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2015

DESIGNBRIDGE

WIN
CKK
8/21/2015

I. Introduction
Bridge design is a complex engineering problem. The design process includes consideration of other important
factors, such as choice of bridge system, materials, dimensions, foundations, aesthetics, and local landscape and
environment. And this report presents method design for Highway Bridge.

Figure_1: Picture of a type bridge

II. Main bridges


There are main bridges as: Reinforced concrete bridges, Prestressed concrete bridges, Steel
concrete composite I Girder bridges, Arch bridges, Suspension bridges, Timber bridges, Cable
Stayed bridges,.
Several images of bridges are show under here:

Figure_2: Reinforced concrete bridge

Figure_3: Suspension bridge

Figure_4: Prestressed concrete bridge

Figure_5: Arch bridge

III. Main parts of the Bridge


Main pasts of the bridge is show in Figure_2

Figure_6: Main pasts of the Bridge

IV. Design philosophy


IV.1.1. General

Bridges shall be designed for specified limit states toachieve the objectives of constructibility, safety, and
serviceability, with due regard to issues of inspectability, economy, and aesthetics.

IV.1.2. Limit States

Strength Limit States - Strength limit state shall be taken to ensure that strength and stability, both local
and global, are provided to resist the specified statistically significant load combinations that a bridge is
expected to experience in its design life.
Extreme Event Limit States - The extreme event limit state shall be taken to ensure the structural
survival of a bridge during a major earthquake or flood, or when collided by a vessel, vehicle, or ice flow,
possibly under scoured conditions.
Service Limit States - The service limit state shall be taken as restrictions on stress, deformation, and
crack width under regular service conditions.
Fatigue and Fracture Limit State - The fatigue limit state shall be taken as restrictions on stress range as
a result of a single design truck occurring at number of expected stress range cycles. The fracture limit
state shall be taken as a set of material toughness requirements of the AASHTO Materials
Specifications.

IV.1.3. Ductility (tnh do)


The structural system of a bridge shall be proportioned and detailed to ensure the development of significant and
visible inelastic deformations at the strength and extremeevent limit states before failure.

IV.1.4. Redundancy (tnh d)


IV.1.5. Operation importance (tm quan trng khi s dng)
V. Bridge Design
V.1. Determine design creteria

Design standard, design life,


V.2. Determine load designation
Load designation have two main types: permanent load and trensient load
Permanent load:

DD = downdrag
DC = dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments
DW = dead load of wearing surfaces and utilities
EH = horizontal earth pressure load
EL = accumulated locked-in force effects resulting from the construction process, including the
secondary forces from post-tensioning
ES = earth surcharge load

EV = vertical pressure from dead load of earth fill

Transient load:

BR = vehicular braking force


CE = vehicular centrifugal force
CR = creep
CT = vehicular collision force
CV = vessel collision force
EQ = earthquake
FR = friction
IC = ice load
IM = vehicular dynamic load allowance
LL = vehicular live load
LS = live load surcharge
PL = pedestrian live load
SE = settlement
SH = shrinkage
TG = temperature gradient
TU = uniform temperature
WA = water load and stream pressure
WL = wind on live load
WS = wind load on structure

V.3. Load combination

VI. Calculation and check


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Calculation interion load of structure.


Check for the strength limit state, extreme, service and fatigue.

VII. Flowchart for Prestress Concrete Bridge


Main design steps is show in under chart: