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A dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current with

the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators
capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which
many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including
the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, and the rotary
Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation,
for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages
of a mechanical commutator. Also, converting alternating to direct current
using power rectification devices (vacuum tube or more recently solid state)
is effective and usually economic.

Field electromagnet
Fixed electromagnet made up of an iron bar and coils; when exposed to
an excitation current, it creates a magnetic field.
Conductive plates that are insulated from each other and connected to
the field coil; they collect and rectify the induced alternating current.
Cylindrical part that transmits a rotational motion to the dynamos
armature. Frame Metal casing that houses the magnetic field.
Fan wheel

Device with blades that circulates air to cool the dynamo.

Moving part of the dynamo that is made up of a coil, which produces
an electric current as it rotates inside the field.
Conductive wire that is rolled around the armature cylinder, which
rotates in the magnetic field produced by the inductor to create an electric
Conductor that rubs against the commutator plates and transmits the
continuous current produced by the dynamo to an exterior circuit.
Classification of Dynamo
DC Generator
DC Motor
Cycle Converter
DC Generator

1. Frame or Yoke
The yoke serves two purposes. The first one is to provide an outer covering,
i.e. it should provide mechanical support for the motor. The second use is to
provide a path for the magnetic field. Since the field is stationary (caused by
DC) there are is no need to laminate the yoke. It is made from cast iron in

cheap machines or sometimes using fabricated steel to obtain high values of


2. Pole
The poles house the field coils around them.
They also need not be laminated as they carry
stationary field. Poles are usually made from
cast iron for small machines and fabricated
steel for high power machines. The pole shoes
present at the end of poles act as support for
the field coils and spread out the magnetic flux
generated. The pole shoes thereby, reduce the
reluctance of the air gap. This reduces the requirement of field current.

3. Field Coils
The objective of the field coils is to provide the
necessary mmf resulting in flux. Now, mmf is
the product of number of turns and current. To
reduce the current drawn, more number of
turns are normally wound on the pole. The
windings are usually made with copper. By
reducing the currrent, the diameter of wire is
reduced, leading to critical copper saving in the
field coils.

4. Armature core
It is the rotating part of the machine, and is cylindrical in shape. The purpose
of the armature is to rotate the conductors in a uniform magnetic field. The
armature is slotted and these slots house the armature conductors. The

armature conductors are made of copper and are insulated. The field
produced from these conductors is not stationary. Therfore, the armature is
made from silicon steel stampings to reduce the hysteresis and eddy current
losses. There are small key holes present throughout the armature to aid in
proper cooling. The armature conductors are placed in the slots in different
patterns to control the performance of the machine.
5. Armature windings or conductors
The armature windings as previously
specified are made of copper and are
insulated from each other. There are
placed in the slots present in the
armature. The armature windings have
diffferent arrangements leading to a
different performance of the machine.
arrangements are Wave, Lap, Drum,

6. Commutator
The commutator is one of the most
important parts of the DC machine. It
is like a rotating switch placed
between the armature and the
external circuit. It is arranged in such
a way that it will reverse the
connections to the external circuit at
the instant of each reversal of current
in the armature coil. The commutator
current generated in the armature
conductors to a unidirectional current.
Commutator is made using high
conductivity copper segments seperated by thin layers of mica.

7.Brushes and Bearings

The function of the brushes is to collect current from the commutator
segments and supply it to the external load circuit. The brushes are
rectangular in shape and rest on the commutator. Brushes are made from a
variety of materials like carbon, graphite and copper. Copper brushes are
costlier and are used only in machines with very high current ratings. Carbon
is the preferred material for making brushes for the smaller rating machines
Parts and functions of a simple DC motor
A simple DC motor consists of:

Magnetic field
This field envelops the armature and the current within. It is created by
permanent magnets or electromagnets.
The armature is a coil of wire that generally consists of many windings
mounted on a shaft.
The brushes are contacts pressing lightly against the split-ring
commutator. They provide the conducting path for the current from a DC
electrical supply to the commutator.
Split-ring commutator
A current-conducting metal ring with two diametrically opposed gaps
used to reverse the current direction in the armature.
DC current
A current from an electrical DC supply such as a battery.



AC and DC machinery