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A RANGE OF STORY AND FACTUAL GENRES

FACTUAL GENRES
STORY GENRES

Recount
Narrative
Spoof

G
E
N
R
E
S

Description
Report
Explanation
News item
Analytical
exposition
Hortatory
Exposition
Discussion
Procedure
Review

1. RECOUNT
A recount is a piece of text that retells past events, usually in the order in which they
happened. The purpose of a recount is to give the audience a description of what
occurred and when it occurred.
SOME EXAMPLES OF RECOUNT TEXT TYPES ARE:
1. PERSONAL RECOUNT
Retelling of an activity that the writer/ speaker has been personally involved in.
a. Diary
b. Letter
c. Biography
d. Autobiography
2. FACTUAL RECOUNT
Recording the particulars of an incident
a. science experiment
b. police report
c. historical account
3. IMAGINATIVE RECOUNT
Taking on an imaginary role and giving details of events
a. Diary
Daily account of what happens in a persons life.
Saturday, 19 August 2006

23:15

This evening my brother and I went to Nurhaliza show. It was a great


performance. I made history. After Nurhaliza sang her last song my brother and I ran up
the stage to see her. She said Hi and shook my hand! Then, she shook my brothers
hand, too. We were very happy. After that, we hurried home to tell papa and mama.
All the way home we talked and talked about her great show and our great
experience shaking my favorite singers hand. She was not only beautiful but also very
kind.
Finally, we arrived home. Then, we told mom and dad. They almost didnt believe
me.
I think I will never forget this in all my life. It was great. A great moment in my
life!
Genr
e

UNSRIS

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-

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What does the writer reveal about his experience?


Where do most of the actions take place?
What is the great experience for the writer?
How is Nurhaliza?
What action of Nurhaliza shows that she is a kind person?

b. Lettter

August 20, 2006


Orientation
Event 1

Event 2
Event 3
Event 4

Reorientation

Dear Grandpa and Grandma,


Yesterday at my school we had International Day. We had
performances, food stalls, displays, raffle ticket draw, and some
of us were dressed in costumes.
We started our day off with performances but the one I
liked best was the one from fourth grade. It was about games.
The performance I was in was called Labamba.
Straight after performance we had our lunch. There were
food stalls. They came from Australia, Asia, Arab, and Greece.
Everyone had a job. I did my job after I had lunch. My job
was to sell international Day books.
We had displays in the hall. The displays were good but I
didnt get to see them. The displays came from a lot of
countries.
There was also a Trash & Treasure stall where they sell
toys. The school got them by asking children to bring them in.
After lunch we had a raffle ticket draw. I didnt win
anything but a lot of people did.
Although I didnt win anything, International Day was still
fun.
Love
Mufti

c. Biography
The story of a persons life written by somebody else.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in 1869. he was a great Indian leader
who played a major role in his countrys struggle for independence from British rule.
In 1893, Gandhi went to South Africa as a lawyer and found that the Indians
living there were treated unfairly. He observed that the Indians in South Africa were
often overlooked when benefits were given out to the inhabitants meaning the
foreign Europeans who settled in or governed South Africa.
While Gandhi was in South Africa, he adopted a few very strict principles which
were to remain with him as part of his character and life. He imposed on himself selfdenial: living a simple, humble life; eating simple vegetarian food; sleeping in simply
furnished homes; and spreading his belief in non-violent resistance, which means
going against injustice without physical fighting or riots.
Gandhi returned to India in 1914. He became the leader of the popular Indian
National Congress, which was continuously seeking independence from Britain.
Although Gandhi argued with the British government in a forceful way and gave them
a lot of trouble, he respected the British people. This respect he had for them became
well-known. As a result, many British men and women understood what Gandhi was
fighting for and they backed him up.
Gandhi mingled with all classes of people he mingled freely with the lower
castes and introduced a system of hygiene to the poorer villages. In 1915, the great
Indian poet, Tagore, called him Mahatma or Great Soul. Since then, he has been
known as Mahatma Gandhi.
d. Autobiography
Genr
e

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-

The story of a persons life written by that person.

e. Historical account

Orientation
Tells the
readers
Who
What happened
Where
When
Sequence of
events
(the events are
represented by
action verbs)
time
conjunction
and connective
Reorientation
(end the story)

f. Factual recount

Genr
e

The Spanish Armada


In May 1588 Spain was the most powerful country in the
world. King Philip II of Spain was determined to conquer
England and became its King. He ordered a large number of
ships to be prepared to set sail and invade England.
At first Queen Elisabeth I ignored the rumors of a Spanish
invasion, but soon she came to realize the great danger the
country was in. And she made sure that England would be
prepared for a battle. Eventually the Spanish were ready and
over 100 ships set sail towards the English Channel.
As soon as the Spanish ships were seen from the English
coast, fires were lit on the hills as a signal that the invasion was
coming. When the Spanish ships got close enough the English
navy closed in and a great sea battle began.
Once the battle began it was obvious to the Spanish that
they would be defeated. Not only did the English sailors have
stronger and more powerful ships, they also made terrifying use
of fire ships. Boats were deliberately set ablaze and then sent
among the Spanish fleet.
At last the battle was over. A few Spanish ships escaped
and eventually reached home, and many were sunk and to
this day some of their wrecks still lie on the seabed in English
Bicycle Ride to the Market
Channel.
Last Sunday, early in the morning, Mufti had a bicycle ride to
the market.
First, he went into the garage to get his bicycle ready for the
ride. Then, he got his bike cleaned up. After that he got on
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saddle and started to pedal along the way to the market. When
- he
came to the market he bought some apples. Finally,
he
rode
back
UNSRIS
home.
He thought it was healthy to cycle around in the morning.

Orientation
Series of
events
Reorientati
on

THE RECOUNT SCAFFOLD


A scaffold is a guide for constructing a piece of text.
ORIENTATION
A first paragraph (introductory paragraph) that gives background
information about who, what, where and when.
SERIES OF EVENTS
A sequence of events in order in which they occurred. (Ordered in
a chronological sequence)
RE-ORIENTATION
A conclusion that may include a personal comment (not always
necessary)
WORDS SHOWING ORDER
first (second, third)
when
at this point
at this moment
afterwards

next
now
lastly
before that
following that

then
soon after
at this time
after a while
meanwhile

2. NARRATIVE
The narrative text type tells a story.
Its purpose it to present a view of the world that entertains or informs the reader of
listener
SOME EXAMPLES OF RECOUNT TEXT TYPES ARE:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Fable
Legend
Myth
Romance
Mystery

f. Adventure
g. Historical fiction
h. Science fiction
i. real-life fiction
j. Fantasy

a. Fable

Genr
e

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-

Orientation
telling who
and when

Complication
that triggers
a series of
events

Series of
events
where the
characters
reacts to the
complication

Resolution in
which the
problem
from
complication
is solved
b. Legend
Reorientation

Orientation
telling who, when
and where
Genr
e

Once there was a Hare who used to laugh scornfully


at a Tortoise because he plodded along so slowly. "You
never can get anywhere with those short legs of yours.
Look at my long legs! They're so swift no one would dare
race me." All the animals of field and forest were tired of
hearing the Hare brag.
At last the Tortoise said, "If we were to run a race,
I'm sure I would beat you." The animals were astonished
for they knew the Tortoise was the slowest of them all,
and the Hare, bursting into loud laughter, cried, "What a
joke! That slowpoke thinks he can beat me! Come on,
Mr. Tortoise, you shall see what my feet are made of. Why
I can beat you before you are even half-started!" You'd
better not be too sure," cautioned the Tortoise
All the big and little animals gathered to watch the
race. At the signal
the Hare leaped forward in a great
bound and soon left the plodding Tortoise far behind him
on the dusty road. Looking back, the Hare could not even
see the Tortoise after a little while.
"Hum-m, I've as good as won this race already," the
thought, "There's really no reason to hurry." So, as the
sun was very warm, he decided to rest a bit under a
shady tree. "I'll come in away ahead of that Tortoise,
anyhow," he told himself.
Soon he was sound asleep.
The little rest stretched into a good long nap.
Meantime, the Tortoise jogged steadily along on the
hot, dusty road, ever so slowly, but surely, and soon he
passed the Hare who was still peacefully sleeping.
Quietly the Tortoise plodded on nearing the goal. When
the Hare finally
woke up with a start, he saw the
MALIN
KUNDANG
Tortoise just reaching the
finish
line
far ahead and he
Long
time
ago,
in
a
small
village
near
the beach in West
could hear all the animals cheering the winner.
Sumatera,
lived
a
woman
and
her
son,
Malin
Boastful and careless, the Hare had Kundang.
lost the race.
Malin Kundang's father had passed away when he was a
Now he would never again be able to count on his speed.
baby, and he had to live hard with his mother. Malin Kundang
Moral
ofhealthy,
the story:
Perseverance
race went to
was a
dilligent,
and strongwins
child.the
He usually
the sea to catch fish, and brought it to his mother, or sold it in
the town.
One day, when Malin Kundang was sailing as usual, he
saw a merchant's ship which was being raided by a small band
of pirates. With his brave and power, Malin Kundang defeated
the pirates. The merchant was so happy and asked Malin
Kundang to sail with him. Malin Kundang agreed. Many years
later, Malin Kundang became a wealthty merchant, with a
huge ship, loads of trading goods, many ship crews, and a
beautiful wife. In his journey, his ship landed on a beach. The
villagers reconigzed him, and the news ran fast in the town:
Malin Kundang became a rich man and now he is here. His
mother, in deepful sadnees after years of loneliness, ran to the
beach to meet her beloved son again.
When the mother came, Malin Kundang, in front of his
well dressed wife, his crews and his own gloriness, denied to
meet that old, poor and dirty woman. For three times she
begged Malin Kundang and for three times yelled at him. At
last Malin Kundang said to her "Enough, old woman! I have
never had a mother like you, a dirty and ugly peasant!" Then
he ordered his crews to set sail.
Enraged, she cursed Malin Kundang that he would turn
into a stone if he didn't apologize. Malin Kundang just laughed
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and set sail.
In the quiet sea, suddenly a thunderstorm
came. His
UNSRIS
huge ship was wrecked and it was too late for Malin Kundang
to apologize. He was thrown by the wave out of his ship, fell
on a small island, and suddenly turned into stone.

Evaluation

Complication
that triggers a
series of events

Series of
events
where the
characters
reacts to the
complicatio
n
Resolution in
which the
problem
from
complication
is solved

No
Genre
.
1. PROCEDURE

Genr
e

Social Function
to describe how
something is

Text Organization

Goal
Materials

Language Features

imperative
simple

UNSRIS

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-

accomplished
through a sequence
of action or steps

Steps
(Instructions)

present

2.

RECOUNTS

To retell events for


the purpose of
informing and
entertaining

Orientation
Event (1, 2, 3
.)

Re-orientation

3.

SPOOF

to retell an event
with a humorous
twist

Orientation
Events (1, 2, 3
.)

Twist

4.

REPORT
(Information
report)

to describe the way


things are, with
reference to a range
of natural, manmade and social
phenomena in our
environment

General
Classification

Description

part

qualitie
s

habit/b
ehavior

Genr
e

material
processes (action
verbs)
temporal
sequences (gambit :
action in order)
adverbial
phrases of time and
place
numbering to
indicate sequence
noun
pronoun
material
processes (action
verbs)
adverbial
phrases of time and
place
past tense
(simple past, past
continuous, past
perfect)
adverbs of
manner, place, time
adjectives
temporal
sequences (gambit :
telling a story)
noun
pronoun
material
processes (action
verbs)
adverbial
phrases of time and
place
past tense
(simple pat, past
continuous, past
perfect)
adjectives
adverb of
manner, place, time
temporal
sequences (gambit :
telling a story)
noun
relational
processes (relating
verbs: attributive and
identifying)
simple
present
technical
verbs/terms
material
processes (action
verbs)

UNSRIS

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-

No
Genre
.
5. NARRATIVE

Social Function
to amuse, entertain
and to deal with
actual or vicarious
experience in
different ways

Text Organization

Orientation
Complication
Resolution
Re-orientation

Language Features

6.

NEWS ITEMS

to inform readers,
listeners or viewers
about events of the
day which are
considered
newsworthy or
important

Newsworthy
event

Background
event

Sources

Genr
e

topic
sentences
theme and
rhyme
indefinite
pronoun (some, each,
most .)

noun
pronoun
past tense
(simple past, past
continuous, past
perfect)
adverbs of
manner, place, time
adjectives
temporal
sequence (gambit :
telling a story)
adverbial
phrases of time and
place
material
processes (action
verbs)
verbal
processes (saying
verbs)
mental
processes (thinking
verbs)
directindirect speech
information
about headline
material
processes (action
verbs)
verbal
processes (saying
verbs)
adverbial
phrases of time and

UNSRIS

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-

place

7.

DESCRIPTIO
N

to describe particular
person, place or
thing

Identification
Description

part

qualitie
s

charact
eristics

8.

ANALYTICAL
EXPOSITION

to persuade the
readers or listeners
that something is the
case.

Thesis
Arguments (1,
2, 3 .)

Reiteration

Genr
e

directindirect speech
(projecting verbal
processes)
noun
simple
present
epithets
(adjectives:
describing,
numbering,
classifying)
relational
processes (relating
verbs: attributive and
identifying)
material
processes (action
verbs)
mental
processes (thinking
verbs)
adverbial
phrases of time and
place
simile and
metaphorical
language
general noun
abstract
noun
technical
verbs/terms
topic
sentences
material
processes (action
verbs)
topic
sentence
theme and
rhyme
mental
processes (thinking
verbs)
relational
processes (relating
verbs)
modal verbs
modal
adverbs
connectives
evaluative
language
emotive
language

UNSRIS

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-

No
Genre
.
9. HORTATORY
EXPOSITION

Social Function
to persuade the
readers or listeners
that something
should/should not be
the case

Text Organization

Thesis
Arguments
(1, 2, 3 .)

Recommend
ation

Language Features

10
.

EXPLANATIO
N

to explain the
process involved in
the formation of
working of natural or
socio-cultural
phenomena

General
statement

Sequenced
explanation (1,
2, 3 .)

11
.

DISCUSSION

to present (at least)


two points of views
about an issue

Issue
Arguments
for point

Arguments
against point

conclusion

Genr
e

general noun
abstract noun
technical
verbs/terms
material
processes (action
verbs)
topic
sentences
theme and
rhyme
mental
processes (thinking
verbs)
relational
processes (relating
verbs)
modal verbs
modal
adverbs
connectives
evaluative
language
emotive
language
general noun
abstract noun
technical
verbs/terms
material
processes (action
verbs)
simple
present
temporal
conjunction
causal
conjunction
causal
circumstance
causal verbs
adverb
phrases
complex
sentences
noun phrase
passive voice
theme and
rhyme
general noun
abstract noun
technical
verbs/terms
material
processes (action
verbs)
simple

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-

present

No
Genre
.
12 REVIEW
.

Social Function
to critique an art
work or event for a
public audience

Text Organization

Orientation
Interpretativ
e recount

Evaluation

Evaluative
summation

Language Features

Genr
e

temporal
conjunction
causal
conjunction
causal
circumstance
causal verbs
adverb
phrases
complex
sentences
noun phrase
theme and
rhyme
comparative
conjunction
contrastive
conjunction
consequentia
l conjunction
modal verbs
modal
adverbs
connectives
evaluative
language
emotive
language

attitudinal
epithet (adjective of
appraisals)
affective
mental processes
qualitative
attribute
elaborating
clause
extending
clause
metaphorical
language
present tense
(simple present,
present perfect)

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-

To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining


Earthquake

Generic Structure

Orientation

I was driving along the coast road when the


car suddenly lurched to one side.

Event 1

At first I thought a tire had gone but then I


saw
telegraph
poles
collapsing
like
matchsticks.

Event 2

The rock came tumbling across the road and I


had to abandon the car.

Event 3

When I got back to town, well, as I said,


there wasnt much left.

Generic (Schematic) Structure

Orientation

: provides the setting and introduces participants

Event

: tell what happened, in what sequence

Re-orientation : optional closure of events

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features

Focus on specific participants


use of past tense
circumstances of time and place
use of material process

Generic Structure
Orientation

Penguin in the park

Once a man was walking in a park when he came across


a penguin.

Event 1
He took
To retell an event with a humorous
twisthim to a policeman and said, I have just
found this penguin. What should I do? The policeman
replied, Take him to the zoo.
Event 2

Genr
e
Twist

The next day the policeman saw the same man in the
same park and the man was still carrying the penguin
with him. The policeman was rather surprised and
walked up to the man and asked, Why are you still
carrying that penguin about? Didnt you take it to the
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zoo? I certainly did, replied the man

UNSRIS
and it was a great idea because he really enjoyed it,
so today Im taking him to the movies!

Generic (Schematic) Structure

Orientation

: sets the scene

Event (s)

: tell what happened

Twist

: provides the punch line

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features

Focus on individual Participants


Use of Material Processes
circumstances of time and place
Use of past tense

Generic Structure
Orientation

Snow White

Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White.
She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead.
One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving
Major
Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to
Complication
America and they didnt have enough money to take Snow White.
Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she
Resolution
decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran
away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast.
She ran away into the woods.
She was very tired and hungry.
Complication
Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one
Resolution
answered so she went inside and fell asleep.
To amuse, entertain
and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in
Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work.
different
Complicationways; Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to a
They
inside
. There
they
found finds
Snow a
White
sleeping. Then
crisis or turning point
of went
some
kind,
which
in turn
resolution.
Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, What
is your name? Snow White said, My name is Snow White.
Doc said, if you wish, you may live here with us. Snow White
Major
said, Oh could? Thank you. Then Snow White told the dwarfs
the
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resolution
Genr
whole story and Snow White and the seven dwarfs lived happily
e

UNSRIS
ever after

Generic Structure

Orientation

: sets the scene and introduces the participant

Evaluation

: a stepping back to evaluate the plight

Complication : a crisis arises


Resolution

: the crisis is resolved, for better of for worse

Re-orientation : optional

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features

Focus on Specific and usually individualized Participants


Use of Material Processes, Behavioral and verbal Processes
Use of Relational Processes and Mental Processes
Use of temporal conjunctions and temporal circumstances
Use of past tense

Genr
e

UNSRIS

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-

To describe the way things are, with reference to a range of natural,


man-made and social phenomena in our environment
Generic Structure
General
Classification
Description

Parts
Qualities
Habits or behaviors
(if living);
uses (if
non-natural

Whales
Whales are sea-living mammals.
They therefore breathe air but cannot survive on
land. Some species are very large indeed and the blue whale,
which can exceed 30m in length, is the largest animal to have
lived on earth. Superficially, the whale looks rather like a
fish, but there are important differences in its external
structure; its tail consists of a pair of broad, flat horizontal
paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has single nostril
on top of its large, broad head. The skin is smooth and shiny
and beneath it lies a layer of fat (blubber). This is up to
30cm in thickness and serves to conserve heat and body
fluids

Generic (Schematic) Structure

General Classification : tells what the phenomenon under discussion is


Description

: tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in

terms of
parts (and their function)
qualities
habits/behavior or uses if non-natural
Significant Lexicogrammatical Features

Focus on Generic Participants (group of things)


Use of simple present tense
No temporal sequence
Use of Relational Processes to state what is and that which it is

Genr
e

UNSRIS

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-

To describe a particular person, place or thing


Generic Structure
Identification
Description

Natural Bridge National Park

Natural Bridge National Park is luscious tropical


rainforest.
It is located 110 kilometers south of Brisbane and is
reached by following the Pacific Highway to Nerang and then
by traveling through the Numimbah Valley. This scenic
roadway lies in the shadow of the Lamington National Park.
The phenomenon of the rock formed into a natural
arch and the cave through which a waterfall cascades is a
short one-kilometer walk below a dense rainforest canopy
from the main picnic area. Swimming is permitted in the rock
pools. Night-time visitors to the cave will discover the unique
feature of the glow worms.
Picnic areas offer toilets, barbeque, shelter sheds,
water and fireplaces; however, overnight camping is not
permitted.

Generic Structure

Identification
Description

: identifies phenomenon to be described


: describes part, qualities, characteristics

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features

Focus on specific Participant


Use of attributes and identifying Processes
Frequent use of Epithets and Classifiers in nominal groups
Use of simple present tense

Genr
e

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-

To describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of


actions or steps
Generic Structure
Materials
needed

Steps 1-n
1
2
3
4
5
6

The Hole Game


two players
one marble per person
a hole in ground
a line (distance) to start from
First you must dub (click marble together)
Then you must check that the marble are in good
condition and are nearly worth the same value.
Next you must dig a hole in the ground and draw a line a
fair distance away from the hole.
The first player carefully throws his or her marble
towards the hole.
Then the second player tries to throw his or her marble
closer to the hole than his or her opponent.
The player whose marble is closest to the hole tries to
flick his or her marble into the hole. If successful, this player
tries to flick his or her opponents marble into the hole.
The person flicking the last marble into the hole wins and
gets to keep both marble.

Generic (Schematic) Structure

Goal
Material (not required for all Procedural texts)
Steps 1-n (i.e. Goal followed by a series of steps oriented to achieving the goal

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features

Focus on generalized human agents


Use of simple present tense (plus sometimes imperative)
Use mainly of temporal conjunctions (or numbering to indicate sequence)
Use of mainly Material Processes

Genr
e

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-

To explain the processes involved in the formation or workings of


natural or socio-cultural phenomena
Generic Structure
General Statement to
position the reader
Explanation

Explanation

Explanation

A Brief Summary of Speech Production


Speech production is made possible by the specialized
movements of our vocal organs that generate speech sounds
waves.
Like all sound production, speech production requires a
source of energy. The source of energy for speech
production is the steady stream of air that comes from the
lungs as we exhale. When we breathe normally, the air
stream is inaudible. To became audible, the air stream must
vibrate rapidly. The vocal cords cause the air stream to
vibrate.
As we talk, the vocals cord open and close rapidly,
chopping up the steady air stream onto a series of puffs.
These puffs are heard as a buzz. But this buzz is still not
speech.
To produce speech sounds, the vocal tract must change
shape. During speech we continually alter the shape of the
vocal tract by moving the tongue and lips, etc. These
movement change the acoustic properties of the vocal tract,
which in turn produce the different sound of speech

Generic Structure

A General statement to position the reader


A sequenced explanation of why or how some thing occurs

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features

Focus on generic, non human Participants


Use mainly of Material and Relational Processes
Use mainly of temporal and causal Circumstances and conjunction
Use of simple present tense
Genr
e

UNSRIS

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-

Some use of Passive Voice to get theme right

To persuade the reader or listener that something is the case


Generic structure
Thesis: Position

Argument 1
Point
Elaboration
Argument 2
Point
Elaboration
Argument 3
Point
Elaboration
Conclusion

In Australia there are three levels of government, the


federal government, state government and local
government. All of these levels of government are
necessary. This is so for a number of reasons.
First, the federal government is necessary for the big
things.
They keep the economy in order and look after things
like defense.
Similarly, the state government look after the middle
sized things.
For example they look after law and order, preventing
things like vandalism in school.
Finally, local government looks after the small things.
They look after things like collecting rubbish,
otherwise everyone would have diseases.
Thus, for the reasons above we can conclude that the
three levels of government are necessary.

Generic (Schematic) Structure

Thesis
Position : introduces topic and indicates writers position
Preview : outlines the main arguments to be presented

Arguments
Position
: restates main argument outlined in preview
Elaboration : develops and support each point/argument

Reiteration: restate writers position

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features

Focus on generic human and non-human Participants


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Use of simple present tense


Use of relational Processes
Use of internal conjunction to stage argument
Reasoning through Causal Conjunction or Nominalization

To persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not


be the case.
Country Concern

Generic Structure
Thesis

In all the discussion over the removal of lead fro petrol


(and the atmosphere) there doesnt seem to have been any
mention of the difference between driving in the city and the
country.
While I realize my leaded petrol car is polluting the air
wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the
country, where you only see another car every five to ten
minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is
concentrated on city roads.
Those who want to penalize older, leaded petrol vehicles
and their owners dont seem to appreciate that, in the
country, there is no public transport to fall back upon and
ones own vehicle is the only way to get about.
I feel that country people, who often have to travel
huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a
great deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently
to the people who life in the city.

Argument

Argument

Recommendation

Generic Structure

Thesis

: announcement of issue of concern

Argument

: reason for concern, leading to recommendation

Recommendation

: statement of what ought or ought not to happen

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features

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Focus on generic human and non-human Participants, except for speaker


or writer referring about issue

Use of
> Mental Processes

: to state what writer thinks or feel about issue


E.g. realize, feel, and appreciate
> Material Processes : to state what happens
E.g. is polluting, drive, travel, should be treated
> Relational Processes
: to state what is or should be
e.g. doesnt seem to have been

Use of simple present tense

To present (at least) two point of view about an issue.


Generic Structure
Issue

Argument for

Point
Elaboration
Point
Elaboration

Argument Against

Point
Elaboration
Conclusion

Gene Splicing
Genetic research has produced both exciting and
frightening possibilities. Scientists are now able to create new
forms of life in the laboratory due to the development of gene
splicing.
One of the hand, the ability to create life in the laboratory
could greatly benefit mankind.
For example, because it is very expensive to obtain insulin
from natural sources, scientists have developed a method to
manufacture it in expensively in the laboratory.
Another beneficial application of gene splicing is in
agriculture
Scientists foresee the day when new plants will be developed
using nitrogen from the air instead of from fertilizer. Therefore
food production could be increased. In addition, entirely new
plants could be developed to feed the worlds hungry people.
Not everyone is excited about gene splicing, however. Some
people feel that it could have terrible consequences.
A laboratory accident, for example, might cause an epidemic
of an unknown that could wipe out humanity.
As a result of this controversy, the government has made
rules to control genetic experiment. While some members of the
scientific community feel that these rules are too strict, many
other people feel that they are still not strict enough.

Generic Structure
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Issue > statement


> Preview
Arguments for and against or statements of differing point of view
> Point
> Elaboration
Conclusion or Recommendations
Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
Focus on generic human and generic non-human Participants
Use of
> Material Processes e.g. has produced, to feed
> Relational Processes e.g. is could have, cause, are
> Mental Processes e.g. feel
Use of Comparative : contrastive and Consequential conjunctions
Reasoning expressed as verb and nouns (abstraction) not that Discussions are like
Exposition in many ways except that Discussion consider at least two sides of an
issue, not just one

To critique an art work or event for a public audience Such works of art
include movies, TV shows, books, plays, operas, recordings, exhibitions,
concerts and ballets
Generic structure
Orientation

Evaluation

Evaluation

Interpretative
Recount

Evaluation

Evaluation

Evaluative summation
Genr
e

Private Lives Sparkle

Since the first production of Private lives in 1930, with


theatres two leading sophisticates Noel Coward and Gertrude
Lawrence in the leads, the play has tended to be seen as a
vehicle for stars.
QUT Academy of the Arts production boasted no stars,
but certainly fielded potential stars in a sparkling performance
that brought out just how fine a piece of craftsmanship
Cowards play is.
More than 60 years later, what new could be deduced from
so familiar a theme?
Director Rod Wisslers highly perceptive approach went
beyond the glittery surface of witty banter to the darker
implications beneath.
With the shifting of attitudes to social values, it became
clear that Victor and Sibyl were potentially the more admirable
of the couples, with standards better adjusted than the
volatile and self-indulgent Elyot and Amanda.
The wit was there, dexterously ping-ponged to and fro by a
vibrant Amanda (Catherine Jones) and a suave Elyot (Daniel
Kealy).
Julie Eckersleys Sybil was a delightful creation, and Philip
Cameron-Smiths more serious playing was just right for Victor.
Jodie Levesconte was a superb French maid. James Macleans
set captured the Thirties atmosphere with many subtle
touches.
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All involved deserve the highest praise.
UNSRIS

Generic Structure

Orientation:
Places the work in its general and particular context, often by comparing it with
others of its kind or through analogue with a non-art object or event.

Interpretative Recount:
Summaries the plot and/or provides an account of how the reviewed rendition of
the work came into being: is optional, but if present, often recursive

Evaluation:
Provides an evaluation of the work and/or its performance or production; is
usually recursive

Evaluative Summation:

Provides a kind of punch line which sums up the reviewers opinion of the art
event as a whole; is optional
The orientation is typically provided by the reviewer while interpretative recounts
and Evaluations can be provided by the reviewer, and optionally a source (that is,
someone who participated in the creation and/or performance of the work).
The Evaluative Summation is provided by the reviewer
Significant Lexicogrammatical Features

Focus on Particular Participants


Direct expression of opinions through use of attitudinal text (value-laden)
including : Attitudinal epithets in nominal groups : qualitative Attributes and
Affective Mental Processes

Use of elaborating and extending clause and group complexes to package the
information

Use of metaphorical language (e.g. The wit was there, dexterously ping ponged
to and fro .)

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To inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day are


considered newsworthy or important
Generic Structure
Newsworthy Event

Background Events

Sources

Town Contaminated

Moscow-A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of


another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and
contaminated an entire town.
Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to
people who witnessed the explosion a nuclear submarine at the
naval base of Shkotovo-22 near Vladivostoc.
The accident, which occurred 13 month before the
Chernobyl disaster, spread radio active fall-out over the base
and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the then
Soviet union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor
of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a
thermal and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the
clean-up operation to remove more than 600 tons of
contaminated material were sworn to secrecy
A board of investigators was later to describe it as the
worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.

Generic Structure

Newsworthy Event(s) : recounts the event in summary form

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e

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Background Event :

elaborate

what

comments

by

happened,

to

whom,

in

what

circumstances

Sources

participant

in,

witnesses

to

and

authorities expert on the event


Significant Lexicogrammatical Features

Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline


Use of Material Processes to retell the event
Use of projecting verbal Processes in Sources stage
Focus on Circumstances

Genr
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