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Kara Mustafa Pasha

Not to be confused with Kara Mustafa Pasha (governor 2 Battle of Vienna


of Egypt) or Kemanke Kara Mustafa Pasha.
Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha (1634/1635 25 Main article: Battle of Vienna
In 1683, he launched a campaign northward into Austria
in a last eort to expand the Ottoman Empire after more
than 150 years of war. By mid-July, his 100,000-man
army had besieged Vienna (guarded by 10,000 Habsburg
soldiers), following in the footsteps of Suleiman the Magnicent in 1529. By September, he had taken a portion
of the walls and appeared to be on his way to victory.
But on 12 September 1683, a Polish army under King
Jan Sobieski took advantage of dissent within the Turkish military command and poor disposition of his troops,
winning the Battle of Vienna with a devastating ank attack led by Sobieskis Polish Winged Hussars. The Turks
retreated into Hungary, leaving the kingdom for retaking
by the Austrians in 1686.

Kara Mustafa Pashas strangulation by a silk cord on 25 December 1683.

The defeat cost Mustafa his position, and ultimately, his


life. On 25 December 1683, Kara Mustafa was executed
in Belgrade at the order of Mehmed IV. He suered death
by strangulation with a silk cord, which was the method
of capital punishment inicted on high-ranking persons
Born to Albanian parents[1][2][3] in Merzifon, he married in the Ottoman Empire. His last words were, in eect,
into the powerful Kprl family and served as a messen- Make sure you tie the knot right. Mustafas head was
ger to Damascus for his brother-in-law, the grand vizier presented to Mehmed IV in a velvet bag.
Kprl Fazl Ahmed Pasha. He directed in the name
of Kprl familys mukata or tmar elds in Merzifon.
After distinguishing himself, Mustafa became a vizier in
his own right, and by 1663 or 1666 became the Kapudan 3 Legacy
Pasha (Grand Admiral of the Ottoman Navy).
The Austrian government announced the discovery of a
skull thought to belong to Mustafa Pasha and also announced they would bury the skull unless Turkish au1 Ocial life
thorities raised a claim. His headstone was originally in
Belgrade, Serbia but was moved to Edirne, Turkey.
He served as a commander of ground troops in a war The Foundation of Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha was
against Poland in 1672, negotiating a settlement that one of the largest foundations ever founded both in Otadded the province of Podolia to the empire. The vic- toman Empire and Turkey. According to the ocial
tory enabled the Ottomans to transform the Cossack re- records, it was last managed by the descendants of Kara
gions of the southern Ukraine into a protectorate. In Mustafa Pasha. The last few managers of the founda1676, when his brother-in-law Kprl Fazl Ahmed tion were Mustafa Pashas descendant Ahmed Asm Bey
Pasha died, Mustafa succeeded him as grand vizier.
(born 1844), his son Mehmed Nebil Bey (born 1888)
December 1683) was an Ottoman military leader and
grand vizier who was a central character in the Ottoman
Empire's last attempts at expansion into both Central and
Eastern Europe.

He was less successful in combating a Cossack rebellion


that began in 1678. After some initial victories, intervention by Russia turned the tide and forced the Turks to
conclude peace in 1681, eectively returning the Cossack
lands to Russian rule with the exception of a few forts on
the Dnieper and Southern Bug rivers.

(also known as Merzifonlu Karamustafaolu or Merzifonlu Karamustafapaaolu), and his son, the Turkish painter Doan Ylmaz Merzifonlu Karamustafaolu,
better known as Ylmaz Merzifonlu (19282010), until
1976. The Merzifonlu Karamustafaolu family name
ended with the marriage of Ylmaz Merzifonlus only
1

daughter, Abide Tue Mit.[4] Kara Mustafa Pashas family and descendant tree can be found via Turkeys Directorate General of Foundations.[5]

Coee legend

As Mustafa Pashas army retreated from Vienna after the


siege, it left several large bags of green beans behind in
Vienna. These sacks contained unroasted coee beans
which, as legend has it, formed the nucleus from which
the Viennese coee trade began.

In media

In the 2012 Polish and Italian ctional historical drama


lm September Eleven 1683 about the Battle of Vienna,
Kara Mustafa Pasha is portrayed by Italian actor Enrico
Lo Verso.

See also
Kprl era of the Ottoman Empire
Kprl family
List of Ottoman Grand Viziers

References

[1] http://books.google.com/books?id=tdTriSqIW3AC&
pg=PA67&dq=kara+mustafa+pasha+albanian&hl=
en&sa=X&ei=sA3UU-myJsb8ywO8uIH4Dw&redir_
esc=y#v=onepage&q=kara%20mustafa%20pasha%
20albanian&f=false
[2] http://books.google.com/books?id=
Wl0PAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA142&dq=kara+
mustafa+pasha+albanian&hl=en&sa=X&ei=
sA3UU-myJsb8ywO8uIH4Dw&redir_esc=y#v=
onepage&q=kara%20mustafa%20pasha%20albanian&
f=false
[3] http://books.google.al/books?id=WZk5SgAACAAJ&
dq=kara+mustafa+pasha+albanian&hl=en&sa=X&ei=
FBEOVKf2BcHnygOsk4DYDg&redir_esc=y
[4] Abide Tue Mit
[5] http://www.vgm.gov.tr/ (Turkish)

Further reading
Goodwin, Jason - Lords of the Horizons (book)

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wheatcroft, Andrew The Enemy at the Gate: Habsburgs, Ottomans and the Battle for Europe, Basic
Books.

9 External links
"Kara Mustapha". New International Encyclopedia.
1905.

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