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Using

Sub band Threshold

ABSTRACT

compression has been a focus of is done next on the resultant output

research in recent days. In this for compression. Different values

paper, we propose a compression of threshold were applied during

technique based on modification of experiment to see the effect on

original EZW coding. In this lossy compression ratio and

technique, we try to discard less reconstructed image quality. The

significant information in the proposed method results in further

image data in order to achieve increase in compression ratio with

further compression with minimal negligible loss in image quality.

effect on output image quality. The

algorithm calculates weight of

each subband and finds the

subband with minimum weight in

every level. This minimum weight

subband in each level, that

contributes least effect during

image reconstruction, undergoes a

threshold process to eliminate low-

INTRODUCTION

of encoding an image to store it or wavelet transform, 2) zerotree

send it using as fewer bits as coding and 3) entropy based

possible. Presently the most coding. Wavelet transform

common compression methods for decomposes the image into several

still images fall into two multi-resolution subbands in an

categories: Discrete Cosine octave manner, and perfectly

Transform (DCT)based techniques reconstructs the original image

and methods based on wavelet from them. This multi-level

transform. Widely used image decomposition is done using two

compression technique JPEG dimensional wavelet filters (basis

achieves compression by applying function), among which Haar and

DCT to the image, whereas Daubechies filters are very

wavelet transform methods popular. The appropriate choice of

generally use discrete wavelet filters for the transform is very

transform (DWT) for this purpose. important in compression schemes

With the recent developments to achieve high coding efficiency.

in wavelet compression, this Splitting of subband into next

method has arisen to be an higher level four subbands using

efficient coding method for still wavelet transform is shown in

image compression, outperforming Figure 1.

today’s DCT based JPEG Among the wavelet coding

standards. This state of the art schemes, Shapiro was the first to

compression technique is develop Embedded Zerotree

Wavelet (EZW) coding scheme in octavely decreasing threshold.

1993. It utilizes dependencies Higher compression ratio is

among subbands decomposed by achieved using variable length

wavelets, and uses zerotree to coding method that depends on

achieve high compression. For this previously coded EZW data.

successive approximation Sometimes adaptive arithmetic

quantization, the coefficients in coding is used for further

subbands are scanned in a pre- compression with a cost of

determined fashion and their complexity and computation time.

values are compared with an

they are embedded in nature and

Since the publication of EZW

can be stopped at any time

coder, there have been many

whenever the desired results are

developments in this field. SPIHT

achieved e.g, when the required

was the next to develop a better

compression ratio is achieved or

wavelet coder with improved

desired reconstructed picture

performance. One of the

quality (PSNR) is obtained.

advantages of these algorithms is a

Recently developed coders offer

further improvements by applications. For this purpose,

modification of EZW with the cost basic EZW coder was chosen for

of complexity and increased modifications that is a simple and

processing time, the factors most widely used wavelet image

making them difficult to coder.

implement for common

compression with high coding

Image compression can be

efficiency. Recently a new wavelet

implemented using a variety of

based image compression scheme

algorithms; such as transform

JPEG-2000 has been standardized,

based schemes, vector quantization

indicating the wavelet compression

and subband coding. The selection

as the promising compression

of an image compression

scheme of the future. This section

algorithm depends mostly on

presents an overview of wavelet

criteria of achievable compression

image compression and later

ratio and the quality of

describes in detail a typical

reconstructed images. Wavelet

wavelet transform algorithm with

transform based coding is an

Embedded Zerotree wavelet

emerging field for image

coding scheme.

1. Wavelet Transform:

Wavelet Transform provides compaction property suitable to

a compact multi-resolution exploit redundancy in an image to

representation of the image. It achieve compression. Discrete

Wavelet Transform (DWT) can be Most of the energy is concentrated

implemented using two-channel in low frequency subband LL and

wavelet filter bank in a recursive represents a down sampled low

fashion. For an image, 2D-DWT is resolution version of the original

generally calculated using a image, whereas higher frequency

separable approach. Input image is subbands contain detail

first scanned in a horizontal information of the image in

direction and passed through horizontal, vertical and diagonal

lowpass and highpass directions respectively. After one

decomposition filters. The level of transformation, the image

decomposed data is then sub- can be further decomposed by

sampled vertically to produce low again applying 2-D DWT to the

frequency as well as high existing LL subband in the similar

frequency data in horizontal manner. This iterative process

direction. This filtered output data results in multiple levels of

is then scanned in a vertical transformation with energy further

direction and again these filters are compacted into few low frequency

applied separately to generate coefficients. An example of

different frequency subbands. threelevel decomposition of image

After sub-sampling of the resultant into subbands using wavelet

data in horizontal direction, the transform is illustrated in figure

transform generates subbands LL, 2(a), whereas Figure 2(b) shows

LH, HL and HH each with one parent/children relationship among

forth the size of the original image. levels.

Figure 2. (a) 3 level wavelet decomposition, (b) Relationship between

higher and lower level coefficients (parents/children)

After performing wavelet pass, magnitudes of wavelet

transform on the input image, coefficients are compared with a

EZW encoder progressively set threshold value T to determine

quantizes the coefficients using a significant data – coefficients with

form of bit plane coding to create absolute value greater than

an embedded representation of the threshold. As the scanning

image. EZW coder uses the progresses from low to high spatial

relationship between higher and frequencies, a two bit symbol is

lower level coefficients (parents used to encode the sign and

and children) of the same position of all significant

orientation in the wavelet block to coefficients. The positive

gain its coding efficiency. This significant (POS) and negative

coding technique is performed in significant (NEG) coefficients are

two passes in a recursive manner: above a set threshold value that

(1) Dominant pass and (2) starts at the highest power of two

below the peak wavelet coefficient significant bit to each of the

value. If the wavelet coefficient is significant coefficients by

insignificant and has its encoding the next lower bit using

descendent that is significant, it is either a zero or a one. Once all the

indicated as an isolated zero (IZ) coefficients are coded for a certain

and must be coded separately. threshold value T, the process is

Otherwise the coefficient is repeated for leftover insignificant

classified as a zerotree root (ZTR), coefficients with the threshold

which itself and all its descendents value lowered by a power of two.

are insignificant and can be Overall, the result is an embedded

classified with just one symbol. bitstream transmitted by the

The inclusion of the ZTR symbol encoder that has a specific order of

greatly increases the coding importance based on threshold

efficiency as it allows the encoder magnitude with these four

to exploit inter scale correlation in symbols, indicating types of

an image. The subordinate pass significance as well as resolution

follows next, in which all the bits for all significant coefficients

detected significant coefficients at each level. EZW technique can

are refined using the Successive be enhanced using entropy coding

Approximation Quantization before transmission, to achieve

(SAQ) approach. It adds a further compression

.

Figure 3. Block diagram of a wavelet based image coding algorithm

3. PROPOSED ALGORITHM:

The development of undergoing zerotree compression.

EZW (Embedded Zerotree Block diagram of wavelet based

Wavelet) image coding has image coding algorithm is shown

attracted great attention among in figure 3.

researchers. It is the most popular The main objective of this

wavelet based compression new algorithm is to enhance

algorithm and is widely used in a compression ratio of an image with

number of applications. This paper minimal loss during

concentrates on EZW algorithm reconstruction. This algorithm

and proposes an algorithm that is concentrates on the pre-processing

basically an extension of it. The stage of compression and removes

image is first decomposed into some of the unwanted data present

subbands using wavelet transform. in transformed image that

Recursive transformation method contribute less in image

is used for multi-level reconstruction, but require more

decomposition. The output data is bits during compression.

Exploiting the tradeoff between these subbands are mostly zero (or

compression ratio and close to zero) with only a few large

reconstructed image quality, it values that correspond to edges

eliminates some least important and textures information in the

image data to achieve further image. We propose an algorithm to

compression with slight reduction reduce the least important data in

in image quality. order to attain further compression.

Retaining the high value

The algorithm is based on the

coefficients, the lower values of

fact that the subband with low

minimum valued subband are

values has little effect on output, as

eliminated.

compared to subbands with higher

For this purpose,

values. The higher the values, the

we first find the minimum valued

higher the dependency on that

subbands, and then apply a

subband with sharp edges in that

threshold value to eliminate low

direction, whereas the lower the

valued data from it that contributes

values, the little (or no)

egligibly in image reconstruction.

dependency on the respective

The algorithm uses weight

subband in that direction. In

calculation method to obtain one

wavelet-transformed image,

minimum valued subband for each

coefficients in the LL subband

level. Weight of each subband is

represent low-resolution image

calculated by adding absolute

whereas high frequency subbands

value of all the coefficients present

contain detail subbands in each

in the subband. Out of three detail

direction respectively. These three

subbands ( LHi, HLi and HHi) the

subbands contribute less in image

one with minimum weight at every

reconstruction since coefficients of

level is marked as minimum

weight subband. i.e, one minimum weight subband for each level is

obtained.

required subbands in each level, we used different threshold values

the algorithm reduces the data to show the effect of compressed

present in these subbands, output and reconstructed image.

depending on its importance for

Zerotree coding is

reconstruction. Since most of the

done next on the thresholded data

values are close to zero,

for compression. The reduction of

Coefficients in minimum detail

low valued significant coefficients

subband undergo a threshold

in minimum weight subbands,

process to eliminate low-valued

result in higher compression ratio

data in that subband in the

with slight loss in decoded PSNR.

transformed domain. The

Results show that this algorithm

coefficients whose value is greater

shows better efficiency with a cost

than a set threshold value are

of negligible loss in picture

retained, while those below a

quality.

certain threshold value are set to

zero resulting in little loss in

4. EXPERIMENT RESULTS:

implemented in software and 8-bit grayscale images, Lena,

computer simulation results were

Barbara and Baboon, were used subband (HH) most of the times,

for experiments and showing that diagonal subband

results. Experiments have shown offers least contribution in image

that three-level wavelet reconstruction. Either a horizontal

decomposition achieves best (HL) or a vertical subband (LH)

results in terms of compression was marked as minimum only a

ratio and reconstructed PSNR. few times. A lossy threshold

Therefore, the input image was process was applied to minimum

decomposed into three-level weight subband to remove low

wavelet transform using valued data in it in order to achieve

Daubechies 9/7 biorthogonal further compression. In the

wavelet filters. The wavelet experiments, a threshold value of 2

transformed data then underwent a and 5 were used separately to

preprocessing stage. There, weight eliminate coefficients equal to or

of each detail subband was below it.

calculated to find the minimum

Embedded zerotree

weight subband in every level.

coding algorithm was implemented

Absolute values of all the

after preprocessing stage for

coefficients in a subband were

compression. The proposed

added together to calculate

algorithm used z-scan coding

subband weight. Out of all the

approach to compress significant

three subbands in each level, the

pixels starting from highest level

subband with minimum weight

and moved on to next lower level

was marked as minimum weight

in z-fashion. Adaptive arithmetic

subband. During experiments, the

coding was also used in the end for

minimum value subband was

found to be diagonal detail

further compression, with a cost of reconstruction. Comparative

complexity and computation time. results of compressed data size and

Reconstruction was done output PSNR of the method with

with the coded data and image EZW method are shown in Table

PSNR was calculated. This method 1, whereas results of further

was applied to Lena, Barbara and compression using adaptive

Baboon images for compression, arithmetic coding are shown in

and its effect on compressed Table 2. In the tables below, bytes

output and reconstructed image show compressed output in bytes

were observed. It can be seen that and PSNR show reconstructed

as the threshold is increased, the PSNR in decibels (dB). Also,

PSNR of reconstructed image HL=horizontal, H=vertical

decreases with rise in compression HH=diagonalsubband respectively.

ratio. Generally a low-valued These results show that the

threshold performs better with modified algorithm gives further

negligible drop in PSNR. The compression with a cost of slight

algorithm applied threshold to decrease in reconstructed PSNR.

minimum weight subband, and Figure 4 indicates different image

generated less amount of coded outputs of the wavelet based

bitstream data (high compression) compression.

with some loss in PSNR at the

5. CONCLUSION

The above method exploits ratio is achieved compared to

the property of tradeoff between original EZW coder after applying

compression ratio and output threshold with slight reduction in

PSNR, and reduces least important PSNR during reconstruction.

data in order to attain further

compression. Better compression

REFERENCES:

[1] M. Shapiro, “Embedded image coding using zerotrees of wavelet

coefficients”, IEEE Transactions on Signal

Processing, vol 41, pp 3445-3462, Dec 93.

[2] Pankaj N. Topiwala, “Wavelet image and video compression”, 1998

Edition

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