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Application Guide for English Electric Relays

English Electric had virtual monopoly in the electricl protective relays in India. Even now,
in these times of digital architecture and computer communication with relays, you'll be
surprised to find so many of these old electromechanical relays happily in service. The
sensitivity and reliability of them are legendary, prompting the maintenance engineers
not to part with them. The brand name has changed many times over the years, to GE,
Alstom and now to Areva T&D, but the quality which lies at the base remains rock solid.
Here's an application guide for the relays.
The following tables provide recommended common applications for protection of various
apparatus/systems. Specific application problem not included in the tables may be referred to
the manufacturer. For the sake of completeness, the following tables include some standard
imported relays available with the companys UK associates.

Table 1 - AC Generator Protection


Protection
Differential
Transverse
Differential
Over current

Details
1. Unbiased, with series stabilising
resistor
2. Biased differential
For machine with split phase winding
1. Inverse time

2. Inverse time, voltage controlled


1. Inverse time delay for generator earthed
through a distribution transformer
Stator Earth- 2. For generator earthed through a
fault
resistance or solidly earthed and
generator is connected to the system
via delta-star transformer
Standby Earth- For generator directly connected to
fault
system
Rotor EarthInstantaneous, generally connected for
fault
alarm
To protect against prolonged
asynchronous operation. Used in
Field Failure
conjunction with a timer and an auxiliary
relay
Instantaneous
For over voltage protection of generator
over voltage
Time delayed
over voltage
Negative
phase
sequence
Overload

For over voltage protection of generator


To detect sustained unbalance
condition, relay characteristics to match
machine withstand characteristic
To detect sustained overload of the
machine

Relay Type
CAG 34
FAC 34
DDG 31
CAG 34
FAC 34
CDG 31
CDV 62
VDG 14
CAG 14
CDG 11
VAEM 21
VME
YCGF
VAGM 22
VTIG
VDG 11
VTU
VAU
CDN
CTN
CTU 12
CTLM 11

Reverse
Power

1. Primary protection against motoring


2. Protection of diesel generators
against motoring where motoring power
is relatively high

Backup
distance

To provide backup protection against


uncleared system faults

YCG
15AA+VAA3
1 +VAT or
VTT

Interlock against overspeed

WCD 12

Protection against pole slipping

ZTO 11

To monitor rotor high temperature

DZT 4

Forward under
power interlock
Pole slipping
Rotor
temperature

WCD 11
CCUM
WDG

Table 2 Generator-Transformer
Protection
Differential
Over current
Restricted
earth fault
Standby earth
fault
Overfluxing
Buchholz
Winding
temperature

Details
Biased, for overall phase and earth fault
of the generator and generatortransformer
Inverse time phase and earth fault
protection

Relay Type

For earth fault in transformer winding

CAG 14

For back-up protection

CDG 11

For protection of transformer against over


excitation
Protection against insipient fault in the
transformer
Protection, control and indication

DTH 31/32
CDG 31

GTT
OBGM
TTT &
CTTT

Table 3 Power Transformer Protection


Protection
Differential
Over current

Details
Biased, for phase and earth fault
protection in the transformer winding
1. Non-directional inverse time

Relay Type
DDT
DTH
CDG

2. Directional, inverse time

Backup earth
fault

1. Non-directional inverse time

CDD
CAG 14
FAC 14
CDG 11

2. Directional, inverse time

CDD 21

Buchholz
Time delayed
earth fault

For incipient fault in the transformer


To protect the neutral earthing resistor
and to provide backup protection

OBGM

Temperature

Protection, control and indication

Voltage
regulating
relay and line

For use with ON load tap changers for


automatic regulation of voltage

Restricted
earth fault

For faults in transformer winding

CDG 12
TTT &
CTTT
VTJC&CIJ
C
AVE4 &

drop
compensator
Overfluxing

CAD
For protection against over excitation

GTT

Table 4 Auto Transformer


Protection

Details

Differential

Unbiased, over main winding only

Differential

Biased, over all windings

Over current

Inverse time, phase and earth fault


protection, non-directional or directional

Restricted
earth fault

For earth fault in transformer winding

Buchholz

Protection against
transformer

Winding
temperature
Voltage
regulating
relay and line
drop
compensator
Overfluxing

incipient

faults

in

Relay Type
CAG 34
FAC 34
DTH 31
DTH 32
CDG 31
CDD 21
CAG 14
FAC 14
OBGM

Protection, control and indication

TTT &
CTTT

For use with ON load tap changers for


automatic regulation of voltage

VTJC&CIJ
C
AVE4 &
CAD

For protection against over excitation

GTT

Table 5 Unit Transformer


Protection
Differential
Over current
Restricted
earth fault
Neutral
displacement
Buchholz

Details
Biased, for phase and earth fault
protection in the transformer winding
Inverse time, phase and earth fault
protection without or with high set
For earth fault in transformer winding
For detection of earth fault where low
voltage system is insulated
Protection against incipient faults in
transformer

Relay Type
DDT 32
DTH 31
CDG 61
CDG 31
CAG 14
FAC 14
VDG 14
OBGM