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OMV Exploration & Production GmbH

Philosophy
for
Passive Fire Protection Systems
Onshore
Document Number

TO-HQ-02-073-00

00

Final Issue

IM

31/05/05

JEA

31/05/05

A2

Client Comments Incorporated

IM

07/02/05

JS

07/02/05

A1

DRAFT

WAM

21/12/04

GA

21/12/04

Origin
By

Date

Chkd
By

Date

Issue
Rev

Issue or Revision Description

PZ

03/06/05

MF

03/06/05

Appd
By

Date

Auth
By

Date

OMV Exploration & Production GmbH

Revision History
Revision

Description of revision

AI

Issued for Comment / Approval

A2

Client Comments Incorporated

00

Final Issue

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CONTENTS
1.0 PREFACE .......................................................................................................................4
2.0 DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................................4
3.0 ABBREVIATIONS...........................................................................................................5
4.0 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................5
5.0 APPLICABLE CODES, STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS........................................5
5.1
5.2

Codes and Standards List ........................................................................................................ 6


References ................................................................................................................................. 7

6.0 SYSTEM GOAL ..............................................................................................................8


7.0 SYSTEM BOUNDARIES ................................................................................................8
8.0 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY ..................................................................................................9
8.1
8.2
8.3

Risk Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 9


Design Criteria ......................................................................................................................... 13
Types of Available PFP Systems............................................................................................ 14

9.0 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................15


10.0 MAINTENANCE IN DESIGN ........................................................................................15
11.0 DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS.........................................................................15
12.0 CERTIFYING AUTHORITY REVIEW REQUIREMENTS..............................................16

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1.0

PREFACE
This Philosophy defines the OMV Exploration & Production GmbH corporate
policy on the design of Passive Fire Protection (PFP) Systems for onshore
hydrocarbon production and processing facilities. The document specifies
basic requirements and criteria, defines the appropriate codes and
standards, and assists in the standardisation of facilities design across all
onshore operations.
The design process needs to consider project specific factors such as the
location, production composition, production rates and pressures, the
process selected and the size of the plant. This philosophy aims to address
a wide range of the above variables, however it is recognised that not all
circumstances can be covered. In situations where project specific
considerations may justify deviation from this philosophy, a document
supporting the request for deviation shall be submitted to OMV E&P for
approval.
Reference should be made to the parent of this philosophy, document
number TO-HQ-02-001 for information on deviation procedures and
Technical Authorities, general requirements and definitions and
abbreviations not specific to this document.

2.0

DEFINITIONS
The following definitions are relevant to this document.
Cellulosic Fire

The combustion of cellulosic fuels, such as: wood, paper,


textiles, certain plastics, etc.

Fire Rating

Time during which a structure or component will provide


prescribed resistance to transmission of heat, passage of
flame, smoke and toxic gases and structural failure.

Fire Area

An area that is physically separated from other areas by


space, barriers, walls or other means in order to contain
fire within that area.

Hydrocarbon Fire

The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels.

Hydrocarbon Jet
Fire

The ignition and subsequent combustion of a pressurised


hydrocarbon leak.

Intumescence

A physical and chemical change, which results in the


expansion of the PFP material by several times its applied

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volume forming a char of low thermal conductivity, which


absorbs heat.

3.0

Muster Area

Designated area where personnel report when required.

Pool Fire

Combustion of flammable liquid spilled and retained on a


surface.

Sublimation

The direct change of a PFP material from solid to vapour


effectively absorbing heat to execute the phase change.

ABBREVIATIONS
There are no abbreviations with particular relevance to this document.

4.0

INTRODUCTION
This document defines the OMV Exploration & Production GmbH corporate
policy for the design basis and philosophy of Passive Fire Protection (PFP) on
its onshore facilities.
By specifying the basic requirements and criteria, and defining the appropriate
codes and standards, this philosophy intends to guide the selection and design of
PFP Systems and standardise this process across all onshore facilities operated
by OMV.

5.0

APPLICABLE CODES, STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS


Codes, standards and regulations referred to in this philosophy shall be of the
latest edition and shall be applied in the following order of precedence:

Local Regulations,

The provision of this document,

International standards (e.g. ISO, IEC etc),

National standards.

Design of the passive fire protection system shall comply with the standards
listed within this philosophy, however, for instances where local standards are
more onerous local standards shall apply.

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5.1

Codes and Standards List


ASTM E 119

Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building


Construction and Materials

ASTM E 515

Effect of Overheating Steel

ASTM D 635

Burning Rate and Burning Time after Ignition for Basic Epoxy
Resin

ASTM E 760

Standard Test Method for Effect of Impact on Bonding of


Sprayed Fire-Resistive Material applied to Structural
Members

BS 476

Fire Tests on Building Material for Design and Installation

BS 3900

Test Methods for Impact Effects on PFP

BS Part 20

BS Fire tests on building materials and structures. Method for


determination of the fire resistance of elements of
construction (general principles)

BS Part 21

BS Fire tests on building materials and structures. Methods


for determination of the fire resistance of load-bearing
elements of construction

BS Part 22

BS Fire tests on building materials and structures. Methods


for determination of the fire resistance of non-load-bearing
elements of construction

BS Part 23

BS Fire tests on building materials and structures. Methods


for determination of the contribution of components to the fire
resistance of a structure

ISO R 834

Fire-resistance tests - Elements of building construction

ISO 9001

Quality systems Model for quality assurance in engineering,


development, production, installation and servicing

ISO 9002

Quality systems Model for quality assurance in production,


installation and servicing

NFPA 33

Standard for Spray Application using Flammable and


Combustible Materials

NFPA 59

Standard for the Storage and handling of Liquefied Petroleum


Gases at Utility Gas Plants. Appendix D: Procedure for Torch
Fire and Hose Stream Testing of Thermal Insulating Systems
for LP Gas Containers

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5.2

NFPA 251

Standard Methods of Tests of Fire Endurance of Building


Construction and Materials

NFPA 703

Fire Retarding Coatings

UL 263

Standard for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials

UL 1709

Standard for Rapid Rise Fire Tests of Protection Materials for


Structural Steel

References
IP Guidelines for the Design and Protection of
Pressure Systems to Withstand Severe Fires, (March
2003)
IP Model Code of Safe Practice, Part 19 - Fire
Precautions at Petroleum Refineries and Bulk Storage
Installations
Guidelines for Fire Protection in Chemical,
Petrochemical and Hydrocarbon Processing Facilities,
AIChemE Publication (2003)
Handbook of Fire and Explosion Protection
Engineering Principles for Oil, Gas, Chemical and
Related Facilities, Dennis, P. and Nolan, P.E., Noyes
Publications (1996)
API 2510

Design and Construction of LPG Installations

API 2510A

Fire Protection Considerations for the Design and


operation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Storage
Facilities

TO-HQ-02-025

Philosophy for Fire and Gas Systems Onshore

TO-HQ-02-071

Philosophy for HSEQ Management Onshore

TO-HQ-02-072

Philosophy for Active Fire Protection Systems


Onshore

TO-HQ-02-075

Philosophy for Escape, Evacuation and Rescue


Onshore

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6.0

SYSTEM GOAL
The goal of the PFP Systems shall primarily be for the protection of personnel
in the event of a fire or explosion with secondary consideration being given to
the protection of plant and equipment combined with environmental protection
requirements.The PFP Systems shall achieve their goal by:

Protecting personnel on the installation against Hydrocarbon Fire


and jet fire

Preventing and/or containing explosions or delaying the event of


BLEVE on pressure vessels

Preventing the escalation of fires due to progressive release of


inventory, by separating designated Fire Areas

Protecting safety systems for sufficient time to enable them to carry


out their intended function

Protecting safety critical components such as vessels, spheres,


tanks, ESDVs, etc.

Minimising the likelihood of the collapse of tall structures and


equipment that can potentially cause escalation and/or impair Muster
Areas/shelters and escape facilities.

Protecting critical structural members and those associated members


essential to maintain the integrity of designated Muster Areas and
essential shelters

Protecting any section of escape routes to designated safe areas for


a predetermined time to allow safe escape from the area and to
enable essential emergency response activities to be carried out.

PFP may also be considered for the protection of equipment whose


failure in case of a local fire could cause extensive damage to the
environment and assets.

Note: This philosophy does not consider the Fire Rating requirements for
Remote inhabited buildings.
7.0

SYSTEM BOUNDARIES
The boundaries of the PFP Systems are with the following:

extent of designated Fire Areas and the plants physical boundaries

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8.0

interface with primary/secondary safety critical structures

interface with physical structural barriers; walls, decks, etc

interface to safety critical equipment and associated supports

DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
It is not intended that this philosophy be used retrospectively. It should be applied
to new facilities and to major modifications and/or extensions to existing
installations/plants. This philosophy applies specifically to onshore installations in
respect to:

Primary structure members and indoors structure members

Enclosures involved in Emergency Response or Escape, Evacuation


and Rescue

Enclosed process areas and outdoors partitions

Process and storage, vessels and tanks

Safety critical process pipework and Valve (ESDVs)

PFP Systems shall be generally designed in accordance with the provisions


detailed in ISO 13702, as applicable to onshore installations, in so far as that
all systems and equipment shall be suitable for their intended environment and
application and shall be supported with type approval certification evidence for
their major components. The installation of PFP Systems shall be such that
they protect the structure/equipment to a level appropriate to the expected fire
or explosion loadings for a duration defined as appropriate for the given
situation as determined by the Installation/Plant Fire and Explosion Risk
Analysis (FERA).
8.1

Risk Analysis
The decision to install PFP and the specification of the type of PFP to be
implemented shall be made following a risk analysis of major hazards and their
consequences to determine the degree of protection required for the duration of
the hazard.
In any case, the following rules shall apply:

PFP requirements for the purpose of life safety shall always be


implemented, regardless of local regulation

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PFP requirements for the protection of the environment shall be


implemented, but with due consideration of local conditions

PFP requirements for asset protection are not mandatory and should
be addressed by the project management team on a case by case
basis

The risk analysis should also identify the specific fire loading and duration,
which will be used to specify the appropriate PFP rating, in terms of the
following:

8.1.1

Cellulosic Fires A rated PFP

Hydrocarbon Pool Fires H rated PFP

Hydrocarbon Jet Fires J rated PFP

Functional Requirements
The fire resistance provided by a PFP System is expressed in terms of the
duration of protection that the system provides to the protected
structure/equipment before the first critical behaviour is observed. The choice of
PFP System should further consider the following factors:

Pre-fire durability resistance to weathering, vibration, chemicals, etc.

Fire performance flame spread characteristics, resistance to water


deluge, smoke and toxic products emission, etc.

Explosion resistance reaction to overpressure and drag forces

Installation requirements surface preparation, mode of application,


applicator qualifications, environmental conditions, coat back, etc.

The potential for corrosion under PFP

Weight constraints, where applicable

Certification refer to Section 8.1.4

Fire and explosion hazards, as determined in the plant FERA

Cost-Benefit analysis (refer to Document Number TO-HQ-02-071 Philosophy for HSEQ Management Onshore)

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8.1.2

Performance Criteria
In terms of Fire Rating, the structure, partition or equipment protected by a PFP
System must satisfy the following three criteria under the conditions identified
during the project FERA and for a prescribed duration suitable to achieve the
safety goals identified for the plant:

8.1.3

1.

Stability: the structure shall fulfil its load-bearing capacity (where


applicable) throughout the fire exposure period

2.

Integrity: partitions shall prevent the spread of flames and hot fumes
throughout the fire exposure period.

3.

Insulation: the unexposed side of partitions shall not reach surface


temperatures in excess of a certain level throughout the fire
exposure period. Insulation qualities are not always necessary.

Suitability
The performance criteria and suitability of all PFP Systems shall be assured and
supported by tests conducted by independent organisations.
Reliable test reports can be obtained from the following organisations; the list
is not intended to be exhaustive and is presented here for guidance only:
Australia

Australian Army Proof and Experimental Establishment, Australian


Maritime Agency

France

CNPB Laboratory

CSTB Laboratory

CTICM Laboratory

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Germany

Bundensanstalt fur Materialforshung und Prufing (BAM) Laboratory

United Kingdom

British Gas, Faverdale Technology Centre (FTC)

Fire Research Station and Building Research Establishment

Health and Safety Laboratories (HSL)

Shell Research UK

Southwest Research Institute (SRI)

Warrington Fire Research Centre (WFRC)

Netherlands

Netherlands Shipping Inspection

Norway

Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD)

SINTEF

USA

8.1.4

Department of Transportation

Factory Mutual Corporation (FMC)

Underwriters Laboratory (UL)

Southwest Research Institute (SRI)

Type Approval
Type approval of PFP materials is the issue of a certificate, based on the
findings of the testing identified in Section 8.1.3 above, stating that the
material certified is thus suitable for use in its intended application. Type
approval certification is issued by independent organisations known as
Certifying Authorities and those having international recognition are as follows:

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8.2

Lloyds Register of Shipping (LR)

American Bureau of Shipping (ABS)

Det Norske Veritas (DNV)

Germanisher Lloyd

Bureau Veritas (BV)

Design Criteria
The design criteria for the PFP Systems shall be defined with the sole purpose
of achieving the performance criteria of that which is being protected (refer to
Section 8.1.3).

8.2.1

Limiting Core Temperature


The stability of a structure is dependent on the materials limiting core
temperature. The typically accepted limiting steel core temperature for steel is
approximately 400oC however this is not definitive and depends on the
material/material grade and the accepted testing methods of the associated
testing laboratory.
Structural heat-up calculations are an accepted alternative to testing for
determining the limiting core temperature.

8.2.2

Maximum Allowable Surface Temperatures


Similarly to the limiting core temperature for structures, those items of equipment
deemed as requiring PFP will be addressed in terms of their maximum allowable
surface temperature, i.e. the temperature at which critical behaviour is observed.
The value of the maximum allowable surface temperature shall be equipment
specific depending on the goal setting criteria for particular plant/project.

8.2.3

PFP Thickness
The certificate of type approval for each PFP material will specify the required
material thickness and other installation requirements (refer to Section 8.1.1)
depending on the Fire Rating, fire type, limiting core temperature/maximum
allowable surface temperature and will be specific to the PFP material under
consideration.

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8.2.4

Duration
The required duration of protection (expressed in minutes) will depend on the
safety goals identified in section 6.0 and the findings of the FERA and EERA.

8.3

Types of Available PFP Systems


Generally speaking, there are two generic forms of PFP material for use in the
petrochemical industry, identified as being either active or inactive.
Active PFP undergoes chemical and physical changes when exposed to fire
whereas inactive materials do not.
The following are common types of PFP materials provided for information
purposes. The list is not exhaustive nor is it intended to recommend any
particular material over another as the decision should be made depending on
the intended application and engineering judgement.
Epoxies
Provide fire protection by active response to fire exposure, being either by
Intumescence or Sublimation (see Section 2.0 Definitions).
Cementitious
Inorganic cements provide fire protection firstly by means of dehydration of its
water content, effectively absorbing heat, and secondly by acting as a physical
insulation barrier.
Magnesium oxy-chloride cements undergo thermal hydrogenation (the
production of additional water) in the 130C to 300C range, effectively
increasing its fire performance.
High-density cement may be susceptible to spalling at elevated fire
temperatures.
Fibrous
Utilise the physical properties of either ceramic or mineral fibres, which are
prefabricated in panels or blankets and provide a physical insulation barrier
from cellulosic type fires.
Fibrous materials alone are not suitable for use as Hydrocarbon Fire
protection.

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The chosen PFP System shall be type approved in accordance with Section
8.1.4 and its choice based on the full understanding of the performance
requirements during both normal and fire events.
9.0

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The design of PFP Systems should take account of the following:

10.0

Life cycle costs as well as the capital cost, for example testing costs,
false trip costs, commissioning and modification costs

Human factors

Selection and positioning of the correct field equipment suitable for the
process and environmental conditions

The safety system shall provide protection for normal operation and for
the conditions that may arise from an abnormal condition

MAINTENANCE IN DESIGN
The PFP Systems shall be designed taking maintainability into consideration by
simplifying maintenance and reducing maintenance costs where practical.
There should be sufficient maintenance overrides to enable parts of the PFP
Systems to be maintained and tested minimising operational down time.
The PFP Systems should be designed to allow modifications and development to
be implemented whilst minimising disruption to the process.

11.0

DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS
The following project documents should be produced as a minimum to cover the
design of the safety system:
Front end engineering design (FEED):

Plant operational philosophy

Installation Fire and Explosion Risk Analysis (FERA)

Design specification for the PFP Systems (hardware and software)

Hierarchy drawing

Safe charts as per API 14C

Functional design specification of PFP Systems

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Detailed design:

12.0

Documents listed under FEED above

General arrangement drawings

PFP System layout drawings identifying the type, extent and thickness
of proposed PFP material

Vendors fire certification evidence of the propose system

Supporting calculations for heat transmission through structural


members where appropriate

Redundancy/structural collapse analysis to determine those structural


members that require PFP when subjected to elevated temperatures.

CERTIFYING AUTHORITY REVIEW REQUIREMENTS


In the case where independent third part certification is required, the Certifying
Authority (CA) will require as a minimum the following documents for review:

Basis of Design Document

Functional design specification

PFP System layout drawings

PFP System interface details

PFP System calculations Hp/A values for structural members

PFP System type approval certification (as appropriate)

These should be issued to the CA in a timely manner to obtain approval before


commencing construction.

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