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The Second Intifada and the "Day of Wrath": Safar al-awl and His Anti-Semitic Reading of

Biblical Prophecy
Author(s): Stefan Reichmuth
Source: Die Welt des Islams, New Series, Vol. 46, Issue 3, Anti-Semitism in the Arab World (2006
), pp. 331-351
Published by: BRILL
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THE SECOND INTIFADA AND THE "DAY OF WRATH":


SAFAR AL-HAW?L? AND HIS ANTI-SEMITIC READING OF
BIBLICAL PROPHECY
BY
STEFAN REICHMUTH
Bochum1

in W.

"Put on

your

Shakespeare,
seat belts

is method

yet there
Hamlet

this be madness,

"Though
Polonius

and

for an

prepare

in't"

action-packed

thrill

apocalyptic

er!"

Internet blurb for Blood Moon, an Apocalyptic Novel by Hal Lindsey


to

referred

of the authors

by al-Haw?l?),

(one

http://armageddonbooks.com/hal.html

(3 September 06)
Abstract
after

Few months
one

the most

of

Arabia,

published

and

prominent
his book

Safar
Intifada,
Islamic
scholars

of the al-Aqsa
controversial

the outbreak
Yawm

"The

al-gadab,

al-Haw?l?,
of Saudi

of Wrath",

Day

which

has enjoyed a wide readership both for itsArabic and English versions
in the

internet.

Engaging

literature,
apocalyptical
cal
predict
prophecies
book
claims
The
that,
tions

of

Safar

al-Haw?l?'s

the

violent

the biblical

fers
tions

against
from
quotes

of Christian

quite
of
end

to the

that

contrary,
they
state and
its allies.

over
can

be

the biblical

Prophets,

language

testify

in theMiddle

29 September,

are

which

to a new

2000/29

Jumada

its neighbours.
as indica
read
analyses
even
trans

which
His

orchestrated

East.

Jewish
the bibli

article

The

of the Bible
reading
to the Palestinians.
of return
the U.S.A.,

and

that

view

close

promises
Israel
and

Friday,

wave

current

the widespread
challenges
of the Israel
the final victory

unusually

tion of political
On

the

with

he

fierce
with

stage

of

the

II, 1421,

accusa
extensive
sacralisa

the eve

Wild
his

Ende and Stefan


I am grateful to Gudrun
Flores, Werner
Kr?mer, Alexander
for
and also to Bj?rn Bentlage
comments
and suggestions,
for their valuable
internet sources of this article.
the
Arabic
with
technical
help

? Koninklijke
Also available

Brill NV, Leiden,


online?www.brill.nl

2006

Die

Welt des Islams

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46,

332

STEFAN

REICHMUTH

of the Jewish New Year 5761, a bloody confrontation


developed
after Friday prayer, between
the Haram
al-sar?f in Jerusalem
in the prayer and the Israeli police. Several Pal
the participants

on

estinians were

and many others wounded.


in the following days in most

killed

strations erupted
villages of the West

Bank

of the Second

ginning

Violent

was the be
Strip. This
violent protests had been
of the Likud Party, Ariel Sharon,

the Gaza

and

Intifada.

The

sparked by the visit of the head


on the Temple Mount which he had undertaken
under

demon

of the towns and

massive

with a group of
on the
protection

other

Likud

it did

into a period of growing tensions between


Israelis
after the failure of the Camp David negotiations

police
politicians
The visit was regarded as a provo
preceding
day, 28 September.
and international observers, falling as
cation by both Palestinian
and Pal

estinians

(11-25
of bilateral talks (19 September).
July) and the suspension
Nego
of the unresolved
of
tiations had failed mainly because
question
The
and the Temple Mount.
future sovereignty over Jerusalem
over the area, as sug
offer of a limited Palestinian
sovereignty
and the incumbent
Israeli Prime
gested by the U.S. delegation

Minister

Ehud

camp

gious

in

Barak,
Israel.

had

enraged

Sharon's

visit

the Likud

was

Party and

generally

seen

the reli

as

an

ex

of support for lasting Israeli control over the Temple


pression
as a site sacred to Judaism, and as a move
to increase his
Mount
Jew
popularity during the imminent elections. The approaching
eve added
to its symbolic meaning.2
ish New Year's
protest was increasingly expressed
Among Palestinian Muslims,

to a growing
in religious
terms, contributing
on
the subsequent
both sides. Already
Friday

radicalisation

(6 October/7

on

Ra

Salim Tamari,
of the Second
the beginnings
Intifada, see Rema Hammami,
of Another
MEEIP
2000
Rebellion",
(http://www.meup.
Report 217, Winter
L.
(20. 9. 06); also in Joel Beinin, Rebecca
org/mer/mer217/217_hammami-tamari.html
Stein (eds.), The Struggle for Sovereignty. Palestine and Israel, 1993-2005;
Stanford, CA:
Inti
The second Palestinian
Stanford University
Press, 2006, 263-281; Ramzy Baroud,
On

"Anatomy

s
a chronicle
a
Pluto Press, 2006;
of people
struggle, London:
can be found
the
Institute
of
Palestine
Studies
compiled
by

fada:

a detailed
under

chronology
fields.

"Killing

of the second
Intifada",
http://www.leksikon.org/killingfields/
by day chronology
describes
the be
(03.12.05)
(20.09.06);
www.aijac.org.au/updates/Oct-00/121000.html
an Israeli
point of view.
ginnings of the Intifada from

Day

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THE

SECOND

AND

INTIFADA

"THE

OF WRATH"

DAY

333

called for a "Day of Anger"


jab), Hamas
(yawm al-gadab), which
led to fresh riots in Old Jerusalem after Friday prayers.3 The "Day
of Anger" was repeated over the following months
and became
as
an
for violent rallies of protest against
established
occasion
the massive

use

of military force by the Israeli army and police


Bank and Gaza. These
rallies gradually
led to
armed resistance and finally to the suicide attacks on Israeli mil
and soon
itary and civilian targets which began on 26 October
came to dominate
the public image of the Second
Intifada.
all over

The

the West

"Day

of

Anger"

comes

out

as

remarkable

phrase,

saturat

ed with religious connotations.


It seems to fuse the expression of
a
to God's
reference
anger with
anger and wrath, as it
popular
ismentioned
in the Qur'?n
and in the Hadit.4 At the same time
as an allusion
to a biblical expression. The
it can be understood
occurs
of
Wrath"
with several variants as
(Hebr. y?m evr?h)
"Day

a term for the day of divine judgement


or punishment
in the
the Proverbs and some of the Prophets
(Ezekiel, Zeph
announces
in particular
the "Day of God's
aniah).5
Zephaniah
as the imminent judgement
Wrath"
out by
which will be meted
Psalms,

to Judah and the whole world, "a day of distress and hard
a
and ruin, a day of darkness and gloom,
ship,
day of devastation
a day of clouds and dark skies, a
day of trumpet blasts and battle
cries". Punishment will fall upon
the towns and countries which

God

sinned against the Lord. This is followed by a prophecy on


to the humbled
the restoration of Jerusalem
and purified rem
nant of Israel, and on the in
return of the dis
and
gathering
servants
of
The
God.6
of the term
persed
apocalyptic
colouring
have

3
Described
um Jerusalem.
Friedensprozesses",

in an article written
Eine

Einheitsfront
Jungle World

from Ramallah
aller

42,

periodika/jungle_world/J2000/42/21.html,
4
as "God's wrath"
In the Qur'?n

Islamisten

11 October

by Arian Fariborz,
freut sich ?ber
2000

?Die Schlacht
des
das Ende

(http://www.nadir.org/nadir/

29.11.2005).

or "by a wrath from God"


(gadaba ll?hi, Q 23:9)
(bi-gadabin mini ll?hi, Q 2:61, 3: 112, 8:16, and others), or even "My wrath"
(gadabi,
see A. J.Wensinck
for similar references
in the Hadtt,
et al., Concordance
et
Q 20:81);
indices de la Tradition Musulmane,
Leiden:
Brill, 1936-1988,
IV, 524ff. (gadabun).
5
Psalm 110:5; Proverbs
1:15.
11:4; Ezekiel 7:19; Zephaniah
6
2:3.
Zephaniah

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334

STEFAN

illustrated

is further
in the Book

REICHMUTH

a passage
in Daniel7
and another one
where on the
of the New Testament,
events of the
the
of
dramatic
Christ)
(i.e.,

by
of Revelation8

"Day of His Wrath"


end of the world will unfold.

The

dies irae of the Latin

to go back to these texts.9


to belong
does not appear
of
Wrath"
The
"Day
tradition. It will be hard to prove
ic apocalyptical

Catholic

seems

tradition

to the Islam
that the Pal

initiators of the protest rallies had biblical connotations


But evoking religious motifs and symbols of both Jew
ish and Christian origins certainly has a long tradition in modern

estinian

in mind.

poetry and literature.10 Palestinian


political organisa
tions equally did not hesitate to marshal biblical texts and images

Palestinian

the issues of the holy

when
were

at

stake.

til then had

The

hardly

Islamic

sites or of Palestinian

organisations,

ever done

on

the

national

other

unity

hand,

un

so.

of the term was highlighted


dimension
by the
apocalyptic
in a book on the Intifada
Saudi
Islamic scholar Safar al-Haw?li
in late 2000 or early
and its significance, which he published
soon
and
was
into
both Arabic
and
It
translated
2001.
English,
to
be distributed by different internet sites
English versions began
The

11 September
2001. Its title already indicates a claim to
the eschatological
significance of the Intifada: "The Day
An exegeti
Is the Raj ab Intifada only the Beginning?
of Wrath.

before

unravel

the end of
of the Bible concerning
cal reading of the prophecies
bada3a bi-intif?dat Rajab ?!
the State of Israel" (Yawm al-gadab. Hal
tafslriyya li-nubu?t al-tawr?t can n?h?yat dawlat Isral?)}1

Qiraa

7
8
9

The

8:19, "in the last time ofwrath".


6:17.
Revelation
Daniel

inJudaism, Christianity and Islam,


For a general overview of apocalyptic
concepts
in RGG (Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Hand
the article "Apokalyptik"
4th ed., T?bingen:
Mohr,
1998, vol.
w?rterbuchf?r Theologie und Religionswissenschaft),
see, e.g.,

vol. 1,
in Encyclopaedia
Frederik Leemhuis,
1, 590-602;
of the Qur?n,
"Apocalypse",
111-114, with further references.
io
see
und Is
por Palestinian
poetry,
"Judentum, Christentum
notably Stefan Wild,
lam in der pal?stinensischen
Poesie", WI, 23-24, 1984, 259-297.
11
Arabic version available on the website which contains Safar al-Haw?l?'s writings,
Also on al-Haw?l?'s
30 August,
2006).
(last checked
http://saaid.net/warathah/safar
titled The Day ofWrath. Is the Intifadha
version
Arabic website,
(22.9.2006).
English
13 September,
2001 from a well-known
ofRajah only theBeginning?, first downloaded

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THE

INTIFADA

SECOND

AND

"THE

DAY

OF WRATH"

335

cover page of the Arabic version shows an American


flag with an
attached Star of David, whose staff breaks under a shower of fist
shaped stones hurled against it.

writings

is at present one of the most prominent and contro


scholars in Saudi Arabia who through his polemical
against other Islamic currents as well as against Judaism,

himself

calls the Islamic

The

author

versial Salafi

Christianity and western secularism, and even more


through his
the
of
of
the
Saudi
government,
critique
pro-American
politicies
exerted a strong influence on Us?ma Bin L?din and on what he
b.

cAbd al-Rahm?n

of south western

(sahwa) in his country. Safar


"awakening"
al-Haw?l?12 (b. ca. 1950 in the G?mid
region
Saudi Arabia) was professor of kal?m and dean

of the Faculty of Islamic Studies at the Umm al-Qur? Universi


He was dismissed
and arrested together with other
ty in Mecca.
scholars

in 1994, after they had sharply criticized


un
for
government
allying itself with "the American
believers"
and allowing
them to establish a military base in the
to
country. He was released after five years in 1999 and allowed
the Saudi

and preachers

Islamic militant

still available,
e.g. under
http://www.islam,
English web site http://www.alhawali.com/
and also under http://'www.as-sahwah.com/
to be
(22 September
2006). A printed edition remains
of its content was given by Victor and Victoria Trimondi,

website, www.azzam.com;
com/books/0_preface.htm, under al-Haw?l?'s
1 September
en/ (both last checked
2006),
viewarticle.php?articleID=9088c
identified. A first overview

W.
Krieg der Religionen. Politik, Glaube und Terror im Zeichen der Apokalypse, M?nchen:
Fink, 2006, 393-408.
12
on him and access
to many of his works, see
For information
the
especially
Saudi web site already mentioned
which includes
above, http//saaid.net/waratha/safar,
a
note by one of his students, Hadir
S?lih Sanad, written after al-Haw?l?
long personal
was

because
of a stroke in 2005
hospitalized
(http//saaid.net/waratha/safar/02.htm).
For his role in Saudi politics since the 1990's, see the overviews by Guido
Steinberg,
"Islamistische
in Saudiarabien.
Eine Spurensuche
im Lande Usama
Bin
Opposition

Ladins",

ami. Antimilitarismus-Information,

31.Jg., Heft

10, October2001,

94-106

(www.

antimilitarismus-information.de/ami_homepage/ami_archiv/2001/10-01/pdf/0-01/8-saudi
recent but also more
and more
29 August,
sensationalist,
2006),
neu-10-01.pdf,
even found
A
393ff.
der
Trimondi,
one-page
entry on al-Haw?l?
Krieg
Religionen,

by
its

2005,
(29 November
way into Wikipedia
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safar_al-Hawali)
last modified
the interest of Ameri
01:18, 17 November,
2005). He has also roused
can "counterterrorism
cf. Erick Stakelbeck,
"The Saudi Hate Machine",
In
research";
theNational
19, 2003 (http://frontpagemag.com/Articles/Printable.asp?
Interest, December
"Saudi Double
29 November
Talk", In theNational
ID=11388,
Interest, August
2005);
Issue31 /Vol3Issue31 Stakelbeck,
4, 2004 (http://www.inthenationalinterest.com/Articles/Vol3
see the
below.
html) (29 November
2005). For a list of his publications,
appendix

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336

STEFAN

resume
2005. His
and

REICHMUTH

with interruptions
until
teaching which he continued
influence on the younger generation
of Saudi scholars

academicians

has been

referred

to him

and Us?ma
considerable,
in his declarations.
After

bin L?din

11 Septem
repeatedly
in other political activities, publish
ber 2001, al-Haw?l? engaged
an open letter to the U.S. president and
a response
ing
initiating
to the declaration
"What we're fighting for", which had been is
intellectuals under
sued by 60 American
stitute of American
Values
and addressed

world.13 He

also

commented

upon
to have founded

the auspices
of the In
to
the
Muslim
mainly

events

in Palestine

and

in

a "Global Campaign Against


1424 his books, book
2003/Sacb?n
for downloading
lets and articles have been made
available
by
to this web
the Saudi dacwa web site Sayd al-naw?fir.15 According

is reported
Since October
Aggression".14
Iraq and

site, readership numbers


range for most of them over 10.000 us
ers which would
seem to surpass
by far the reach of his printed
to be traced. Al-Haw?l?
most
of
which
still
remain
publications,
is thus one

of several prominent
of Islamic learn
representatives
in
the
Arab
world
who
with
their
along
ing
personal
teaching
have come to rely on the internet to circulate
their books, arti
cles, fatw?s and statements, rather than on the established ways
of printed publication.16

the view, propagated


Yawm al-gadab challenges
by religious cir
cles within the Zionist movement
and their Christian evangelical
sympathizers, that the biblical prophecies
predict the final victory

13

from http://66.96.205.195/
Bush", first downloaded
"Open Letter to President
letter.htm (7 December
in the
2001 ), still widely available
-azzam/afghan/htmfatawaopen
net; Arabic version under http://saaid.net/warathah/safar:
Bay?n li-l-umma can al-ahd?t
wa-hit?b il?B?s;
"How we Can Coexist",
http://americanvalues.org/html/saudi_statement.
html (12 November
loc. cit., Ris?la min Makka..
can ayyi say' nud?fic.
2002); Arabic:
14
The Supreme Council
Reuven Paz, "The 'Global Campaign
Against Aggression':

at the Center
and Terrorism
Information
Centre
for
Jihad?",
Intelligence
Studies
(C. S. S), http://www. intelligence.org.il/eng/g_j/rp_f_ll_03.htm.org.il/eng/
2005).
(29 November,
gj/rpJLll-03.htm
15
(30 August,
2006).
http://saaid.net/ warathah/safar/
16
see Gudrun
The best known example
is, of course, Y?suf al-Qarad?w?;
Kr?mer,
on
in Gudrun
Y?suf al-Qarad?w?
Kr?mer
and Sabi
"Drawing Boundaries:
Apostasy",
of Global
Special

ne Schmidtke

Brill,

2006,

(eds.), Speaking for Islam. Religious


181-217, with further reference.

Authorities

inMuslim

Societies, Leiden:

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THE

AND

INTIFADA

SECOND

"THE

DAY

OF WRATH"

337

The book claims that, quite to


its neighbours.
the contrary, they can be read as indications of the violent end
of that state and its allies. It was explicitly written in reaction to

of the Israel over

in the United
of important evangelical
groups
entered into a close alliance with the Orthodox

the publications
States who have

since the 1980s.17 The apocalyp


wing of the Zionist movement
tical visions of these groups focus on the state of Israel and its
in God's
plans which He holds for the end of the
special place
as the eternal
world. Arabs and Muslims
figure in these visions
in the decisive battle of Ar
enemies who will be finally defeated
mageddon.18

of the final battle

Visions

and

the impending end of the world,


covers and web site images,

book

by dramatic
found in evangelical web sites in other countries. A
shows the globe with a wild red dragon cover
German
example
and facing three apocalyptic
Middle
East
the
trumpets blow
ing
often

illustrated

can also be

flies on the
flag with the Star of David
owner of an "Internet
longest trumpet. The author of this site,
the "time of wrath" that will
Bible School"19, also dwells upon
is dominated
of the world which
lead to the destruction
by Sa
ing from

the west. A

out to all nations who in


will be meted
punishment
to the Arab
tend to fight a total war against Israel, in particular
even reads the final expulsion
of the Ar
The
author
people.
to the Yemen
into the
and their deportation
abs from Palestine
tan. God's

biblical
known

17

prophecies.
apocalyptic

Al-Haw?l?

writers, Hal

himself mentions
Lindsey,

whose

one

of the best

essays and novels

Eine
Politik und die Neo-Konservativen.
"Religion,
Sicht", in Klaus-M. Kodalle
(ed.), Gott und Politik in USA.
Frankfurt a.M.: Athen?um,
des Religi?sen. Eine Bestandsaufnahme,
1988,
Zionism
and the role played by Christian
126-145. For the historical
background,
The Politics of
Eastern policy, see Paul C. Merkley,
in British and American
Middle
Biblical
Frank Cass, 1998; Irvine H. Anderson,
London:
Christian Zionism 1891-1948,
See

e.g. Allan
aus

Stellungnahme
?ber den Einflue

Mittleman,

j?discher

and Israel, 1917-2002,


interpretation and Middle East policy: The promised land, America,
Florida
of
Gainesville:
2005.
Press,
University
18
of books offered by Armageddon
the large number
See in particular
Books,
"World's Largest Bible Prophecy
Bookstore",
(last checked
www.armageddonbooks.com
1 September
2006).
19
Cf. ?Internet-Bibelschule",
(29 No
http://www.internet-bibelschule.de/index.htm
vember 2005).

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338

STEFAN

REICHMUTH

imaginative scenarios of the world's final days. In


his books, too, Islam often represents the major enemy in the fi
nal struggle of the righteous. Only the elect few can hope for re
offer vivid and

demption.
which will

In a final

"rapture"

they will be

taken away from earth

then be completely destroyed.20


this current of Christian Zionism

strongly supportive of
Against
in the United
States,
Israel, and its growing popularity especially
al-Haw?l? with grim sarcasm presents his own reading of the bib
As is to be expected
from an Islamic scholar,
lical prophecies.
conclusions.
he comes to entirely opposite

ex
literature in general draws to a considerable
Apocalyptical
tent on the political positions
taken by its authors, and their pro
phetic arguments are largely framed by these positions for which
a
in the divine plan. Safar al-Haw?l?
is
they claim
special place
no exception
to this rule. His
ruthless critique of the Middle

introductory chapter begins with a


Eastern peace process during the

to him it was an illusionary undertaking


from
1990s. According
of a vertically
the very start. He pours ridicule on the proposal
divided sovereignty over the Temple Mount which was offered by
to this proposal
the Palestinians
the Israeli delegation. According

[...] which

al-sar?f, and Is
only the surface area of the Haram
retain control of the areas below21, "a strange project
was nevertheless
in harmony with the Jewish mind."

(p. 7/4).22

But,

would

control

rael would

he

continues,

even

this minor

concession

was

20
Zondervan
1970;
See, e.g. Hal Lindsey, Late Great Planet Earth, Grand Rapids:
New York: Bantam
The rapture: truth or consequences, Toronto,
Books,
1983; The Final
Front Publ.,
1996; Vanished Into Thin Air: The Hope
Battle, Palos Verdes: Western
of

Front,
1999; The Everlasting
Every Believer, Beverly Hills: Western
at
Oracle House,
2002, and many others, all available
Armaggeddon
and other Christian
also at Amazon.com. On Hal Lindsey
Zionists,

Hatred,
Books
see

Murrieta:

and often

especially

Ste

toArmageddon fLeicester:
InterVarsity Press,
phen Sizer, Christian Zionism. Road map
2004.
21
even men
4. Al-Haw?l?
Rebellion",
Hammami,
Tamari,
"Anatomy of Another
as a third area of remaining
Israeli sovereignty
tions the aerial space above the Haram
as

by the proposal.
provided
22
In this and the following

to al-Haw?l?'s
Yawm al-gadab, the first num
to the English
translation. As the
the
second
text,
paginated
to download
the indicated numbers might vary according
latter iswithout pagination
text.
location of the quoted
format and can only provide an approximative
references

ber refers to the Arabic

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THE

SECOND

met with outrage


ment

based

on

INTIFADA

AND

DAY

"THE

Al-Haw?l?

grounds.

339

the futility of any agree

by the Jews, revealing


secular

OF WRATH"

therefore

welcomes

its strong Islamic overtones, as it expresses what


Islamic revival,
he sees as the "spiritual strength of the blessed
which is the only remaining path after the exposure of the futil
the Intifada with

ity of all the secular slogans."


(p. 8/5).
to
of Jewish and Christian
al-Haw?l?
the
According
challenge
Zionism and their eschatological
claims, with which Muslims have
been increasingly confronted, can be countered by their own in
sees this is a legit
He
terpretations of the biblical prophecies.
imate undertaking
since the books which were revealed before
some truth,
contain
the Qur'?n
still
their distort
may
despite
and
Christian
ed transmission. Even
apocalyptic
today's Jewish
he

authors,

expect
christ, yet others
the end of Israel
to

refer

are

argues,

er. Some

those

not

always

in

with

agreement

each

oth

the coming of Christ, others that of the Anti


the battle of Armageddon.
Some even predict
through

parts

of

the

the Intifada. This


ultra-Orthodox

last group

haredim

who

seems
even

to

re

the state of Israel

that the neglect of the


and who believe
was a sacrilege which
the
led to the Ho
halakha,
law,
religious
locaust and which might yet bring about severe punishments
for
in
the
this
be
the heedless
Al-Haw?l?
considers
future.23
Jews

ject

lief as highly attractive, since the end of Israel is of outmost rel


evance
to the "real life situation" of his readers
(p. 13/8). The
sense of urgency constitutes a typical element of nearly all apoc
alyptic writing.
Al-Haw?l?
is clearly fascinated with the results of a positivist read
ing of the biblical texts. To him, it counts as an assessment of his
torical processes
"Any

secular

that is basically

strategic

study

can

as valid as other kinds of analysis:


arrive

at

conclusions

which

are

similar or nearly identical to that which biblical prophecy


states
the end of the State of Israel."
Its great
concerning
(p. 13/8).
exact
lies
in
its
of
which
makes
it a
times,
strength
specification

matter

23

of faith for the believer,

not just a research

See e.g. Gilles Kepel, Die Rache Gottes. Radikale


dem Vormarsch, Munich:
Piper, 1991, 245f.

Moslems,

opinion.

Christen und Juden

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He

auf

340

STEFAN

REICHMUTH

sees the need

to refute and destroy the current versions of these


as they present a grave danger to the world and could
prophecies
be used by religious Zionists of Jewish and Christian background.
Here he seems to think of the plans of the extremist Gush Emu
nim to blast
This
which
er. To

the al-Aqsa Mosque


during the 1980s.24
is followed by a full chapter devoted to the "Jewish psyche",
in his eyes is marked
by corruption and the lust for pow
the same, from the
him, the Jews have always remained

times of the Prophet to present-day America where they continue


to exert control over large portions of the economy,
the media,
and politics
But their hope
that through the peace
(p. 26/13).
to
able
be
break
would
process
they
through their neighbours'

barriers
psychological
not
markets has
been
under

to gain control over Middle


Eastern
a
as
fulfilled. They continue
nation
living
and

no
showing
barbarism
enmity,

the wrath of God,

interest in peace, but surviv


and racism (pp. 27f./14f.).
of the accusations
of racism and anti

ing solely through


is quite conscious
Al-Haw?l?
Semitism which he might have
who was

to face.

In order

to court because

to avoid

the fate

of his anti-Se

taken
of Roger Garaudy
to base his writings entirely
mitic statements, al-Haw?l? decided
on the evidence of the Bible, which, according
to him, time and
"If
of
the
the
evil
character
the discussion
of
Jews:
again exposes
the criminal

characteristics

as the Zionists

and behaviour

then the most

of the Jews is anti-Se


anti-Semitic book on

claim,
itself (p. 102/55).
threats and curses di
Al-Haw?l? quotes
the fierce accusations,
at length and
rected by the biblical prophets against their people
with relish, and turns them against the contemporary
Jews and
the state of Israel. The English version even subsumes all who re

mitic,
earth

is the Bible

fuse to believe

in one

under the rubric


of the divine messengers
their
of "Jews" (p. 16, n. 9). Not surprisingly, he also mentions
into
transformed
and
of
apes
pigs (30/16).25
being
punishment
to him, today's Jews have no right to the legacy of
According
threats apply to them.
Abraham
Still, the biblical
(p. 112/63).

24

Seee.g.Kepel,Rache
25
Q5:60.

Gottes, 203-243.

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THE

INTIFADA

SECOND

AND

DAY

"THE

OF WRATH"

341

offer a mix of traditional


Islamic anti-Judaism
passages
to the common
of topics belonging
stock of modern
anti
a
to
control
world-wide
the
Semitism, including
Jewish conspiracy
for
and
A
and
lewdness.26
world, greed
money
power, impurity
can
context
in this
is his denial that today's Jews
novel argument
These
and

claim authentic

racial

Semitic

mixture

of

descent;

to him

according

Persians,

Khazars,

Europeans,

they represent
and

Africans,

their
many
only adds to their depravity: "Therefore,
descent
is false, their mother will receive no mercy, and their de
scendants are not Allah's
people"
(pp. 114f./64f.).
others. This

an Islamic interpretation of the


by
the
prophecies
concerning
city of Jerusalem. First of all,
over the
in Mecca
al-Haw?l? reaffirms the priority of the Kacba
are backed

statements

These

biblical

to Islamic tradition the Kacba


sanctuary in Jerusalem. According
was built by Adam or even by the angels. The Kacba?called
in
Arabic
the "Ancient House"
Arabia
"the
(al-bayt al-atlq)?made
font of human

civilisation

and

the center of world

(p.
leadership"
only second. It was the "dis
in
is mentioned
al-aqsa), which

came

41/23). Jerusalem's
sanctuary
tant place of worship"
(al-masjid
the Qur'?n

and which Muhammad

(Q 17:1)

in his famous

visited

was renewed by Solomon with


night journey
(pp. 38ff./21ff.). It
the help of human and jinn? craftsmen, and the present mosque
name "Temple"
also bears its name
(haykal) which
(al-Aqsa). The
the Jews gave to it went along with the corruption of their reli
of which

gion with paganism


rah.

In

accordance

with

they are often accused


Palestinian

widespread

views,

that there are remains of the Solomonic


the al-Aqsa or in its vicinity, and he declares

denies

excavations

have

ple of Solomon.27
as

predecessor

to the medieval

26
27

never

revealed

Al-Haw?l?'s
of

the

Islamic

See

the contributions

The

Second

al-Aqsa

any

Mosque

tradition

of Kiefer

traces

stress upon

of

concerning

and Kr?mer

author

beneath

building
that archeological
the

supposed

the Solomonic
stands

in the To

the

in marked

Tem

building
contrast

the sanctuary of Je

to this volume.

of which only the platform and parts of the surrounding


Temple,
see for the two
wall remain, is not mentioned
by the author;
temples Gudrun Kr?mer,
Geschichte Pal?stinas,
C. H. Beck, 2002, 34ff., 380 n. 12; Theodor
A.
2nd ed., Munich:
Busink, Der Tempel von Jerusalem von Salomo bisHerodes,
1, Leiden:
Brill, 1970.

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342

STEFAN

rusalem.

REICHMUTH

focused mainly on the Dome


of the Rock whose
the
had
both
and transformed
revived
by
Umayyads

These

construction
the ancient

Jewish sanctuary.28
toMecca,
he continues,
change of the qibla from Jerusalem
to divine command,
the Prophet carried out in obedience
confirmed
the priority of the Kacba. Jews and Christians

The
which

again
did not heed
prayer

God's

and were

the true direction of


concerning
excluded
from the faith of Abraham

command

therefore

(p. 43/24). Al-Haw?l? also presents many scattered references from


the Bible as evidence
that Mecca
is the "New Jerusalem"
of the

the large crowds of worshippers


or the hajj sea
during Ramadan
cannot
at
he
but
arrive
this
conclusion
son,
argues,
(pp. 47/25f.).
a time when God would no longer be wor
Even Jesus predicted
in Jerusalem or on Mount Garizim
(John 4:21).
shipped
as the biblical "New Jerusalem"
Mecca
is only one item on a long
prophecies.
Anybody watching
in TV broadcasts
from Mecca

interpretations of key terms of the biblical prophe


list is offered with sarcastic generosity to the believers in
the Bible, as a tool which will allow them to solve their disputes
the bibli
ascribes
(p. 49/27). As in Islamic tradition, Al-Haw?l?
cal notions of the "Paraclete",
the "Head of Creation",
and the
list of Islamic

cies. This

to the Prophet of Islam. According


to al-Haw?l?,
"Righteous One"
use of this
Daniel.
he is also the "Son of Man" mentioned
The
by

term for Jesus in the four Gospels


is ignored by him. From the
of
ibn
translation
the
Arabic
al-ins?n, he derives a pecu
English

the "Son of Man",


between Muhammad,
and cIs?
of
the
the
"Son
Woman"
fact
that
Muhammad
(Jesus),
(p. 49/27):
has a father where Jesus only has a (virgin) mother qualifies him
liar distinction

alone

as the "Son of Man"

and

implies his superiority.


interpretations of the prophetic

to the evangelical
texts of the Bible, al-Haw?l?
apocalyptic
for most of the horrible
identifications
Similar

these

28

texts. The

apocalyptic

"beast"

EP
Cf. O. Grabar,
"Qubbatal-sakhra",
traditionen in altkirchlicher und fr?hislamischer

and

tries to find present-day


creatures
that figure in

is Zionism

in its Jewish

and

II, 298f.; H. Russe, Jerusalemer Heiligtums


Zeit, Wiesbaden:
Harrassowitz,
I7ff.; 22

25.

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THE

Christian

INTIFADA

SECOND

fundamentalist

and

all who

popes
from him. The

AND

versions.

claimed

"little horn"

"THE

DAY

OF WRATH"

343

"False prophets" were Paul, the


or to receive revelations

to be Christ
and

the "abomination

of desolation"

are

identified with the state of Israel, and


by Daniel
the "New Babylon" with modern Western,
cul
especially American
as the "New
State are branded
ture; not surprisingly, the United

mentioned

Roman

Empire"
(p. 50/27).
with these keys, al-Haw?l? approaches
the Book of
Equipped
its
Daniel with
famous visions, which throughout
the ages have
source
a
to
of
and
historical
provided
major
political
imagination
the Christian world. Occasionally
he also refers to the New Tes
tament and more

he describes

with

The last
specifically to the Book of Revelation.
some irony as a "horror film" to whose atroci

not want

to expose his readers


(p. 73/39).
as
of
al-Haw?l?'s
of Muslim
book,
argument
polem
ics since the early period of Islam, is that many of the biblical
were fulfilled by the coming of Islam. This, howev
prophecies
was
and suppressed by Jews and Christians alike, who
denied
er,
either projected
that fulfilment back to the past or postponed
ties he does
A

central

it to an undefined

the human
future, disappointing
longing for
for
the
of
truth, and peace.
triumph
goodness,
redemption
For al-Haw?l?, however,
these are false views which are in obvi
ous contradiction
with divine wisdom, mercy, and justice.
It be
comes very clear from this argument
that he is less interested in
and

the end of the world than in very tangible and this-worldly hopes
of political?and
military?liberation.
a dream which disturbed
The Book of Daniel
(Dan. 2) mentions

the Babylonian
Nebuchadnezzar,
king: he saw a huge figure with
a golden head, with a chest and arms of silver, a
belly and thighs
iron legs and feet of clay. A stone fell upon
of bronze,
it, shat
tered it and turned into a great mountain
that filled the earth.

to the king: four empires would


the dream
interpreted
follow upon each other and would finally be destroyed by a fifth
one which would
last forever. This prophecy was much discussed
by Jewish and Christian scholars. The first four empires were gen

Daniel

to represent Babylon, followed by the Persians, the


erally assumed
Greek empire of Alexander
the Great, and Rome. There was no
tradition itwas often seen
agreement about the fifth: in Christian

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344

STEFAN

REICHMUTH

as

al-Haw?l? takes it as a clear


indicating the rise of the Church;
sign of the rise and final rule of Islam (pp. 61-73/33-39).
Another

famous

vision

of Daniel
the rising
(Dan. 7) describes
from the sea: a winged
lion, a bear, a leop
and four wings, and finally a beast with ten

of four great beasts


ard with four heads
horns, which
with human

killed and devoured

all the others. An evil little horn

on it. This beast will be


eyes and mouth
appeared
and everlasting rule will be given
defeated and put to judgement,
to a fifth being, the "Son of Man" who will descend
from heav
en. He

the chosen
represents
"People of the Saints of the Most
be
who
will
High"
given lasting power and rule over the whole
world
of a fifth, ev
time, the two prophecies
(Dan. 7:27). Over
in religious as well
erlasting empire were variously interpreted
as

terms, especially during the religious wars of the


offers his own interpreta
post-Reformation
period.29 Al-Haw?l?
in political

tion of the last vision:

bear

empire, the
and multi-headed

the lion stands for the British

for the Soviet Union.

The

multi-winged
em
and the Catholic
colonial
leopard represents
or
states.
the
Asian
The
fourth
beast
is
pires,
perhaps
eight
tiger
a
or
States
without doubt
with Is
NATO,
symbol of the United
either France

rael as the little evil horn.

For the saints who will destroy Amer


is
interpretation
required for, as he says, "we will have to
wait only a short time to see" (p. 71/38). Here he clearly refers
ica no

to the Muslim
torious

tioned

muj?hid?n,

armies

elsewhere

coming

whom

from

in the Book

the

he

also

north

or

the vic

identifies with
east,

which

are

men

of Daniel

(p. 81/42).30
Al-Haw?l? devotes an entire chapter
(ch. 9, pp. 81-101/44-55)
to the vision of two evil animals mentioned
in the Book of Reve
lation
them

(Rev. 13), which appear on the shore of the sea. He takes


to represent Jewish and Christian Zionism
(p. 80/42). He

29

for example, were a powerful group within the anti


The "Fifth Monarchy
Men",
of the seventeenth
the English Revolution
century, who were
royalist party during
was the rightful heir
convinced
that the British Protestant nation with its Parliament
a
to that
The Fifth Monarchy Men:
see, e.g., B. Capp,
study in seventeenth
prophecy;
Faber and Faber, 1972; Christopher
London:
Hill, The
centuryEnglish Millenarianism,
1991 [1975].
World Turned Upside Down, London:
Penguin,
30
to Dan.
11:44.
Reference
here is apparently

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THE

also

SECOND

connects

abomination

INTIFADA

AND

"THE

DAY

OF WRATH"

345

prophecy on the
the
horn in Jerusa
little
by
"abomination
of
days.31 The

their evil activities with Daniel's


which

lem and which

will be effected
last for 2.300

will

desolation"

in the New
(rujsat al-har?b), which is also mentioned
comes
as
out
most
the
(Matth. 24:15),
important sym
bol for the depravity of the present state of Israel. Al-Haw?l? fires

Testament
another

threats and condemnations


volley of biblical accusations,
of the Jewish people
in order to bring home this point (ch. 10,

pp. 102-107/55-59),
ment as mentioned

their immorality
dwelling upon
in their own sacred book.

and

defile

some Christian

on the
speculations
of
in
own
this
He
abomination
offers
his
cal
timing
Jerusalem.
culation as to its beginning
and the final "day of wrath" which
will end it. Following
those commentators who translate the num
Al-Haw?l?

then scrutinizes

ber of days mentioned


in Daniel
into years, he arrives at the year
of the time of evil: the "Abomination
1966/7 as the beginning
of Desolation"
thus started with the Israeli occupation
of the

Haram

in Jerusalem.32
from another

The

45 days

of duration

for these

evils

are also in
enigmatic
saying in Daniel33
as
our
author
the
thus be
2012
years:
year
terpreted by
might
as
for
the
of
the
of
Wrath".
He
shows
himself
year
hoped
"Day
convinced
that the turning point has already been reached with
derived

comes close to
the Intifada of Raj ab. Incidentally his prediction
that of his American
in
Hal
antipodes:
Lindsey's
apocalyptic nov
el Blood Moon,
the battle between
the "futuristic namesakes"
of
Isaac and Ishmael unfolds
in 2014.34

31
Dan. 8:14. In Christian
this vision is generally re
exegesis of the Book of Daniel
as
of the Temple
in Jerusalem
garded
referring to the desecration
by the Seleucid
ruler Antiochus
IV (d. 163 BCE), which
the Maccabean
revolt. On
the his
sparked

torical background
of the Book of Daniel
and its role in Jewish and Christian
tradi
tion, see e.g. Jean Dani?lou,
"Daniel", Reallexikon f?r Antike und Christentum, Stuttgart:
A. Hiersemann,
1957, 3, 575-585.
32
This isnot quite in accordance
with his reference to Dan. 8:14 before, where the
number

of 2.300

of the Temple.
33
This is based
the tribulations

days describes

the duration,

not

the beginning

of the desecration

on Dan.
the end of
12:11, from which a period of 45 days between
of the believers
and the final restitution of the
cult can be
Temple

inferred.
34
http://www.armageddonbooks.com/hal.html

(3 September

2006).

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346

STEFAN

REICHMUTH

That final day will bring judgement not reconciliation


(muh?kama
Al-Haw?li
l? mus?laha,
ch. 11, pp. 108-118/60-67).
again emphat
the state
ically rejects any peace process. On the "Day of Wrath",
States will be defeated by the armies of
of Israel and the United

This will be the fi


and Israel will be annihilated.
the Muslims,
The
author dwells with
nal fulfilment of the biblical prophecies.
on the prophetic
calls to war, especial
enthusiasm
considerable

ly those in Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Joel (pp. 119ff./68ff.), which he


reads as calls to jihad and as a praise of the Muslim warriors. Af
ter this great victory the expelled Palestinians will return to their

The biblical promises are reserved for them, not for


the Jews who will be dispersed
again, except those who convert
to remain as dimmts under Muslim
to Islam or choose
rule. As

homeland.

the Jews of both their state and


attempts to dispossess
and
their biblical heritage, his transfer of the biblical promises
an
to
Muslims
the
Palestinian
conveys
engagement
prophecies
for an Islamic scholar.
with the Bible which is rather unusual
al-Haw?l?

in isolation, the "Day ofWrath" might appear as a blind


and vitriolic attack, built upon forced and distorted
interpreta
tions of biblical texts. But as has been shown, the book has to be
Taken

of current Jewish and Christian apocalyp


tic tendencies,
since it engages with them to such an extent and
to their interpretations of the
even owes many of its own concepts
re-sacralisation
the general
illustrate
Bible. Taken
together they
read

in the framework

in the Middle
of the political
language which could be observed
over
secularist
Zionism was
the last decades. Within
East
Israel,

after 1967 by the militant religious messian


strongly challenged
ism of the Gush Emunim and other Orthodox
Jewish groups, and
the
towards
attitudes
American
region have increasing
political
come under the influence of Christian Zionism. For Muslims,
ly
the demise of secular patterns of political
ideology and the grow
of
nationalism"
"Islamisation
(L. Binder)35 have also opened
ing
the field for Islamist movements

35
On
Religion

the beginnings

of this process,

in the Arab World:

Allies

who

have

increasingly

see already Naseer

or Enemies",

Muslim

Aruri,

World,

domin?t

"Nationalism

67, 1977, 266-279.

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and

THE

ed

INTIFADA

SECOND

AND

the "terrain of social utopia"

revolution

ticulation

they

have

to a

of social

"THE

OF WRATH"

Since

(G. Kepel).36
extent

large

DAY

gained

control

347

the Iranian
over

the

and political values in the Arab World.


As Safar al-Haw?l? makes rather creative use of the biblical

used

by his Jewish and Christian opponents,


ment
into the polemic
interaction between

ar

texts

he brings a new ele


Israelis and Palestin

ians. The "Day of Wrath" demonstrates


how a Muslim polemicist
finds in the Bible a promising resource for his anti-Israeli and anti

of the two camps


comparison
of their apocalyptic
thus reveals a striking convergence
language.
Even the Christian millenarian
extremists, whom al-Haw?l? crit

American

icized
would

views and

so sharply as "madmen
end in an unthinkable

apparently

found

aspirations.

their match.

some

stupid stunt that


catastrophe"
(pp. 17f./10), have
To remain within the appropriate
venturing

horses
(Rev. 6) are harnessed
imagery: the apocalyptic
by both
sides to their own carriages and prepared
for battle against each
other. This points to the political motives underlying
the inflat
ed religious rhetoric. At least for al-Haw?l?, the "Day of Wrath"

is not doomsday37 but a day of this-worldly liberation, reckon


or Jesus who will bring it
ing and revenge. It is not the Mahd?
the Muslim fighters gathering from all
about, but the muj?hid?n,

parts of the world.


of

the

state

of

Israel

He

clearly
from

any

separates

the question

speculation

on

of the end

matters

ing the Day of Resurrection


(p. 13/8) and never
ic apocalyptical
doctrines and traditions.

concern

refers to Islam

After September
11, al-Haw?l?'s book may be read as a key text
that provides
important clues to the imagery which has guided
Bin L?din and his Saudi followers in their militant activism. But
the "Day of Wrath"

is also

full of sarcasm

and

conveys

a certain

36

154f.
Kepel, Prophet and Pharaoh,
as done
To present al-Haw?l? as a ?doomsday prophet",
byV. & V. Trimondi, Krieg
der Religionen, 393ff, is thus misleading,
especially when read together with his other
much more positive views of the Americans
and their political
and religious culture,
37

(see also below). His posture as "one of the


to President Bush is
equally misunderstood
to a famous Hadit
about the scholars as
by them (p. 396) as they take this reference
a claim of
as
heirs of the prophets
status for himself.
indicating
prophetical

which

in their overview
they also mention
heirs of the prophets"
in his Open
Letter

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348

STEFAN

REICHMUTH

to its topic, occasionally


leaving
of a grim play with the sacred

distance
pression
the end

the author

confesses

the reader with

the im

texts of the enemy. At


cer
be absolute

that there cannot

a bet with the Christian


tainty about future events but proposes
and Jewish fundamentalists
about
their outcome
(p. 130/76).
This confirms the essentially political function of his argument.

is in perfect accordance
way of treating biblical prophecy
and this-worldly character of the wave
the largely political
in re
of Arabic apocalyptic
literature which has been published

His

with
cent

years.38

The

recurring

of

expressions

can also be related

in biblical

language,
views about Israel and America.

radical

anti-Semitism,

to the author's

dressed

frame of

to his apocalyptic
look at the future al-Haw?l? has
In more re
another string to his bow when it comes to America.
cent articles he expressed
considerable
admiration
for the Ameri
In addition

can

that several U.S. presidents adhered


theology of Unitarianism
of the United
States as an
to, and for the historical beginnings
nation". He
monotheist
regrets that they should
"enlightened

Zionist, and crusade gov


up with "an evangelical,
to
the
Muslims
strive
hard to convert that
and
ernment",
urges
sees
to
much
for dacwa work among
nation
Islam.39 He
hope
the Americans
many of whom he regards as second only to the
ended

have

Letter
pursuit of justice.40 His Open
the
traditional
dwelt
upon
already
sympathy
of the Arabs for the United
States, and on their disappointment
with the changes of American
politics since the 1970s. Even if al
his fierce criticism of present U.S. poli
Haw?l? has maintained

Muslims

in their

to President

in the Middle

cies

appear

serious

Bush

now much

on the whole
East, his views of the Americans
more nuanced.
is
This change
clearly related

38

"Das Ende?eine
See Sabine Damir-Geilsdorf,
Gegenw?rtige
politische Wende?
an die Zukunft", Orient, 44, 2003, 257-279.
muslimische
Erinnerungen
39
no. 204, Sa'b?n
min al-Nas?r?",
"al-Muwahhid?n
1425/
Al-Haw?l?,
al-Bay?n,
2004, http://al-bayan-magazine.com/bayan-204/bayan-19.htm
(20 November,
September
"The Monotheists
the Christians",
2005), Engl. Transi.
Among
http://www.islamscience.
com/monotheistsEA2.html
2005).
(29 November,
40
"Nas?ha wa-dikr?",
Al-Haw?l?,
14.4.1424,
wa-azmat
"al-Sahwa
al-tahtit",
wa-1-muw?jaha
30 August,
2006).
(n. d.) both last checked

http://saaid.net/warathah/safar/5.htm,
http://saaid.net/warathah/safar/14.htm

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THE

INTIFADA

SECOND

AND

"THE

DAY

OF WRATH"

349

to his growing critique of a blind and arbitrary Islamic activism


can be noticed
in his recent articles. To some extent this

which

may have resulted from increased political pressure which appar


ently was brought to bear upon al-Haw?l? over the last years.41 It
also certainly follows from a line of historical
interest which can

his writings. But "The Day of Wrath" with its fiery


on different web sites, and for both its
is still available

be

identified

message
Arabic
and

of users
large numbers
English versions
This testifies to its persisting
impact upon
and beyond
East.
the Middle
counted.42

have

been

readers

in

Appendix
List of books written by Safar al-Haw?l? as available on the web
site http://saaid.net/warathah/safar/(4
2006), with add
September,
ed reference to printed versions which could as yet be identified.
This seems to be the most comprehensive
collection.
Some are
also

available

under

com (22 September


-

commenting
itself
maj?d,

own website

http://www.alhawali.

2006).

cal? maw?di

al-Taliq

Kit?b

al-Haw?l?'s

upon

min

kit?b

cAbd

al-Rahm?n

commentary

<Fath

al-maj?d>
b. Hasan

Muhammad

upon

on
(Lectures
?l
al-Sayh,
b.

cAbd

Tawh?d,
Fath
al

al-Wahh?b,

al-tawh?d).

on
the creed
of
commentary
(Long
al~Tah?wiyya>
scholar
d. 321/933).
at-Tah?w?,
1 Safar
wa-1-Tat?r
1424/4
(dated
2003)
al-judud
al-Intif?da
April
and
the Second
Israel, America,
(On
Intifada).
wa-tatawwuruh?
wa-?t?ruh?
al-:Alm?niyya..nas'atuh?
fi l-hay?t al-isl?miyya

Sarh

<al-Aq?da
Hanafi

the

early

al-mu?sira.

upon

the

(A study on
Islamic
world).

- Ris?la min Makka./an


of

the American

the origins

of

secularism

and

its influence

ayyi say3 nud?fic7?(Reply to the Open

Intellectuals,

letter

2001).

41

account
The biographical
of his student, Hadir
S?lih Sanad
(http//saaid.net/
see above n. 12), mentions
a ban from
was im
waratha/safar/02.htm,
teaching which
on him in recent years.
posed
42
indicates a number of 10.412 reads
(30.8.2006)
Http://saaid.net/Warathah/safar
on this
for the Arabic
version
since 12.8.1424/9.10.2003
when
it was first placed
site. For the English
version
under
available
http://www.as-sahwah.com/viewarticle.
23.060 reads are given.
(22.9.2006),
php?articleID=9088c

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350
-

STEFAN

42 muh?dar?t

mufarraga

[sie]

li-l-sayh

Safar

al-Haw?l?

(Collection

of

lectures).
43 muh?dar?t

mufarraga

[sic]

li-l-sayh

Safar

al-Haw?l?

(Collection

of

lectures).
Z?hirat

al-irj?3 f?

historical

critique

directed
-

REICHMUTH

against
many

including
al-Quds

bayna

a
thesis:
and
(His Ph. D.
theological
and of related
in Islam,
tendencies
in Islam,
belief
and practice
separate
scholars
and
movements).
religious

l-fikr al-isl?ml
of the
Murji'a
all those who

contemporary
l-wacd al-haqq..

wa-l-wacd

Muslims

concerning
Jerusalem).
- Yawm
al-gadab hal bada3a bi-intif?datRajaba!
-

September).

al-sunna

taken

position

al-As?cira

Manhaj

wa-l-jamaa
the Ahl al-sunna

by
fi

l-aq?da

(A

before 11

(2000/2001,
on

lecture

(Short

the middle

in religious
issues).
wa-l-jam?ca
of the As'arite
theological
critique

school).
tatawwur
and
(On Europe
f?
al-fikr al-garb? wa-1-had?ta
of her
and belief)
long-drawn
struggle
against
religion
li-l-umma
wa-hit?b
il? Bus
after
11
can al-ahd?t
(2001,
Septem

Muqaddima
the roots
Bay

an

ber, including the Open


al-Im?n

wa-naw?qiduhu

Letter directed
tract

(Dogmatic

on

to President Bush).
and

belief

its deficien

cies).

and

ways

methods
millat

Mujaddid
M?lik?,

on

(Lecture
wa-dir?sat

al-Qawmiyya
al-Muslim?n

(Polemic

ahl

Wasatiyyat

Mak

(al-Q?hira:

al-muftar?

(A political and theological study on


transmitted by Jews, Christians and

tabat al-Sunna, 1414/1994).


the truth of the prophecies

of

Nationalism).

al-mustaqbal

studying
cAmr b. Luhayy

the prominent
against
one
of the co-founders

(Lecture
the

on

sound

and

unsound

future).

al-sirk f? h?d?
l-zam?n.
wa-d?ciyat
Muhammad
scholar
cAlaw?
Hij?zi
of the Muslim
World
and
League,

his book Sif?3 al-fu?d bi-ziy?rathayr al-ib?d).

tahk?m al-qawan?n>
b. Ibrah?m (rahimahu
li-l-sayhMuhammad
on a fatw? of the former Mufti
of Saudi
(Extensive
commentary
on man-made
b. Ibrahim
Muhammad
laws and
?1 as-Sayh,
Arabia,
the sari a, dated
their necessary
accordance
with
1380/1960).
Sarh

<Ris?lat

ll?h).

Ris?la
min al-sayh
can culam?3 al-umma.
Kasf
al-gumma
il? al-sayh
b. B?z
cAbd al-Az?z
[Saudiarabia],
(n.l.

1412/1991)
of

acter

of

(Long pamphlet addressed

to the leading Saudi scholar;

and

erosion

to grant
about
complaint

the decision

critique
the country,
the

Safar al-Haw?l?
Dar
al-Hikma,

Saudi

the Americans
the

of

in
base
military
the Islamic
char

state).

- Al-Radd
cal? l-hurafiyy?n
(Muhammad 'Alaw?M?lik?) (another polemic
cAlaw?
M?lik? blaming him for his Sufi opinions).
against Muhammad
-

on
in the
its
role
poem
Syria and
(Long
glorious
in
Sal?h
and of Jerusalem,
mentioning
particular
and
Ibn
al-Din's
victories
and
activities).
writings
Taymiyya's
source:
from
another
Also
article
web
the following
important
Malhamat
defence

al-S?m

of

Islam

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THE

"Al-Muwahhid?n
al-Bay?n,

INTIFADA

SECOND

min

Sacb?n

al-nas?r?.

1425/Sept-Oct.

AND

"THE

Among

the Christians",

theistsEA2.html(29 November

OF WRATH"

351

Us?luhum..w?qicuhum..mu?n?tuhum",
2004
http://albayan-magazine.com/

bayan-204/bayan-19.htm (29 November

Monotheists

DAY

2005).

2005); English version: "The

http://www.islamscience.com/mono

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