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CHAPTER 4

Turning Effect of Forces

Q.No.1:
Ans.
Q.No.2:
Ans.

Define parallel forces?


Such forces which are parallel to each other are called parallel forces.
What is head to tail rule?
A graphical method used to find the resultant of two or more forces is called
head to tail rule.
Q.No.3: Differentiate b/w axis of rotation & moment arm?
Ans.
Axis of rotation:
The point about which a body rotates is called axis of rotation.
Moment arm:
The perpendicular distance between the axis of rotation and the line of action of
the force is called the moment arm of the force.
Q.No.4: How would you find the centre of gravity of an irregular shaped thin
lamina?
Ans.
Take an irregular piece of cardboard. Make holes A, B and C as shown in figure
near its edge. Fix a nail on a wall. Support the cardboard on the nail through
one of the holes (let it be A), so that the cardboard can swing freely about A.
The cardboard will come to rest with its centre of gravity just vertically below
the nail. Vertical line from A can be located using a plumbline hung from the
nail. Mark the line on the cardboard behind the plumbline. Repeat it by
supporting the cardboard from hole B. The line from B will intersect at a point
G. Similarly, draw another line from the hole C. Note that this line also passes
through G. It will be found that all the vertical lines from holes A B and C have
a common point G. This Common point G is the centre of gravity of the
cardboard.

Q.No.5:
Ans.
Q.No.6:
Ans.

What is rigid body?


A rigid body is the one that is not deformed by force or forces acting on it.
Define perpendicular components?
If a force is formed from two mutually perpendicular components, then such
components are called its perpendicular components.
Q.No.7: Write down principle of moments?

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Ans.

According to the principle of moments, the sum of clockwise moments acting


on a body in equilibrium is equal to the sum of anticlockwise moments acting
on it.
Q.No.8: Define resolution of forces & its rectangular components?
Ans.
Resolution of forces:
Splitting up a force into two components perpendicular to each other is called
resolution of that force. These components are
Fx = Fcos , Fy = Fsin
Rectangular components:
If a force is formed from two mutually perpendicular components, then such
components are called its perpendicular components.
Q.No.9: What is head to tail rule? Explain with example?
Ans.
A graphical method used to find the resultant of two or more forces is called
head to tail rule.
(i) Place the tail of vector B on the head of vector A.
(ii) Draw a vector from the tail of vector A to the head of vector B, called the
resultant vector.

Q.No.10 If 8N force makes an angle of 450 with x-axis. Represent it graphically?


:
Ans.

Q.No.11 On doubling the moment arm, find its effect on the value of torue?
:
Ans.
Torque is given by =F L
Put L = 2L
=F 2 L
=2( F L)

=2

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If we double moment arm, then torque will also doubled.


Q.No.12 Differentiate b/w line of action of force & moment arm?
:
Ans.
Line of action of force:
The line along which the force acts is called its line of action of force.
Moment arm:
The perpendicular distance between the axis of rotation and the line of action of
the force is called the moment arm of the force.
Q.No.13 A force of 100 N is applied perpendicularly on a spanner at a distance of 10
:
cm from a nut. Find the torque produced by the force.
Ans.
Data:
F = 100N
L= 10 cm =

10
100

m = 0.1m

=?
Formula:
=F L

Solution:

=100 0.1

= 10Nm

Q.No.14 A force F is acting on a body at the angle with x-axis. Write


:
magnitude of horizontal & vertical components of force.
Ans.
Fx = Fcos , Fy = Fsin
Q.No.15 What is resultant force?
:
Ans.
The sum of two or more forces is called the resultant force.
Q.No.16 Define moment? Write its principle?
:
Ans.
Moment:
The turning effect of a force is called its moment.
Principle of moments:
According to the principle of moments, the sum of clockwise moments acting
on a body in equilibrium is equal to the sum of anticlockwise moments acting
on it.
Q.No.17 Define perpendicular components? Write down the formula to find their
:
direction?
Ans.
If a force is formed from two mutually perpendicular components, then such
components are called its perpendicular components.
The direction of force F with x-axis is given by
=

tan

-1

Fy
Fx

( )