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Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.

4 Moving About Program

COURSE:

Preliminary Physics

MODULE:

8.4

Updated August 2007

Page 1

Moving About

SUGGESTED TIME: 28 indicative hours.


CONTEXTUAL OUTLINE
Increased access to transport is a feature of todays society. Most people access some form of transport for travel to and from school or work and for leisure
outings at weekends or on holidays. When describing journeys that they may have taken in buses or trains, they usually do so in terms of time or their starting
point and their destination. When describing trips they may have taken in planes or cars, they normally use the time it takes, distance covered or the speed of the
vehicle as their reference points. While distance, time and speed are fundamental to the understanding of kinematics and dynamics, very few people consider a
trip in terms of energy, force or the momentum associated with the vehicle, even at low or moderate speeds.
The faster a vehicle is travelling, the further it will go before it is able to stop. Major damage can be done to other vehicles and to the human body in collisions,
even at low speeds. This is because during a collision some or all of the vehicles kinetic energy is dissipated through the vehicle and the object with which it
collides. Further, the materials from which vehicles are constructed do not deform or bend as easily as the human body. Technological advances and systematic
study of vehicle crashes have increased understanding of the interactions involved, the potential resultant damage and possible ways of reducing the effects of
collisions. There are many safety devices now installed in or on vehicles, including seat belts and air bags. Modern road design takes into account ways in which
vehicles can be forced to reduce their speed.
This module increases students understanding of the nature and practice of physics and the implications of physics for society and the environment.
Assumed Knowledge
Domain: knowledge and understanding:
Refer to the Science Stages 45 Syllabus for the following:
5.6.2a describe qualitatively the relationship between force, mass and acceleration
5.6.2b explain qualitatively the relationship between distance, speed and time
5.6.2c relate qualitatively acceleration to change in speed and/or direction as a result of a net force
5.6.2d analyse qualitatively common situations involving motion in terms of Newtons Laws.

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program

Updated August 2007

Page 2

Outcomes
P2
P4
P6
P7
P11
P12
P13
P14
P15
P16

applies the processes that are used to test and validate models, theories and laws of science with particular emphasis on first-hand investigations in
physics
describes applications of physics which affect society or the environment
describes the forces acting on an object which cause changes in its motion
describes the effects of energy transfers and energy transformations
justifies the appropriateness of a particular investigation plan
evaluates ways in which accuracy and reliability could be improved in investigations
uses terminology and reporting styles appropriately and successfully to communicate information and understanding
assesses the validity of conclusions from gathered data and information
explains why an investigation is best undertaken individually or by a team
justifies positive values about and attitudes towards both the living and non-living components of the environment, ethical behaviour and a desire for
critical evaluation of the consequences of the applications of science

Sense of the Sacred


Student will appreciate how an understanding of motion and its impact on society affects our daily lives and can improve the lives of others.

Glossary
Acceleration
Air bag
Average
Centrifugal
Centripetal
Crumple zone
Displacement

Field
Force
Gravity
Harness seatbelt
Impulse
Inertia
Inertial reel safety belt

Instantaneous
Lap sash seatbelt
Lap seatbelt
Mass
Matter
Momentum
Phenomena

Scalar
Speed
Vector
Weight

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program

Updated August 2007

Page 3

Concept Map
Speedometer

Velocity

Acceleration

Speed

Scalar
s

Time
Distance

Vectors

Air Resistance

Inerti
a
Force

Mass

Friction
Seat Belts

Kinetic
Energy

Speed Humps
CrumpleZones
Bull Bars

Collisions

Weight

Momentum

Impulse

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program

Updated August 2007

Page 4

OUTCOMES / ASSESSMENT OPPORTUNITIES


The following tasks are provided as samples that could be used throughout the module.
In general, however it is unlikely that more than 1 task would ever be used.

TASK

DESCRIPTION

P2

P4

P6

P7

Construct a concept map of "What makes a safe


car?

Analysis of presented graphical data on accident


injury trends and development in car safety
devices.

Vector analysis to determine resultant forces,


motion, momentum changes.

Open ended investigation intothe effectiveness of


a range of safety features incorporated into
modern cars.

Design an investigation into the dangers of loose


objects in moving vehicles.

From presented video, a critique of another class's


experimental procedure for modelling the function
of a car safety device.

P11 P12 P13

P14

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program

Updated August 2007

Page 5

MODULE REFERENCES
REFERENCES
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
T9

Project Physics Book 1, pp 1-42 ISBN 0-7253-0125-2


Project Physics Reader 1, Concepts of Motion ISBN 0-7253-0143-0
Physics, The Forces of Life, pp 13-39
Physics for a Modern World, Bunn, ISBN 0 7016 2602 x
Advanced Physics, Ling et al (ed.), pp 12-45, Longman ISBN 0-582-35596-6
Physics Outlines, N.G. Warren, pages 3-24 ISBN 0 08 034438 0
Project Physics Book 1, 9-49 ISBN 0 7253 0128 7
Microsoft Encarta Encyclopaedia
College Physics, Miller, pages 9-67, ISBN, 0 15 511732 7

Useful Programs
P1
P2

Vidshell http://webphysics.tec.nh.us/vidshell/clips.html is an excellent motion analysis program (although it's a 12Mb download). It's absolutely great if
you've got a camera that can take AVI or Quicktime movies, but there's already a substantial database of various types of motion to choose from.
Physics Collisions (PHYSCOLS) http://esca.atomki.hu/paradise/sac/educult.html simulates particles colliding with each other.

Websites
W1
W2
W3
W4
W5
W6
W7
W8
W9
W10
W11
W12
W13
W14

http://www.atsb.gov.au/road/indxf/index.cfm The Australian Transport Safety Bureau has a large amount of information and statistics. Very useful.
http://www.exploratorium.edu/iron_science/qt.html The iron science teacher displays movies of various events. Check the schedule but it is demanding
on bandwidth.
http://eruditio.asu.edu/~smckeeve/scilinkphys.html Science Link indexes many other useful sites on motion.
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/mmedia/newtlaws/il.html Multimedia Physics Studios has a "Truck and Ladder" animation showing inertia.
http://www.ihpva.org/hpva/hpvarech.html The Human Powered Vehicle Association displays all records achieved by humans in motion.
http://www.landspeed.com/historylsr.html Challenging the World Land Speed Record essay.
http://members.aol.com/CErick5563/physics/crumple.html Crumple Zones in Automobiles. Excellent site with good links to car manufacturers.
http://www1.tpgi.com.au/users/mpaine/roadsafe.html#vehicles Road Safety Web links Australia and Worldwide. Excellent site.
http://www1.tpgi.com.au/users/mpaine/Speed.html#speed - Devices to help drivers control their speed. Good site.
http://www1.tpgi.com.au/users/mpaine/4wd.html#bullbar - Costs of Four Wheel Drive Ownership. Good article on bullbars.
http://www1.tpgi.com.au/users/mpaine/Rollover.html - Physics of Rollover Crashes. Good animations of rollovers and explanations.
http://www.raru.adelaide.edu.au/hazards/index.html - Severe and Fatal Car Crashes Due to Roadside Hazards. The title says it all.
http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/physics/u1f3phy.html - Newton's Laws of Motion tutorial. Good coverage of the basic concepts.
http://www.pbs.org./wgbh/nova/escape/timecar.html Nova Online has an excellent summary of the safety features of cars.

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program

Videos
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5

Physics of a Fun Park


Projectiles (Classroom Video)
1474 Physics of Car crashes
241 Physics of Motion
978 Newtons Laws Quantum 29/3/93

Journals / Articles
J1

R54638
R49819
R45347

Updated August 2007

Page 6

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program


Outcomes
P2 applies the processes that
are used to test and validate
models, theories and laws of
science with particular
emphasis on first-hand
investigations in physics
P6 describes the forces
acting on an object which
cause changes in its motion

Updated August 2007

Students Learn About / Learn To:

1. Vehicles do not typically travel at a constant speed


identify that a typical journey involves speed changes

Page 7
Reg.

Teaching / Learning Strategies


Suggested Time: 1 hour
challenge students to analyse their mode of
transport to and from school. (SOS, lit)
challenge students to make estimates of time
taken to make certain journeys.
Estimate the number of speed changes a student
may make travelling to school.

Key Policy implementation


SOS Sense of the Sacred
GT Gifted and Talented
ab aboriginality
tech technology
ESL English as a Second Language
lit - Literacy
ns non-sexist
SE Special Education
num - Numeracy

Resources
T1-T9
P1-P2
W1-W14
V1-V5

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program


Outcomes
Students Learn About / Learn To:
P2 applies the processes that
are used to test and validate
models, theories and laws of
science with particular
emphasis on first-hand
investigations in physics
P6 describes the forces
acting on an object which
cause changes in its motion
P11 identifies and
implements improvements
to investigation plans
(P11.2a, b; P11.3a, c)
P12 discusses the validity
and reliability of data
gathered from first-hand
investigations and secondary
sources (P12.2a, b, c;
P12.3a, b, c, d)
P13 identifies appropriate
terminology and reporting
styles to communicate
information and
understanding in physics
(P13.1a-h)
P14 draws valid conclusions
from gathered data and
information (P14.3a, b, c)

Updated August 2007

distinguish between the instantaneous and average speed of


vehicles and other bodies
compare instantaneous and average speed with instantaneous and
average velocity
r
define average velocity as vav
t
plan, choose equipment or resources for, and perform a first-hand
investigation to measure the average speed of an object or a vehicle by
o demonstrate the use of the terms dependent and independent to
describe variables involved in the investigation (11.2a)
o identify variables that needed to be kept constant, develop strategies to
ensure that these variables are kept constant, and demonstrate the
use of a control (11.2b)
o design investigations that allow valid and reliable data and information
to be collected (11.2c)
o describe and trial procedures to undertake investigations and explain
why a procedure, a sequence of procedures or the repetition of
procedures is appropriate (11.2d)
o predict possible issues that may arise during the course of an
investigation and identify strategies to address these issues if
necessary (11.2e)
o identifying and/or setting up the most appropriate equipment or
combination of equipment needed to undertake the investigation
(11.3a)
o carrying out a risk assessment of intended experimental procedures
and identifying and addressing potential hazards (11.3b)
o identifying technology that would be used during investigation
determining its suitability and effectiveness for its potential role in the
procedure or investigation (11.3c)
o carrying out the planned procedure, recognising where and when
modifications are needed and analysing the effect of these adjustments
(12.1a)
o identifying and using safe work practices during investigations (12.1d)

Reg.

Page 8
Teaching / Learning Strategies
Suggested Time: 3 hours
Use the formula v = s/t to solve problems (num)
write definitions and give examples for
instantaneous and average speed
Research using the internet and other sources of
information the operation of a speedometer of a
motor vehicle. Write a 1 page report.(Exp. 4;
Speedometers) (lit)
Students work in small groups to plan their own
investigation to determine the average speed of
an object. Students are to then swap
investigations so that their results can be verified
by others
Students complete experiment 2 or 3, drawing
displacement/time, velocity/time graphs for the
motion of the objects.
Students complete Interpreting motion graphs
Mastery Tests.
Students complete velocity/time assignment
sheet.

Resources
T1-T9
P1-P2
W1-W14
V1-V5

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program


Outcomes
Students Learn About / Learn To:

Updated August 2007

r
v av
t
solve problems and analyse information using the formula
where r = displacement, by
identify trends, patterns and relationships as well as contradictions in
data and information (14.1a)
o identify and explain how data supports or refutes an hypothesis, a
prediction or a proposed solution to a problem (14.1c)
o use models, including mathematical ones, to explain phenomena
and/or make predictions (14.1f)
o design and produce creative solutions to problems (14.3a)
o propose ideas that demonstrate coherence and logical progression and
include correct use of scientific principles and ideas (14.3b)
o apply critical thinking in the consideration of predictions, hypotheses
and the results of investigations (14.3c)
o Formulate cause and effect relationships (14.3d)
o present information graphically of:

displacement vs time

velocity vs time
for objects with uniform and non-uniform linear velocity by
o using symbols and formulae to express relationships and using
appropriate units for physical quantities (13.1d)
o using a variety of pictorial representations to show relationships and
present information clearly and succinctly (13.1e)
o selecting and drawing appropriate graphs to convey information and
relationships clearly and accurately (13.1f)
o

Reg.

Page 9
Teaching / Learning Strategies

Resources

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program


Outcomes
Students Learn About / Learn To:
P11 identifies and
implements improvements
to investigation plans
P12 discusses the validity
and reliability of data
gathered from first-hand
investigations and secondary
sources (P12.2a, b, c;
P12.3a, b, c, d)

Updated August 2007

distinguish between scalar and vector quantities in equations


identify the usefulness of using vector diagrams to assist solving
problems.
plan, choose equipment or resources for and perform a first hand
investigation to demonstrate vector addition and subtraction by
o demonstrate the use of the terms dependent and independent to
describe variables involved in the investigation (11.2a)
o identify variables that needed to be kept constant, develop strategies to
ensure that these variables are kept constant, and demonstrate the
use of a control (11.2b)
o design investigations that allow valid and reliable data and information
to be collected (11.2c)
o describe and trial procedures to undertake investigations and explain
why a procedure, a sequence of procedures or the repetition of
procedures is appropriate (11.2d)
o predict possible issues that may arise during the course of an
investigation and identify strategies to address these issues if
necessary (11.2e)
o identifying and/or setting up the most appropriate equipment or
combination of equipment needed to undertake the investigation
(11.3a)
o carrying out a risk assessment of intended experimental procedures
and identifying and addressing potential hazards (11.3b)
o identifying technology that would be used during investigation
determining its suitability and effectiveness for its potential role in the
procedure or investigation (11.3c)
o carrying out the planned procedure, recognising where and when
modifications are needed and analysing the effect of these adjustments
(12.1a)
o identifying and using safe work practices during investigations (12.1d)
solve problems using vector diagrams to determine resultant velocity,
acceleration and force by
o identify trends, patterns and relationships as well as contradictions in
data and information (14.1a)
o identify and explain how data supports or refutes an hypothesis, a
prediction or a proposed solution to a problem (14.1c)
o use models, including mathematical ones, to explain phenomena
and/or make predictions (14.1f).

Reg.

Page 10
Teaching / Learning Strategies
Suggested Time: 2 hours
Write definitions for scalar and vector quantities
and list examples for each.
Read and summarise information contained in
worksheets. Solve problems using scalar and
vector analysis. (lit, ESL)
State that velocity is the vector equivalent of
speed.
Answer problems involving speed and velocity.
(num)
Complete the worksheets on relative motion.

Resources
T1-T9
P1-P2
W1-W14
V1-V5

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program


Outcomes
Students Learn About / Learn To:

Updated August 2007

2. An analysis of the external forces on vehicles helps to understand


the effects of acceleration and deceleration

Reg.

Page 11
Teaching / Learning Strategies

Resources

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program


Outcomes
Students Learn About / Learn To:
P6 describes the forces
acting on an object which
cause changes in its motion
P11 identifies and
implements improvements
to investigation plans
(P11.2a, b, c; P11.3a, b, c)
P12 discusses the validity
and reliability of data
gathered from first-hand
investigations and secondary
sources (P12.3a, b, c, d)

Updated August 2007

describe the motion of one body relative to another.


explain the need for a net external force to act in order to change
the velocity of an object
gather first-hand information about different situations where acceleration
is positive or negative and use vector diagrams to represent acceleration
by
o using appropriate data collection techniques, employing appropriate
technologies, including data loggers and sensors (12.2a)
o measuring, observing and recording results in accessible and
recognisable forms, carrying out repeat trials as appropriate (12.2b)
plan, choose equipment or resources for, and perform first-hand
investigations to gather data and use available evidence to show the
relationship between force, mass and acceleration using suitable
apparatus by
o demonstrate the use of the terms dependent and independent to
describe variables involved in the investigation (11.2a)
o identify variables that needed to be kept constant, develop strategies to
ensure that these variables are kept constant, and demonstrate the
use of a control (11.2b)
o design investigations that allow valid and reliable data and information
to be collected (11.2c)
o describe and trial procedures to undertake investigations and explain
why a procedure, a sequence of procedures or the repetition of
procedures is appropriate (11.2d)
o predict possible issues that may arise during the course of an
investigation and identify strategies to address these issues if
necessary (11.2e)
o identifying and/or setting up the most appropriate equipment or
combination of equipment needed to undertake the investigation
(11.3a)
o carrying out a risk assessment of intended experimental procedures
and identifying and addressing potential hazards (11.3b)
o carrying out the planned procedure, recognising where and when
modifications are needed and analysing the effect of these adjustments
(12.1a)
o identifying and using safe work practices during investigations (12.1d)

Reg.

Page 12
Teaching / Learning Strategies
Suggested Time: 3 hours
Solve problems involving the determination of
acceleration.
Solve problems using the formula F = ma.
Complete the experiment Understanding
Forces.
Write a definition stating that an object
accelerates when it changes its speed or
direction.
Write Newtons second Law in both words and
symbols, then use Newtons second law to derive
the formula F=ma. (lit)
Students use a variety of objects, e.g. trolleys,
toy boats in basin of water to simulate situations
in which acceleration may be positive or
negative. Draw vector diagrams for each
situation to show acceleration. (num)
Students observe trolleys travelling in straight
line motion across a bench, then attempt to
change their velocity by applying a net external
force. Student write a brief explanation showing
why the force was required. (lit, ESL)
Students design their own investigation by (G &
T, lit, tech, num)

identifying the dependent and independent


variables

selecting appropriate equipment

setting up equipment

collecting appropriate data.

Identify any changes needed for the


method

implement the changes.

using known forces and measuring the


acceleration of a given object the students
should be able to determine the mass of
the object from a graph of the results

Resources
T1-T9
P1-P2
W1-W14
V1-V5

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program


Outcomes
Students Learn About / Learn To:
P6 describes the forces
acting on an object which
cause changes in its motion
P13 identifies appropriate
terminology and reporting
styles to communicate
information and
understanding in physics
(P13.1a-g)
P14 draws valid conclusions
from gathered data and
information (P14.3a, b, c)

Updated August 2007

describe the actions that must be taken for a vehicle to change


direction, speed up and slow down
describe the typical effects of external forces on bodies including:

friction between surfaces

air resistance
define
r average acceleration
r asr
r
vu
r
V
a
a
t
t therefore
define the terms mass and weight with reference to the effects of
gravity
outline the forces involved in causing a change in the velocity of a
vehicle when:

coasting with no pressure on the accelerator

pressing on the accelerator

pressing on the brakes

passing over an icy patch on the road

climbing and descending hills

following a curve in the road


interpret Newtons
Second Law of Motion and relate it to the
r
av

av

equation F ma
identify the net force in a wide variety of situations involving modes
of transport to explain the consequences of the application of that
net force in terms of Newtons Second Law of Motion
present and process information to analyse the origins and effects of
external forces operating on a vehicle by
o identify and apply appropriate mathematical formulae and concepts
(12.4b)
o evaluate the validity of first-hand and secondary information and
data in relation to the area of investigation (12.4d)
o assess the reliability of first-hand and secondary information and
data by considering information from various sources (12.4e)
o assess the accuracy of scientific information presented in mass
media by comparison with similar information presented in scientific
journals (12.4f)
o selecting and using appropriate methods to acknowledge sources
of information (13.1c)

Reg.

Page 13
Teaching / Learning Strategies
Suggested Time: 2 hours
Write a short passage describing how students
accelerate, decelerate and steer a car. (lit, ESL)
Observe the surface of a bicycle or car tyre, write
a passage to explain why the surface has been
made this way.
Students work in small groups to research
information about the forces acting on a vehicle
for one of the situations listed in the previous
column. The students are to draw a diagram
showing the relevant forces and write a brief
explanation (SOS, lit)
Write definitions for both mass and weight.
Use diagrams to help illustrate the difference
between mass and weight.

Resources
T1-T9
P1-P2
W1-W14
V1-V5

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program


Outcomes
Students Learn About / Learn To:

Updated August 2007

r
r
solve problems and analyse information using F ma for a range of
situations AND
solve problems and analyse information involving F = mv2/r for vehicles
travelling around curves by
o identify trends, patterns and relationships as well as contradictions
in data and information (14.1a)
o identify and explain how data supports or refutes an hypothesis, a
prediction or a proposed solution to a problem (14.1c)
o use models, including mathematical ones, to explain phenomena
and/or make predictions (14.1f)
o design and produce creative solutions to problems (14.3a)
o propose ideas that demonstrate coherence and logical progression
and include correct use of scientific principles and ideas (14.3b)
o apply critical thinking in the consideration of predictions,
hypotheses and the results of investigations (14.3c)
o Formulate cause and effect relationships (14.3d)
3. Moving vehicles have kinetic energy and energy transformations
are an important aspect in understanding motion

Reg.

Page 14
Teaching / Learning Strategies

Resources

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program


Outcomes
Students Learn About / Learn To:
P7 describes the effects of
energy transfers and energy
transformations
P14 draws valid conclusions
from gathered data and
information (P14.1a-h;
P14.2a, b; P14.3a, b, c)

Updated August 2007

identify that a moving object possesses kinetic energy and that


work done on that object can increase that energy.
describe the energy transformations that occur in collisions.
define the law of conservation of energy
solve problems and analyse information to determine the kinetic energy

1
2
Ek mv
2
of a vehicle and the work done using the formulae:

and
w=Fs by
o identify trends, patterns and relationships as well as contradictions
in data and information (14.1a)
o identify and explain how data supports or refutes an hypothesis, a
prediction or a proposed solution to a problem (14.1c)
o use models, including mathematical ones, to explain phenomena
and/or make predictions (14.1f)
o design and produce creative solutions to problems (14.3a)
o propose ideas that demonstrate coherence and logical progression
and include correct use of scientific principles and ideas (14.3b)
o apply critical thinking in the consideration of predictions,
hypotheses and the results of investigations (14.3c)\
o Formulate cause and effect relationships (14.3d)
analyse information to trace the energy transfers and transformation in
collisions leading to irreversible distortions by
o identify trends, patterns and relationships as well as contradictions
in data and information (14.1a)
o identify and explain how data supports or refutes an hypothesis, a
prediction or a proposed solution to a problem (14.1c)
o use models, including mathematical ones, to explain phenomena
and/or make predictions (14.1f)
4. Change of momentum relates to the forces acting on the vehicle or
the driver

Reg.

Page 15
Teaching / Learning Strategies
Suggested Time: 2 hours
List the different forms of energy and draw
simple flow charts showing energy conversions
Brainstorm a list of moving objects and state that
they posses kinetic energy.
Draw flowcharts to illustrate the energy
conversions that take place during a vehicle
collision. (lit, num)
Write a brief description for each energy
conversion.
Plot a line graph of speed against kinetic energy
of moving vehicle.
Identify the basic relationship between speed and
kinetic energy of moving objects.
Identify the relationship that the faster an object
is moving the the more serious an accident is
likely to be.
Research information on the physics of car
crashes. (lit)
Identify methods used by manufacturers to
absorb the energy of the moving vehicles during
collisions.

Resources
T1-T9
P1-P2
W1-W14
V1-V5

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program


Outcomes
Students Learn About / Learn To:
P6 describes the forces
acting on an object which
cause changes in its motion
P11 identifies and
implements improvements
to investigation plans
(P11.2a, b, d; P11.3a)
P14 draws valid conclusions
from gathered data and
information (P14.2a;
P14.3a, b, c)

Updated August 2007

r
r
define momentum as p mv
define impulse as the product of force and time
explain why momentum is conserved in collisions in terms of
Newtons Third Law of Motion.
rsolverproblems and analyse
secondary data using
r
p mv and Impulse F t by
perform first-hand investigations to gather data and analyse the change
in momentum during collisions by
o carrying out the planned procedure, recognising where and when
modifications are needed and analysing the effect of these
adjustments (12.1a)
o identifying and using safe work practices during investigations
(12.1d)
o using symbols and formulae to express relationships and using
appropriate units for physical quantities (13.1d)
o using a variety of pictorial representations to show relationships
and present information clearly and succinctly (13.1e)
o selecting and drawing appropriate graphs to convey information
and relationships clearly and accurately (13.1f)
o justify inferences and conclusions (14.1b)
o identify and explain how data supports or refutes an hypothesis, a
prediction or a proposed solution to a problem (14.1c)
o predict outcomes and generate plausible explanations related to
the observations (14.1d)
o make and justify generalisations (14.1e)

Reg.

Page 16
Teaching / Learning Strategies
Suggested Time: 2 hours
Write out Newtons Third Law of Motion.
Draw a series of diagrams illustrating Newtons
Third Law. (lit, num)
Write a definition for momentum in both words
and formula.
State the correct units for momentum.
Write a definition for impulse in both words and
formula.
Complete worksheets on both momentum and
impulse.
Write an explanation showing why momentum is
conserved during a collision. (lit)

Resources
T1-T9
P1-P2
W1-W14
V1-V5

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program


Outcomes
Students Learn About / Learn To:

Updated August 2007

solve problems that apply the principle of conservation of momentum to


qualitatively and quantitatively describe the collision of a moving vehicle
with:

a stationary vehicle

an immovable object.

another vehicle moving in the opposite direction

another vehicle moving in the same direction by


o identify trends, patterns and relationships as well as contradictions
in data and information (14.1a)
o identify and explain how data supports or refutes an hypothesis, a
prediction or a proposed solution to a problem (14.1c)
o use models, including mathematical ones, to explain phenomena
and/or make predictions (14.1f)
o design and produce creative solutions to problems (14.3a)
o propose ideas that demonstrate coherence and logical progression
and include correct use of scientific principles and ideas (14.3b)
o apply critical thinking in the consideration of predictions,
hypotheses and the results of investigations (14.3c)
o Formulate cause and effect relationships (14.3d)
5. Safety devices are utilised to reduce the effects of changing
momentum

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Page 17
Teaching / Learning Strategies

Resources

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program


Outcomes
Students Learn About / Learn To:
P6 describes the forces
acting on an object which
cause changes in its motion
P7 describes the effects of
energy transfers and energy
transformations

Updated August 2007

define the inertia of a vehicle as its tendency to remain in uniform


motion or at rest
discuss reasons why Newtons First Law of Motion is not apparent
in many real world situations

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Page 18
Teaching / Learning Strategies
Suggested Time: 1 hour
Write a definition for inertia.
Write Newtons First Law.
Students work in small groups to list examples of
Newtons First Law
Explain the relationship between Newtons First
Law and inertia.
Students brainstorm reasons why Newtons First
Law is not apparent in normal everyday
situations.
Students suggest instances in which Newtons
First Law could be seen or closely approximated
to.
Students research and write a definition for
friction.
Students work in small groups to prepare a table
listing, a) possible examples of friction between
surfaces in the operation of a car and b) examples
of air resistance which affect the operation of a
car. For each example list the positive and
negative effects. (lit, ESL)

Resources
T1-T9
P1-P2
W1-W14
V1-V5

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program


Outcomes
Students Learn About / Learn To:
P3 assesses the impact of
particular technological
advances on understanding
in physics
P4 describes applications of
physics which affect society
or the environment
P6 describes the forces
acting on an object which
cause changes in its motion
P11 identifies and
implements improvements
to investigation plans
(P11.2a, b, c; P11.3a, b, c, d)
P14 draws valid conclusions
from gathered data and
information (P14.3a, b, c)

Updated August 2007

evaluate the effectiveness of some safety feature of motor vehicles.


assess the reasons for the introduction of low speed zones and in
built up areas and the addition of air bags and crumple zones to
vehicles with respect to the concepts of impulse and momentum.
identify data sources, plan, choose equipment or resources for, and
gather and process first-hand data and/or secondary information and
analyse information about the potential danger presented by loose
objects in a vehicle by
o demonstrate the use of the terms dependent and independent to
describe variables involved in the investigation (11.2a)
o identify variables that needed to be kept constant, develop
strategies to ensure that these variables are kept constant, and
demonstrate the use of a control (11.2b)
o design investigations that allow valid and reliable data and
information to be collected (11.2c)
o describe and trial procedures to undertake investigations and
explain why a pr ocedure, a sequence of procedures or the
repetition of procedures is appropriate (11.2d)
o predict possible issues that may arise during the course of an
investigation and identify strategies to address these issues if
necessary (11.2e)
o identifying and/or setting up the most appropriate equipment or
combination of equipment needed to undertake the investigation
(11.3a)
o carrying out a risk assessment of intended experimental
procedures and identifying and addressing potential hazards
(11.3b)
o identifying technology that would be used during investigation
determining its suitability and effectiveness for its potential role in
the procedure or investigation (11.3c)
o carrying out the planned procedure, recognising where and when
modifications are needed and analysing the effect of these
adjustments (12.1a)
o identifying and using safe work practices during investigations
(12.1d)

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Page 19
Teaching / Learning Strategies
Suggested Time: 4 hours
Brainstorm some of the safety features present in
modern cars and road design which have made
travel safer. (SOS, G & T, lit)
Students should work in small groups to research
the reasons for the introduction and use of low
speed zones, crumple zones and bull bars. From
their findings students should assess whether the
reasons for using these safety features were valid
in all conditions. (SOS, lit)
Students design their own investigation by (G &
T, lit, num)

identifying the dependent and independent


variables

selecting appropriate equipment

setting up equipment

collecting appropriate data.

Identify any changes needed for the


method

implement the changes.


Students are to work in groups to collect
information available from a variety of sources to
assess the function of inertia reel safety belts.
Students are to work in small groups to research
information on the effectiveness of lap, lap sash
and harness safety belts.
Students should work in small groups to
brainstorm a list of all the safety features built
into modern cars. These features should be
researched and listed in a table, a brief
explanation of the physics behind each feature
should be provided in the table. The students
should develop a method of ranking the
effectiveness of each safety feature.
The students should work in small groups to
present the findings from the activity listed above
to the class.
Class polar debate: It is the drivers
responsibility to ensure that all passengers are
wearing their seat belt correctly (SOS)

Resources
T1-T9
P1-P2
W1-W14
V1-V5

Domremy Program Stage 6 Physics 8.4 Moving About Program


Outcomes
Students Learn About / Learn To:

Updated August 2007

identify data sources, gather, process, analyse, present secondary


information and use the available evidence to assess benefits of
technologies for avoiding or reducing the effect of a collision by
o accessing information from a range of resources, including popular
scientific journals, digital technologies and the Internet (12.3a)
o extracting information from numerical data in graphs and tables as
well as written and spoken material in all its forms (12.3c)
o summarising and collating information from a range of resources
(12.3d)
o identifying practising male and female Australian scientists, and the
areas in which they are currently working and in formation about
their research (12.3e)
o identify and apply appropriate mathematical formulae and concepts
(12.4b)
o evaluate the validity of first-hand and secondary information and
data in relation to the area of investigation (12.4d)
o assess the reliability of first-hand and secondary information and
data by considering information from various sources (12.4e)
o assess the accuracy of scientific information presented in mass
media by comparison with similar information presented in scientific
journals (12.4f)
o selecting and using appropriate methods to acknowledge sources
of information (13.1c)

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Page 20
Teaching / Learning Strategies

Resources

Program Evaluation Sheet


Program: 8.4 Moving About

Stage/Course: Physics

Please comment where appropriate on the strengths and weaknesses of this Program. Factors that
should be considered include:

1. Time allocation: __________________________________________________


2. PFAs:
____________________________________________________________________
3. Domains: Knowledge and Understanding:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
Domains: Skills:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
4. Context:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
5. Cross-curricular activities are appropriate (Stage 4/5 only)
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
6. Lesson sequence is appropriate:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
7. Teaching strategies:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
8. Improvements:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
9. Assessment:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Please use the other side of this sheet for any further comment