines that the Product is not defective within the terms of the warranty, PURCHASER shall pay to the manufacturer all costs of handling, transportation and repairs at the then prevailing repair rates.

All the above warranties are contingent upon proper use of the Product. These warranties will not apply (i) if adjustment, repair or parts replacement is required because of accident, unusual physical, electrical or electromagnetic stress, negligence of PURCHASER, misuse, failure of electric power, environmental controls, transportation, not maintained in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications, or abuses other than ordinary use (ii) if the Product has been modified by PURCHASER or has been repaired or altered outside the factory, unless the manufacturer specifically authorizes such repairs or alterations; (iii) where manufacturer serial numbers, warranty data or quality assurance decals have been removed or altered.

P-Com also reserves the right to make product improvements without incurring any obligation or liability to make the same changes in Products previously manufactured or purchased. In no event shall the manufacturer be liable for any breach of warranty in an amount exceeding the net selling price of any defective Product. No person, including any dealer, agent or representative of P-Com is authorized to assume for P-Com any other liability on its behalf except as set forth herein. Nonpayment of any invoice rendered within the stated payment terms automatically cancels any warranty or guarantee stated or implied. If any payment is due to the manufacturer for services performed hereunder, it shall be subject to the same payment terms as the original purchase.

P-COM HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES ON PRODUCTS INCLUDING

WITHOUT LIMITATION, ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR

A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. The warranties expressly stated herein are the sole obligation or liability

on the part of P-COM arising out of or in connection with the sale or performance of the products.

Products Manufactured by Others - For products not manufactured by P-COM, the original manufacturer’s warranty shall be assigned to PURCHASER to the extent permitted and is in lieu of any other warranty, express or implied. For warranty information on a specific product, a written request should be made to the manufacturer.

IN NO EVENT WILL P-COM BE LIABLE TO PURCHASER FOR (i) REPROCUREMENT COSTS; (ii) SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES; (iii) ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS AGREEMENT, OR THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF P-COM PRODUCTS, REGARDLESS OF WHETHER THE CAUSE OF ACTION IS IN CONTRACT, TORT, INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE, OR ANY OTHER FORM.

No action, whether in contract or tort, including negligence, arising out of or in connection with this Agreement, may be brought by either party more than eighteen (18) months after the cause of action has accrued, except that an action for nonpayment may be brought within eighteen (18) months of the date of last payment.

PRODUCT COMPATIBILITY

While every effort has been made to verify operation of this product with many different communications products and networks, P-Com Inc. makes no claim of compatibility between its products and other vendors’ equipment. It is assumed that users have thoroughly evaluated this product’s performance in the communications environment in which it will be used.

SAFETY

The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of operation and service of this product. Failure to comply with these precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in this Manual willfully violates standards of design, manufacture, and intended use of the product. P-Com Inc. assumes no liability for the customer’s failure to comply with these requirements.

This product must be grounded. In the event of a short circuit, grounding reduces the risk of electrical shock by providing an escape wire for the current.

The product’s AC power cord ends in a three-pole grounding plug. Do not use a three-pole to two-pole adapter with the plug. Verify that the outlet you intend to use is properly installed and grounded; the outlet used must comply with the National Electric Code (NEC) NFPA70 (1990) in U.S.A. or other applicable code.

Do not install or operate this product in the presence of flammable gases or fumes. Operation of any electrical instrument in such an environment constitutes a definite safety hazard.

No user maintained or adjustable components are present within this product. Do NOT attempt to open this unit. Do not attempt to service this unit except under the direction of Customer Service. Only P-Com-authorized service personnel should service this equipment. The potential for electrical shock exists within the enclosures at all times unless they are unplugged.

Do not install substitute parts or perform any unauthorized modification to the product. Return the product to the factory for service and repair to ensure that safety features are maintained. Prior to returning any product(s) for repair, contact P-Com at the telephone numbers or address located in this Manual, and obtain a Return Material Authorization (RMA) number.

Changes or modifications not expressly approved by P-Com Inc. can void the user’s authority to operate this equipment.

LITHIUM BATTERY

The digital module in the product contains a lithium battery molded into the real-time clock component. The lithium battery is NOT a customer-replaceable part. The lithium battery could explode if mistreated. Do not attempt to expose the battery by opening the real-time clock component. Do not attempt to recharge the battery. Do not dispose of the component by fire.

SYSTEM GROUNDING

Direct grounding of the antenna, mast, and tower serves as protection from lightning strikes and static buildup.

A

direct electrical connection should be made to a suitable grounding rod at the base of the tower or mast using

at

least #10 AWG ground wire, or its equivalent, and non-corrosive hardware. For details and safety standards,

consult the appropriate local Electrical Codes or a similar document. Use lightning arresters in appropriate

places.

TOWER CONSTRUCTION

Compliance with local zoning and tower construction regulations is recommended when E1 systems require a tower. These regulations generally mandate that permits be obtained before any tower construction begins. Check with local zoning and aviation authorities for more information.

FCC NOTICE TO USERS

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Rules on spread spectrum devices, such as the P-Com AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized radio, require that you be notified of the following:

FCC regulations require that this device be professionally installed by a person knowledgeable in electronics and trained in the correct installation of this device.

All interface cables must be shielded.

Operation of this device is subject to the following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference that may cause undesired operation.

Changes or modifications not expressly approved by P-Com Inc. can void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.

Contents

Before You Begin

Purpose of This Guide

xvii

Prior Knowledge

xvii

How This Guide is Organized

xvii

How to Use This Guide

xviii

Typographic Conventions

xviii

Customer Service

xix

Telephone and Fax Service

xix

International Sales Offices

xix

Return Material Authorization (RMA)

xix

Service and Repair Centers

xx

Brazil Service and Repair Center

xx

China Service and Repair Center

xx

India Service and Repair Center

xx

Chapter 1. Product Overview

System Components and Options

1-2

The AirLink E1

1-2

AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit (Optional)

1-3

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Cable

1-4

AirLink Junction Box (Optional)

1-5

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Antenna

1-6

Features and Capabilities

1-6

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized ASCII Terminal Interface

1-7

Programmed Configuration Parameters

1-7

Monitoring and Diagnostic Capabilities

1-8

Alarm Relay Contacts

1-8

Order Wire Interface

1-8

Contents

Chapter 2. System Planning

Site and Route Selection

2-1

Microwave Basics

2-1

Antenna Placement and the RF Link

2-3

Site Survey

2-3

Path Analysis, Path Loss, and Fade Margin

2-3

System Gain

2-4

Antenna Gain

2-4

Cable and Connector Loss

2-5

Free Space Path Loss

2-5

Application Examples

2-6

Timing and Burst Synchronization

2-6

Independent Pairs

2-7

Hub Operation

2-7

Repeater Operation

2-7

Independent Pair Operation

2-7

Point-to-Point Link Between Networks

2-8

Hub Operation, Different Paths

2-9

Hub Operation, Same Path

2-10

Repeater Operation

2-11

System Administration and Control

2-12

Direct Terminal Connection to the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized

2-13

Direct Terminal Connection to the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit

2-13

Remote Connection to the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit

2-14

The Order Wire Interface

2-15

Site Preparation

2-15

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Radio Unit

2-16

General Physical and Environmental Characteristics

2-16

Lightning Protection

2-16

AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit

2-16

General Physical and Environmental Characteristics

2-16

Rack Mounting Considerations

2-17

Space and Access Considerations

2-17

Power and Grounding Requirements

2-17

Ancillary Equipment Requirements

2-18

Terminal Interface

2-18

Order Wire Interface

2-19

Cable Requirements

2-19

Configuration Parameters

2-19

Administrative Parameters

2-19

Contents

Site Name 2-20 Date and Time 2-20 Password 2-20

Line Parameter

2-20

Radio Parameters

2-21

Application 2-21

Burst Mode

2-22

PN Code 2-23 RF Power Level 2-23 Alarm Control Parameters 2-24 Alarm Reporting 2-24

Alarm Level 2-24 1-Hour Errored Seconds (ES) Threshold 2-25

2-25

24-Hour Errored Seconds (ES) Threshold 2-25

1-Hour Unavailable Seconds (UAS) Threshold

24-Hour Unavailable Seconds (UAS) Threshold

2-25

Receive (Rx) Power Threshold

2-26

Transmit (Tx) Power Threshold

2-26

Chapter 3. Installation and Setup

Unpacking

3-1

Identifying Physical Features

3-2

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized

3-2

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Sun Shield Assembly (Optional)

3-4

AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit (Optional)

3-4

Front Panel

3-5

Rear Panel

3-6

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Junction Box (Optional)

3-7

Setting Up the System

3-8

Installing the Antenna

3-8

Typical Antenna Mounts

3-8

System Grounding

3-9

Aligning the Antenna

3-9

Installing the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized

3-9

Mounting the Sun Shield Assembly

3-9

Mounting the Ruggedized Housing

3-11

Mounting on a Wall

3-13

Setting the Burst Synchronization Jumper

3-13

Cabling the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized

3-14

Connecting the Antenna Cable

3-14

Contents

Connecting the Ruggedized Unit Cable Installing the Access Unit

3-14

3-15

Control and Data Connections 3-16 E1 DTE Line Connection 3-17

3-18

Access Unit Power Connections

Access Unit Power Supply 3-18

Direct Current Power Option

3-20

Alarm Relay Contact Connections

3-21

Connecting a Terminal to the Access Unit

3-21

Connecting a Telephone to the Order-Wire Interface

3-22

Installing the Junction Box

3-22

Making Wire Connections in the Junction Box 3-23

Wiring for Burst Synchronization Hub 3-27

Repeater Site Checking Operation Configuring the Unit

3-29

Aligning the Antenna 3-30

3-27

3-28

3-28

Chapter 4. Configuration

Using the ASCII Terminal Interface Terminal Setup Requirements 4-2

4-1

Command-Line Mode

4-3

Command-Line Format

4-3

Command Responses 4-4

 

Command Keyword List

4-5

Logging In and Logging Out

4-6

Help

4-6

Local or Remote Operations

4-7

Setting Administrative Parameters

4-7

Site Name

4-7

Date and Time

4-8

Password

4-8

Setting the Line Parameter

4-9

Coding

4-9

Setting Radio Parameters

4-9

Application 4-10 Burst Mode 4-10

Pseudo-Random Noise Code

4-11

RF Power Level

4-11

Contents

Setting Alarm Control Parameters

4-12

Alarm

Reporting

4-12

Alarm

Level

4-12

1-Hour Errored Seconds Threshold

4-13

1-Hour Unavailable Seconds Threshold 4-13

4-13

24-Hour Unavailable Seconds Threshold 4-14

4-14

Transmit (Tx) Power Threshold 4-14

Receive (Rx) Power Threshold

24-Hour Errored Seconds Threshold

Setting Modem Parameters Connection and Configuration

4-15

4-16

Testing the Modem Link 4-17

Functions

4-17

Port Duplication

4-17

Login 4-18

Auto Answer Function

4-18

Events

4-18

Dialout Function 4-18 Operation 4-18 Alarm Holdoff Time (0 - 600 seconds; default = 10) 4-18

Repeat Alarm Count (2 - 1000 counts; default = 10) 4-18

Dial Holdoff Time (0 - 5000 minutes; default = 10)

4-19

Repeat Dialing and Prioritization

4-19

Telephone Numbers and Dial Format

4-19

User-Directed Connections 4-20 RS-232 Modem Port Interface 4-20

Protocol Modems

4-21

RTS Control

4-21

Responses

4-21

Modem Commands

4-22

Default Parameters

4-23

Alarm Holdoff 4-23

Repeat Count 4-23 Dial Level 4-24

Dial Holdoff 4-24 Dial Format 4-24 Dial Retry 4-24

Modem

(Enabling) Mode

4-24

Modem

Rate

4-24

Modem RTS Mode 4-25

Contents

Modem DTR Mode

4-25

Phone Numbers 1 and 2

4-25

Ring Count

4-25

Answer Timeout

4-26

Connection Timeout

4-26

Configuration Information

4-26

Configuration Parameter Settings

4-26

Threshold Settings

4-27

Hardware and Software Revision Levels

4-27

Chapter 5. Operations and Maintenance

5-1

Acquiring Status Information Viewing Status Information

5-1

Site Name 5-2 E1 DTE Input Loss 5-2

Radio Synchronization Loss

5-2

Burst Synchronization Loss 5-2

Test in Progress 5-2

DTE Alarm Indication Signal (AIS)

5-2

RF Alarm Indication Signal (AIS)

5-3

Transmit Module Failure 5-3

Receive Power Level

5-3

Transmit power level

5-3

Temperature 5-3

Acquiring Alarm Information

5-3

Event Queue 5-3

Events Causing an Alarm State

5-4

Carrier Failure Alarms 5-4 Viewing the Event Queue 5-4 Resetting the Event Queue 5-5

Access Unit Indicators

5-5

Digital

Module LEDs

5-6

Acquiring Performance Information

5-7

Viewing Performance Information 5-7

UWER BER

5-8

QRSS BER

5-8

Errored Seconds 5-8

Unavailable Seconds

5-9

RSQ

5-9

Resetting Performance Counters

5-9

Contents

Diagnostic Tools

5-10

QRSS Testing

5-10

Initiating the Test

5-10

Terminating a QRSS Test

5-11

Loopback Tests

5-11

Local Loop Test

5-12

Remote Loop Test

5-13

Access Unit Remote Loopback

5-14

Alarm Relay Contacts

5-15

Order Wire Interface

5-15

Appendix A. Specifications

General Specifications

A-1

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Unit

A-1

Quality

A-2

AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit

A-2

Access Unit Power Options

A-2

Power Connections

A-2

AC Power Supply Option

A-3

Alarm Relay Contacts

A-4

Interface Specifications

A-4

E1 Interface General Specifications

A-4

E1 Interface Output Specifications

A-4

E1 Interface Input Specifications

A-5

Radio Interface A-5 Signal to Pin Assignments

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Unit A-7

A-7

Terminal A-8 Order Wire A-9

Access Unit A-9

A-6

AirLink Control

AirLink Control

A-9

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Unit

A-10

Terminal A-10 Order Wire A-11

Network Management A-11 E1 DTE A-12

Power & Alarm Junction Box Terminal Block Terminal and Modem Adapter Cables

Power & Alarm Junction Box Terminal Block Terminal and Modem Adapter Cables
Power & Alarm Junction Box Terminal Block Terminal and Modem Adapter Cables

A-12

A-12

A-15

Contents

Switch Settings

A-16

Access Unit 75/120 SEL Switches

A-16

Configuration Defaults

A-16

Appendix B. Configuration Worksheet

Configuration Notes

B-3

Appendix C. Messages

Fault Messages

C-1

Alarm Messages

C-2

Advisory Messages

C-2

Status Messages

C-3

Appendix D. Glossary Index

List of Figures

Figure 1-1. Typical AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Operating Environment

1-1

Figure 1-2. AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized - Sun Shield Assembly on Mast

1-3

Figure 1-3. AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit

1-4

Figure 1-4. AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Cable Versions

1-5

Figure 1-5. AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Junction Box

1-6

Figure 2-1. A Typical Radio Terminal Scheme

2-2

Figure 2-2. Fade Margin Calculation

2-4

Figure 2-3. Point-to-Point Link Between Networks

2-8

Figure 2-4. PBX and KTS Access to Remote Telco Facilities

2-8

Figure 2-5. Satellite PBX and KTS-Wireless Tie Trunks to a Main PBX

2-9

Figure 2-6. Extending E1 Facility to Customer Premises

2-9

Figure 2-7. Hub Operation, Different Paths

2-10

Figure 2-8. Hub Operation, Same Path

2-10

Figure 2-9. Two-Part Repeater Link

2-11

Figure 2-10. Repeater Operation

2-12

Figure 2-11. Direct Terminal Connection to AirLink Pro E1

2-13

Figure 2-12. Direct Terminal Connection to Access Unit

2-14

Figure 2-13. Modem Connection to the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit

2-14

Figure 2-14. AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Order Wire Connection

2-15

Figure 2-15. Access Unit Order Wire Connection

2-15

Figure 3-1. AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized with Optional Sun Shield

3-2

Figure 3-2. AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit Front Panel

3-5

Figure 3-3. AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit Rear Panel

3-6

Figure 3-4. Typical Antenna Mounts

3-8

Figure 3-5. Optional Sun Shield Assembly

3-9

Figure 3-6. Attaching the V-Brackets

3-10

Figure 3-7. Mounting on the Mounting Base

3-11

Figure 3-8. Mounting the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Housing

3-12

Figure 3-9. Installing the Sun Shields

3-12

Figure 3-10. Mounting Ruggedized Housing on a Wall

3-13

Figure 3-11. Burst Synchronization Termination Jumper

3-14

Figure 3-12. Mounting Bracket Positions

3-15

Figure 3-13. AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Power Lead Connections

3-19

Figure 3-14. Connecting a Direct Current Source to the Access Unit

3-20

Figure 3-15. Alarm Relay Contacts

3-21

Figure 3-16. Optional Junction Box

3-23

Figure 3-17. Wire Connections in the Junction Box

3-24

Figure 3-18. Inserting Wires

3-27

Figure 3-19. Test Point Locations

3-30

Figure 5-1. Conventional Carrier Failure Response

5-4

Figure 5-2. AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Carrier Failure Response

5-4

Figure 5-3. AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized QRSS Test

5-10

Figure 5-4. AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Loopback Tests

5-12

Figure 5-5. AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized in Normal Operation

5-12

Figure 5-6. Local Loop Test

5-13

Figure 5-7. Remote Loop Test

5-13

Figure 5-8. Access Unit Remote Loopback

5-15

Figure A-1. Ruggedized Unit Terminal Port to DB-25 Terminal Port

A-15

Figure A-2. Ruggedized Unit Terminal Port to DB-25 Modem Port

A-15

Figure A-3. Ruggedized Unit Terminal Port to DB-9 Terminal Port

A-15

Figure A-4. Ruggedized Unit Terminal Port to DB-9 Modem Port

A-15

List of Tables

Table 2-1. Free Space Path Loss

2-5

Table 2-2. RF Parameters

2-23

Table 2-3. Alarm Queue Control Parameters

2-24

Table 3-1. Digital Module LEDs

3-3

Table 3-2. Digital Module Jacks

3-4

Table 3-3. Access Unit Indicators

3-5

Table 3-4. Access Unit Jacks

3-5

Table 3-5. Access Unit 75/120 SEL DIP Switch Block

3-6

Table 3-6. Access Unit Connectors

3-6

Table 3-7. Cable E1 Signal Leads

3-17

Table 3-8. Junction Box Terminal Block Assignments

3-24

Table 4-1. Terminal Commands of the Modem Interface

4-17

Table 4-2. Modem Response Definitions

4-21

Table 4-3. Modem Commands

4-22

Table 4-4. Dial Out Default Parameters

4-23

Table 5-1. Access Unit Alarm LEDs

5-6

Table 5-2. Digital Module LEDs

5-6

Table A-1. Physical and Environmental Specifications

A-1

Table A-2. Power Requirements

A-1

Table A-3. 48 Volt DC Power Option

A-1

Table A-4. 24 Volt DC Power Option

A-2

Table A-5. Physical and Environmental Specifications

A-2

Table A-6. AC Power Requirements

A-2

Table A-7. Input/Output Power Options

A-3

Table A-8. AC Power Option

A-3

Table A-9. 48 VDC Power Option

A-3

Table A-10. 24 VDC Power Option

A-4

Table A-11. E1 Interface General Specifications

A-4

Table A-12. E1 Interface Output Specifications

A-4

Table A-13. E1 Interface Output Specifications

A-5

Table A-14. General Specifications

A-5

Table A-15. Transmitter Specifications

A-5

Table A-16. Receiver Specifications

A-6

Table A-17. Order Wire Specifications

A-6

Table A-18. AirLink Control Pin Assigments

A-7

Table A-19. E1 Ruggedized Terminal Pin Assignments

A-8

Table A-20. E1 Ruggedized OW Pin Assignments

A-9

Table A-21. Access Unit AirLink Control Pin Assigments

A-9

Table A-22. Access Unit AirLink Pin Assignments

A-10

Table A-23. Access Unit Terminal Pin Assignments

A-10

Table A-24. Access Unit OW Pin Assignments

A-11

Table A-25. Access Unit Network Management Pin Assignments

A-11

Table A-26. Access Unit AirLink Pin Assignments

A-12

Table A-27. Access Unit AirLink Pin Assignments

A-12

Table A-28. AirLink Control Pin Assigments

A-12

Table A-29. Access Unit 75/120 SEL Switches

A-16

Table A-30. Ruggedized Unit Parameter Defaults

A-16

Table C-1. Fault Messages

C-2

Table C-2. Alarm Messages

C-2

Table C-3. Advisory Messages

C-2

Table C-4. Status Messages

C-3

Before You Begin

Purpose of This Guide

This P-Com AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Installation Guide provides the information you need to unpack, install, configure, and operate the P-Com units.

This Installation Guide is directed to persons who must perform or coordinate the tasks associated with the process of installing wireless communication devices, and planning individual communications network applications.

Prior Knowledge

This Installation Guide assumes that you have at least basic experience with and understanding of the concepts underlying telecommunications systems, as well as some familiarity with configuring and operating telecommuni- cations equipment. Throughout this Installation Guide there are procedures that presume working familiarity with basic telephone trunking and transmission concepts and practices, as well as basic digital data communications concepts and practices. If you are not familiar with the concepts and practices involved in these disciplines, familiarize yourself with them before proceeding.

This Installation Guide provides minimal system planning and installation information for radio frequency (RF) antenna assemblies. While this Installation Guide summarizes the considerations and tasks involved in path analysis and site planning for microwave systems, it does not provide an in- depth treatment of such issues. Technical questions about RF antenna planning and installation should be directed to a qualified P-Com technical support representative.

How This Guide is Organized

This Installation Guide is organized in chapters and appendix material in the following manner:

• Chapter 1 - provides a product overview and describes the capabilities of the major units of the E1 system

Before You Begin

How to Use This Guide

• Chapter 2 - describes system planning requirements

• Chapter 3 - provides installation and setup instructions

• Chapter 4 - provides instructions for configuration

• Chapter 5 - provides information on operation and maintenance

• Appendix A - provides general and radio specifications

• Appendix B - provides a worksheet to record your settings

• Appendix C - provides information on system alarm, status, and error messages

• Appendix D - provides a Glossary of acronyms and terms specific to the Installation Guide.

How to Use This Guide

Before beginning the installation process, read the introductions to all of the chapters so that you have a sense of what each chapter provides. Verify that you have selected the proper procedure to meet site-specific needs.

Skim through an entire procedure before you begin performing the step-by- step instructions. By doing this, you will be prepared with the appropriate information, equipment, or tools.

Typographic Conventions

• Terminal displays are shown as text in Courier font:

AL-E1> get configuration

• Commands are shown in text in Courier font:

set alarm level

• Named keys in text are enclosed in angle brackets: <Return>

• All command examples are executed by typing the command and following it with a <Return>

• Two or more keys that must be typed simultaneously are shown in text linked with a + sign: <Ctrl>+C

• Notes, Cautions, and Warnings are shown as:

NOTE

Determine the antenna tower height by the length of the string on the balloon and the distance between the links. This is a trigonometric function.

A caution gives you information that you need so that you will

A

caution gives you information that you need so that you will

not damage the equipment or lose data.

A warning gives you information that you need so that you do

A

warning gives you information that you need so that you do

not cause harm to yourself or any other person, and so that you do not damage or interfere with the network application.

Customer Service

Customer Service

Before You Begin

P-Com distributors are authorized local service providers and are responsible for immediate customer support. If problems are not resolved, you can contact P-Com Customer Service for assistance.

Telephone and Fax Service

P-Com Customer Service maintains a 24-hour answering service for emergency telephone support. Customer Service responses to emergency calls consist of over-the-phone troubleshooting and assistance in obtaining distributor support.

Customer Service telephone numbers:

From within the USA, call:

1-800-500-PCOM

Outside the USA, call:

408.866.3666

Campbell CA, USA

Campbell CA, USA

In the following countries, call:

44.1256.841919

United Kingdom

65.297.6196

Singapore

86.10.6467.1905

China

91.11.617.6913

India

92.21.584.0743

Pakistan

International Sales Offices

P-Com, Inc. international sales offices are located throughout the world.

United Kingdom

44.1256.841919

44.1256.324156 (fax)

Singapore

65.297.6196

65.297.6195 (fax)

China

86.10.6467.1905

86.10.6467.1906 (fax)

Russia

095.280.4759

095.280.4759 (fax)

India

91.11.617.6913

91.11.617.9529 (fax)

Pakistan

92.21.584.0743

92.21.584.0727 (fax)

Latin America

408.328.5130

408.735.6607 (fax)

Return Material Authorization (RMA)

Before you return equipment, you need a Return Material Authorization (RMA) number. To get the RMA number:

1. Gather the following information:

• unit model number

• unit serial number

• address to where unit was sold, billed, or shipped

• purchase order number (if unit not under warranty)

Before You Begin

Return Material Authorization (RMA)

• whether credit or service is required

• description of unit failure (no sync, no output, etc.)

2. From within the USA, call Customer Service at 1-800-500-PCOM From outside the USA, call Customer Service at 408-866-3666, or contact one of the Service and Repair centers listed on the following page.

3. Provide Customer Service with the information gathered in Step 1.

NOTE: When returning equipment, be sure to write the RMA number on the outside of the shipping carton.

Service and Repair Centers

Service and repair centers are located in Brazil, China, and India.

Brazil Service and Repair Center

Address:

Mapra Rue Caio Graco, 798-lapa CEP 05044-000 Sao Paulo

China Service and Repair Center

Address:

Airlink Wireless Room 227, Towercrest Place No. 3 Mai Zi Dian Xi Road Beijing 100016 PRC

India Service and Repair Center

Address:

Telephone and fax:

55.11.3872.6776

55.11.3871.3667 (fax)

Telephone and fax:

86.10.6467.1905

86.10.6467.1906 (fax)

Telephone and fax:

Linkquest

91.11.617.6913

A2/18

91.11.617.9529 (fax)

Safdarjung Enclave New Delhi 110029 India

Product Overview

1

The P-Com AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system is a spread-spectrum transceiver that operates in the
The P-Com AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system is a spread-spectrum
transceiver that operates in the 5.725 to 5.850 GHz (C-band) Industrial
Scientific Medical (ISM) band. The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized uses a Spread
Spectrum modulation technique to create a high-quality, point-to-point radio
link between itself and another AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized located many
miles away.
In a typical installation, an AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pair is installed
between a user’s communication facility—Data Circuit Equipment (DCE) or
network—and the Data Terminating Equipment (DTE). Figure 1-1 shows the
AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized in a typical operating environment.
ANTENNA
ANTENNA
ANTENNA
MAST
AIRLINK E1
AIRLINK E1
BUILDING
AIRLINK
TERMINAL
AIRLINK
CABLE
CABLE
RS232
ACCESS
UNIT
JUNCTION
DCE
DTE
BOX
or
NETWORK
E1
POWER

Figure 1-1 Typical AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Operating Environment

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized link is effectively transparent to the E equipment on either end: it accepts E1 as input; it presents E1 as output. AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized operation is independent of the protocol used, so the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized supports both the High Density Bipolar 3 (HDB3) and the Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) coding formats. It also does not interfere with the framing and maintenance channel used between E1 links.

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized provides full-duplex, radio-to-radio communication that follows a ping-pong analogy: while one unit transmits a radio burst, the other unit receives that burst. After the other unit receives a

Product Overview

complete burst, it waits through a guard interval before turning on its transmitter and transmitting its burst. This protocol, called Time Division Duplex, is why the AirLink modem family is superior to other systems that require separate frequencies for transmitting and receiving data.

The ping-pong radio-to-radio communication is invisible to the E1 equipment on either end of the link because the digital buffering of the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized produces a smooth E1 bit stream at the user interface.

System Components and Options

A typical AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system (see Figure 1-1 on page 1-1) is made up of some or all of the following components:

• AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized unit and AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized cable

• AirLink sun shield assembly and mounting hardware (optional)

• AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit (optional)

• AirLink Junction Box (optional)

• AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized antenna and antenna cable

Depending upon your system plan, you will be installing all or some of these AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system components at each end of a link. The following sections describe both required and optional system components.

The AirLink E1

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized (see Figure 1-2 on page 1-3) consists of a weatherproof housing and mounting hardware. The weatherproof housing contains the electronics for the basic AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system.

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized can be mounted on an antenna mast, using the optional sun shield assembly and mounting hardware, or can be mounted on a wall.

The optional mast-mounting hardware consists of a combination mounting bracket and sun shield—to minimize the temperature rise from exposure to the sun, and the mechanical hardware needed to mount the sun shield to the antenna mast. The advantage of mounting the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized next to the antenna is that the cable and connector loss is negligibly small (less than 1 dB for the short P-Com antenna cable).

System Components and Options

ANTENNA MAST SUN AirLink E1 SHIELD ANTENNA AirLink CABLE POWER AND CONTROL CABLE
ANTENNA
MAST
SUN
AirLink E1
SHIELD
ANTENNA
AirLink
CABLE
POWER AND
CONTROL CABLE

Figure 1-2 AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized - Sun Shield Assembly on Mast

After the sun shield has been mounted on the antenna mast, the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized housing is attached to the sun shield mounting bracket. If the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized must be removed for any reason, the weatherproof housing is removed as a unit, leaving the mounting bracket and sun shield in place on the antenna mast.

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized housing has additional sun shields mounted on the front and top of the unit, for added protection from the sun. These are part of the weatherproof housing assembly and are not removed.

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized has two cable connectors on the bottom bulkhead of the weatherproof housing:

• An N-type connector to connect the radio transmission line from the antenna.

• A weatherproof connector for the control, data, and power cable that connects the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized with its associated equipment inside a building.

AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit (Optional)

The optional AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit (see Figure 1-3 on page 1-4) consists of an enclosure that serves as an indoor access center for the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized.

Product Overview

E1 ORDER WIRE TERMINAL LOCAL REMOTE OW POWER ALARM ALARM CALL Figure 1-3 AirLink Pro
E1
ORDER WIRE TERMINAL
LOCAL REMOTE
OW
POWER ALARM
ALARM CALL
Figure 1-3 AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit

The access unit provides the following features:

• DTE E1 interface for the AirLink E1

• EIA/TIA-232 DTE interface for maintenance terminal

• EIA/TIA-232 interface reserved for future network management use

• Alarm relay contacts

• Order-wire telephone interface

• Power, local and remote AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized alarm summary indicators, and an order wire call-signaling indicator

NOTE

EIA/TIA-232 was known as recommended standard RS-232 before its acceptance as a standard by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) and Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA).

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Cable

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized cable is a proprietary cable manufactured by P-Com. This cable carries -48 VDC power to the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized, E1 data, and system control information—such as the terminal user interface signals—from the communication equipment center. The power, data, and control functions are bundled into one cable to simplify installation and maintenance. This cable comes in two versions (see Figure 1-4 on page 1-5):

AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit: This cable has connectors at both ends and is used to connect the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized to the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit.

Custom installation: This cable has a connector only at the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized end, while the other end is a square-cut stub, for customized connections to customer equipment or splicing to separate cables in the optional AirLink Junction Box.

System Components and Options

MALE DB-25 CONNECTORS AT BOTH ENDS BURST SYNCHRONIZATION, DIRECT CURRENT POWER, AND E1 SIGNAL WIRES
MALE
DB-25
CONNECTORS AT BOTH ENDS
BURST SYNCHRONIZATION,
DIRECT CURRENT POWER, AND
E1 SIGNAL WIRES
ROUND
WEATHER-PROOF
CONNECTOR
CUT
CABLE
CONNECTOR AT ONE END

Figure 1-4 AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Cable Versions

Both versions of the cable are equipped with a round, weatherproof connector on one end of the cable. This connector mates with a bulkhead connector on the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized.

The AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit cable is also equipped with a 25-pin subminiature D-type male connector for attaching to the AirLink Control connector on the rear panel of the access unit, six E1 signal wires (two E1 tip, two E1 ring, and two ground) for connecting to the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized captive-wire terminal block on the rear panel of the access unit, a Burst Synchronization wire pair, and a direct current power wire pair, for connecting to the DC Power Out and Gnd captive-wire terminal block connectors on the rear panel of the access unit. Appendix A, Specifications, provides a table that lists the pin-to-signal assignments of the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized cable connector and includes the corresponding wire color codes for each of the wires in the cable.

The wires in the custom installation cable can be split out and wired according to specific user requirements such as customized connections to customer equipment or splicing to separate cables in the optional AirLink Junction Box. Appendix A, Specifications, provides a table that lists the pin-to-signal assignments of the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized cable connector and includes the corresponding wire color codes for each of the wires in the cable.

AirLink Junction Box (Optional)

The optional AirLink Junction Box (see Figure 1-5 on page 1-6) consists of a weatherproof enclosure that serves as an outdoor wiring center for the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized. The junction box provides the captive-wire termination blocks for converting the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized cable into separate power, E1, and control cables. These separate cables can then run into the building and terminate at the appropriate equipment. Provision has been made to attach conduit to the junction box, for those installations requiring it.

Product Overview

Like the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized, the junction box can be mounted either on an antenna mast or on a wall. Refer to Chapter 3, Unpacking and Installation, for more information on mounting the junction box.

, for more information on mounting the junction box. JUNCTION BOX Figure 1-5 AirLink Pro E1
JUNCTION BOX
JUNCTION BOX

Figure 1-5 AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Junction Box

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Antenna

The antenna is usually a two-foot or four-foot parabolic dish for the 5.7 GHz C-band, and has a narrow beam and high gain. For more information on antennas, refer to Chapter 2.

Features and Capabilities

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized supports a range of sophisticated control capabilities and options, including:

• Every radio-frequency (RF) burst is verified by an error-checking algorithm.

• Flexible, interactive user interface through an ASCII terminal.

• Easily modified configuration parameters.

Features and Capabilities

• Local and remote monitoring, diagnostic, and maintenance capabilities.

• Separate end-to-end communication channel for control and order wire signals. Control signals and order wire voice signals do not disturb the E1 channel.

• Optional features to expand and vary the role of the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized.

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized ASCII Terminal Interface

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized ASCII terminal user interface is an EIA/TIA- 232 interface that allows a terminal device or personal computer to control and monitor AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized operation at either end of the link. The connection to the EIA/TIA-232 interface can be either a direct connection (device to port), or an indirect connection (device to modem to port) for dial- up operation.

Both the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized and the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit provide Terminal ports. These ports are RJ-11 modular jacks, and share the same logical port on the digital module of the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized. These ports are set up for asynchronous terminal operation at speeds up to 19,200 bps, using 8 data bits, no parity, and 1 stop bit.

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized terminal interface software contains an autobaud feature that automatically attempts to detect the operating baud rate

of the attached terminal device. Pressing <Break> at the terminal puts the

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized terminal interface software in “hunt” mode, where it looks for carriage return (<CR>) characters from the attached terminal. If the terminal is set for 19200, 9600, 4800, 2400, or 1200 bps, the terminal interface software learns the operating baud rate by starting at 19200 bps and dropping to the next lower speed in the sequence until it recognizes a <CR> character. When it recognizes a <CR> character, it displays the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized prompt (AL-E1>). Pressing <Break> puts the terminal interface software back in hunt mode.

Programmed Configuration Parameters

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized operation is governed by user-selectable

configuration and control parameters that reside in the non-volatile memory

of the unit. These parameters are displayed and controlled through a terminal

device that can access both the local and remote unit. When power is lost and then restored, the system reconfigures itself from its protected configuration database.

A long-life lithium battery protects all system configuration settings during

power losses. The battery is part of the nonvolatile memory/real-time clock

circuitry on the digital module in the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized and has a 10-year storage life (in the absence of power to the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized).

Product Overview

Product Overview The component containing the lithium battery is NOT a customer- replaceable part. Do not

The component containing the lithium battery is NOT a customer- replaceable part. Do not expose the lithium battery cell by opening the component. Do not attempt to recharge the battery. Do not dispose of the component by fire. The lithium battery could explode if mistreated.

Monitoring and Diagnostic Capabilities

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system constantly monitors the quality of the wireless link, checking the receive RF signal level, bit errors, and many other critical factors. This information goes into an internal database of status and performance information that the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized uses, in part, to derive the events that are stored in the event queue. As alarm events occur, they are signaled through LEDs on the digital module in the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized and indicators on the front panel of the optional AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit, and are entered in the event queue.

Using the terminal user interface, you can query either the local AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized or the remote AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized for status, performance and alarm information, and make configuration changes for either the local or remote end of the link.

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized also provides QRSS and loopback tests that can be used to isolate problems. You can initiate tests in the local AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized or in the remote AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized through the terminal user interface.

Alarm Relay Contacts

The alarm contact built into the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit is a SPDT relay contact. If an alarm occurs such that an entry is put into the event queue, the alarm contacts switch to the alarm state for as long as the alarm event persists.

Order Wire Interface

The Order Wire interface is an auxiliary end-to-end voice communication channel that is carried on the radio link between the local and remote AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized units. Maintenance and service personnel can connect telephones to order wire ports on the local and remote AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized units and have direct voice communication between the local and the remote site. Order Wire (OW) communication can only occur when there is an active radio link between the local and remote AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized units. The Order Wire channel is outside of the E1 channel and does not affect the user’s data.

The Order Wire interface uses the 64 kbps pulse code modulation (PCM) encoding method and meets V.21 and V.32 modem specifications.

When the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized installation includes optional AirLink Pro E1 Access Units, telephones are plugged into the Order Wire jacks on the front panels of the access units. Communication across the order wire interface is initiated by picking up the telephone at either end of the link. Picking up the order wire telephone causes the following actions:

Features and Capabilities

• An audible tone (beeping) at the remote access unit. This tone continues until the telephone at the remote end is picked up.

• The OW CALL indicator on the front panel of the remote access unit blinks. This indicator continues to blink until the telephone at the remote end is picked up.

Product Overview

System Planning

2

Planning for the successful installation of a microwave system involves a number of important, highly-specialized tasks, such as equipment specification, site and route selection, and path analysis. The actual details of these tasks is beyond the scope of this guide. Except for basic information and general guidelines regarding microwave systems, this chapter focuses on the specific planning information required to integrate the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system into your operating environment. The purpose of this discussion is to assist with the implementation of an effective and reliable microwave communications link, not to provide a tutorial on microwave radio systems.

Site and Route Selection

Because the installation and start-up procedures for a microwave radio system depend upon specialized knowledge and experience, you should read this section to gain an understanding of the basic concepts involved.

Microwave Basics

A typical digital microwave radio configuration consists of three basic components:

• the digital interface

• the RF interface

• the antenna

These components make up what is generally referred to as a radio terminal (see Figure 2-1 on page 2-2). Two of these terminals form a microwave communications link, referred to as a microwave hop. Each terminal can simultaneously transmit information to, and receive information from its opposite terminal. This is referred to as full duplex operation.

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized unit, containing the digital and RF interfaces, is typically located outside a building, mounted on the antenna mast near the antenna. This is done to improve the performance by reducing radio

System Planning

frequency losses between the antenna and the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized to almost zero.

The antenna radiates transmitted signals and captures incoming signals from its opposite terminal. The antenna is typically located on the roof of the building or on the side or corner of the building. The antenna can also be installed inside a building at a window, so that it transmits and receives through the glass of the window. Some types of glass (e.g., aluminized) appear opaque to microwave signals. A radio link cannot be established through such glass.

AirLink E1 HARDWARE BUILDING
AirLink
E1
HARDWARE
BUILDING

PARABOLIC REFLECTOR

glass. AirLink E1 HARDWARE BUILDING PARABOLIC REFLECTOR ANTENNA FEED AirLink E1 CABLE ANTENNA CABLE JUNCTION BOX

ANTENNA FEED

AirLink E1

CABLE

ANTENNA CABLE

JUNCTION

BOX

PARAPET MOUNT

CUSTOMER

EQUIPMENT

CABLE

Figure 2-1 A Typical Radio Terminal Scheme

Antennas used for 5.7 GHz microwave communications are typically the parabolic reflector type, referred to as “dish” antennas. A typical dish antenna consists of the parabolic reflector, the waveguide feed, and some mounting apparatus, used for attaching the antenna to a mast, building, or other structure. The mounting apparatus usually includes some pivot and locking hardware that allows the antenna to be aligned to optimize performance. Outdoor antennas sometimes have a protective cover, called a radome, that covers the front of the dish, protecting the waveguide feed and the surface of the reflector.

The waveguide feet, with its opening at the focal point of the parabola, directs the outgoing transmit signals at the parabolic reflector, which radiates the signal away from the antenna as a beam. Because this beam loses its focus as

Site and Route Selection

distance from the antenna increases, the receiving antenna actually “captures” only a small percentage of the original signal. This portion of the received signal is focused at the opening of the waveguide of the antenna, and is fed to the RF interface in the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized.

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized is connected to the antenna by coaxial cable The distance between the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized radio unit is normally kept very short (2 meters) because coaxial cables have a high loss at 5.7 GHz. The distance can be longer, but the longer the cable, the more power loss at the antenna.

Antenna Placement and the RF Link

One of the first tasks in planning for a point-to-point microwave communications link is selecting the antenna sites and determining whether a clear transmission path exists between those two points. The first half of the analysis determines whether the antenna sites are sufficient in terms of adequate access, structural integrity, availability of power, and proximity to the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized radio units. The second half of the analysis determines whether there is an unobstructed line-of-sight path between the two antennas.

Site Survey

The actual process of conducting a site survey is outside the scope of this guide, so questions should be directed to a qualified P-Com technical support representative. The following list contains general considerations that guide a site survey. They are presented only as an aid to understanding the survey process.

• There should be adequate access to the antenna site.

• The path should be a line-of-sight path.

• The structure to which the antenna will be mounted should be adequate to bear the antenna and the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized radio unit under all wind and other weather conditions.

• The routing and securing of all cables should conform to all applicable codes and requirements.

• The analysis should include an investigation into future building plans that could block the line-of-sight path. This investigation should also include other long-term incremental obstructions such as trees, and intermittent obstructions such as aircraft at a nearby airport.

Path Analysis, Path Loss, and Fade Margin

A path analysis examines the direction and length of a desired line-of-sight

path, the equipment being considered, the environmental context (terrain and climate), and determines the projected net system performance, or percentage

of time the system will perform at the desired performance level.

System Planning

To achieve reliable communication, the radio path must have an average received signal level high enough to protect the link against fluctuations in the signal power due to multipath fading and other anomalous propagation conditions. This safety factor is referred to as the fade margin.

The fade margin is a measure of how much additional signal attenuation the system can endure without dropping below the required BER (Bit Error Rate) level.

Use the following formula to calculate the fade margin (see Figure 2-2):

Fade Margin = G SG + G ANT - L CL - L PL

where GSG is the total system gain (measured in dB), GANT is the total antenna gain of both antennas (measured in dBi), LCL is the total connector/cable loss of all cables (measured in dB), and LPL is the path loss (measured in dB). These are described in more detail below.

The reliability of the link/annual outage time is related to the fade margin and is stated as Availability (in percent) or annual outage time (in minutes).

Antenna Gain (GANT)

Antenna Gain (GANT)

 
   
   
   
 
         

Connector/Cable

Path Loss (LPL)

Connector/Cable

 

Loss (LCL)

 

Loss (LCL)

AirLink E1

 

AirLink E1

 

System Gain (GSG)

Figure 2-2 Fade Margin Calculation

System Gain (GSG)

System Gain

 

System gain is the total gain of the radio system, without any consideration of the antennas or cables. It is simply the arithmetic difference between the transmitter’s output power and the receiver’s sensitivity threshold. System gain (GSG in the formula) is measured in dB. To calculate the system gain, subtract the receiver sensitivity from the transmitter power:

(Transmit Power) - (Receiver Sensitivity) = (System Gain)

For example, for an AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized operating at maximum power (+20 dBm) with normal receiver sensitivity (-80 dBm), the system gain is

100 dB: (+20 dBm) - (-80 dBm) = 100 dB

Antenna Gain

Antenna gain is the measure of the antenna’s ability to focus the radio frequency (RF) energy into a preferred direction. Antenna gain (GANT in the Fade Margin formula) is measured in dBi—the ratio between the power radiated by the antenna in a specific direction over the power radiated to that

Site and Route Selection

direction by an isotropic antenna fed by the same transmitter. An isotropic antenna radiates a signal evenly in all directions.

Refer to the antenna manufacturer’s information to determine the antenna gain for the antenna you will be using. Some antennas are specified in dBd. This number can be converted to dBi by adding 2 dB.

Cable and Connector Loss

The directional antenna is normally connected to the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized radio unit with the coaxial cable supplied by P-Com as part of the installation kit. The main advantage of mounting the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized next to the antenna and using the short cable is that the cable and connector loss is minimized (less than 1 dB).

The cable loss (LCL in the formula) is measured in dB, and depends on the cable length and the type of cable you are using. You can use any 50 ohm coaxial cable whose loss in dB per 30 meters is low enough (3 dB to15 dB) so as not to contribute significantly to the total link loss. Quality cables with less than 7 dB per 30 meters loss are sold by P-Com and P-Com distributors.

Free Space Path Loss

Due to reflections from the ground and other objects, the actual path loss between the transmitting and receiving antennas might differ significantly from the calculated path loss when both antennas are placed in a “free space” environment. Unfortunately, the additional loss due to these effects is difficult to calculate and requires precise knowledge of the geometry of the link and surrounding materials which, in most cases, is not available.

Typically, the largest contributor to “link loss” is the loss of power as the signal travels through space. This contribution, called Free Space Path Loss, can be easily calculated as follows: To determine the free space path loss, determine the distance between the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized radio units that you will be using for your application and refer to Table 2-1, or use the following formula:

attenuation in dB = [92.4 + 20 LOG (distance in kilometers) + 20 LOG (frequency in GHz)]

Table 2-1 Free Space Path Loss

Distance

(kilometers)

Path Loss @ 915 MHz (L-Band)

Path Loss @ 2.4 GHz (S-Band)

Path Loss @ 5.7 GHz (C-Band)

1 92 dB

100 dB

108 dB

2 98 dB

106 dB

114 dB

3 101 dB

110 dB

117 dB

4 104 dB

112 dB

120 dB

5 106 dB

114 dB

121 dB

6 107 dB

116 dB

123 dB

7 109 dB

117 dB

124 dB

System Planning

Table 2-1 Free Space Path Loss (Continued)

Distance

(kilometers)

Path Loss @ 915 MHz (L-Band)

Path Loss @ 2.4 GHz (S-Band)

Path Loss @ 5.7 GHz (C-Band)

8

110 dB

118 dB

126 dB

9

111 dB

119 dB

127 dB

10

112 dB

120 dB

128 dB

15

115 dB

124 dB

131 dB

20

118 dB

126 dB

134 dB

25

120 dB

128 dB

135 dB

30

121 dB

130 dB

137 dB

35

123 dB

131 dB

138 dB

40

124 dB

132 dB

140 dB

50

126 dB

134 dB

141 dB

Application Examples

This section provides three sets of application examples to assist you in planning your own system:

Independent pair operation, consisting of an AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pair in a point-to-point link.

Multiple pair (hub) operation, consisting of a number of AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized units operating from a central site, with transmission paths radiating outward to units at remote sites.

Repeater operation, consisting of two or more AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pairs—repeater link segments —set up end-to-end to relay information between sites.

The difference between these application types has to do primarily with how timing is defined and how burst synchronization is achieved. These two considerations are explained in more detail below.

Timing and Burst Synchronization

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized provides full-duplex, radio-to-radio communication that follows a ping-pong analogy: while one unit transmits a radio burst, the other unit receives that burst. After the other unit receives a complete burst, it waits through a guard interval before turning on its transmitter and transmitting its burst. In each AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pair, one unit is referred to as the master; the other is referred to as the slave.

The unit designated as the master governs the operation of the pair because it has the responsibility for initiating the radio link, and for providing the burst synchronization signal that drives the transmit/receive cycle. A complete frame consists of a transmit burst followed immediately by a receive burst. While one unit transmits a burst, the other unit receives that burst. The slave always transmits its burst in reaction to a received burst.

Independent Pairs

Application Examples

When an AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pair operates independently, the burst synchronization timing signal (approximately 2.25 ms) is derived from the internal clock of the master, while the slave derives its bit and burst synchronization from its received RF signal. In this case, timing and burst synchronization are handled internally by the master and slave.

Hub Operation

When a number of AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized units are clustered at a central site (see Figure 2-5 on page 2-9 and Figure 2-8 on page 2-10), it is critical that all of the units transmit and receive at the same time, to minimize inter- channel interference. In such a case, one of the units at the central site must serve as the burst synchronization source for all the other units at that site.

That unit is referred to as the primary master and has its burst synchronization signal pair wired to the burst synchronization signal pairs of the other units, referred to as secondary masters. The primary master is configured for internal timing and generates the burst synchronization signal for the other masters at the hub. All the other units are configured for external timing, and synchronize their transmit bursts to the burst synchronization signal from the primary master.

Repeater Operation

In a repeater link (see Figure 2-6 on page 2-9 and Figure 2-7 on page 2-10), two or more AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pairs are installed end-to-end, and the control and data signals from the slave unit of one repeater link segment are cross-connected to the master unit of the next repeater link segment. The two units that form the cross-over point between two segments of a repeater link are referred to as the repeater site.

The slave unit in the prior repeater link segment is referred to as the slave unit at a repeater site. The master unit of the next repeater link segment is referred to as the master unit at a repeater site. The slave unit in the prior repeater link segment has its burst synchronization signal pair wired to the burst synchronization signal pairs of the master unit of the next repeater link segment. The slave unit at the repeater site generates the burst synchronization signal for the master unit of the second-half link.

If other AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized units are located at the repeater site, the repeater site is treated as a hybrid hub, where the slave at the repeater site acts as the burst synchronization “master” for the other units. The other units are wired to the burst synchronization signal pair of the slave and synchronize their transmit bursts to that slave.

Independent Pair Operation

The following application examples illustrate how AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pairs can provide a variety of point-to-point services.

System Planning

Point-to-Point Link Between Networks

Figure 2-3 shows an example involving an AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pair in a point-to-point link between networks.

LAN LAN 15 miles E1 E1 Router AirLink E1 AirLink E1 Router
LAN
LAN
15 miles
E1
E1
Router
AirLink E1
AirLink E1
Router

Figure 2-3 Point-to-Point Link Between Networks

The next three application examples illustrate how the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized can be used to extend E1 wired facilities or to supplement and diversify E1 services.

Figure 2-4 shows an example involving an AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pair in a point-to-point link that extends service to a remote location. In this example, E1 service to a main office is extended to a Private Branch Exchange (PBX) or Key telephone System (KTS) at the branch office.

E1 Line AirLink E1 AirLink E1 Telco Facilites Central Office Trunks PBX/KTS Customer Premises Customer
E1 Line
AirLink E1
AirLink E1
Telco Facilites
Central
Office
Trunks
PBX/KTS
Customer Premises
Customer Premises
Main Office
Branch Office

Figure 2-4 PBX and KTS Access to Remote Telco Facilities

Figure 2-5 on page 2-9 shows an example involving an AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pair in a point-to-point link that connects offices in two buildings and treats them as one physical site. In this example, the telephone system consists of a small PBX or KTS in the branch office, with all calls placed over tie trunks to the main office. Outside calls can also go to the Telco through the PBX in the main office.

Application Examples E1 Line Telco #1 PBX/KTS PBX Facilites E1 E1 Tie Trunks Tie Trunks
Application Examples
E1 Line
Telco #1
PBX/KTS
PBX
Facilites
E1
E1
Tie Trunks
Tie Trunks
AirLink E1
AirLink E1
Customer Premises
Customer Premises
Main Office
Branch Office

Figure 2-5 Satellite PBX and KTS-Wireless Tie Trunks to a Main PBX

Figure 2-6 shows an example involving an AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pair in a point-to-point link that extends E1 services directly to a remote site. In this example, the Telco uses an AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pair to provide E1 service at a remote customer site, with the Telco facility ending at the remote CSU.

A long-distance carrier might use this application to bypass the wired facilities of the local
A long-distance carrier might use this application to bypass the wired
facilities of the local carrier. A local carrier might use it to provide nearly
instant service to a customer as an interim solution, while a long-term wired
solution is developed for specific cable plant and E-carrier requirements.
E1 Line
Telco #1
AirLink E1
AirLink E1
Facilites
PBX/KTS

Customer Premises

Figure 2-6 Extending E1 Facility to Customer Premises

Hub Operation, Different Paths

The example shown in Figure 2-6 illustrates hub operation, which involves two or more AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pairs, with the master units located at a hub and the slave units installed at different geographical locations.

Hub operation brings into play three additional installation and configuration elements:

Pseudo-random Noise (PN) codes: must be configured so that no conflicts exist between AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pairs.

System Planning

Timing: one master unit must be configured as a primary hub master, and all other master units must be configured as secondary hub masters.

Burst synchronization: All secondary hub masters must be daisy- chained to the burst synchronization signal pair of the primary hub master.

AirLink Slave E1 REMOTE LOCATION #1 REMOTE LOCATION #2 E1 E1 AirLink Secondary Master E1
AirLink
Slave E1
REMOTE LOCATION #1
REMOTE LOCATION #2
E1
E1
AirLink
Secondary
Master E1
AirLink
Slave E1
Burst
E1
E1
Synchronization
AirLink
Primary
Master E1

HUB LOCATION

Figure 2-7 Hub Operation, Different Paths

Hub Operation, Same Path

The example shown in Figure 2-8 on page 2-10 involves the use of antenna pairs configured to take advantage of fixed horizontal and vertical wave polarization. Wave polarization is achieved by mounting the antenna pair so that the feedhorns of both antennas are aligned either vertically or horizontally (per manufacturer’s instructions). By using antenna polarization, you can locate two AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pairs at the same sites and use the same wave path without conflict.

HUB LOCATION

REMOTE LOCATION

AirLink E1

Primary

Master

AirLink E1 Primary Master AirLink E1 Secondary Master

AirLink E1

Secondary

Master

E1

Master AirLink E1 Secondary Master E1 Burst SYNC E1 AirLink E1 Slave E1 E1 FEEDHORN ORIENTED

Burst

SYNC

Master AirLink E1 Secondary Master E1 Burst SYNC E1 AirLink E1 Slave E1 E1 FEEDHORN ORIENTED

E1

AirLink E1 Secondary Master E1 Burst SYNC E1 AirLink E1 Slave E1 E1 FEEDHORN ORIENTED HORIZONTALLY

AirLink E1

Slave

E1

E1
E1
FEEDHORN ORIENTED HORIZONTALLY
FEEDHORN ORIENTED
HORIZONTALLY

FEEDHORN ORIENTED

VERTICALLY

AirLink E1

Slave

Figure 2-8 Hub Operation, Same Path

Application Examples

This scheme works because of the properties of horizontally- and vertically- polarized electromagnetic waves:

• In a horizontally-polarized electromagnetic wave propagating in free space, polarization of the electric field vector tends to remain horizontal, and therefore does not change from a horizontal direction with time and distance along the propagation path. The magnetic field vector can change with time or distance, thus governing the angle of elevation from the horizontal that the wave is propagating at a particular point in space and time.

• In a vertically-polarized electromagnetic wave propagating in free space, polarization of the electric field vector tends to remain vertical, and therefore does not change from a vertical direction with time and distance along the propagation path. The magnetic field vector can change with time and distance, thus governing the horizontal direction or azimuth that the wave is propagating at a particular point in space or time.

Antennas available from P-Com or its distributors can be mounted for either vertical or horizontal polarization.

Repeater Operation

The example shown in Figure 2-9 on page 2-11 involves the use of two AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pairs—a first-half segment and a second-half segment—making up a repeater link to relay information between sites. One unit in the first-half segment—the slave at the repeater site—is cross- connected to a unit in the second-half segment—the master at the repeater site. Connections between the two repeater site units—burst synchronization, and E1 signals—are made in the two junction boxes.

REPEATER SITE

Mast AirLink AirLink E1 E1 AirLink AirLink E1 E1 ACCESS UNIT E1 ORDER WIRETERMINAL LOCAL
Mast
AirLink
AirLink
E1
E1
AirLink
AirLink
E1
E1
ACCESS UNIT
E1
ORDER WIRETERMINAL
LOCAL REMOTE
OW
POWER
ALARM
ALARM
CALL
JUNCTION
JUNCTION
Box
Box
E1 SOURCE

Figure 2-9 Two-Part Repeater Link

System Planning

The repeater site differs from a hub in several ways (use Figure 2-10 as a reference):

• E1 signals from the slave of the prior repeater link segment are cross- connected to the master of the next repeater link segment.

• The slave unit at the repeater site provides the burst synchronization signal for the master unit of the next segment.

• If other AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized units are located at the repeater site, the repeater site is treated as a hybrid hub, where the slave at the repeater site acts as the burst synchronization “master” for the other units. The other units are wired to the burst synchronization signal pair of the slave and synchronize their transmit bursts to that slave.

SLAVE IN POINT-TO-POINT LINK HUB BURST SECONDARY MASTER AT A HUB SYNC SLAVE AT MASTER
SLAVE IN
POINT-TO-POINT
LINK
HUB
BURST
SECONDARY MASTER
AT A HUB
SYNC
SLAVE AT
MASTER AT

REPEATER

SITE

BURST

SYNC

REPEATER

SITE

SLAVE IN

POINT-TO-POINT

LINK

SECONDARY

MASTER AT

BURST

SYNC

SLAVE IN POINT-TO-POINT LINK SECONDARY MASTER AT BURST SYNC PRIMARY MASTER AT HUB SLAVE IN POINT-TO-POINT

PRIMARY MASTER AT HUB

SLAVE IN

POINT-TO-POINT

LINK

HUB SITE

REPEATER SITE

Figure 2-10 Repeater Operation

System Administration and Control

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized operation is governed by user-selectable configuration and control parameters that reside in the non-volatile memory of the unit. These parameters are displayed and controlled through a terminal device that can access either the local or the remote unit to:

• Change the configuration parameters

• Query for current status information, performance information, and alarms

• Run diagnostic tests

Given the significance of the terminal in managing system operation, another key aspect in planning the installation of the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized is the placement and cabling of the terminal device used to control the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system. Terminal placement and cabling depends largely on the type of AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized application used (described in earlier sections of this chapter).

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized ASCII terminal interface is an EIA/TIA-232 interface that allows a terminal device or personal computer to control and monitor AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized operation at either end of the point-to- point link. The connection to the EIA/TIA-232 interface can be either a direct

System Administration and Control

connection (terminal to port), or an indirect connection (terminal to modem to port) for dial-up operation.

Both the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized and the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Access Unit provide Terminal ports. These ports are RJ-11 modular jacks that share the same logical port on the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized digital module. These ports are set up for asynchronous terminal operation at speeds up to 19,200 bps, with 8 data bits, no parity, and 1 stop bit.

Both the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized and the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Access Unit also provide RJ-11 modular order wire jacks for connecting standard telephones. Persons working on the radio link can use the order wire interface to talk to each other.

The following sections describe how the administration and control terminal fits into each of the typical application schemes.

Direct Terminal Connection to the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized

To make a direct connection to the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized, an installer would open the unit and connect a hand-held terminal or personal computer to the Terminal port on the digital module inside the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized housing (see Figure 2-11). This type of connection is useful for aligning the antenna and tuning operating parameters while installing the equipment.

LOCAL SITE REMOTE SITE AIRLINK AIRLINK RS232 E1 E1
LOCAL SITE
REMOTE SITE
AIRLINK
AIRLINK
RS232
E1
E1

Figure 2-11 Direct Terminal Connection to AirLink Pro E1

Direct Terminal Connection to the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit

When the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system installation includes the optional AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit, the terminal or personal computer can be connected to the Terminal port on the front panel of the access unit (see Figure 2-12 on page 2-14). This type of connection has the advantage of being protected from the weather and offers the best long-term control over the system. In a hub installation involving a number of AirLink Pro E1

System Planning

Ruggedized pairs, the terminal device can be “shared” across all the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized systems by a terminal switching device.

LOCAL SITE REMOTE SITE AIRLINK AIRLINK E1 E1 E1 E1 T1 T1 ORDER WIRETERMINAL ORDER
LOCAL SITE
REMOTE SITE
AIRLINK
AIRLINK
E1
E1
E1
E1
T1
T1
ORDER WIRETERMINAL
ORDER WIRETERMINAL
LOCAL REMOTE
OW
LOCAL REMOTE
OW
POWER
ALARM
ALARM
CALL
POWER
ALARM
ALARM
CALL
Access Unit
Access Unit
RS232

Figure 2-12 Direct Terminal Connection to Access Unit

The terminal interface to the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit is EIA-TIA-232. The terminal interface between the access unit and the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized is EIA/TIA-422, which allows the DTE to be located indoors and at the end of a much longer cable than the EIA/TIA-232 interface permits.

Remote Connection to the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit

When the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system installation includes the optional AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit, a remote terminal or personal computer can be connected to the Terminal port on the front panel of the access unit through a modem (see Figure 2-13).

LOCAL SITE REMOTE SITE AIRLINK AIRLINK E1 E1 E1 E1 T1 T1 ORDER WIRETERMINAL ORDER
LOCAL SITE
REMOTE SITE
AIRLINK
AIRLINK
E1
E1
E1
E1
T1
T1
ORDER WIRETERMINAL
ORDER WIRETERMINAL
LOCAL REMOTE
OW
LOCAL REMOTE
OW
POWER
ALARM
ALARM
CALL
POWER
ALARM
ALARM
CALL
Access Unit
Access Unit
RS232
MODEM
MODEM
RS232

Figure 2-13 Modem Connection to the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit

The Order Wire Interface

Site Preparation

The Order Wire interface is an auxiliary end-to-end communications channel for use by maintenance and service personnel, providing voice communication between telephones connected to the local and remote units (see Figure 2-14 and Figure 2-15). Order Wire communication can only occur when there is an active radio link between the local AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized and the remote AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized.

LOCAL SITE

REMOTE SITE

the remote AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized. LOCAL SITE REMOTE SITE AIRLINK E1 AIRLINK E1 Figure 2-14
the remote AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized. LOCAL SITE REMOTE SITE AIRLINK E1 AIRLINK E1 Figure 2-14

AIRLINK

E1

AIRLINK

E1

Ruggedized. LOCAL SITE REMOTE SITE AIRLINK E1 AIRLINK E1 Figure 2-14 AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Order

Figure 2-14 AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Order Wire Connection

LOCAL SITE REMOTE SITE AIRLINK AIRLINK E1 E1 E1 E1 T1 T1 ORDER WIRETERMINAL ORDER
LOCAL SITE
REMOTE SITE
AIRLINK
AIRLINK
E1
E1
E1
E1
T1
T1
ORDER WIRETERMINAL
ORDER WIRETERMINAL
LOCAL REMOTE
OW
LOCAL REMOTE
OW
POWER
ALARM
ALARM
CALL
POWER
ALARM
ALARM
CALL
ACCESS
ACCESS
UNIT
UNIT

Figure 2-15 Access Unit Order Wire Connection

The Order Wire interface is a 64 Kbps pulse code modulation (PCM) voice communication channel that meets V.21 and V.32 modem specifications. The Order Wire channel is part of the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized RF protocol and does not use any part of the 2.048 Mbps E1 channel.

Site Preparation

Because of the special planning requirements associated with installing a microwave system, you should review some of the general guidelines regarding installation preparation to ensure that the site you are considering is suitable to the purpose.

System Planning

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized Radio Unit

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized (see Figure 1-2 on page 1-3) consists of a weatherproof housing and mounting hardware. The weatherproof housing contains the electronics for the basic AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system: the digital module, the RF module, and the power converter. The mounting hardware consists of a combination mounting bracket and sun shield, to minimize the temperature rise from exposure to the sun, and the mechanical hardware needed to mount the sun shield to the antenna mast.

After the sun shield has been mounted on the antenna mast, the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized housing is attached to the sun shield mounting bracket. If the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized must be removed for any reason, the weatherproof housing is removed as a unit, leaving the mounting bracket and sun shield in place on the antenna mast.

General Physical and Environmental Characteristics

With its mounting hardware, the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized radio unit measures approximately 390 mm wide, 480 mm high, and 270 mm deep. It weighs approximately 12 kilograms.

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized radio unit is a durable piece of equipment, enclosed in a NEMA 4 weatherproof housing. In general, observe the following environmental guidelines:

Temperature: -40°C to +60°C

Altitude: up to 4000 meters

Lightning Protection

Because the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized is mounted outside on an antenna mast, it is more susceptible to damage due to nearby lightning strikes than equipment installed inside a building. The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized is provided with secondary protection on all signal and power leads to the printed circuit assemblies in the unit. If the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system is being installed in an area where lightning can be a problem, primary protection, such as gas tubes or spark gaps, is required.

AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit

The optional AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit consists of an enclosure that serves

as an indoor center of access to the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized unit.

General Physical and Environmental Characteristics

The

AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit measures approximately 490 mm wide, 90

mm

high, and 270 mm deep. It weighs approximately 3 kilograms.

The

AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit is a durable piece of equipment, but it is

electronic equipment, and must be treated properly. Do not expose the unit to

extremes in temperature or other environmental hazards.

Site Preparation

In general, observe the following environmental guidelines:

Temperature: between 0°C and 50°C

Altitude: up to 4000 meters

Relative Humidity: up to 95 percent (noncondensing)

Atmosphere: do not operate the unit in a very dusty or corrosive environment

Rack Mounting Considerations

The AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit mounts indoors in either a standard 19-inch equipment rack or cabinet. The rack-mount hardware kit, which consists of a pair of mounting brackets and all required fasteners, is included in the shipping carton with the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit. The mounting hardware can be attached to the access unit in either the front-mount position or in the mid-mount position.

Space and Access Considerations

Whether the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit is mounted in a rack or cabinet, leave enough space—approximately 1 meter in front and in back of the equipment—for access to cable, operate, and check the equipment.

Power and Grounding Requirements

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized runs on –48 VDC power. The AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit is available in either alternating current or direct current models. Depending upon your AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system configuration, you will have the following different power and grounding requirements:

• Direct current power from an external direct current power source delivering –48 VDC power directly to an AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized.

• Direct current power from an external direct current power source delivering –48 VDC power to both the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized and the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit (when installed).

• Alternating current to the alternating current model AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit, (when installed). The access unit then delivers –48 VDC power to the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized.

These options are described in the following sections.

AC Power Supply Option

The AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit equipped with the alternating current power supply option uses a nominal input voltage of either 115 VAC or 220 VAC from single-phase power systems having a grounded neutral conductor.

To reduce the risk of electrical shock and damage to the equipment, do not plug the unit into any other type of power system. You should contact your facilities manager or call in a qualified electrician if you are not sure what type of power is supplied to your building.

System Planning

In planning the location of your equipment, remember that any peripheral equipment (external modem, terminals, etc.) will require additional outlets.

modem, terminals, etc.) will require additional outlets. The AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit model powered by

The AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit model powered by alternating current requires up to 1 A of a typical 15 or 20 A branch circuit. Other equipment and peripherals on the same circuit draw additional current. Verify that the total current draw of all the equipment on the circuit does not exceed the capacity of that circuit. Contact your facilities manager or a qualified electrician for more information.

DC Power Supply Option

AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system configurations not equipped with the AC power supply option must be powered from a DC power source supplying - 48 VDC. Chapter 3 provides instructions for making DC power connections; Appendix A, Specifications, provides more information about the DC power requirements.

Ancillary Equipment Requirements

The term “ancillary equipment” describes communications devices attached to the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system to allow an operator to configure, perform operational tasks, and monitor system operation.

Terminal Interface

The connector labeled TERMINAL on the front panel of the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit is an EIA/TIA-232 interface that can be used to connect a terminal device to the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized to monitor and manage the operation of the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pair.

The terminal device can be one of the following:

• simple ASCII terminal

• personal computer running a terminal emulation program and having a serial port that can be used for connecting to the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized unit

Either of these terminal devices can be connected directly to the Terminal jack inside the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized radio unit, directly to the Terminal jack on the front panel of the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit, or indirectly to the access unit by connecting the terminal device to the Terminal jack through a pair of modems.

Terminal or Personal Computer System

A terminal device or a personal computer may have specific data cabling requirements (refer to Appendix A, Specifications for connector pin assignments), and usually requires a grounded alternating current power outlet.

Configuration Parameters

External Modem

A modem can be connected to the Terminal jack on the front panel of the

AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit so that AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized operation can be monitored from another location. A modem requires a dedicated telephone line with a modular RJ-11 jack near the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit location, as well as a source of power, usually a standard 115 VAC grounded outlet.

Order Wire Interface

A standard telephone can be plugged directly into the RJ-11 OW jack on the

digital module inside the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized, or into the RJ-11 Order Wire jack on the front of the AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit—when the access unit is installed as part of the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system. A standard telephone is required at each end of the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized link.

required at each end of the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized link. Cable Requirements The order-wire interface

Cable Requirements

The order-wire interface must not be directly connected to the Public Switched Telecommunications Network.

The cables supplied with your AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system are manufactured in conformity with engineering and safety standards. Using other cables can be hazardous and can also degrade the performance of your equipment.

Configuration Parameters

The following sections describe the configuration parameters that govern AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized operation. Depending upon your application, you will need to set or change values for some or all of the configuration parameters. Configuration parameters fall into the following groups:

• administrative parameters

• E1 line parameters

• radio parameters

• alarm queue control parameters

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized configuration parameters are set through the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized ASCII terminal interface. Chapter 4, Configuring the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized contains the detailed procedures for setting configuration parameters; Chapter 5, Operations and Maintenance, contains procedures for using system options.

Administrative Parameters

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized administrative parameters include:

• site name

• date and time

• password

System Planning

Site Name

 

The site name identifies the role or location of the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized. This parameter is optional (it has no operational effect) and can be any convenient description of up to 60 alphanumeric characters.

Date and Time

 

The date and time are used in system operations as well as to provide a reference in time-stamping status, performance and alarm information.

The date value is entered in the form MM/DD/YY, where:

MM

(month)

DD (day of the month) YY (year)

01 - 12 01 - 31 (qualified by selected month) 00 - 99

The 24-hour time value is entered in the form HH:MM:SS, where:

HH (hours)

00 - 23

MM

(minutes)

00 - 59

SS (seconds)

00 - 59

Password

The password is needed when the unit is powered on, or after the operator logs off the system and wants to enter it again. The operator must provide the correct password to gain access to the GET, SET, QUERY, RESET, TEST, and REMOTE commands.

NOTE

When the unit is prepared for shipment, it is configured with a null password as a default. To gain access to the system the first time, press <Return> in response to the login prompt for the password.

To protect the system, you should change the password at the earliest opportunity (refer to the section “Setting Administrative Parameters” in Chapter 4 for instructions on setting a password). A password can be any convenient combination of up to 16 alphanumeric characters from the set a-z, A-Z, and 0-9. The new password should also be written down and stored in a safe place. After changing the password, you should test the new password by logging out and in again.

NOTE

Line Parameter

If you forget your password, contact P-Com Customer Service for assistance.

There is only one AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized line parameter: coding.

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized supports both Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) and High Density Bipolar 3 (HDB3) line coding. Specify either AMI or HDB3. If you do not configure a value, the system assumes the default value:

HDB3.

Radio Parameters

Configuration Parameters

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized radio frequency (RF) parameters include the following:

Application

• application

• burst mode

• pseudo-random noise code (PN code)

• transmit (Tx) power level

NOTE

These are service-affecting configuration parameters. Changing any of these parameter values disrupts the radio link for the time it takes to set compatible parameter values for both ends of the link. Always do the remote change first so that the radio link can be regained by making changes to the local unit. If you make the local changes first and lose the radio link, you may be forced to go to the remote site in order to reconfigure the remote unit and reinstate operation.

Application refers to the role the unit plays in a point-to-point link (master/ slave), a hub site involving primary and secondary masters, or a repeater site. Your choice of application determines the timing (external versus internal) relationship between the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized units. The application choices include:

1. Primary master at a hub

2. Secondary master at a hub

3. Master unit at a repeater site

4. Master unit in a point-to-point link

5. Slave unit at a repeater site

6. Slave unit in a point-to-point link

The following sections describe the use of these applications in point-to-point links, hubs, and repeaters.

All units are shipped from the factory configured as master units in a point-to- point link (application 4). You must configure one of the units in the pair as a slave (application 6) so that the system alignment procedures can be performed (refer to Chapter 3). Use your application plan (discussed earlier in this chapter) to determine how each unit will be configured.

Point-to-Point Link

In a point-to-point link, where one AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pair operates independently of any other pair, the burst synchronization timing signal is derived from the internal clock of the designated master unit, and the slave unit derives its synchronization from the received RF signal. The master unit would be configured as a master unit in a point-to-point link (application 4), while the unit at the other end would be configured as a slave unit in a point-to- point link (application 6).

System Planning

Hub

In a hub, where more than one AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized master unit is located at a central site, one of the master units must be configured as the primary master at the hub (application 1), providing burst synchronization, while the other AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized master units must be configured as secondary masters at a hub (application 2), accepting burst synchronization. The externally-timed secondary masters are daisy-chained through their Burst Synchronization wire pairs to the internally timed primary master so that all of the units “talk” and “listen” in a synchronized manner.

Repeater

In a repeater, the two AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized units that form the cross- over point between the previous segment of the entire repeater link and the next segment of the repeater link are referred to as the repeater site.

In this case, the slave unit of the previous segment of the repeater link is configured as the slave unit at a repeater site (application 5), while the master unit of the next segment of the repeater link is configured as the master unit at a repeater site (application 3). The burst synchronization signal pair of the slave unit at the repeater site is wired to the burst synchronization signal pair of the master unit at the repeater site so that the slave at the repeater site provides the burst synchronization signal for the master unit of the next segment of the link.

If other AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized units are located at the repeater site (see Figure 2-10 on page 2-12), the repeater site is treated as a hybrid hub, where the slave at the repeater site acts as the burst synchronization “master” for the other units. The other units are wired to the burst synchronization signal pair of the slave and synchronize their transmit bursts to that slave. These units can be configured as either secondary masters at a hub (application 2) or as master units at a repeater site (application 5).

If the entire repeater link is set up as a point-to-point link, the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized unit that serves as the near-end unit in the entire repeater link can be configured as a master unit in a point-to-point link (application 4). The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized unit that serves as the far-end unit for the entire repeater link is configured as a slave unit in a point-to-point link (application 6).

If the entire repeater link originates from a hub, the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized unit that serves as the near-end unit in the entire repeater link can be configured as either a primary master at a hub (application 1) or a secondary master at a hub (application 2). The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized unit that serves as the far-end unit for the entire repeater link is configured as a slave unit in a point-to-point link (application 6).

Burst Mode

Burst Mode describes the transmit timing relationship between the master unit and the slave unit.

In Duplex mode, the master unit initiates burst timing and the slave unit times its responses to the timing from the master. The master unit transmits for a

Configuration Parameters

time, then listens for a time; the slave waits until the master unit is listening, then transmits.

In Simplex mode, the master constantly transmits an internally-generated industry standard QRSS signal; the slave receives the signal and passes it to the DTE port. In Simplex mode, QRSS performance measurements only apply to the slave unit.

PN Code

NOTE

In ordinary operation, the unit should be set for Duplex mode. Simplex mode should only be used for alignment and testing under the direction of P-Com personnel.

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized has a set of pseudo-random noise (PN) codes. Each code number corresponds to a subset of long binary code words. These code words are substituted for each bit in the E1 data stream. This substitution is the basic principle behind the direct-sequence spread spectrum modulation scheme used in the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized.

Using a different code helps the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized separate the desired incoming signal from undesired signals from other AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized paths.

The master unit and the slave unit of a AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pair must be set to the same PN code. That setting is then stored in the protected system configuration memory of both units in the pair.

The PN code is a number in the range 1 to 8. Specify the PN code to use for each AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pair to configure. If you do not configure a PN code number, the system assumes the default value: 1.

RF Power Level

When there are a number of AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized pairs in a hub arrangement, the received signal levels are dependent on the distances to the remote sites. Adjust the transmit power level to minimize cross-channel interference and ensure that the received levels at the hub are of equal power.

The RF Power Level can be controlled within the range from –4 dBm to +20 dBm. If you do not configure a Transmit Power Level value, the system assumes the default value: 0 dBm.

Table 2-2 RF Parameters

Parameter

Setting

1. Primary master at a hub

2. Secondary master at a hub

3. Master Unit at a repeater site

Application

4. Master unit in a point-to-point link (default)

5. Slave unit at a repeater site

6. Slave unit in a point-to-point link

Burst Mode

Duplex (normal operation) (default) Simplex (special test operation)

System Planning

Table 2-2 RF Parameters (Continued)

Parameter

Setting

PN Code

1 through 8 (default: 1)

Tx Power Level

–4 dBm to 20 dBm (default: 0 dBm)

Alarm Control Parameters

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized alarm control parameters include the following:

• alarm reporting

• alarm level

• 1-hour Errored Seconds (ES) threshold

• 1-hour Unavailable Seconds (UAS) threshold

• 24-hour Errored Seconds (ES) threshold

• 24-hour Unavailable Seconds (UAS) threshold

• receive (Rx) RF power

• transmit (Tx) RF power

Table 2-3 Alarm Queue Control Parameters

Parameter

Setting

Alarm Reporting

Request, Immediate (default)

Alarm Level

Status (default), Advisory, Alarm, Fault

1 HR ES Threshold

1 through 999 (Default: 1)

1 HR UAS Threshold

1 through 99 (Default: 1)

24

HR ES Threshold

1 through 999 (Default: 1)

24

UAS Threshold

1 through 99 (Default: 1)

Rx Power Threshold

–80 to –40 (Default: –75)

Tx Power Threshold

–10 to +20 (default: –6)

Alarm Reporting

This parameter determines whether alarms are displayed as they happen (Immediate) or are held until you query for them (Request). If you do not configure an Alarm Reporting value, the system assumes the default value:

Immediate.

Alarm Level

This parameter sets the severity levels that will be included for reporting alarms: Status, Advisory, Alarm, and Fault. Status messages are the least severe; fault messages the most severe. If you set the alarm level at Status, the system reports all four levels. If you set the alarm level at Fault, the system only reports fault events. If you do not configure an Alarm Level value, the system assumes the default value: Status.

1-Hour Errored Seconds (ES) Threshold

Configuration Parameters

An errored second is defined as any one-second interval during which a CRC- 16 error is detected in the E1 payload. Errored seconds can be asynchronous, that is, they do not have to be correlated with real time. An Errored Seconds (ES) total is maintained in a data base for the previous one hour and the previous 24 hours.

The one-hour ES database is updated once per minute with the errored seconds that have accumulated in the previous one-minute interval. The current one-minute total is added to the database; the oldest one-minute total is removed from the database.

This parameter sets the number of Errored Seconds (ES) events that must occur in a one-hour interval before an entry is inserted in the Alarm queue. The 1-hour ES threshold is compared to the number of errored seconds in the past hour. If the 1-hour ES count is greater than the threshold value, the unit inserts a message in the alarm log.

The 1-hour ES threshold is a number in the range 1 to 999 seconds. If you do not configure a threshold value, the system assumes the default value: 1.

1-Hour Unavailable Seconds (UAS) Threshold

An unavailable second is defined as any one-second interval during which Radio Sync Loss is active.

This parameter sets the number of Unavailable Seconds (UAS) events that must occur in a one-hour interval before an entry is inserted in the Alarm queue. The 1-hour UAS threshold is compared to the number of unavailable seconds in the past hour. If the 1-hour UAS count is greater than the threshold value, the unit inserts a message in the alarm log.

The 1-hour UAS threshold is a number in the range 1 to 99 seconds. If you do not configure a threshold value, the system assumes the default value: 1.

24-Hour Errored Seconds (ES) Threshold

This parameter sets the number of Errored Seconds (ES) events that must occur in a 24-hour interval before an entry is inserted in the Alarm queue. The 24-hour ES threshold is compared to the number of errored seconds in the past 24 hours. If the 24-hour ES count is greater than the threshold value, the unit inserts a message in the alarm log.

The 24-hour ES threshold is a number in the range 1 to 999 seconds. If you do not configure a threshold value, the system assumes the default value: 1.

24-Hour Unavailable Seconds (UAS) Threshold

This parameter sets the number of Unavailable Seconds (UAS) events that must occur in a 24-hour interval before an entry is inserted in the Alarm queue. The 24-hour UAS threshold is compared to the number of unavailable seconds in the past 24 hours. If the 24-hour UAS count is greater than the threshold value, the unit inserts a message in the alarm log.

System Planning

The 24-hour UAS threshold is a number in the range 1 to 99 seconds. If you do not configure a threshold value, the system assumes the default value: 1.

Receive (Rx) Power Threshold

This parameter sets the minimum receive power level before an entry is inserted in the event queue. This threshold should be set approximately 15 dBm below the normal receive power level to allow for occasional fading.

The Rx Power threshold is a number in the range –80 to –40 dBm. If you do not configure a threshold value, the system assumes the default value:–75.

For example, if the receive power level is normally –60 dBm, this threshold should be set at –75 dBm.

Transmit (Tx) Power Threshold

This parameter sets the minimum transmit power level before an entry is inserted in the event queue. This threshold should be set approximately 6 dBm below the normal transmit power level.

The Tx Power threshold is a number in the range –10 to +20 dBm. If you do not configure a threshold value, the system assumes the default value: –6.

Installation and Setup

3

The tasks outlined and explained in this chapter depend upon the system planning information discussed in Chapter 2, System Planning. In particular, this chapter presumes that both the site and route selection process, and the path analysis have been completed, and that the microwave antenna and radio frequency transmission line have been correctly installed.

This chapter discusses briefly the general technical requirements of antenna and RF transmission line installation, but mainly focuses on the task of installing the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system at each end of the communication link, integrating all of the equipment, and performing a system check and alignment before turning the system over to normal customer traffic.

A typical AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system is made up of some or all of the following components:

• AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized and cable

• AirLink mounting hardware and sun shield assembly (optional)

• AirLink Pro E1 Access Unit (optional)

• AirLink Junction Box (optional)

• AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized antenna and antenna cable

Depending upon your system plan, you will be installing all or some of these AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system components at each end of a link. The following sections describe both required and optional system components.

Unpacking

The first step in the installation process is to take all of the materials out of the shipping carton(s) and make sure that you have everything shown on the packing list(s).

Check the materials against your packing list to make sure that you have everything. If something is missing, contact your local distributor. Inspect the unit for any possible damage. If you discover shipping damage, repack the unit and notify the shipping representative.

Installation and Setup

NOTE

Save the shipping cartons and packing materials. You will need the carton and materials if you ever need to ship your equipment elsewhere.

After unpacking and confirming the contents of the shipment, place the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system components on a flat surface that allows enough space to work around them.

Identifying Physical Features

Before you begin installing the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system, take a moment to familiarize yourself with the features of the system components.

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized consists of a weatherproof housing (see Figure 3-1) that contains the electronics for the basic AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized system: the digital module, the RF module, and the power supply.

DIGITAL MODULE RSS TXPWR LOS TEST PWR SYNC SLK RF MODULE POWER CONVERTER OW TERMINAL
DIGITAL
MODULE
RSS
TXPWR
LOS
TEST
PWR
SYNC
SLK
RF
MODULE
POWER
CONVERTER
OW TERMINAL
(Order Wire)
(RJ-11 MODULAR CONNECTIONS)

Figure 3-1 AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized with Optional Sun Shield

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized housing has sun shields mounted on the front and top of the unit, for added protection from the sun. These are part of the weatherproof housing assembly and are not removed.

The AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized has a carrying handle on the top bulkhead and two cable connectors on the bottom bulkhead of the weatherproof housing:

• An N-type connector to connect the radio transmission line from the antenna.

Identifying Physical Features

• A weatherproof connector for the control, data, and power cable that connects the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized with its associated equipment inside a building.

The front cover of the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized is hinged on the left side, and held shut by two screw-type latches on the right side of the housing.

The interior of the AirLink Pro E1 Ruggedized housing contains the RF module, the digital module, a power converter module, and wiring between the modules.

The RF module contains the transmitter and receiver. The digital module contains the status LEDs and two RJ-11 jacks (Terminal and OW).

Table 3-1 lists the LEDs in top-to-bottom order and describes their functions. These LEDs are visible only when the housing door is open.

Table 3-1 Digital Module LEDs

LED Name

Color

Function

Receive Signal Strength. When illuminated, this LED indicates that the receive signal strength has fallen below the configured threshold.

RSS

Red

TXPWR

Red

Transmit Power. When illuminated, this LED indicates that the transmitter output power has fallen below the configured threshold.

LOS

Red

Loss of Signal. When illuminated, this LED indicates that there is no incoming E1 signal from the DTE, or that 175 ± 75 consecutive zeros have been detected.

TEST

Red

Test Active. When illuminated, this LED indicates that the radio unit is performing a loopback or QRSS test, or is set for Simplex mode.

PWR

Green

Power. When illuminated, this LED indicates that power is on.