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MANAGING &

LEADING PRICIPLES
Prepared By:
Ashraf S. Youssef, Ph. D.
Quality Assurance Manager
S.M. ASQ,
S SQ, L.A. BSI,
S , M. ELI,, M. EMS
S

February 22,
22, 2009

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Agenda

1 Leader ship Theories


1.
2. Learning to Lead
3. LEAD Teams.
4. Ten Essentials of Teamwork

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1
Leadership Theories

• Traits
‰ Those that don’t change readily, e.g., height, gender
‰ Those that change with difficulty, values
‰ Those that can be developed
• Leadership Styles
‰ Orientation to people
‰ Task orientation
• Contingency—leader’s style needs to adapt to the context
• “New” leadership such as transformational or connective
lleaders
d

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Steven Rhinesmith (2000)

1. Managing competitiveness by looking at the


"big
big picture"
picture
2. Managing complexity
3. Managing alignment
4. Managing change
5. Managing teams
6. Managing learning by being open and
learning globally

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2
Black, Morrison, and Gregersen (1999)

1. Inquisitiveness
2 An
2. A ability
bilit tto embrace
b d
duality
lit
3. Character to develop trust and
goodwill among people from different
cultural backgrounds
4. “Savvy" that allows a leader to see
what needs to be done and marshall
resources for accomplishment

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Rosen, Digh, Singer and Phillips (2000)

1. Personal literacy including understanding self


and one's own limitations and abilities
2. Social literacy to assemble strong teams and
unleash collective strength
3. Business literacy including understanding the
organization and its environment
4. Cultural literacy includes knowing about and
leveraging culture differences

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3
McCall and Hollenbeck (2002)

1. Open-minded and flexible in thinking and


tactics pursued
2. Cultural interest and sensitivity
3. Ability to deal with complexity
4. Resilience, resourcefulness, optimism, and
energy
5. Honesty and integrity
6. A stable personal life
7. Technical or business skills

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Global Leadership
Attributes and Theories
• A global mindset—a way of thinking that looks beyond self and
immediate circumstances—trait; new leader

• Know the bbusiness and its eenvironment—know the


environment, savvy, big picture thinking, alignment—contingency
alignment contingency

• Create and convey a clear vision with integrity —clear sense of


purpose; convey to others;character; honesty; integrity—trait,
leadership style

• Develop self- awariness and understanding—personal literacy;


self-knowledge; reflection—trait; new leader

• Manage diversity—diverse
diversity diverse groups and structures; people from
many backgrounds—leadership style, trait

• Continuously learn—inquisitiveness; being open to others and to


new information; leader and learner—new leader

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4
Leading and Managing

• Leaders envision; managers get the job done.


This might mean different functions such as:
Leader Manager
Manage Manage
symbols results
Provide Follow
direction directions
See See
possibilities problems

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Middle Management

• Pressures from the topp and


organizational downsizing have
increased the size, scope, and
importance of the middle managers'
role

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5
Attributes for the Global Managers

1. A global mindset
2. An ability to work as an equal with persons of diverse backgrounds
3
3. A long-term
l t orientation
i t ti
4. The ability to facilitate organizational learning
5. The ability to create learning systems
6. The ability to motivate employees to excellence
7. Skill in negotiation and an ability to approach conflict in a
collaborative mode
8. Skillful choices and assignments for managers worldwide
9. The ability to lead and participate effectively in multicultural teams
10. An understanding of one's
one s own cultural values and assumptions
11. An ability to profile the organizational and national culture of others
with accuracy
12. Avoidance of cultural mistakes and ability to behave in an
appropriate manner in all countries
Moran and Riesenberger (1994):

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Attributes for the Global Managers

• Global perspective
• Local responsiveness
• Synergistic learning that makes it
possible to work with and learn from
people from many cultures
• An ability to collaborate with others on
an equal basis

Adler and Bartholomew (1992)

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6
Attributes for the Global Managers

• Can be from any country


• Typically speaks more than one language
fluently
• Has lived and worked in more than one
country
• Often has a passport from more than one
country
• Freq entl the child of parents who
Frequently ho are from
different nations

Ohmae (1990)

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Managerial Attributes in Europe

The European style of management differs from U.S. and


Japanese management styles on the basis of four
characteristics:
1 A greater orientation
1. i i toward d peoplel as iindividuals
di id l
2. A higher level of internal negotiations between
superordinates and subordinates
3. Greater skills at managing international diversity and
4. An enhanced ability to manage between extremes like
short-run versus long-run goals
Roland Calori and Bruno Dufour (1995)

In Europe, the most admired senior managers are


humane, professional, determined, close to
employees, and communicate well (Brown, 1994)

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7
Leadership skills that
liberate, inspire and
motivate powerful
performance at every
level of the organization!

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?
?
What pressures are causing
organizations to change
the way they do business?

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8
Market Pressure

• Changing customer expectations

• New
N ttechnologies
h l i

• Emerging markets

• More competitors

• IInterdependent
t d d t global
l b l economies
i

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Market Pressure

• Frequent mergers & acquisitions, strategic


alliances
lli

• Complex and ever-changing market


conditions

• Must be better, faster, cheaper and more


innovative to compete

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9
Internal Pressure

• Mergers, acquisitions and strategic


alliances require new ways of working
• Turbulent, complex, fast-pace work
environments
• Continuous process improvement
q
required
• More direct reports—less supervision

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Internal Pressure

• Everyone asked to collaborate


• An environment of “shared leadership”
• Accountability and decision making
shifted to workers
• Intense competition for skilled
workers—highg turnover

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10
To thrive
thrive, organizations
need a leadership approach that
fosters commitment and aligns
performance
to shifting
strategic priorities

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Helps employee leaders

• Build trust and inspire cross-functional


teamwork
• Help others think through issues
and arrive at decisions
• Coach others and commit
to continuous learning
• Influence others and promote
p
teamwork

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11
Helps employee leaders

• Surface and resolve conflicts


for win-win
win win situations
• Deal with change constructively
• Link daily actions to business
objectives
• Take personal responsibility
for results

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Helps your organization

• Create a collaborative, productive


and customer-focused
customer focused workplace
• Gain clarity about the importance
of personal leadership and shared
accountability
• Develop a flexible, agile, market-
responsive workforce

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12
Helps your organization

• Enhance the competence of leaders


and managers
• Align leadership and performance
drivers
• Sharpen focus on key goals and
strategies

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Research
shows that three • P
Personall lleadership
d hi
competencies • Coaching others for
success
create agility and
responsiveness at • Linking performance
to strategic goals
every level of the
organization

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13
Personal leadership

To help their organization compete in a


dynamic global marketplace, employees
at every level must step forward into
leadership roles

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Personal leadership

The Leader in Each of Us


Discusses the mindset that leadership is
everyone’s responsibility and explore five
critical leadership strategies

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14
Personal leadership

The Basic Principles


1. Focus on the situation,, issue
or behavior, not on the person
2. Maintain the self-confidence
and self-esteem of others
3. Maintain constructive relationships
4. Take initiative to make things better
5. Lead by example

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Personal leadership

Personal Strategies
ffor Navigating
g g Change
g
Skills that help participants recognize
and deal with difficult transitions

Managing Your Priorities


A mind-mapping process and other
techniques to handle competing
priorities, improve communication and
complete tasks

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15
Personal leadership

Influencing for Win-Win Outcomes


Techniques for communicating ideas
and for building support
Moving from Conflict to Collaboration
Skills that transform conflict into
positive, constructive outcomes
Proactive Listeningg
Techniques to enhance listening skills
and the ability to seek, process and
apply information
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Personal leadership

Expressing Yourself:
Presenting
g Your Thoughts
g and Ideas
A process for planning, organizing and
delivering results-oriented messages

Handling Emotions Under Pressure


Techniques that help participants take
charge in difficult circumstances and
move discussions toward recovery

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16
Market responsiveness
p is
Coaching maximized when managers,
others supervisors and employees
for success have the skills to turn
conversations into strategic
coaching moments

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Coaching others for success

Coaching: Bringing Out the Best in


Others Techniques for guiding and
motivating
ti ti peers toward
t d higher
hi h llevels
l
of performance

Giving and Receiving Constructive


Feedback
A process
p for communicatingg critical
information in a way that supports
ongoing learning and mutual respect

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17
Coaching others for success

Givingg Recognition
g
Techniques for acknowledging the
accomplishments of peers, managers
and suppliers in meaningful,
appropriate ways

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Leaders with formal


Linking
Li ki
responsibility for others
performance
need special skills to inspire
to strategic
commitment and focus
goals
g
performance on the goals that
deliver the biggest return

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18
To be properly executed,
a strategy has to be
Linking
Li ki
communicated throughout
performance
the organization
to strategic
in a way that everyone can
goals
g
understand and take
action on it

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Linking performance to strategic goals

Moving the Organization


Forward: Defining Your Team’s
Team s
Contribution
Identifying Work Gaining Correcting
Priorities & Setting Commitment to Performance
Verifiable Goals Preset Goals Problems

Conducting
a Collaborative
Performance Review

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19
Linking performance to strategic goals

Moving the Organization Forward:


Defining Your Team’s Contribution
Approcess for ppresenting
g big-picture
gp g
goals
and encouraging participation in the
development of plans to support
objectives

Identifying Work Priorities and Setting


Verifiable Goals
An approach leaders and employees can
use to prioritize and set goals for highest
return
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Linking performance to strategic goals

Gaining Commitment to Preset Goals


A process for developing commitment
and inspiring action on goals
employees had a minimal role in
establishing

Correcting Performance Problems


Techniques leaders can use to get
individual performance back on track
and sustain morale and commitment

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20
Linking performance to strategic goals

Conducting a Collaborative
Performance
f Review
A process for conducting positive,
forward-looking performance
evaluations

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What Type of Leadership Style


Is Yours?

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John Maxwell says,

“If you invest in your development as a


leader the long-term
leader, long term result is growth.
growth
And yes, some are born with greater
natural gifts/skills than others, but the real
ability to lead is a collection of skills that
can be learned and improved.”

From The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership

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Leadership is…

Insight self-awareness, understanding


others, and vision
Initiative Take responsibility & risks
Inspiration communicate & lead others in the
right direction
Involvement empower others to use their talents

Individuality be yourself
Style

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22
Visionary Leaders…

Cast visions powerfully because they have a


crystal-clear picture in their mind of what they
want to happen…and then they pursue it
relentlessly and draw people into the vision.

They may or may not be able to form teams,


g talents,, set goals,
align g , or manage
g progress
p g
toward achievement.

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Directional Leaders…

Sometimes operate behind the scenes, but


they have the uncanny ability to choose the
right path at the critical intersections by
assessing the values, mission, strengths,
weaknesses, resources, personnel & open to
change in the group and then point them in
the right direction
direction.

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23
Strategic Leaders…

Have the ability to break an exciting vision


into achievable steps. They form a game
plan that everyone can understand and
participate in and then challenge the group
to work the plan in a synchronized pattern.

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Managing Leaders…

Have the unique ability to establish mile


markers, then organize & monitor
people, processes, systems, and
resources to achieve the mission.
They even derive enormous satisfaction
from doing all the managing.

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24
Motivational Leaders…

Possess insight into who needs a fresh


challenge additional training,
challenge, t aining public
p blic
recognition, or an encouraging word.
This ability is vital, especially when the
tasks become tiresome or difficult.

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Shepherding Leaders…

Nurture the team members by


listening and supporting.
supporting Not
everyone has the skills or desire to be
a leader, but will thrive in the
community and work hard when they
know they are cared for.

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Team-Building Leaders…

Have insight into people. They see


the right abilities, character &
chemistry that will blend to achieve
the desired results. If the right
people are in the right slots doing the
right things for the right reasons,
they’ll get
g the work done with very
little guidance.

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Entrepreneurial Leaders…

Possess vision, boundless energy,


and a risk-taking
isk taking spirit.
spi it They
The
function best in a start-up operation.
They love being told “it cannot be
done.”

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26
Re-engineering Leaders…

Would rather “tune-up”, heal and


revitalize a group or project that has
lost the vision or focus. They like to
solve the problem and then move on to
another.

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Bridge-building Leaders…

Are the most flexible. They have the


ability to compromise & negotiate and
to listen, understand and think outside
the box. They are very diplomatic and
relate to diverse people.

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L.E.A.D.ing Teams

Creating
Synergy and
Productivity

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Model of the Ten Essentials of Teamwork

Common Goals
Conflict
Leadership
Resolution

Respect
Interaction and
For
Involvement
Differences

What Teams
Need

Mutual
Self-Esteem
Trust

Attention to
Open
Process &
Communication
Content Power to
Make
decisions

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Ten Essentials of Teamwork

1. Common Goals:
2. Leadership:
‰ Reason for being and
working
ki ttogether
th ‰ Members can and are
able to lead
‰ Rationalize existence
‰ Respected and
‰ Clear goals produce team
influential individuals
achievement
‰ Build bridges

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Ten Essentials of Teamwork

3. Interaction and 4. Maintenance of


involvement of all individual self-esteem:
members: ‰ Individual contributions
‰ Members must must be heard, valued
contribute actively and acknowledged
‰ No holding back
‰ Leaders must
know how to get
iindividuals
di id l
involved

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Ten Essentials of Teamwork

5. Open 6. Power to make


Communication: decisions:
‰ What does the team have
‰ Members can
the power to change?
speak their mind
‰ Team carries out
‰ Ample time should decisions
be given for
communication
‰ Good informal
communication
channels

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Ten Essentials of Teamwork

7. Attention to process and 8. Mutual trust:


content: ‰ Treatment of each other,
team member and team
‰ Process used to do the leader
work; how the work
‰ Discussion of how
should be done
behaviors affect trust
‰ Content of the work done;
what has to be done

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Ten Essentials of Teamwork

9. Respect for Differences: 10. Constructive conflict


‰ Disagreement and resolution:
difference without
diff ith t ‰ Healthy resolution
punishment ‰ Leader facilitates member
‰ Respect for the needs of expression of conflict
others
‰ If not met, can be
demotivating

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Task and Social Dimensions

• Inseparable components of
teamwork
• Team leaders must work
continually with both dimensions,
as must the team members
• The extent that the team does its
tasks well
well, it will be productive

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Task and Social Dimensions

TASK SOCIAL
• Dimension that • Dimension that
applies to the work applies to how team
that team members members feel toward
are to perform one another and their
• Outlines the jobs membership on the
and how the jobs team
are to be done
• When ideas are
developed, plans for
working together are
also developed

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Preserving Dignity

• Team is a diverse DIGNITY


collection of individuals • People are more
• Everyone has their comfortable
f t bl as partt off a
own unique character
and potential for group
contribution to the • Leader must be
team sensitive to the need to
• Conformation and preserve individual
subjugation is
degrading dignity, to capitalize on
differences, and to not
try to achieve
conformity

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Why is this important?

• Unique character and potential for


contribution
• Conforming and subjugation is
degrading
• Takes into consideration:
‰ Race, gender, age, religion or culture
• Capitalizes on differences

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What people fear…

• “Groupthink”
• Lose of personal power and identity
• No patience to work with others – would rather
be independent
• Frustration due to time demands for
consensus building
• Want work to have personal mark

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What an effective team leader can do

• Realize the need for individuality


• Teamwork is an ongoing negotiation
• Facilitates different views into consensus
• Challenges team to meet individual needs
• Provide work alone or with team

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The L.E.A.D. Model

• Lead with a clear purpose

• Empower to participate

• Aim for consensus

• Direct the process

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What L.E.A.D. does

• Includes key leadership functions:


‰Setting goals and objectives
‰Involving people
‰Reaching consensus
‰Attention to task and relationships
• Ensures 10 essentials are met

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Lead with a clear purpose

• Use goals as motivation for teams


‰Set realistic, team-oriented goals
‰Publish the team’s goals
‰Have milestones to make sure the
team is going in the “right” direction

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Empower to participate

• Give the team members the power


(authority) to follow through and act on
the established goals
• Team members become unmotivated
if they cannot participate in important
decisions

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More empowerment

• Help people solve problems they are


capable of solving
• Encourage participation by listening
‰Listening and asking questions
‰Regularly seek team members’ ideas,
opinions, and reactions without judging

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Even more…

• Allow teams to assess themselves


and determine team performance
p
• Positive reinforcement often
‰Genuine appreciation
• Focus on: Consideration, Attention,
and Encouragement

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Aim for consensus

• Consensus?
‰ Help people move toward general agreement
• Bring as many ideas, opinions, and
conflicts to the table
• Help find the approach that best meets the
needs of the organization & team members
• Responsibility of leader to act on decision
or to empower the team to

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Direct the process

• Use various techniques to help the


team complete their work
• Be aware of methods and practices
that help team members work well
together
• Direct does not mean to order the
tteam aroundd

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Review of Objectives

• What does L.E.A.D. stand for?


• How are the two dimensions related?
• What does preservation of dignity have
to do with team leadership?
• How can we use the L.E.A.D. model in
teamwork on a regular basis?

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Thanks
Th k ffor
your time and attention

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