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Q.1) Define Human resource planning (HRP). Explain the objectives and process of HRP.

Ans 1) Human resource planning:

Human resources planning is a process that identifies current and future human resources needs
for an organization to achieve its goals. Human resources planning should serve as a link between
human resources management and the overall strategic plan of an organization. Aging worker
populations in most western countries and growing demands for qualified workers in developing
economies have underscored the importance of effective Human Resources Planning. As defined by
Bulla and Scott (1994), human resource planning is the process for ensuring that the human
resource requirements of an organization are identified and plans are made for satisfying those
Objectives of Human Resource Planning (HRP)

To recruit and maintain the HR of requisite quantity and quality.

To predict the employee turnover and make the arrangements for minimizing turnover and
filing up of consequent vacancies.
To meet the requirements of the programmes of expansion, diversification etc.
To anticipate the impact of technology on work, existing employees and future human
resource requirements.

Process of Human resource planning:

1.Identifying the process for Human Resource planning: The first thing to identify analyse
short term and long term objective/plans and programmes of an organisation.
2. Analyzing the Corporate Level Strategies: Human Resource Planning should start with
analyzing corporate level strategies which include expansion, diversification, mergers, acquisitions,
reduction in operations, technology to be used, method of production etc.
3. Demand forecasting: Forecasting the overall human resource requirement in accordance
with the organizational plans is one of the key aspects of demand forecasting.
4. Analyzing Human Resource Supply: Every organization has two sources of supply of
Human Resources: Internal & External. Internally, human resources can be obtained for certain
posts through promotions and transfers.
Following are the major steps involved in human resource planning:
1. Assessing Human Resources
The assessment of HR begins with environmental analysis, under which the external (PEST) and
internal (objectives, resources and structure) are analyzed to assess the currently available HR
inventory level. After the analysis of external and internal forces of the organization, it will be
easier for HR manager to find out the internal strengths as well as weakness of the organization in
one hand and opportunities and threats on the other. Moreover, it includes an inventory of the
workers and skills already available within the organization and a comprehensive job analysis.
2. Demand Forecasting
HR forecasting is the process of estimating demand for and supply of HR in an organization.
Demand forecasting is a process of determining future needs for HR in terms of quantity and
quality. It is done to meet the future personnel requirements of the organization to achieve the
desired level of output. Future human resource need can be estimated with the help of the
organization's current human resource situation and analysis of organizational plans an
procedures. It will be necessary to perform a year-by-year analysis for every significant level and

3. Supply Forecasting
Supply is another side of human resource assessment. It is concerned with the estimation of
supply of manpower given the analysis of current resource and future availability of human
resource in the organization. It estimates the future sources of HR that are likely to be available
from within an outside the organization. Internal source includes promotion, transfer, job
enlargement and enrichment, whereas external source includes recruitment of fresh candidates
who are capable of performing well in the organization.
Q2. What are the factors affecting recruitment? What are the sources of recruitment?

Ans 2) Meaning of recruitment process:

Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, selecting, and on boarding a qualified
person for a job. At the strategic level it may involve the development of an employer brand which
includes an employee offering. The stages of the recruitment process include: job analysis and
developing a person specification; the sourcing of candidates by networking, advertising, or other
search methods; matching candidates to job requirements and screening individuals using testing
(skills or personality assessment); assessment of candidates motivations and their fit with
organisational requirements by interviewing and other assessment techniques. The recruitment
process also includes the making and finalizing of job offers and the induction and on boarding of
new employees.

Internal & External Factors Influencing Recruitment

Finding the right employees depends on internal and external factors.

Factors Affecting Recruitment:
1. Internal Factors
i. Size of the organization
Recruitment process is affected by the size of the organization to a large extent. Experience
suggests that a larger organization recruits more candidates than small ones. Large organizations
find recruitment less problematic than small organizations.
ii. Recruiting Policy
The recruitment policy of the firm also affects the recruitment process. This policy is concerned
with candidates from outside the organization, whereas others want to recruit from internal

2. External Factors
External factors are concerned with the environmental changes that will take place in the external
environment of organization. Some of the external factors that affect recruitment policy are as
i. Demographic factors
A demography is the study of human population in terms of age, sex, occupation, religion,
composition, ethnicity etc. The demographic factors have profound influence on recruitment
ii. Labor market
Labor market constitutes the force of demand and supply of labor of particular importance. For
instance, if demand for a particular skill is high relative to its supply, the recruitment process
evolves more efforts. Contrary to it, if supply is more than demand, the recruitment process will be
iii. Unemployment situations
Unemployment rate of particular area is yet another influencing factor of recruitment process. If
the unemployment rate is high, the recruitment process will be simpler and vice versa.
Internal Sources of Recruitment
The internal sources of recruitment are:Promotions: Promotion means to give a higher position, status, salary and responsibility to the
employee. So, the vacancy can be filled by promoting a suitable candidate from the same
Transfers: Transfer means a change in the place of employment without any change in the
position, status, salary and responsibility of the employee. So, the vacancy can be filled by
transferring a suitable candidate from the same organisation.
External Sources of Recruitment
The external sources of recruitment are:Management Consultants: Management consultants are used for selecting higher-level staff.
They act as a representative of the employer. They make all the necessary arrangements for
recruitment and selection. In return for their services, they take a service charge or commission.
Public Advertisements: The Personnel department of a company advertises the vacancy in
newspapers, the internet, etc. This advertisement gives information about the company, the job
and the required qualities of the candidate. It invites applications from suitable candidates. This
source is the most popular source of recruitment. This is because it gives a very wide choice.
However, it is very costly and time consuming.
Q3. What are the main objectives of training? Explain on-the job and off the job training.
Ans 3) Meaning of training:
Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of
vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has
specific goals of improving ones capability, capacity, and performance. It forms the core of
apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology.

Objectives of training:

An instructor can help employees increase their level of performance on their assignment.
Increase in human performance leads to increase in the operational productivity and also
the increase in the profit of the company.

Better-trained workers are less likely to make operational mistakes. It can be in
relationship to the company or in reference to the intangible organizational employment


The organizations having good internal training and development programs will have to
make less changes and adjustments. When the need arises, vacancies can be easily


An endless chain of positive reactions result from a well planned training program.


Proper training can prevent industrial accidents. A safer atmosphere leads to more stable
attitudes on part of the employees.

Employees on a personal basis gain individually from their exposure to educational
expressions. Training programs give them wider awareness and skills.

On-the-job training

On-the-job training is training that takes place while employees are actually working. It means
that skills can be gained while trainees are carrying out their jobs. This benefits both employees
and the business. Employees learn in the real work environment and gain experience dealing with
the tasks and challenges that they will meet during a normal working day. The business benefits
by ensuring that the training is specific to the job. It also does not have to meet the additional
costs of providing off-the-job training or losing working time.
There are several methods of providing on-the-job training. Four frequently used methods are
briefly described here:
Coaching an experienced member of staff will help trainees learn skills and processes through
providing instructions or demonstrations (or both).

Mentoring each trainee is allocated to an established member of staff who acts as a guide and
helper. A mentor usually offers more personal support than a coach, although the terms mentor
and coach are often used interchangeably.
Off-the-job training

Off-the-job training is conducted in a location specifically designated for training. It may be near
the workplace or away from work, at a special training center or a resort Conducting the training
away from the workplace minimize distractions and allows trainees to devote their full attention to
the material being taught- However, off-the-job training programs may not provide as much
transfer of training to the actual job as do on-the-job programs.
Many people equate off-the-job training with the lecture method, but in fact a very wide variety of
methods can be used.
Employee training at a site away from the actual work environment. It often utilizes lectures, case
studies, role playing, simulation, etc. See also on the job training.
Off the Job Training Methods
1. Classroom Lectures: under the off the job methods of training, classroom method or lecture
method is well-known to train white collar or managerial level employees in the organisation.
Under this method employees are called to the room like that of classroom to give training by
trainer in the form of lectures. This method is effectively used for the purpose of teaching
administrative aspects or on management subject to make aware of procedures and to give
instructions on particular topic.
2. Audio-Visual: Providing training by way of using Films, Televisions, Video, and Presentations
etc. This method of training has been using successfully in education institutions to train their
students in subjects to understand and assimilate easily and help them to remember forever. New
companies have come up for providing audio visual material for students in their concern subjects.
Q4. Define performance management. Write a brief note on 360 degree appraisal
Ans 4) Definition of performance management:
Performance management (PM) includes activities which ensure that goals are consistently being
met in an effective and efficient manner. Performance management can focus on the performance
of an organization, a department, employee, or even the processes to build a product of service,
as well as many other areas. PM is also known as a process by which organizations align their
resources, systems and employees to strategic objectives and priorities.

360 degree performance appraisal

360 degree performance appraisal is also a powerful developmental tool because when conducted
at regular intervals (say yearly) it helps to keep a track of the changes others perceptions about
the employees. A 360 degree appraisal is generally found more suitable for the managers as it
helps to assess their leadership and managing styles. This technique is being effectively used
across the globe for performance appraisals. Some of the organizations following it are Wipro,
Infosys, and Reliance Industries etc.
360-Degree Feedback is also known as full-circle feedback, multirater feedback, multi-level
feedback, upward appraisal, and peer review. Where 'regular' performance appraisals provide
'single-source' (top-down) feedback, i.e. normally from an employee's direct line manager only,
360-degree feedback appraisals are 'multi-source' - involving behavioral feedback from a variety of
sources such as Peers, Direct Reports ('subordinates'), Customers (internal and/or external) as
well as Managers. These are called Rater Groups, consisting of three or more Raters per Rater
Group (except for the Rater Group 'Manager/s' where an employee may only have one line
manager). The employee receiving the feedback (called 'Appraisee'), gets rated by 360 Raters
(also called 'Multiraters'). Only Raters having worked with the Appraisee for a period of minimum
three months should be asked to provide behavioral feedback to the Appraisee.
Why 360 feedback? Simply put - it is harder to discount the views of several of your colleagues
or customers than the views of just one person. The 360 process also provides a much more
complete and richer picture of an employee's performance. In addition, it gives people an
opportunity to provide anonymous feedback to a colleague, which they might otherwise be
uncomfortable to give face-to-face.
Some of the benefits of receiving 360-degree feedback from others are:

Increased self-awareness, by understanding how your behavior is perceived by others, and

comparing this perception with your own self-assessment of your own work behavior.
To identify and build upon the strengths that you are currently exhibiting.
To identify priority areas where you might change your behavior in order to improve your
work performance and organizational effectiveness.
More focused learning and development activities, and increased individual ownership for

Feedback is essential in facilitating performance improvement. It informs employees of their

actions that create problems for others, and what behavioral changes may be necessary to
improve working relationships, team synergy, performance outputs and customer service.
Received in a positive, open-minded, non-defensive spirit, 360-feedback can play a major role in
employees' personal and professional growth, and job satisfaction. It can serve as a strong spur
for personal development and behavior change. 360 feedbacks from peers and direct reports is
frequently the only way that senior executives can get feedback on their performance, as there
may just not be anybody else to do it. When managers are new to the organization, and especially
if they have many direct reports, it will normally take a while to get to know them well. 360
feedbacks could be the ideal process to use to gather behavioral information on them very fast and
The data gathered from 360-degree feedback throughout the organization can be very useful in
providing insight into organization-wide behaviors and competency (or the lack thereof), and what
development and other interventions may be necessary to address weaknesses.
Because of its very power as a behavior modification tool, 360-degree feedback - if not
implemented sensitively and professionally - can do a lot of harm to both individuals and the
organization. For it to be successful there must be a mature organizational culture of openness,
honesty, and mutual trust.

Q5. What is meant by job analysis? Explain its purpose and methods.
Ans 5) Meaning of job analysis:
Job analysis is the formal process of identifying the content of a job in terms activities involved
and attributes needed to perform the work and identifies major job requirements. Job analysis was
conceptualized by two of the founders of industrial/organizational psychology, Frederick Taylor and
Lillian Moller Gilbreth in the early 20th century. Job analyses provide information to organizations
which helps to determine which employees are best fit for specific jobs.
Purpose of job analysis:
Recruitment and Selection: Job Analysis helps in determining what kind of person is required to
perform a particular job. It points out the educational qualifications, level of experience and
technical, physical, emotional and personal skills required to carry out a job in desired fashion. The
objective is to fit a right person at a right place.
Performance Analysis: Job analysis is done to check if goals and objectives of a particular job
are met or not. It helps in deciding the performance standards, evaluation criteria and individuals
output. On this basis, the overall performance of an employee is measured and he or she is
appraised accordingly.
Training and Development: Job Analysis can be used to assess the training and development
needs of employees. The difference between the expected and actual output determines the level
of training that need to be imparted to employees. It also helps in deciding the training content,
tools and equipments to be used to conduct training and methods of training.
Lets discuss few of job analysis methods that are commonly used by the organizations to
investigate the demands of a specific job.
Job Analysis Methods
Most Common Methods of Job Analysis
Observation Method: A job analyst observes an employee and records all his performed and
non-performed task, fulfilled and un-fulfilled responsibilities and duties, methods, ways and skills
used by him or her to perform various duties and his or her mental or emotional ability to handle
challenges and risks. However, it seems one of the easiest methods to analyze a specific job but
truth is that it is the most difficult one. It is due to the fact that every person has his own way of
observing things. Different people think different and interpret the findings in different ways.
Therefore, the process may involve personal biasness or likes and dislikes and may not produce
genuine results.

Interview Method: In this method, an employee is interviewed so that he or she comes up with
their own working styles, problems faced by them, use of particular skills and techniques while
performing their job and insecurities and fears about their careers. This method helps interviewer
know what exactly an employee thinks about his or her own job and responsibilities involved in it.
It involves analysis of job by employee himself. In order to generate honest and true feedback or
collect genuine data, questions asked during the interview should be carefully decided.
Questionnaire Method: Another commonly used job analysis method is getting the
questionnaires filled from employees, their superiors and managers. However, this method also
suffers from personal biasness. A great care should be takes while framing questions for different
grades of employees. In order to get the true job-related info, management should effectively
communicate it to the staff that data collected will be used for their own good.
Q6. What are the benefits and objectives of employee welfare measures?
Ans 6) Employee welfare:
Employee welfare in general, these are the benefits that an employee must receive from his/her
company, like allowances, housing for those companies who provides, transportation, medical,
insurances, food and some other way where the employee has rights to demand.
Labour Welfare aims at the whole development of the person of the working class. The Labour
Welfare Policies of any organization should keep in mind the following objectives:

To increase the standard of living of the. Working class: The laborer is more prone to
exploitation from the capitalists if there is no standardized way of looking after their
To make the management feel the employees are satisfied about the work and working
To reduce the labour problems in the organization: There are various problems affecting
the workers, problems like absenteeism, turnover ratio, indebtedness, alcoholism, etc.,
which make the laborer further weak both physically and psychologically. Labour Welfare
looks forward to helping the laborer to overcome these problems.
To recognize human values every person has his own personality and needs to be
recognized and developed. It is in the hands of the management to shape them and help
them grow. The management employs various methods to recognize each ones worth as
an individual and as an asset to the organization.

The very logic behind providing welfare schemes is to create efficient, healthy, loyal and satisfied
labor force for the organization. The purpose of providing such facilities is to make their work life
better and also to raise their standard of living. The important benefits of welfare measures can be
summarized as follows:

They provide better physical and mental health to workers and thus promote a healthy
work environment
Facilities like housing schemes, medical benefits, and education and recreation facilities for
workers families help in raising their standards of living. This makes workers to pay more
attention towards work and thus increases their productivity.
Employers get stable labor force by providing welfare facilities. Workers take active
interest in their jobs and work with a feeling of involvement and participation.
Employee welfare measures increase the productivity of organization and promote healthy
industrial relations thereby maintaining industrial peace.
The social evils prevalent among the labors such as substance abuse, etc are reduced to a
greater extent by the welfare policies.