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TSUNAMI,26 DEC 2004

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SUBMITTED BY:
TRISHUBH SINGH
2009BPLN017
B.PLAN, VIITHSEM
SPA BHOPAL

Contents
TSUNAMI ......................................................................................................................................... 3
CHARACTERISTICS OF A TSUNAMI ........................................................................................... 3
TSUNAMI DECEMBER 2004 ............................................................................................................ 4
FEATURES OF TSUNAMI 2004 ..................................................................................................... 5
Origin Time and Epicenter ....................................................................................................... 5
No Tsunami Warning Issued ..................................................................................................... 6
DEATH TOLL- ............................................................................................................................... 6
OVERALL LOSS ........................................................................................................................... 6
TSUNAMI 2004 IN INDIA................................................................................................................. 7
Andaman and Nicobar Islands ........................................................................................ 8
Andhra Pradesh .................................................................................................................. 8
Kerala ...................................................................................................................................... 8
Pondicherry ............................................................................................................................ 8
Tamil Nadu ............................................................................................................................. 8
DETAILS OF IMPACT OF THE TSUNAMIS OF 26TH DECEMBER, 2004 - ON THE MAIN LAND
STATES ......................................................................................................................................... 9
RESPONSE AND RECOVERY ..................................................................................................... 9
The following bodies and agencies are seeking public help and contributions ....... 10
STATUS OF RELIEF MATERIALS MOVEMENT ........................................................................ 10
Status of delivery of High Priority Items ............................................................................. 11
Status of deployment of Medical Teams/Disaster Response Teams and Volunteers 11
RELIEF AND RESCUE FOR VARIOUS AFFECTED STATES ......................................................... 12
ANDAMAN ISLANDS ............................................................................................................ 12
NICOBAR ISLANDS ............................................................................................................... 12
KERALA .................................................................................................................................. 13
Tamil Nadu ........................................................................................................................... 13
Pondicherry .......................................................................................................................... 13
REFRENCES ................................................................................................................................... 13

TSUNAMI
(A long high sea wave caused by an earthquake or other disturbance)
It is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water,
typically an ocean or a large lake.
Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and
other underwater explosions
(including detonations of underwater
nuclear devices), landslides, glacier
calvings, meteorite impacts and other
disturbances above or below water
all have the potential to generate a
tsunami.
Tsunami generated by seismicity
Tsunami can be generated when the

sea floor abruptly deforms and


vertically displaces the overlying
water. Tectonic earthquakes are a
particular kind of earthquake that
are associated with the Earth's
crustal deformation; when these
earthquakes occur beneath the sea,
the water above the deformed area
is displaced from its equilibrium
position. More specifically, a
tsunami can be generated when
thrust faults associated with
convergent or destructive plate
boundaries move abruptly, resulting in water displacement, owing to the vertical component of
movement involved. Movement on normal faults will also cause displacement of the seabed, but
the size of the largest of such events is normally too small to give rise to a significant tsunami.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A TSUNAMI

Travel at speeds of up to 400-500 miles per hour


In deep waters, tsunamis are low and wide, often less than three feet high
As much as 95 miles between the crest of one wave and the next.
At shallower waters, they get more deadly
Can reach up to heights of 100 feet or more and crash inland.

TSUNAMI DECEMBER 2004


On December 26, 2004, the
greatest earthquake in 40
years occurred about 150
kilometers off the west
coast of northern Sumatra
Island in Indian Ocean just
off the coast of Indonesia.
The earthquake generated
a disastrous tsunami that
caused destruction in 11
countries bordering the
Indian Ocean.
The 9.0 magnitude (for 5
minutes) quake created a
series of tsunamis that
caused great destruction and loss of life throughout the Indian Ocean basin, within several
hours of the initial event.

The earthquake has been titled the Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake and is the highest
magnitude earthquake in the region in over 40 years. Over 227,898 people have been
confirmed dead making this the fourth largest death toll from an earthquake in recorded history.
Several years after the quake and tsunami events, the entire region is still trying to recover and
to rebuild. Some areas will never recover.

FEATURES OF TSUNAMI 2004


1. The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was caused by an earthquake that is
thought to have had the energy of 23,000 atomic bombs.
2. The epicenter of the 9.0 magnitude quake was under the Indian Ocean near the west
coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
3. The violent movement of sections of the Earths crusts known as tectonic plates
displaced an enormous amount of water, sending powerful shock waves in every
direction.
4. The tectonic plates in this area had been pushing against each other, building pressure
for thousands of years they continue to do so and will likely cause underwater
earthquakes and tsunamis in the future.
5. The shifting of the earths plates in the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004 caused a
rupture more than 600 miles long, displacing the seafloor above the rupture by perhaps
10 yards horizontally and several yards vertically. That doesn't sound like much, but the
trillions of tons of rock that were moved along hundreds of miles caused the planet to
shudder with the largest magnitude earthquake in 40 years.
6. Within hours of the earthquake, killer waves radiating from the epicenter slammed into
the coastline of 11 Indian Ocean countries, damaging countries from east Africa to
Thailand.
7. Despite a lag of up to several hours between the earthquake and the impact of the
tsunami, nearly all of the victims were taken completely by surprise because there were
no tsunami warning systems in the Indian Ocean to detect tsunamis or to warn the
general populace living around the ocean.
8. By the end of the day of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, it had already killed 150,000
people. The final death toll was 283,000.
9. The Indian Ocean tsunami traveled as far as 3,000 miles to Africa and still arrived with
sufficient force to kill people and destroy property.
10. Many people in Indonesian reported that they saw animals fleeing for high ground
minutes before the tsunami arrived very few animal bodies were found afterward.
11. The risk of famine and epidemic diseases was extremely high immediately following the
tsunami bodies rotting in the tropical heat contaminated food and water sources.

Origin Time and Epicenter


The great tsunamigenic earthquake occurred on Sunday, 26 December 2004, at 00:58:50 UTC
(6:58:50 a.m. local time). The epicenter was at 3.298 N, 95.779 E and its focal depth was very
shallow (much less than 33 km - possibly about 10km).

No Tsunami Warning Issued


The large tsunami which struck 11 of the nations that border the Indian Ocean was a complete
surprise for the people living there, but not for the scientists who are aware of the tectonic
interactions in the region. Many seismic networks recorded the massive earthquake, but there
was no tide gauges or other wave sensors to provide confirmation as to whether a tsunami had
been generated. There was no established communications network or organizational
infastructure to pass a warning of any kind to the people coastlines.
No Tsunami Warning System exists for the Indian Ocean as there is for the Pacific. The Pacific
Tsunami Warning Center in Honolulu had no way of providing warning information to the region.

DEATH TOLLCOUNTRY

DISPLACED

DEAD

MISSING

INJURE
D

HOUSING
DESTROY/
DAMAGE
D

TOTAL
DAMAGE
AND
LOSSES

NET
TOTAL
AFFECTE
D

INDIA
INDONESIA

650,000
532,898

16,389
165,708

N/ S
N/S

6913
N/S

100,000
N/S

654,512
523,898

MALDIVES

13000

102

N/S

2214

N/S

SRI LANKA

480,000

35,399

N/S

23176

114,069

THAILAND

N/S

8,345

N/S

8,457

4,806

MYANMAR
SOMANIA

N/S
N/S

71
298

N/S
N/S

N/S
283

N/S
N/S

2.1 Billion
4451.6
Million
470.1
Million
1316.5
Million
405.2
Million
500 Million
100 Million

27,214
1,019,306
67,007
12,500
105,083

The hardest-hit and most severely affected countries were India, Indonesia, Maldives, Sri Lanka
and Thailand. Malaysia, Myanmar, Seychelles, Somalia and the United Republic of Tanzania
were also affected.

OVERALL LOSS
Total damages are estimated to be US$470 million, 62% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Of
these losses, direct losses are US$298 million,or about 8% of the replacement cost of the
national capital stock. Severe damage was caused to houses, tourist resorts, boats and other
fishing equipment, schools, health facilities, transport and communication equipment, water and
sanitation, and electricity infrastructure.

TSUNAMI 2004 IN INDIA

The estimated number of casualties in India is 16,000, but at least 6,000 more are missing. It is
expected that the death toll will rise. Hardest hit were the Andaman and Nicobar Islands which
were close to the tsunami generating area. Along India's southeastern coast, several villages

were swept away, and thousands of fishermen at sea were missing. On the western coast of
India' mainland, hardest hit was the state of Tamil Nadu.
The southern peninsular region comprising Kerala and part
of Tamil Nadu on the west coast and the rest of Tamil
Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Pondicherry on the east coast
is a region of low-to-moderate seismicity. The area lies in
the Stable Continental Region, which is not believed to be
exposed to the hazard of strong earthquakes. The
strongest known earthquake in the region
MAGNITUDE=6.0 occurred on 8 February 1900 near
Coimbatore and had a maximum intensity of VII.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands


The tsunami hit hard the Andaman and Nicobar group which comprises of a total of 572 islands
of which 38 were significantly inhabited.The waves literally washed away some of these islands,
and there were reports that the island of Trinket had split in two. The Great Nicobar and Car
Nicobar were the worst hit among all the southern Nicobar Islands because of their proximity to
the earthquake's epicenter and relative low topography. The maximum tsunami wave reached a
height of 15m. One fifth of the population of the Nicobar Islands is said to be dead, injured or
missing. Chowra Island lost two thirds of its population of 1,500.

Andhra Pradesh
There was significant loss of life and destruction. The affected districts were Krishna,
Prakasam, Nellore, Guntur, West Godavari and East Godavari.

Kerala
The tsunami killed many people (official toll 168) and caused extensive destruction particularly
at Kollam (131 dead), Alappuzha (32) and Ernakulam (5) were also affected.

Pondicherry
In the Union territory of Pondicherry, the affected districts were Pondicherry (107 dead),
Karaikal (453 dead). The latest official toll was 560. An estimated 30,000 people were rendered
homeless .

Tamil Nadu
The tsunami had a great impact on the state of Tamil Nadu on India's mainland with entire
coastal villages destroyed. The overall death toll in the state was 7,793. The Nagapattinam
district had 5,525 casualties. The latest reported death toll at Velankanni was 1,500.
Kanyakumari district has had 808 deaths, Cuddalore district 599, the state capital Chennai 206
and Kancheepuram district 124. The death tolls in other districts were Pudukkottai (15),
Ramanathapuram (6), Tirunelveli (4), Thoothukudi (3), Tiruvallur (28), Thanjavur (22), Tiruvarur
(10) and Viluppuram (47). The nuclear power plant at Kalpakkam was shut down after sea water
rushed into a pump station. No radiation leak or damage to the reactor was reported.

DETAILS OF IMPACT OF THE TSUNAMIS OF 26TH DECEMBER, 2004 - ON


THE MAIN LAND STATES
Details

Andhra
Pradesh

Kerala

Tamil
Nadu

Pondicherry

Total

Coastal Length
affected in Km

985

250

1000

25

2260

Penetration of water
into main land in Km.

0.50-2.0

1-2

1-1.5

0.30-3.0

Average height of the


tidal wave

5 Mtrs.

3-5 Mtrs.

7-10 Mtrs.

10 Mtrs.

No. of Villages affected

301

187

373

33

894

Population affected (in


lakh)

2.11

24.70

8.85

0.43

36.09

Dwelling units

1557

17381

124227

10061

153226

Cattle lost

195

NR

5477

506

6178

Cropped area (Ha)

790

NR

2589

792

4171

RESPONSE AND RECOVERY


The Ex-Gratia Fund, are payments made without an obligation to pay; which offers
institutions/companies the opportunity to commit funds into an account to cater for conditions.
Additional benefits i.e. optical and dental benefits, or any other services as per the client's
specifications can also be enjoyed from this fund.
Ex Gratia
S.No.

Government

Ex gratia

The Prime Minister has announced an ex-gratia payment of Rs.


1,00,000 (one lakh rupees) to the next of kin of each deceased.
The ex-gratia payment will be made from the Prime Ministers
National Relief Fund.

Government of India

State Government of
The Chief Minister has announced an ex-gratia payment of Rs.1,00,000
Tamil Nadu
(one lakh) to the families of each of the victims.

State Government of
Kerala

Ex gratia of Rs. 50,000 to the next kin of those killed.


Assistance of Rs. 10,000 for the families of the deceased, to
meet the funeral expenses.

The Chief Minister N Rangasamy has announced an ex gratia of


Rs 1,00,000 (one lakh) to the next of kin of the dead.
The administration would also pay an ex gratia of Rs 5000
towards funeral expenditure.
For those injured in the disaster, the administration would provide
Rs 5000.
A sum of Rs 10,000 to enable the homeless to reconstruct
houses.

Union Territory of
Pondicherry

The following bodies and agencies are seeking public help and contributions:

Indian Prime Minister's National Relief Fund


The Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has issued an appeal for contributions.
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies donation
International Committee of the Red Cross donation page
The Hindu Relief Fund
Tamil Nadu Chief Minister's Public Relief Fund
NDTV's trust fund
A listing of News and information about resources, aid, donations and volunteer efforts
by a volunteer team of bloggers. Fresh information can be posted here.
A blog of India-related relief efforts
Volunteers for India Development and Empowerment
requests on-line donations to provide for immediate relief to disaster victims
A list of relief efforts in India for tidal wave relief
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur is also reaching out to stand by its fellow citizens.
Site run by the South Indian Federation of Fishermen Societies (SIFFS)

An amount of Rs. 895.42 crore has been earmaked for Tsunami Relief and Rehabilitation
Schemes

STATUS OF RELIEF MATERIALS MOVEMENT


Item

Total resources
mobilized (in
MT)

Lifted/
Delivered
on 3rd Jan2
005
23.60
51.80
2.80

Planned for
dispatch/deliveryM
T

285.61
291.98
93.83

Already
Delivered (in
MT)-3rd Jan,
2005
226.01
248.98
61.63

Food items
Water
Emergency
medicines/di
sinfectant
Tentage

389.65

188.95

0.90

200.70

59.60
43.00
32.20

Clothing
Lighting
material
Diesel Gen.
Sets./pump
House hold
items
Equip. &
Machinery
Total

210.84
18.76

150.84
18.75

64.00
0.00

60.00
0.01

139.60

105.60

14.62

34.00

5.50

5.50

2.00

0.00

459.09

371.09

218.09

88.00

1894.85

1377.34

377.81

517.51

Status of delivery of High Priority Items


Item

Water (MT)
Food
Packets(MT)
Food Stuff (MT)
Small Tents
(No.)
Large Tents
(No.)
Torches
Generators
Pump Sets

Quantity
already
delivered
249
19

Dispatched/
delivered as on
03.01.05
52
14

Planned for dispatch


04.01.05

206
7157

10
18

90
300

641

50

26563
635
82

0
29
7

00
100
10

50
15

Status of deployment of Medical Teams/Disaster Response Teams and


Volunteers
Type (number of persons)
Specialized Medical
Intervention Teams
Disaster Response Teams
Disaster Volunteers Teams
Total

Mobilized
148

Deployed
148

2222
100
2470

1944
50
2142

RELIEF AND RESCUE FOR VARIOUS AFFECTED STATES


ANDAMAN ISLANDS
Relief measures by UT Administration
are continuing. 11 Relief camps have
been opened in Andaman district. There
is sufficient drinking water supply in Port
Blair and water is being air dropped in
other Islands . 11 more ships of Ministry
of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways
are scheduled from Chennai,
Visakhapatnam and Kolkatta carrying
the passengers and relief materials. 400
pieces of Poly Roll is being provided by
West Bengal and dispatch is being lined
up. Indian Coast Guard has deployed 19
Ships, provided 67.3 MT of relief
materials and has established 6 medical
camps and provided medical relief to
more than 2350 people. 6 MT water, 3
MT milk powder and 1 MT sugar was
dispatched by Blue Dart Aircraft on 03.1.2005 from Karnataka for A&N Islands.

NICOBAR ISLANDS
Of the 38 inhabited islands, 30 islands are affected. 14 Ships of Navy and Coast Guards and 16
Aircrafts fixed wings/Helicopters have been pressed in to service for relief and rescue work.
Mass cremation/burial of dead
bodies is being undertaken on
day-to-day basis. BSF
Personnel have disposed off
150 dead bodies, moved 3000
persons to safer places and
provided medical treatment to
210 persons in Katchal 1268
persons have been evacuated
from Chowra. All dead bodies
have been disposed off. Air
dropping of (food packets,
Drinking water, emergency
medicines, household kits,
milk etc.) to affected Islands is
continuing. 3 relief camps in
Kamorta, 8 in Car Nicobar, 01
in Teressa have been opened. 4 adhoc camps have also been opened at Campbell Bay . Relief

materials are being distributed with the help of Defence personnel, CPMFs and volunteers
including some NGOs.

KERALA
Relief operations are continuing and Army, Navy and Coast Guards have been assisting the
local administration. The priority being accorded to supply of fumigation and disinfectant in
affected areas to avoid outbreak of epidemics. Roads have been cleared and supply of drinking
has been restored. Adequate medical arrangements have been made. State Government has
deployed 224 doctors in the affected areas. The situation has improved considerably.

Tamil Nadu
Relief operations are continuing and Army, Navy and Coast Guards have been assisting the
local administration. Two Chetak Helicopters, Two Dornier Aircrafts, Indian Naval ships and one
Coast Guard helicopters were deployed at Nagipattnam. Union Health Minister is camping at
Chennai and coordinating with the State authorities for providing medical relief and prevent
outbreak of epidemics.

Pondicherry
Relief operations are continuing and Army and Navy have been assisting the local
administration. One ship of Coast Guard is also engaged in relief and rescue operations in
Karikal area. 4,95000 food packets, 42000 water bottles, 26,371 Blankets, 28,742 Sarees,
25742 Dhotis, 25742 Towels and 275.62 MT of rice have been distributed to the victims till 3rd
January 2005.

REFRENCES
http://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/11-facts-about-2004-indian-oceantsunami - NATIONAL GEOGRAPHY
http://library.buffalo.edu/asl/guides/indian-ocean-disaster.html - UNIVERSITY AT
BUFFALO
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2009-08/19/content_8589535.htm - china daily
http://www.recoveryplatform.org/countries_and_disasters/disaster/15/indian_ocea
n_tsunami_2004
http://www.emdat.be/search-details-disaster-list