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BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

ICSAAM 2015
The 6th International Conference on
Structural Analysis of Advanced Materials
8-11 September, 2015, Porto, Portugal

6th International Conference on Structural Analysis


of Advanced Materials

Porto, Portugal
8 - 11 September, 2015

Committees
Chairmen

Pedro Moreira (INEGI/FEUP, Portugal) (chairman)


Gabi Jiga (UPB, Romania) (co-chairman)
George Papanicolaou (UP, Greece) (co-chairman)
Emeritus Chairman

Moussa Karama (Ecole Nationale DIngnieurs De Tarbes, France)


Honorary Chairman

Antnio Torres Marques (FEUP, Portugal)


Organizing Committee

Mrio Vaz, University of Porto, Portugal


Paulo Tavares de Castro, University of Porto, Portugal
Paulo Tavares, INEGI, Portugal
Pedro Moreira, INEGI/FEUP, Portugal local chairman
Rui Miranda Guedes, University of Porto, Portugal
Tiago Ramos, INEGI, Porto
Viviana Correia Pinto, INEGI, Porto
Joaquim Silva Gomes, University of Porto, Portugal
Mrio Vaz, University of Porto, Portugal
Paulo Tavares de Castro, University of Porto, Portugal
Srgio Tavares, INEGI, Portugal
Scientific Committee

Adrian MOTOMANCEA, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania


Alexandra BANU, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania
Alexopoulos Nikolaos, University of the Aegean, Greece
Alfredo Morais, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal
Antnio Torres Marques, University of Porto, Portugal
Brandusa GHIBAN, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania
Catalin FETECAU, University Dunarea de Jos Galati, Romania
Chris Rodopoulos, Monash University, Australia
Constantin OPRAN, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania
Costel Emil COTET, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania
Cristian DOICIN, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania
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Cristian PETRE, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania


D. Anton HADAR, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania
D. Mouzakis, University Technological Institute of Larissa, Greece
D.V. Portan, University of Patras, Greece
Dan Mihai CONSTANTINESCU, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania
E. Kontou, National Technical University of Athens, Greece
Federico Paris, University of Seville, Spain
Gabi Jiga, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania
George ENCIU, Head of Industrial Logistics Division, Romania
George Papanicolaou, University of Patras, Greece
Ioan PARAUSANU, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania
Jesus Alfredo Gordo, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, Spain
Moussa Karama, Ecole Nationale DIngnieurs De Tarbes, France
Mrio Vaz, University of Porto, Portugal
Nicolae IONESCU, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania
Paulo Tavares de Castro, University of Porto, Portugal
Paulo Tavares, INEGI, Portugal
Pedro Moreira, INEGI/FEUP, Portugal
Rui Miranda Guedes, University of Porto, Portugal
Rui Moreira, University of Aveiro, Portugal
S. Zaoutsos, University Technological Institute of Larissa, Greece
Stefan Dan Pastrama, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania
Srgio Tavares, INEGI/FEUP, Portugal
T. Loutas, University of Patras, Greece
Tiberiu DOBRESCU, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania
V.Kostopoulos, University of Patras, Greece
Volnei Tita, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

Published by:
INEGI Instituto de Engenharia Mecnica e Gesto Industrial
Front cover figures credits:
VC Pinto, PMGP Moreira
Editor ICSAAM2015 book of abstracts: VC Pinto, PMGP Moreira, PJS Tavares
ISBN: 978-972-8826
http://icsaam2015.inegi.up.pt

Sponsors

Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Management

University Politehnica of Bucharest

University of Patras

SPM Sociedade Portuguesa de Materiais

Associao de turismo do Porto

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

Contents
Committees ............................................................................................................... 2
Sponsors .................................................................................................................... 5
Contents .................................................................................................................... 6
Welcome from President of the INEGI - Institute of Science and Innovation in
Mechanical and Industrial Engineering................................................................... 12
Welcome from Conference Chairs .......................................................................... 13
Conference Overview.............................................................................................. 14
About Porto............................................................................................................. 16
Conference site ....................................................................................................... 18
Meetings rooms ...................................................................................................... 18
Plenary Invited Speakers ......................................................................................... 22
Prof. Raj Das ........................................................................................................ 22
Modelling extreme deformation and dynamic behaviour of materials using
multi-scale techniques and mesh-less methods ............................................. 22
Prof. Mrio Vaz ................................................................................................... 24
Structural Monitoring and Biomechanics ....................................................... 24
Prof. Antnio Torres Marques ............................................................................ 26
Thermoset versus Thermoplastic composites: from raw materials and semiproducts to final parts..................................................................................... 26
Prof. George Papanicolaou ................................................................................. 28
A comparative study of nanotube-epoxy interphasial interaction in CNT and
TNT-epoxy matrix nanocomposites ................................................................ 28
Prof. Stefan Pastrama ......................................................................................... 30
Prof. Gabriel Jiga ................................................................................................. 33
Material and shape crash-box influence on the evaluation of the impact
energy absorption capacity during a vehicle collision .................................... 33
Prof. Alberto DAmore ........................................................................................ 35
Constitutive law describing the strength degradation of fiber reinforced
composites subjected to cyclic loading........................................................... 35
Prof. Rui Miranda Guedes ................................................................................... 37
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Time-Dependent Behavior of Polymers: Viscoelasticity/Viscoplasticity and


Physical Aging.................................................................................................. 37
ICSAAM2015 Program............................................................................................. 39
Program Overview .............................................................................................. 39
Technical Program .............................................................................................. 40
Abstracts ................................................................................................................. 50
Session 1A ............................................................................................................... 51
INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBE
REINFORCED COMPOSITES AND THEIR EVALUATION USING A CYLIDRICAL RVE52
THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPECIMENS WITH STRESS
CONCENTRATORS IN DEPENDANCE OF STRESS TRIAXIALITY .............................. 53
DEFORMABILITY BEHAVIOUR OF NEW COBALT BASED ALLOYS ......................... 55
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON SELF-HEALING EFFICIENCY OF DOPED FIBER
REINFORCED PLASTICS WITH THERMOPLASTIC MICRO-PARTICLES ................... 56
Session 1B ............................................................................................................... 58
EFFECT OF CLAY MODIFIER ON THE RHEOMETRIC BEHAVIOR AND
MECHANICAL/THERMAL AGING PROPERTIES OF STYRENE-BUTADIENE RUBBERCLAY NANOCOMPOSITES .................................................................................... 59
ENHANCED PERFORMANCES OF DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS BASED ON
HYBRID PHOTOANODES ...................................................................................... 61
VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR AND MODELING OF NANO AND MICRO TiO2 POWDEREPOXY RESIN COMPOSITES ................................................................................. 63
EFFECT OF TIO2 NANOTUBES DEVELOPED ON PURE TITANIUM SUBSTRATES ON
THE MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF TITANIUM-TITANIUM SINGLE LAP
ADHESIVE JOINTS ................................................................................................ 65
Session 2A ............................................................................................................... 67
FIBER LENGTH INFLUENCE AND FILAMENT INTERACTION ON SINGLE AND
MULTIFILAMENTS ............................................................................................... 68
OUTDOOR WEATHERING OF STARCH-GRAFTED POLYPROPYLENE/KENAF FIBRES
COMPOSITE ......................................................................................................... 70
SYNTHESIS OF GEOPOLYMER MATERIAL FROM METAKAOLIN AND PORTLAND
CEMENT .............................................................................................................. 72
NATURALLY OCCURRING ABIETIC ACID FOR LIQUID CRYSTALLINE EPOXY CURING
AGENTS ............................................................................................................... 73
STRATEGIES ON IMPLEMENTING A POTENTIAL SELF HEALING FUNCTIONALITY
IN A COMPOSITE STRUCTURE ............................................................................. 75
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Session 2B ............................................................................................................... 77
DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION MEASUREMENTS IN AN INNOVATIVE RAILWAY
CAR BODY UNDERFRAME 3-POINT BENDING TEST ............................................ 78
DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF AN
INNOVATIVE PROPOSAL FOR SEISMIC RESISTANT STRUCTURES........................ 79
WIRELESS STRAIN GAUGE FOR COMPOSITE MATERIALS.................................... 81
INFLUENCE OF ULTRASOUNDS IN THE DAMPING CAPACITY OF ALUMINIUM
ALLOYS ................................................................................................................ 82
ACOUSTIC EMISSION MONITORING FRACTURE OF A COMPOSITE MATERIAL ... 83
Session 3A ............................................................................................................... 85
INFLUENCE OF DEFORMABILITY OF HORIZONTAL DIAPHRAGMS IN THEIR PLAN
ON THE SEISMIC LOADS DISTRIBUTION TO RESISTING WALLS ........................... 86
A MODERN METHODOLOGY OF DESIGN OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURES
BY A GENETIC ALGORITHMS APPROACH ............................................................ 88
SURFACE STRUCTURAL INHOMOGENEITIES AND FRACTAL PROPERTIES OF MnO2
SEMICONDUCTOR THIN FILMS ........................................................................... 90
MULTIBODY DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF AN ELECTRIC BUS WITH FLEXIBLE
PARTS .................................................................................................................. 91
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS IN THE DESIGN OF PATIENT-SPECIFIC OSTEOTOMIES
GUIDES. CASE STUDY .......................................................................................... 92
HOMOGENIZATION OF A FIBRED STRUCTURE WITH A CONDITION ON THE
INTERFACE MATRIX-FIBRE .................................................................................. 94
Session 3B ............................................................................................................... 95
DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS DATABASE FOR AEROSPACE
CERTIFICATION .................................................................................................... 96
DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE PLATES MADE WITH GREEN MATERIALS 97
MACROPOROUS GREEN CERAMICS BY SIMULTANEOUS RECYCLING OF COAL
ASH AND GLASS WASTES .................................................................................... 99
GREEN COMPOSITE MATERIALS: THE BREAKING NEW GROUND ABC-MATRIX
.......................................................................................................................... 101
COMPOSITE MAGNETIC MICROWIRES SANDWICH STRUCTURE FOR SENSOR
APPLICATION ..................................................................................................... 103
Session 4A ............................................................................................................. 105
CRACK INITIATION ANALYSIS UNDER MEAN STRESS EFFECT IN 2024 T351 ALALLOY ................................................................................................................ 106
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COMPARISON BETWEEN THREE FATIGUE DAMAGE MODELS AND


EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR COMPOSITE MATERIALS SUBMITTED TO
SPECTRUM LOADING ........................................................................................ 109
FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF A HOPPER KNUCKLE CONNECTION OF A 181K TON DWT
BULK CARRIER UNDER GLOBAL AND LOCAL LOADS ......................................... 111
Session 4B ............................................................................................................. 115
VIABILITY ANALYSIS OF DOUBLE COLD WIRE GAS METAL ARC WELDING
PROCESS ............................................................................................................ 116
FRICTION STIR WELDING OF POLYMERS: REVIEW AND PROSPECTS ................ 117
FRICTION STIR WELD-BONDED ALUMINUM JOINTS ......................................... 118
Session 5A ............................................................................................................. 124
THREE DIMENSIONAL FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF ROTATING FUNCTIONALLY
GRADED CYLINDRICAL SHELLS IN THERMAL ENVIRONMENT ........................... 125
ANALYSIS OF CONDITIONS FOR TRANSITION OF MULTIPLE CRACKS INTO SINGLE
MAIN CRACK LOCATED IN STRESS CONCENTRATION ZONES UNDER LOW-CYCLE
FATIGUE LOADING REGIME .............................................................................. 126
AN ANALYTICAL MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE MAXIMUM TENSILE STRESS IN
SPLICED BEAMS UNDER TENSILE LOAD USING THE EXAMPLE OF A FIVEFOLD
LAMINATE ......................................................................................................... 127
A PROCEDURE TO OBTAIN THE PROBABILISTIC KITAGAWA-TAKAHASHI
DIAGRAM .......................................................................................................... 131
Session 5B ............................................................................................................. 132
EFFECT OF ALUMINOSILSESQIOXANE ADDITION AND VARIOUS CURING
CONDITIONS ON THE THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF GLASS FIBER
REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITE...................................................................... 133
VALIDATION OF THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH
DISCONTINUITIES .............................................................................................. 135
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MAGNETO SENSITIVE ELASTOMER WITH IRON
PARTICLES AT UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY ..................................... 137
PLASTICITY DETERMINATION OF COCRMOTI ALLOY ........................................ 139
DEFORMABILITY BEHAVIOUR OF NEW COBALT BASED ALLOYS ....................... 140
VALORISATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE ............................................................ 141
Session 6 ............................................................................................................... 142
THE ELECTROCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF TWO
TITANIUM ALUMINIDE IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTS .................................... 143
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DSC ANALYSIS OF TITANIUM ALUMINDE CORRELATED WITH SHORT TERM


OXIDATION BEHAVIOR. ..................................................................................... 147
DEGRADATION ANALYSIS OF FIBER-METAL LAMINATES UNDER SERVICE
CONDITIONS TO PREDICT THEIR DURABILITY ................................................... 149
A COMPLETE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY OF ANOMALOUS BEHAVIOUR OF
HYGROTHERMALLY AGED FRPs......................................................................... 151
Session 7 ............................................................................................................... 152
STABLE AND DEGRADABLE ALL-ALIPHATIC POLYURETHANE ELASTOMERS ..... 153
THE ACCELERATED EFFECT OF NANOPARTICLES ON THE DEGRADATION OF THE
THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A BIO-BASED POLYMER ..................... 155
OPTIMIZATION OF THE HYBRID VISCOELASTIC INTERPHASE MODEL............... 157
Poster Session ....................................................................................................... 159
DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PLA AND PLA/CNT-COOH
BIODEGRADABLE NANOCOMPOSITES THIN FILMS ........................................... 160
EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF CREEP AND STRESS RELAXATION
BEHAVIOUR OF PLA-PCL FIBRES ........................................................................ 162
PREPARATION OF PVP POLYMER ELECTROLYTES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN
SOLID STATE DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS ...................................................... 164
LOW ENERGY IMPACT AND POST IMPACT BEHAVIOR OF EPOXY MATRIXWOVEN FLAX FABRIC COMPOSITES .................................................................. 166
STRAIN-RATE EFFECTS IN NANO AND MICRO TiO2 PARTICLES -EPOXY RESIN
PARTICULATE COMPOSITES BEHAVIOR ............................................................ 168
THERMAL SHOCK CYCLING EFFECT ON THE FLEXURAL STRESS RELAXATION
BEHAVIOR OF GLASS FIBER-EPOXY LAMINATES ............................................... 170
THE DOUBLE ROLE OF FIBERS AS REINFORCEMENTS AND HEATING ELEMENTS
FOR POLYMER CURING IN THERMOSET MATRIX-FIBER COMPOSITES ............. 172
MODELING THE MECHANICAL DEGRADATION DUE TO MOISTURE ABSORPTION
IN POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES .................................................................. 174
MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE INCLUSION
GEOMETRY AND CONCENTRATION EFFECT ON THE QUASI-STATIC PROPERTIES
OF A SEMI-GREEN EPOXY MATRIX .................................................................... 176
DEVELOPMENT OF A STARCH REINFORCED CHIOS MASTIC- OLIVE OIL MATRIX
NEW GREEN COMPOSITE MATERIAL ................................................................ 178
NITINOL LAYERED COMPOSITES: MANUFACTURING........................................ 180
AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES........................................................................... 180
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MONITORING THE FLY ASH DISPERSION IN EPOXY MATRIX AND ITS EFFECT ON
THE THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE OBTAINED COMPOSITES ..... 183
EFFECT OF PIGMENTS ADDITION ON PROPERTIES OF THE ISOTACTIC
POLYPROPYLENE ............................................................................................... 185
USE OF DIFFERENT ACIDS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF CHROMIUM CONTAINED IN
ASH FROM THE INCINERATION OF WASTE LEATHER........................................ 187
HYDROGEN GAS SENSORS BASED ON PALLADIUM/SILICON OXIDE/SILICON
CARBIDE SANDWICH STRUCTURES ................................................................... 188
DIFFERENCES IN DEGRADATION MECHANISM OF THE STANDARD AND THE NEW
- CORE-SHELL CATALYST DURING AMMONIA OXIDATION PROCESS ................ 190
RELATIONSHIP OF CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENTS OF STRUCTURAL
ALUMINUM ALLOY TO STRENGTH OF GLUED JOINT ........................................ 191
INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF
POLYPROPYLENE SANDWICH PANEL AND COMPARE THE MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES OF THE ALUMINUM HONEYCOMB PANELS.................................. 193

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Welcome from President of the INEGI - Institute of


Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering
Alcibiades Paulo Guedes
Dear Participants in the ICSAAM2015 - International Conference,

As President of INEGI, it is with great pleasure that I welcome you to the 6th
International Conference on Structural Analysis of Advanced Materials.
INEGI pledged its commitment to the subject of this conference several years ago,
and has been doing research work in the area that has not gone unnoticed. As an
interface institute between the University and the Industry, we are bound by the
numerous practical issues on the subject brought to our attention by the
companies and research institutions we partner, the projects we embrace or the
discoveries of our scholars and research teams. Structural analysis of advanced
materials issues arise naturally on real-life parts, and those are precisely the sort
of subjects our industrial partners make a living of, and therefore we either study
or analyse as part of our daily work.
I wish you all a fruitfull meeting and may the consequences of this conference fuel
important work for new researchers and results for the industry and the Society
at large.

Warm regards,
Alcibiades Paulo Guedes

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Welcome from Conference Chairs


Pedro M G P Moreira, George Papanicolaou, and Gabi Jiga
Dear delegates of the ICSAAM2015,
As chairs of the organizing committee of the 6th International Conference on
Structural Analysis of Advanced Materials, it is with great honour and a touch of
unconcealed excitement that we welcome you to Porto.
Structural analysis of advanced materials research has gone through an
impressive jump the last decade. Portugal is the newest addition to the organizing
committee of the ICSAAM conferences and it is therefore the first time this
exclusive conference is hosted in Porto. In organizing this important conference in
Porto, the organizing committee attempted to create a lively and fruitful
conference environment on one of the most pleasing places in Portugal.
ICSAAM aims at bringing together scientists and engineers from around the world
in the attempt to exchange recent experiences in research and development
activities in the field of Structural Analysis of Advanced Materials.
We therefore hope we have, in a simple, humble fashion, contributed to the
advance of the discussion by bringing it to an inspiring and informal environment
where researchers are able to convey their views and vividly confront different
perspectives, somehow shining the light from knowledge where darkness and
divergence are customary.
We hope you all are able to seize the day and contribute to this ideal.
Our politesse formula could therefore be no other than,
True wishes of fruitful discussions,
Pedro M G P Moreira, George Papanicolaou, and Gabi Jiga

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Conference Overview
Portugal is the newest addition to the organizing committee of the International
Conference on Structural Analysis of Advanced Material ICSAAM conferences
and it is therefore the first time this exclusive conference is hosted in Porto from 8th
to 11th September, 2015.
ICSAAM was launched in 2005 and is a partnership effort from INEGI, University
of Patras and University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania.
For its 6th edition, ICSAAM 2015 conference authors were invited to submit work
and present papers and posters in all relevant fields of Structural Analysis of
Advanced Materials.
ICSAAM 2015 aims at bringing together scientists and engineers from around the
world in the attempt to exchange recent experiences in research and development
activities in the field of Structural Analysis of Advanced Materials. The topics to
be covered by the conference include all thematic areas of current research and
industrial applications. Main topics of the conference are:
Materials
Polymers and Polymer Matrix Composites
Ceramic and Metallic Matrix Composites
Nano-composites
Biomaterials and medical applications
Smart materials
Green composites
Sandwich structures
Degradation and Prediction
Damage and Fracture
Fatigue (Mechanical, Thermal)
Durability and Reliability
Large deformations
Impact
Water absorption
Analytical and Numerical Modeling
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Experimental techniques
NDT-NDI
Thermal Analysis
Mechanical Testing
Vibration Analysis
Dynamic Behavior
Manufacturing Techniques

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About Porto
Portos cultural and social life is warmingly waiting our visitors.
It is situated on North of Portugal.
Discover more on: www.portocvb.com or on http://www.cm-porto.pt/

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Photos: https://www.flickr.com/photos/visitportoandnorth/sets
Videos: https://vimeo.com/visitportoandnorth

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Conference site
The conference will take place in the Faculty of Sciences at the University of
Porto (Faculdade de Cincias da Universidade do Porto).
With origins dating back to the eighteenth century, the University of Porto is
currently the largest education and research institution in Portugal. The venue is
located in a quiet area with several green gardens with remarkable views to the sea,
the Douro river and its historical bridges, the world famous Porto wine cellars and
the UNESCO World Heritage Ribeira.
The Faculty facilities are excellent and serve, each year, a large number of similar
events.
Boavista area with its world renowned Casa da Msica (The House of Music),
shopping centers shops and hotels are a few minutes walk away. An modern and
very efficient public transportation system (subway, buses, trams) connects in a
few minutes to all major interest points in the city but also to the airport, train
stations and well as the several well known beaches and seaside towns both north
and south of Douro River.

Meetings rooms
Room Newton
Room Galileu
Room A and B
More information on: Usefull tips paper

__ Room Galileu
__ Room Newton
__ Room A
__ Room B
__ Coffee-break /
lunch lounge
area

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Welcome Cocktail reception


Taylors Port Cellars
Rua do Choupelo n 250
4400-088 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal
Guided tour to Taylors Port Cellars, with Porto wine taste and appetizers
Bus transportation from Faculdade de Cincias da Universidade do Porto
entrance at 18:00. Organizing staff will lead participants to the bus.

Figure 1 - Taylors Port Cellars

Conference banquet
Casa da Msica Restaurant
Av. da Boavista, 604-610
4149-071 Porto, Portugal
Before banquet, there will be a guided tour to Casa da Msica beginning at
18:30. Organizing staff will lead participants to Casa da Msica.

Figure 2 Casa da Msica

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(Directions)

Conference tour
Visit Douro Full Day (By Boat and Train, with Lunch included)
11 September Friday
Up by train to Rgua and downstream by boat to Porto.
08h30 Meeting at S. Bento Railway Station in Porto.
All on board for a Cruise towards Rgua to enjoy a delightful journey along the
river Douro, through an untouched landscape of wonderful high hills, lush Porto
vineyards, picturesque villages and traditional towns.
09h10 - Departure by train to Rgua
11h08 - Arrival at Rgua
11h30 - Shipping at Rgua Quay
Departure to Porto // Port Wine on board
12h00 - Lunch on board
13h45 - Carrapatelo Dam (Flood-gate, unlevelling 35 meters)
16h30 - Crestuma-Lever Dam (Flood-gate, unlevelling 14 meters)
18h00 - Arrival at Vila Nova de Gaia Quay

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Figure 3 Douro tour

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Plenary Invited Speakers


Prof. Raj Das
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Centre for Advanced Composite
Materials, University of Auckland
New Zealand

Modelling extreme deformation and dynamic behaviour of materials using


multi-scale techniques and mesh-less methods
Abstract
The seminar will present overview of computational mechanics research at the Centre for
Advanced Composite Materials of the University of Auckland. Our research covers both
fundamental and applied aspects of material behaviour and failure processes. This
presentation will encompass computational modelling of material deformation, damage and
fracture using multi-scale techniques in conjunction with mesh-less methods, novel
composite materials development and damage tolerance structural optimisation.
Multi-scale modelling of damage and fracture progression linking nano to macro scales and
associated development of coupled computational modelling tools will be highlighted. The
strengths of mesh-less methods will be illustrated with reference to both low to high-speed
fractures and small to large scale problems. These include several dynamic fracture and
fragmentation processes, such as hypervelocity impact fracture, nano-scale machining,
large scale geo-mechanical failures (magma intrusion, caving, slope stability, etc).
One of our core areas to be presented is novel impact and blast resistant, light weight
composite material developments for aerospace components subjected to high-speed
loading and extreme deformations, as occurs in the cases of debris impact on spacecrafts,
bird strike on aircraft engines, blast induced failures, etc. Lastly novel shape and topology
optimisation methodologies for damage tolerance optimisation, i.e. maximising the residual
strength and fatigue life, of aero-structures will be highlighted. Case studies from projects
with Royal Australian Air Force and Defence Science and Technology Organisation will be
presented to demonstrate the practical implementation and utilities of the developed design
and analysis methodologies.

------------------------------------------------

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Dr Raj Das is a principle investigator of the Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, and a faculty
member of the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Auckland, New Zealand. His
current areas of interest include impact response and failure of composite materials, numerical
modelling using mesh-less methods, multi-scale modelling, nano-machining, dynamic fracture,
damage tolerance based structural optimisation. Dr Das received a PhD in the field of failure analysis
and structural optimisation from Monash University, Australia. He developed a range of damage
tolerance based optimisation tools, which have been adopted by Australian aerospace industries for
optimum designs for fracture strength and fatigue life. Dr Das subsequently worked as a Research
Associate in the University of Manchester, UK. On his return to Australia, Dr Das joined the
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) as a Senior Research
Scientist, where he contributed to the development of mesh-less SPH method for a range of
applications. Dr Raj Das has established strong linkages with aerospace, rail and marine industries
and active collaboration with national and international academic institutions. Dr Das is a member of
the National Committee on Applied Mechanics, and is an adjunct professor of the University of
Quebec, Canada.

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Prof. Mrio Vaz


Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto
Portugal

Structural Monitoring and Biomechanics


Abstract
The main goal of Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological
systems such as humans, animals, plants, organs, and cells by using the methods of
Mechanics. The characterization of human locomotion is one of the central issues for its
multiple implications, occupational, leisure, sports and rehabilitation. For this purpose
systems that allow obtaining the forces and displacements associated with lower limb
during gait were built. Platform forces, ergometers and systems for 3d recording of the
movement, based on multiple images or using inertial devices are currently used in
biomechanics laboratories. Thus a quantitative evaluation of the various parameters of gait
is possible, as is the use of this information in postoperative rehabilitation in case of injuries
or accidents.
On the other hand it is also possible to provide prostheses and orthoses with systems and
sensors to enable register forces and displacements of interest to outpatient treatments in
orthopedics and physiotherapy. The experience gained over the past two decades with the
application of experimental mechanics techniques in Biomechanics identified a set cross
multidisciplinary needs which LABIOMEP Laboratory of Biomechanics of University of
Porto can provide answers. Ongoing works to reduce the risk of injury in the diabetic foot
and in the optimization of the mobility of patients operated on the legs can lead to results
with application in gait of elderly people and in minimizing the risk of falls.

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Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

Figure 1 - Sensor for 2D shear force assessment in the plantar region of patients with diabetic
neuropathy, (Patent pending).

------------------------------------------------

Mario Vaz joined the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto teaching staff in 1985.
Throughout his professional life took part in several research projects in the area of inspection of
structures and characterization of its behavior under load, as well as in developing methods of
inspection based on the use of laser radiation. He was also involved in several projects of technology
transfer and expertise in various accidents involving structures. Currently his main research interest
are focused on Solid Mechanics, Holographic interferometry, NDT of Composites, Dynamic of
Materials, Biomechanics, Experimental Mechanics, Image Processing.

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Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

Prof. Antnio Torres Marques


Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto
Portugal

Thermoset versus Thermoplastic composites: from raw materials and semiproducts to final parts
Abstract
Although only recently thermoplastic matrices have been used in long and continuous fibre
reinforced composites replacing with success thermosetting matrices, the number of their
applications is increasing due to their better ecological and mechanical performance. A
comparison will be made regarding advantages and disadvantages of both systems and their
future evolution and applications perspectives.
The use of long/continuous fibre reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites involves,
however, great technological and scientific challenges since thermoplastics present much
higher viscosity than thermosettings, which makes much difficult and complex the
impregnation of reinforcements and consolidation tasks.
Two major technologies are being used to allow wet reinforcing fibres with thermoplastic
polymers: i) the direct melting of the polymer and, ii) the intimate fiber/matrix contact prior
to final composite fabrication. Continuous fibre reinforced thermoplastic matrix preimpregnated tapes (PCTs) are, for example, produced by direct melting processes.
Alternatively, intimate contact processes allow producing cheap and promising preimpregnated materials, such as, commingled fibres and powder coated towpregs.
Sometimes, thermoplastic compatibilizers were added to the matrices to improve their
adhesion and facilitate impregnation to reinforcements.
Different thermoplastic matrices and fibres raw-materials were used in a case study to
manufacture pultruded composites for commercial applications (glass and carbon fibre/
polypropylene) and for advanced markets (carbon fibre/Primospire).
Other semi-products, like tape, may be used and the forming processing conditions are
described.
The towpregs, PCTs and commingled fibres were processed into composite bar profiles
using the laboratorial pultrusion line.
To produce composite profiles, the pre-impregnated materials are guided into the preheating furnace to be heated up to the required temperature. Then, they enter in the
pultrusion heated die to be heated and consolidated to the required size and, after cooled
down in the cooling die to solidify.
A die to allow producing a 202 mm2 bar-shaped profile has been designed and
manufactured.

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Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

Forming of UD thermoplastic composites allow the production of mechanical products that


are structurally optimised, economical, efficient, having complex structures or geometries
that can be adapted to automated manufacturing. The process includes the use of a fibre
reinforced tape, followed by automated lay-up with blank consolidation. Then, the blank is
preheated and stamped, followed by plastic injection over moulding to obtain the final
product.
A case study of an Upper Cross Member will be presented.
Thermoplastic composites are more and more used in structural applications. However,
thermoset composites are still largely used and fighting to recover their share. Strong
investment in R&D
will bring better opportunities for both sides and with a
complementary perspective.

------------------------------------------------

With a degree in Mechanical Engineering (Option Mechanical Constructions Mecnicas), from


Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Portugal, in 1972, Antnio Torres Marques received his
MSc in Polymers (1977) from Cranfield Institute of Technology, UK, and his PhD in Materials also
from Cranfield Institute of Technology, UK, in 1981.
Full Professor, since 27th December 2002 at Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Portugal, he
also had an important role at INEGI (Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial
Management), being the head of Composite Materials Unit from 1991 till 1997, president of INEGIs
Board of Directors from 1997 till 2000, head of Composite Materials Unit in 2004/2005. He is
member of the FCT Research Unit Experimental Mechanics and New Materials.
His research focus is on mechanical behaviour of and durability composite materials, design,
manufacturing and testing of Composite Materials, NDT, biomechanics, product development. He is
co-author of two international patents, has more than 300 conference papers and more than 70 papers
in scientific international journals

27

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

Prof. George Papanicolaou


Mechanics of Polymers and Composites, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Patras
Greece

A comparative study of nanotube-epoxy interphasial interaction in CNT and


TNT-epoxy matrix nanocomposites
Abstract
It is important to recognize that nanocomposites research is extremely broad, encompassing
areas such as electronics and computing, data storage, communications, aerospace and
sporting materials, health and medicine, energy, environmental, transportation, and national
defense applications. The properties of a nanocomposite are greatly influenced by the size
scale of its component phases and the degree of mixing between the two phases. Depending
on the nature of the components used (layered silicate or nanofiber, cation exchange
capacity, and polymer matrix) and the method of preparation, significant differences in
composite properties may be obtained. Analogously, in fibrous or particle-reinforced
polymer nanocomposites (PNCs), dispersion of the nanoparticle and adhesion at the
particlematrix interface play crucial roles in determining the mechanical properties of the
nanocomposite. Without proper dispersion, the nanomaterial will not offer improved
mechanical properties over that of conventional composites, in fact, a poorly dispersed
nanomaterial may degrade the mechanical properties. Additionally, optimizing the
interfacial bond between the particle and the matrix, one can tailor the properties of the
overall composite, similar to what is done in macrocomposites. For example, good
adhesion at the interface will improve properties such as interlaminar shear strength,
delamination resistance, fatigue, and corrosion resistance. The mechanical cooperation
between the different phases of the composite strongly depends on the degree of adhesion,
which also, plays an important role in the macromechanical properties of the material as
well as in its ability to support and transmit loading. Because of this imperfect bonding an
inhomogeneous region surrounding the inclusion is developed and this region forms the
interphase. Many researchers who have studied composite materials tried to associate the
interphase properties with the overall behavior of the system. In primary works the
composite was considered as a two phase system, consisting of the matrix and the
inclusion. Later, a homogeneous interface of constant thickness was considered around the
inclusion, since the two phase model was inadequate to illustrate the problem. Many recent
studies refer to the inhomogeneity of the region, using different laws of variation for the
interphase properties. A model proposed by Papanicolaou et al. in a recent work, introduces
the concept of the hybrid interphase, which is considered not only inhomogeneous, but also
with a property depended thickness. In the present investigation, using the hybrid

28

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

interphase model a comparison of the interphasial characteristics of CNT-Epoxy and TNTEpoxy resin systems was made. Interesting results concerning the nanotube-polymer
interphase characteristics were derived (Fig. 1a and 1b).
tE_0.01*(Ei-Em)
ExpDec1 of tE_0.01*(Ei-Em)

0,030

tE_0.01*(Ei-Em)
ExpDec1 of tE_0.01*(Ei-Em)

0,016
0,014

Interphase thickness tE(nm)

Interphase thickness tE (nm)

0,025

0,020

0,015

0,010

0,005

0,012
0,010
0,008
0,006
0,004
0,002
0,000

0,000
0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

0,1

1,0

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

kE

kE

(a)

(b)

Figure 1 - Interphase thickness as a function of the degree of adhesion in (a) CNT-Epoxy


systems and (b) TNT-Epoxy systems

------------------------------------------------

Prof. George Papanicolaou complete his Degree in Physics from National University of Athens in
1971 and hisDr. Engn. In Applied Mechanics from National Technical University of Athens in
1980. Professor has research experience in several groups like the Composite Materials Group,
Washington, USA and in the fields of Measurement Techniques, Analysis Methods, Transducers and
Electronic Instrumentation, Bruel & Kjaer, Naerum, Denmark. He has been the Director of Section of
Applied Mechanics, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Patras (July 1990 - Dec. 1992)
and ). Acting Head of the Mechanical Engineering Dept., Univ. of Patras (Sept. 1993- Sept.1997).
Nowadays, he is Full Professor of Mechanics of Polymers and Composites, Dept. of Mechanical
Engng., Univ.of Patras. He received the silver medal for excellent research work on Crack
Propagation Problems in Rubber-Modified Polymers, Cambridge (U.K.) (1987). He is also Doctor
Honoris Causa, (Dr. of Honour) University Politehnica of Bucharest (1998).
Author and co-author of more than 200 papers in recognized scientific journals, one monograph and
several book chapters. Leader of 8 European Projects and numerous national research and industrial
projects. devoted to optical metrology and development of innovative measurement systems based on
interferometric and noncoherent methods.

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Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

Prof. Stefan Pastrama


Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest
Romania

Virtual bronchoscopy method based on the marching cubes algorithm

Abstract
In order to diagnose lung cancer, the most lethal one today, medical doctors perform a
trans-bronchial biopsy. First, this is planned by examining a number of Computed
Tomography (CT) scan slices. Then, the procedure is performed by introducing a video
bronchoscope into the bronchi as far as the diameter of the bronchoscope permits. A biopsy
forceps is inserted through the bronchoscope channel and the biopsy is blindly performed,
but the success rate of the procedure is not very high. In the case of such procedure, better
results were reported following the use of electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB)
with a steerable instrument.
The authors of this paper have developed a novel system, called NAVICAD 1 for spatial
guidance of a customized bronchoscopic forceps used to reach peripheral targets beyond
the place allowed by the size of the diameter of the video bronchoscope. When
bronchoscope diameter is too big to advance, the user extends only the navigation forceps
further to the peripheral target. The navigation is then performed using the virtual
bronchoscopy image from the fourth window of CT and the instantaneous position of the
forceps tip overlaid on the 3D model presented in the third window. The biopsy using the
forceps can be performed when the target is reached. Improved diagnosis is accomplished
via enhanced navigation, targeting, and anatomical structure differentiation.
The paper describes the virtual bronchoscopy method implemented in the NAVICAD
system, developed based on a GPU implementation of the Marching Cubes algorithm for
extracting surfaces from volumes using Open Computing Language (OpenCL) and Open
Graphics Library (OpenGL), [3]. This algorithm has 4 stages: 1. Data transfer. Dataset is
stored as a 3D texture on the GPU of NVidia Quadro 6000 professional graphics solution
model; 2. Reconstruction of the surface of the lung tissue using the Marching Cubes
algorithm; 3. Rendering of the surface extracted in the previous step; 4. Navigation using
collision detection and resolution through an algorithm developed by the authors.
In virtual bronchoscopy, the user navigates through the CT volume; the virtual navigation
camera must be forced to remain inside the airways surface. In Image Guided Therapy

Navigation system for confocal laser endomicroscopy to improve optical biopsy of


peripheral lesions in the lungs

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Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

(IGT) tracking, the virtual camera is attached to the tracking tool that is moving always
inside the airways tubes. But, due to various errors, the tool could be placed outside the
airways. A Collisions Engine class is used in the application, that detects and solves the
collisions of the virtual camera with the airways surface. The virtual airways surface is
formed by more 200.000 triangles. In order to reduce the computations that could slow
down the application, the triangles are stored in an efficient manner, such that the
intersections line-triangle are tested only on the triangles found in the vicinity of the line
segment: the surface is covered with boxes, each box stores the triangles that intersect it;
the tests are calculated only on the triangles stored in the boxes intersected by the line
segment (Fig. 1). In step 1, first the intersection between line and the triangle plane is
computed, than barycentric coordinates are used to test if the intersection is inside the
triangle. An artificial structure generated mathematically is used to test the collisions
algorithms. Virtual bronchoscopy and IGT tracking are performed on CT scans of a
medical phantom (Fig. 2).

Fig. 1 View of the boxes covering the

Fig. 2 View inside the phantom "airways"

mathematically generated test

In this preliminary phase of NAVICAD development, a complex shape phantom of lung


airways, reconstructed using a patient CT scans and created on a precision 3D printer, is
used for testing the virtual bronchoscopy navigation method. A 3D CAD model was
designed by segmentation and surface. Several tumor models from ceramic powder, with
diameters between 10-25mm were fixed in various locations on bronchial branches after
phantom construction. A check between CAD model and phantom model was performed.
The tumors were located on the CAD model with a precision of less than 1 mm.
The phantom and CAD models are used to test the navigation utility and accuracy, by
steering the forceps in the tumor closest proximity, for locations where bronchial diameter
is to small for bronchoscope. The virtual bronchoscopy planning phase helps doctors to
locate targets, to determine the optimal paths and to get familiarized (through the virtual
navigation) with the trajectory that the bronchoscope should follow in the real procedure,
while during the real procedure the electromagnetic tracking (and correction methods)
helped to decrease the procedure time and increase the success rate.

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Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

Acknowledgements
The research leading to these results has received funding from EEA Financial Mechanism 2009 2014 under the project EEA-JRP-RO-NO-2013-1-0123 - Navigation System For Confocal Laser
Endomicroscopy To Improve Optical Biopsy Of Peripheral Lesions In The Lungs (NAVICAD),
contract no. 3SEE/30.06.2014.

------------------------------------------------

Stefan Dan Pastrama, is working as Professor at the Department of Strength of Materials from
University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania.
His research interests cover fracture mechanics of metals and composites and biomechanics. He has
published papers in ISI journals as International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Fatigue and
Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, Materials and Design, Engineering Fracture
Mechanics, International Journal of Fracture. Prof. Pastrama conducted biomechanics research
projects and was invited researcher in the team of University of Porto in two European projects in
structural integrity of aeronautical structures. He co-authored two books with subjects from structural
integrity. He has reviewed scientific papers in International Journal of Structural Integrity and other
journals in the same scientific field. Prof. Pastrama is Member in the International Scientific
Committee of the Danubia-Adria Society on Experimental Mechanics

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Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

Prof. Gabriel Jiga


Faculty of Engineering and Management of Technological Systems, University
Politehnica of Bucharest
Romania

Material and shape crash-box influence on the evaluation of the impact energy
absorption capacity during a vehicle collision
Abstract
During a light collision between two vehicles or a vehicle and an obstacle, the internal
structure of the car is irrecoverably damaged. In order to limit as much as possible the body
in white defacement the new vehicles are equipped with so called crash boxes situated in
front and rear of the car.
Conflicting requirements with respect to saving weight and increasing vehicle
crashworthiness at the same time, pose a major challenge in automotive design. Many
devices have been designed to study impact energy absorption during a collision and hence
protect the vehicle components and passengers. Today, aluminium in its various product
forms (sheet, extrusions, die castings) is an established automotive lightweight material
offering excellent weight saving potential, including crashworthiness applications for
passive vehicle safety. Modern ductile aluminium alloys have an outstanding ability to
absorb impact energy in case of accidents.
The purpose of our study is to analyze the influence of the crash box material in order to
reduce the side member permanent deformations, since once damaged, this component,
even repaired, will never assure a good safety in case of major collision.
Although the speed necessary for of a car homologation is 16 km/h, a second purpose of
this paper is to identify the influence of the velocity upon the crash box behaviour.
Consequently, a numerical study has been undertaken to investigate axial crushing
responses, energy absorption performance of empty & foam filled steel and aluminium
concentric tubes with different density of foam.
For comparison four different materials have been taken into account for the simulations of
the crash box:
a) automotive steel H360, with E = 200 GPa and yield limit of 420 MPa;
b) TRIP steel, with E = 200 GPa and yield limit of 550 MPa;
c) Aluminium extrusion 6008T7, with E = 70 GPa and yield limit 250 MPa;
d) 6061 aluminium alloy, with E = 70 GPa and yield limit of 200 MPa.
Concerning the filling material, low-density polymeric (non-metallic) foams have been
widely used in several engineering applications. In this paper, different types of
polyurethane foams, with different densities varying from 100 kg/m3 to 350 kg/m3 are
wide-spread in the energy absorption and impact applications due to their excellent energy

33

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

absorbing capability. In the automotive industry, the new regulations in the Federal Motor
Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) require the use of polymeric foam materials inside
motor vehicles to protect the occupants during accidents.
The crash box has been modelled in two different configurations:
a) rectangular caisson shape (height h = 90 mm, width b = 80 mm and thickness t = 2 mm);
b) hexagonal shape (diagonal of 90 mm and thickness t = 2 mm).
Nowadays, crash boxes are manufactured from automotive steel an advanced high
strength steel with carefully selected chemical compositions and multiphase
microstructures resulting from precisely controlled heating and cooling processes.
Crash box, with whom a vehicle is equipped at the front end of its front side frame, is one
of the most important automotive parts for crash energy absorption. In case of frontal crash
accident, for example, crash box is estimated to be collapsed with absorbing crash energy
prior to the other car components such that the damage of the cabin frame is minimized the
vehicle occupants having the possibility to save their lives.
According to the new regulations, it has been strictly required to satisfy both reduction of
body weight and improvement of crash worthiness and consequently, regarding the crash
box, it is absolutely necessary to ensure high energy absorption using cross sections with
minimum thickness.
However, it happens that these boxes do not work as designed when a thin sheet is applied
as the material for a crash box manufacturing, being difficult to acquire sufficient energy
absorption only through the thin walls.
In several studies attention is focused upon finding an optimum cross sectional shape of a
crash box to ensure high capability for energy absorption without crash bead.

------------------------------------------------

Prof. Gabriel Jiga graduated the University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest in 1986 in the field of
Manufacturing Engineering. I obtained a Ph.D. in 1996 with a thesis entitled "Considerations of
calculus and implementation of some efficient composites in Industry and military
equipments". Since 2004, I am professor in the Department of Strength of Materials, Faculty of
Engineering and Management of Technological Sytesms (Industrial Engineering) from University
POLITEHNICA of Bucharest. Since 2008 I am vice-dean responsible with International Cooperation
in the frame of the same faculty. Author and co-author of more than 60 papers published in
prestigious journals or presented in International Conferences and Symposiums and author (coauthor) of 10 books in the field of Strength of materials, Numerical methods in engineering,
Fundamentals of composite materials.

34

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

Prof. Alberto DAmore


Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of
Naples-SUN
Italy

Constitutive law describing the strength degradation of fiber reinforced


composites subjected to cyclic loading
Abstract
This paper presents a stochastic residual strength model with two materials parameters that
can be fit using just the initial strength and constant amplitude fatigue life data. The model
explicitly accounts for the maximum applied stress and the stress ratio and requires a
limited number of experimental data to predict with accuracy both the fatigue life and the
sudden drop of strength before catastrophic failure. A series of fatigue life and residual
strength data sets available in literature were modelled to ascertain the models robustness.
Among the other, short-glass-fibre-reinforced polycarbonate, glass/epoxy [45]S laminates,
[35]2S graphite/epoxy laminates, [0/45/90/452/90/45/0]2 graphite/epoxy laminates,
Glass/Polyester laminate consisting of chopped strand mat (CSM) with unidirectional
reinforcement (UD) and fabric layers [CSM/fabric/(CSM/UD)2]S were analysed, indicating
that the both fatigue life and the residual strength are related to the statistical distribution of
the static strength.

------------------------------------------------

Alberto DAmore born in Naples (Italy) on July 25th 1956. He is married with two sons. His home is
at Via Roma 48, Somma Vesuviana, 80049 (NA), Italy. He is an Associate Professor of Materials
Science and Technology at The Second University of Naples-SUN Department of Industrial and
Information Engineering , Via Roma, 19, 81031, Aversa (CE), Italy.
The research activities of Professor DAmore focus on Polymer Processing and properties, Structureproperties-relationships of high performance composites, Structural relaxation, Environmental and
Physical aging of polymers, Rheology and Viscoelasticity of complex systems, Adhesives, Polymer
modified cements, Nano-composites, Biomaterials, thin films. Professor DAmore published more
than 130 papers on International Journals and books. He edited several international books
(NovaScience Publishers, Apple Academic Press, Brill Leiden).
He is Editor, Associate and/or Guest Editor of International Journals (AIP- Conference Proceedings,
MTDM- Mechanics of Time Dependent Materials, Polymer Composites, Materiale Plastice, Journal

35

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

of Oxidation Communication, Macromalecular Symposia). Professor DAmore is the Chairman of


the International Conference on Times of Polymers (TOP) and Composites.

36

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

Prof. Rui Miranda Guedes


Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto
Portugal

Time-Dependent Behavior of Polymers: Viscoelasticity/Viscoplasticity and


Physical Aging
Abstract
High-performance polymer composites exhibit a time-dependent compliance/stiffness
(creep or stress relaxation) and strength (creep rupture) as a consequence of the viscous
nature of the matrix. Its long-term durability and dimensional stability depends upon their
creep/relaxation behavior. Prediction on long-term integrity of any polymeric composite
structure depends on the viscoelastic properties of the matrix. This involves an
extrapolation for long times (i.e. 50 years ), which in general is very sensitive to the model
parameters used to represent the time-dependent properties.
In this context an overview of the viscoelastic/viscoplastic effects on the mechanical
behavior of polymers is provided. Associated with this aspect, two other time-dependent
effects, common to polymers; moisture sorption/desorption and physical aging are
discussed.
Moisture effect on mechanical properties of rigid polymers like epoxies and composites is a
relevant matter posed since the beginning. It is well known that moisture sorption process is
relatively slow and hygroscopic equilibrium of those materials with wet environment could
be achieved in several months and even years. Non equilibrium moisture distribution in
cross section leads to swelling stresses in material during that period. This complex
phenomenon could be accompanied by mechanical stress applied to the specimen and was
investigated by several authors.
Another time-dependent phenomenon is the physical aging. Physical aging is a
manifestation of a slow evolution of a polymer towards thermodynamic equilibrium by
time-dependent change in volume, entropy and mechanical properties including viscoelastic
properties

------------------------------------------------

R. M. Guedess research focuses on polymer based composite materials. His main interest is in
durability and long-time prediction of mechanical behavior of composite structures. More recently
has been working in biodegradable medical devices for ligament repair. He received his MSc in

37

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials___________

Structural Engineering (1992) and PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Porto
(1997). In 1997 he joined the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Porto. He
received his Habilitation in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Porto in 2012. He has
published more than 60 papers in scientific journals, 9 book chapters and edited 1 book.

38

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials__________________________________________________

ICSAAM2015 Program
Program Overview

Tuesday 08/09

Wednesday 09/09

Thrusday 10/09

9:00-9.30

OPENING SESSION

9:30-10:15

PLENARY LECTURE 1.1

PLENARY LECTURE 2.1

PLENARY LECTURE 3.1

10:15-11:00

PLENARY LECTURE 1.2

PLENARY LECTURE 2.2

PLENARY LECTURE 3.2

11:00-11:30

COFFEE-BREAK

COFFEE-BREAK

COFFEE-BREAK

PLENARY LECTURE 2.3

PLENARY LECTURE 3.3

LUNCH

LUNCH

11:30-12:15
12:15-12:30
12:45-14:15
14:15-15:30
15:30-16:00
16:00-17:00
17:00-17:30

Session 1A

Session 1B

LUNCH
Session 2A

Session 2B

COFFEE-BREAK
Session 3A

Session 3B

17:30-18:00

Poster Session 1

18:00-19:30

WELCOME COCKTAIL
RECEPTION

Session 4A

Session 4B

COFFEE-BREAK
Session 5A

Session 6
COFFEE-BREAK

Session 5B

CONFERENCE BANQUET

19:30-23:00

39

Session 7
CLOSING SESSION

Friday 11/09

CONFERENCE TOUR

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials__________________________________________________

Technical Program
August 14th, 2015
TUESDAY, 8 September 2015
TUE, 09:00 - 09:30

OPENING SESSION
Room Newton
Welcome to Participants
(Conference Co-Chairs)
Welcome Address
MONDAY, 24 JUNE 2013
TUE, 09:30 - 10:15
PLENARY LECTURE 1.1
Room Newton
Modelling extreme deformation and dynamic behavior of materials using multi-scale techniques and meshless methods
Professor Raj Das
(University of Auckland, New Zeland)
Chair: Professor George Papanicolaou (University of Patras)
WED, 10:15 - 11:00

PLENARY LECTURE 1.2


Room Newton
Structural Monitoring and Biomechanics
Professor Mrio Vaz
(Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto, Portugal)
Chair: Prof. George Papanicolaou (University of Patras, Greece)

TUE, 11:00 - 11:30

COFFEE-BREAK

40

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Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials__________________________________________________

TUE

Session 1A
11:30-12:45

TOPIC: Testing I
Chair: Mrio Vaz
Ref:
Title and Author (s)
#15
Investigation of the mechanical properties of
carbon nanotube reinforced composites and
their evaluation using a cylidrical RVE
M. Konstantakopoulou, G. Kotsikos
#27
Mechanics crack growth-based fatigue
evaluation considering crack closure and
equivalent initial flaw size
A.S.F. Alves, J.A.F.O. Correia, A.M.P. De Jesus,
P.J.S. Tavares, P.M.G.P. Moreira
#26
Theoretical and experimental study of specimens
with stress concentrators in dependance of
stress triaxiality Donka Ana Maria Comanici,
Viorel Goanta, Paul Doru Barsanescu
#66
Deformability behaviour of new cobalt based
alloys
Alexandru Ghiban, Brandusa Ghiban, Nicolae
Serban, Cristina Maria Bortu
#58
Experimental investigation on Self-healing
efficiency of doped Fiber Reinforced Plastics with
Thermoplastic micro-Particles
A. Kotrotsos, A. Baltopoulos, S. Tsantzalis, X.
Tsilimigkra, P.Tsokanas, V. Kostopoulos

TUE, 12:45 - 14:15

TUE

Session 1B
11:30-12:45

TOPIC: Nanocomposites
Chair: Viviana Correia Pinto
Ref:
Title and Author (s)
#20
Effect of clay modifier on the rheometric behavior
and mechanical/thermal aging properties of
styrene-butadiene rubber-clay nanocomposites
E. M. Sadek, D. E. El-Nashar, S.M.Ahmed
#42
A comparative study of nanotube-epoxy
interphasial interaction in CNT and TNT-epoxy
matrix nanocomposites
G.C. Papanicolaou, D.V. Portan
#43

Enhanced Performances of Dye Sensitized Solar


Cells based on Hybrid Photoanodes
D.A. Chalkias, D.I. Tasiopoulos, G.C. Papanicolaou

#46

Viscoelastic Behavior and Modeling of nano and


micro TiO2 Powder-Epoxy Resin Composites
L.C. Kontaxis, A.E. Manara, G.C. Papanicolaou

#55

Effect of TiO2 Nanotubes Developed on Pure


Titanium Substrates on the Mechanical
Performance of Titanium-Titanium Single lap
Adhesive Joints
D.V. Portan, G.N. Petropoulos, G.C. Papanicolaou

LUNCH

41

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Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials__________________________________________________

TUE

Session 2A
Room A
14:15-15:30
TOPIC: Polymers and Polymer Matrix Composites
Chair: Gabriel Jiga
Ref:
Title and Author (s)
#7
Fiber length influence and filament interaction on
single and multifilaments
Alexander Maier, Armin Salimi, Ralf Schledjewski
#22

Outdoor weathering of starchgraftedpolypropylene/kenaf fibres composite


Amel Hamma, Said Bouhelal, Alessandro Pegoretti

#68

Synthesis of geopolymer material from metakaolin


and Portland cement
Oualit. Mehena, Abadlia. Med.Tahar, Jauberthie.
Raoul

#77

Naturally occurring abietic acid for liquid crystalline


epoxy curing agents
Rasha A. Ibrahim El-Ghazawy, Ashraf M. El-Saeed,
Hessin I. El-Shafey, Abdel-Raheim M. AbdelRaheim, Maher A. El-Sockary
Strategies on implementing a potential self healing
functionality in a composite structure
X. Tsilimigkra, A. Baltopoulos, S. Tsantzalis, A.
Kotrotsos, N. Siakavellas, V. Kostopoulos

#59

TUE, 15:30 - 16:00

TUE

Session 2B
Room B
14:15-15:30
TOPIC: NDT-NDI techinques & others
Chair: Paulo Tavares
Ref:
Title and Author (s)
#35
Digital image correlation measurements in
an innovative railway car body underframe
3-point bending test
Tiago Ramos, Shayan Eslami, Paulo J.
Tavares, P. M. G. P. Moreira
#36
Digital image correlation for structural
health monitoring of an innovative
proposal for seismic resistant structures
Tiago Ramos, Andr Furtado, Shayan
Eslami, Sofia Alves, Hugo Rodrigues,
Antnio rede, Paulo J. Tavares, P.M. G. P.
Moreira
#70
Wireless strain gauge for composite
materials
melko Miroslav, Praslika Duan,
Draganov Katarna, Lipovsk Pavol, Kn
Viktor, Bajs Jn
#71
Influence of ultrasounds in the damping
capacity of aluminium alloys
H. Puga, V.H. Carneiro
#19

COFFEE-BREAK

42

Acoustic emission monitoring fracture of a


composite material
Cristian Ctlin Petre, Gabriel Jiga, Mihai
Valentin Predoi, Cristian Diba, Marian
Soare

Lounge

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials__________________________________________________

TUE

Session 3A
16:00-17:30
TOPIC: Analytical and Numerical Modeling I
Chair: Srgio Tavares
Ref:
#3

#4

#6

#30

#92
#11

Room
A

Title and Author (s)


Influence of deformability of horizontal diaphragms
in their plan on the seismic loads distribution to
resisting walls
A. Benanane, A. Ouazir, S. Benanane, M. Titoum, G.
Mezoudj
A modern methodology of design of threedimensional structures by a genetic algorithms
approach
S. Benanane, D. Kerdal, A. Benanane, A. Ouazir, M.
Titoum
Surface structural inhomogeneities and fractal
properties of MnO2 semiconductor thin films
L. Skatkov, V. Gomozov, S. Deribo
Multibody dynamics simulation of an electric bus
with flexible parts
Ricardo R. Teixeira, Srgio R. D. S. Moreira, S. M. O.
Tavares
Finite element analysis in the design of patientspecific osteotomies guides. case study
Anton Hadar
Homogenization of a fibred structure with a
condition on the interface matrix-fibre
H. Samadi, M. Eljarroudi

TUE

Session 3B
Room
16:00-17:30
B
TOPIC: Polymer Matrix Composites, Sandwich and Green
Composite Structures
Chair: George Papanicolaou
Ref:
Title and Author (s)
#81
Development of composite materials database for
aerospace certification
Ho-Sung Lee, Kyung-Ju Min
#82

Dynamic behavior of composite plates made with


green materials
Florin Baciu, Anton Hadr, Horia Gheorghiu,
Mihaela Sava, Bolcu Dumitru

#84

Macroporous green ceramics by simultaneous


recycling of coal ash and glass wastes
Enik Volceanov, Simona Badea, Camelia Cristea,
Alexandru Micu, Alberto Ion, Mihai Eftimie, Adrian
Volceanov
Green composite materials: the breaking new
ground ABC-matrix
D.E. Anastasiou, L.C. Kontaxis, G.C. Papanicolaou

#52

#8

Composite magnetic microwires sandwich


structure for sensor application
A. Chizhik, A. Stupakiewicz, A. Zhukov, J. Gonzalez

TUE, 17:30 18:00

POSTER SESSION

Exhibition Area

TUE, 18:00 - 19:30

WELCOME RECEPTION

Taylors Port Cellars

COCKTAIL RECEPTION
by courtesy of Taylors
Taylors Port

43

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials__________________________________________________

WEDNESDAY, 9 September 2015


MONDAY, 24 JUNE 2013
WED, 09:30 - 10:15
PLENARY LECTURE 2.1
Room Galileu
Thermoset versus Thermoplastic composites: from raw materials and semi-products to final
parts
Professor Antnio Torres Marques
(Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto, Portugal)
Chair: Professor Prof. Stefan Pastrama (University Politehnica of Bucharest)
WED, 10:15 - 11:00
PLENARY LECTURE 2.2
Room Galileu
A comparative study of nanotube-epoxy interphasial interaction in CNT and TNT-epoxy matrix
nanocomposites
Professor George Papanicolaou
(University of Patras, Greece)
Chair: Prof. Gabriel Jiga (University Politehnica of Bucharest)
WED, 11:00 - 11:30

COFFEE-BREAK

Lounge

WED, 11:30 - 12:15


PLENARY LECTURE 2.3
Room Galileu
Virtual bronchoscopy method based on a graphical processor unit implementation of the
marching cubes algorithm
Professor Stefan Pastrama
(University Politehnica of Bucharest)
Chair: Prof. Antnio Torres Marques (Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto, Portugal)
WED, 12:15 - 14:15

LUNCH

44

Lounge

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials__________________________________________________

WED

Session 4A
14:15-15:30

Room
A

TOPIC: Fatigue
Chair: Stefan Dan Pastrama
Ref:
Title and Author (s)
#18
Crack initiation analysis under mean stress effect in
2024 T351 Al-alloy
Mustapha Benachour, Nadjia Benachour, Mohamed
Benguediab
#28
Stress intensity factors of a compact mixed mode
specimen: finite element analysis
S. M. O. Tavares, D. Peixoto, P. J. Tavares, P.M.G.P.
Moreira
#85
Comparison between three fatigue damage models
and experimental results for composite materials
submitted to spectrum loading
Mohammed Bousfia, M. Aboussaleh, B. Ouhbi
#86
Fatigue Analysis of a Hopper Knuckle Connection of
a 181k Ton DWT Bulk Carrier under Global and Local
Loads
V K Kapnopoulou, P A Caridis
#62
Study of effect of R-ratio on fatigue crack growth
using Artificial Neural Network
K.N.Pandey, Chetan Swaroop

WED, 15:30 - 16:00

WED

Session 4B
Room
14:15-15:30
B
TOPIC: Manufacturing Techniques
Chair: Pedro Moreira
Ref:
Title and Author (s)
#14
Viability analysis of double cold wire gas metal arc
welding process
R. A. Ribeiro, P. D'Angelo Assuno, E.M. Braga
#34

#89

#73

#88

COFFEE-BREAK

45

Friction stir welding of polymers: review and


prospects
Shayan Eslami, Paulo J. Tavares, P. M. G. P.
Moreira
Friction stir weld-bonded aluminum joints
Daniel F. O. Braga, L. M. C. de Sousa, V. Infante,
Lucas F.M. da Silva, P. M. G. P. Moreira
Optimization of milling parameters to improve the
surface roughness using the Taguchi methodology
Alberto Blanca, Jorge Meireles, Hernni Lopes,
Joo Ribeiro
Structural glass material for members and parts
of load-carrying structures in civil engineering
Marcela Karmaznov, Jindrich Melcher, Ondej
Peek

Lounge

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials__________________________________________________

WED

Session 5A
Room
16:00-17:30
A
TOPIC: Analytical and Numerical Model II
Chair: Paulo Tavares de Castro
Ref:
Title and Author (s)
#78
Three dimensional free vibration analysis of rotating
Functionally Graded cylindrical shells in thermal
environment
Abbas Ali Jami,Esmaeil Bahmyari
#5

#16

#72

#76

Analysis of conditions for transition of multiple


cracks into single main crack located in stress
concentration zones under low-cycle fatigue loading
regime
Nikolay A.Makhutov, Vladimir V. Zatsarinniy, Dmitry
O. Reznikov
An analytical model to estimate the maximum
tensile stress in spliced beams under tensile load
using the example of a fivefold laminate
Ren Ringli, Thomas Vogel
Biomechanical analysis of PDMS channels using
different hyperelastic constitutive models
Ctia Cardoso, Carla Fernandes, Rui Lima, Joo
Ribeiro
A procedure to obtain the probabilistic KitagawaTakahashi diagram
J.A.F.O. Correia, A.M.P. De Jesus, R. Brighenti,
P.M.G.P. Moreira, R.A.B. Calada, A. FernandezCanteli

WED, 18:30 - 23:00

WED

Session 5B
16:00-17:30

TOPIC: Testing II
Chair: Jos Correia
Ref:
Title and Author (s)
#63
Effect of aluminosilsesqioxane addition and
various curing conditions on the
thermomechanical properties of glass fiber
reinforced epoxy composite
Danuta Matykiewicz, Mateusz Barczewski, Beata
Dudziec
#75
Validation of the dynamic behavior of composite
materials with discontinuities
Mihaela Sava, Anton Hadr, Ioan Pruanu,
Florin Baciu, Stnescu Marius Marinel
#90

#65

Mechanical properties of magneto sensitive


elastomer with iron particles at uniform magnetic
field intensity
Sneha Samal, Jarmil Vlach, Pavel Kavan
Plasticity Determination of CoCrMoTi alloy
Alexandru Ghiban, Brandusa Ghiban, Nicolae
Serban, Cristina Maria Bortun

#66

Deformability behaviour of new cobalt based


alloys
Alexandru Ghiban, Brandusa Ghiban, Nicolae
Serban, Cristina Maria Bortun

#1

Valorisation of industrial waste


Didouche Yasmina-Fadhla

BANQUET

CASA DA MSICA VISIT followed by CONFERENCE BANQUET


courtesy of Casa da Msica
Casa da Msica, Porto

46

Room
B

Casa da Msica

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials__________________________________________________

THURSDAY, 10 September 2015


MONDAY, 24 JUNE 2013
THU, 09:30 - 10:15
PLENARY LECTURE 3.1
Room Galileu
Material and shape crash-box influence on the evaluation of the impact energy absorption
capacity during a vehicle collision
Professor Gabriel Jiga
(University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania)
Chair: Dr. Pedro Moreira (INEGI)
THU, 10:15 - 11:00
PLENARY LECTURE 3.2
Room Galileu
Constitutive law describing the strength degradation of fiber reinforced composites subjected to
cyclic loading
Professor Alberto DAmore
(Second University of Naples-SUN, Italy)
Chair: Prof. Mrio Vaz (Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto)
THU, 11:00 - 11:45

COFFEE-BREAK

Lounge

THU, 11:45 - 12:15


PLENARY LECTURE 3.3
Room Galileu
Time-Dependent Behavior of Polymers: Viscoelasticity/Viscoplasticity and Physical Aging
Professor Rui Miranda Guedes
(Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto, Portugal)
Chair: Professor George Papanicolaou (University of Patras)
THU, 12:45 - 14:15

LUNCH

47

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Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials__________________________________________________

THU, 14:15-15:30
Session 6
Room Newton
TOPIC: Degradation, durability and corrosion
Chair: Rui Miranda Guedes
Ref:
Title and Author (s)
The electrochemical investigation on corrosion behavior of two titanium aluminide in aqueous
#23
#24
#25
#74
#87

environments
Alexandra Banu, Marcu Maria, Alexandru Paraschiv, Oana Trusca
New coatings for short-term oxidation protection of titanium aluminide at 850C
Maria Marcu, Alexandra Banu, Luminita Georgescu,Cristina Juganaru
DSC analysis of titanium aluminde correlated with short term oxidation behavior
Alexandra Banu, Marcu Maria, Elena Anghel, Cristian Doicin
Degradation analysis of fiber-metal laminates under service conditions to predict their
durability
A.Viandier, D. Stefaniak, C. Hhne, M. Sinapius
A complete characterization study of anomalous behaviour of hygrothermally aged FRPs
Sotirios A. Grammatikos, Mark Evernden

THU, 15:30-16:00

COFFEE-BREAK

THU, 16:00-17:00
Session 7
TOPIC: Polymers and Polymer Matrix Composites II
Chair: Daniel F. O. Braga
Ref:
Title and Author (s)
Stable and degradable all-aliphatic polyurethane elastomers
#2
#10
#95

Lounge

Room Newton

Milena prkov, Magdalena Serkis, Rafa Porba, Ji Hodan, Jana Kredatusov, Luka
Machov, Dana Kubies
The accelerated effect of nanoparticles on the degradation of the thermomechanical
properties of a bio-based polymer
Evagelia Kontou
Optimization of the hybrid viscoelastic interphase model
Psarra Erato, Papanicolaou George

THU, 17:15 17:45

CLOSING SESSION
Conference Organizing Committee

48

Room Newton

Book of abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials__________________________________________________

TUE, 17:30 18:00


Ref:
#21
#29
#44
#45
#47
#48
#49
#50
#51
#53
#54
#60
#61
#64
#69
#80
#83
#91
#93

POSTER SESSION

Title and Author (s)

Exhibition Area

Dynamic mechanical properties of PLA and PLA/CNT-COOH biodegradable nanocomposites thin film
Viviana Correia Pinto, Marta Martins, Nuno Rocha, Rui Miranda Guedes
Experimental and numerical analysis of creep and stress relaxation behaviour of PLA-PCL fibres
Ctia Martins, Viviana Correia Pinto, Rui Miranda Guedes, Antnio T. Marques
Preparation of PVP Polymer Electrolytes and their Application in Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
D.I. Giannopoulos, D.A. Chalkias, G.C. Papanicolaou
Low energy impact and post impact behavior of epoxy matrix-woven flax fabric composites
D.A. Chalkias, A.F. Koutsomitopoulou, G.C. Papanicolaou
Strain rate effects in micro and nano TiO2 epoxy resin particulate composites
A.E. Manara, L.C. Kontaxis, G.C. Papanicolaou
Thermal Shock Cycling Effect on the Flexural Stress Relaxation Behavior of Glass-Epoxy Composites
E.A. Tsiangou, L.C. Kontaxis, G.C. Papanicolaou
The double role of fibers as reinforcements and heating elements for polymer curing in thermoset matrix-fiber
composites
I. E. Chontzoglou, L.C.Kontaxis, G.C. Papanicolaou
Modeling the Mechanical Degradation Due to Moisture Absorption in Polymer Matrix Composites
P.D. Fotou, G.C. Papanicolaou
Modeling and Experimental Investigation of the inclusion geometry and concentration effect on the quasistatic properties of a semi-green epoxy matrix
F.K. Kozaniti, L.C. Kontaxis, G.C. Papanicolaou
Development of a Starch Reinforced Chios mastic- olive oil matrix new green composite material
D.E. Anastasiou, L.C. Kontaxis, G.C. Papanicolaou
Nitinol layered composites: manufacturing and electrical properties
E.J. Pappa, G.C. Psarras, D.V. Portan, G.C. Papanicolaou
Thermomechanical characterization of epoxy/carbon black/graphene oxide hybrid nanocomposites
A. Stimoniaris, D. Gournis, M. Karakassides, C. Delides
Monitoring the fly ash dispersion in epoxy matrix and its effect on the thermomechanical properties of the
obtained composites
Adamos Stimoniaris, Haralampos Zois, Athanasios Kanapitsas, Michael Karakassides, Constaninos Delides
Effect of pigments addition on properties of the isotactic polypropylene
Mateusz Barczewski, Bartomiej Hoffmann
Use of Different Acids for the Extraction of Chromium Contained in Ash from the Incineration of Waste Leather
Alexandru Ghiban, Brandusa Ghiban, Nicolae Serban, Cristina Maria Bortun
Hydrogen gas sensors based on Palladium/Silicon Oxide/Ailicon Carbide sandwich structures
Jenica Neamtu, Florea Craciunoiu, Dragos Ovezea, Razvan Pascu
Differences in degradation mechanism of the standard and the new - core-shell catalyst during ammonia
oxidation process
Jarosaw Pura, Piotr Kwasniak, Halina Garbacz, Joanna Zdunek, Zbigniew Laskowski, Maciej Gierej
Relationship chemical surface treatments for aluminum structural bond strength
Vinov Lenka, Jarmil Vlach, Konek Jan
Influence of temperature on mechanical properties of polypropylene sandwich panel and compare the
mechanical properties of the aluminum honeycomb panels
Lukasova Vera, Kavan Pavel

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Book of abstracts of ICSAAM2015, The 6 International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials

Abstracts

50

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Book of abstracts of ICSAAM2015, The 6 International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials

Session 1A
TUE, 11:30-12:45
Room A
TOPIC: Testing I
Chair: Mrio Vaz

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Book of abstracts of ICSAAM2015, The 6 International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials

#15

INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBE


REINFORCED COMPOSITES AND THEIR EVALUATION USING A CYLIDRICAL
RVE
M. Konstantakopoulou, G. Kotsikos
School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne,
United Kingdom
ABSTRACT
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have been extensively used as reinforcement to enhance the properties
of polymeric materials due to their high Youngs modulus and tensile strength and also, because
of their good thermal and electrical properties.
In this investigation multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are employed in an epoxy matrix in
order to manufacture nanocomposites of various CNT weight fractions, i.e. 0.03%, 0.1% and 0.3%.
Tensile and 3-point bend tests are conducted to determine the Youngs Modulus and characterise
the composite in terms of its mechanical behaviour.
Different computational approaches, such as molecular dynamics approach (atomic scale
simulations) and continuum mechanics approach (for larger length scales) have been employed so
far for the evaluation of the effective material properties of the nanocomposites. Three different
representative volume elements have been modelled in various studies: cylindrical RVE [1], [2],
square RVE [3], [2] and hexagonal RVE [4], [5].
In the present work, a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrical representative volume element (RVE)
based on the continuum mechanics approach is applied in order to study the stress distribution
along the nanocomposite. Finite element method (FEM) is used to model the CNT/matrix
interaction for both cases of short and long CNTs (with and without end caps) inside the matrix
under uniaxial stretch load. Youngs modulus is calculated for the RVE and compared to the
experimental results. An extended rule of mixtures is also applied and compared to the numerical
and experimental results.
References
[1] LIU, Y.J. AND X.L. CHEN, EVALUATIONS OF THE EFFECTIVE MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON
NANOTUBE-BASED COMPOSITES USING A NANOSCALE REPRESENTATIVE VOLUME ELEMENT.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2003. 35(1): P. 69-81.
[2] KARIMZADEH, F., S. ZIAEI-RAD, AND S. ADIBI, MODELING CONSIDERATIONS AND MATERIAL
PROPERTIES EVALUATION IN ANALYSIS OF CARBON NANO-TUBES COMPOSITE. METALLURGICAL
AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B, 2007. 38(4): P. 695-705.
[3] CHEN, X.L. AND Y.J. LIU, SQUARE REPRESENTATIVE VOLUME ELEMENTS FOR EVALUATING THE
EFFECTIVE MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBE-BASED COMPOSITES.
COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE, 2004. 29(1): P. 1-11.
[4] JOSHI, U.A., ET AL., EVALUATION OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CNT BASED
COMPOSITES USING HEXAGONAL RVE. JOURNAL OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENGINEERING AND
MEDICINE, 2010. 1(3): P. 031006.
[5] LE, M.-T. AND S.-C. HUANG, MODELING AND ESTIMATING THE EFFECTIVE ELASTIC PROPERTIES
OF CARBON NANOTUBE REINFORCED COMPOSITES BY FINITE ELEMENT METHOD.
, 2014. 11(2): P. 145-158.

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Book of abstracts of ICSAAM2015, The 6 International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials

#26

THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPECIMENS WITH STRESS


CONCENTRATORS IN DEPENDANCE OF STRESS TRIAXIALITY
Ana Maria Comanici1,a, Viorel Goanta2, Paul Doru Barsanescu3
1

PhD Student, 2 Prof. PhD, 3 Prof. PhD


1,2,3
Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iai, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Mechatronics and Robotics, Bvd Prof. Dr. doc. Dimitrie Mangeron , 67, Iasi, Romania,
a
ana.comanici@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
The literature presents several results as respects to multiaxial tests of stress concentrators
specimens. Different types of specimens were used accordingly to the stress triaxiality as follows:
butterfly specimen for high stress triaxiality degree, plane specimen for medium state of triaxiality
and cylindrical specimen for low degree of triaxiality. This paper proposes theoretical and
experimental study on two types of specimens: cylindrical and plane (flat) specimens with stress
concentrators.

a)

b)

Fig. 1. Plate specimens with different stress concentrators


The stress concentrators were chosen so that the results are edifying for the multiaxial state of
stress.

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Book of abstracts of ICSAAM2015, The 6 International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials

Fig. 2. Cylindrical specimen with stress concentrators.


Upon a preliminary finite element analysis study, the optimization of the specimens is made so
that the results describe the stress concentrators dependence on stress triaxiality degree.

a)

b)

Fig. 3. a) Shear stress of the area with stress concentrators ; b) Principal directions of the stresses.

This article shows the results of experimental determinations, finite element analysis and
theoretical study of two types of specimens and it aims to obtain high stress state in failure
section (volume), more uniform stress distribution and stress ratio to be constant till failure.
References
[1] M. DUNAND, D. MOHR: ON THE PREDICTIVE CAPABILITIES OF THE SHEAR MODIFIED GURSON
AND THE MODIFIED MOHRCOULOMB FRACTURE MODELS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF STRESS
TRIAXIALITIES AND LODE ANGLES, JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS 59
(2011), PP. 13741394.
[2] L. MALCHER, E.N. MAMIYA: AN IMPROVED DAMAGE EVOLUTION LAW BASED ON
CONTINUUM DAMAGE MECHANICS AND ITS DEPENDENCE ON BOTH STRESS TRIAXIALITY AND
THE THIRD INVARIANT, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLASTICITY 56 (2014), PP. 232261.
[3] P. ALLEN: MASTERS THESIS: HYDROSTATIC STRESS EFFECTS IN METAL PLASTICITY, JULY 20,
2000.

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Book of abstracts of ICSAAM2015, The 6 International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials

#66

DEFORMABILITY BEHAVIOUR OF NEW COBALT BASED ALLOYS


Alexandru Ghiban1, Brandusa Ghiban1, Nicolae Serban1, Cristina Maria Bortun2
1

,2

University Politehnica Bucharest, Romania


Victor Babes Medicine and Pharmacy University, Timisoara, ROMANIA
ABSTRACT

Currently, both removable and fixed prostheses are made from Co-Cr-Mo alloys, which possess
good corrosion resistance owing to the appropriate microstructure, but present low
machinability. Occasionally, allergic responses to the constituents of the base metal alloys are
observed. However most adverse tissue reactions attributed to the wearing of a base metal
removable prosthesis, were manifestations of an improper design or a poor fit. Being the major
component, cobalt imparts to the alloy its intrinsic corrosion resistance. On the other side, Ti is
one of the best biocompatible metals and is widely used as implant. In addition, the total weight
of a prosthesis can be reduced by Ti incorporation in the alloy composition. The purpose of this
paper is to develop new dental materials with superior mechanical performance and corrosion
resistance as well as high biocompatibility. The attention was focused on the possibility to obtain
a new class of cobalt based alloy by Ti addition. Different compositions of the CoCrMo base
system were produced in a cold crucible melting furnace, in argon protective atmosphere. The
present paper take in consideration the fomability behaviour of these alloys. The investigations
were carried out in laboratory conditions by investigation the upsetting behaviour in a range of
temperature about 950-1300C. The tested samples were analysed at stereomicroscope and
scaning microscope. Finaly it was established the best range of temperature for hot plastic
forming of these class of material.

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Book of abstracts of ICSAAM2015, The 6 International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials

#58

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON SELF-HEALING EFFICIENCY OF DOPED


FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS WITH THERMOPLASTIC MICRO-PARTICLES
A. Kotrotsos, A. Baltopoulos, S. Tsantzalis, X. Tsilimigkra, P. Tsokanas, V. Kostopoulos*
Applied Mechanics Lab., Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of
Patras. Patras University Campus, GR 265 00 Patras, Greece, kostopoulos@mech.upatras.gr
ABSTRACT
The need for continuous improvement in material performance is significant for many
engineering applications. Thus, research has been focused on the design of new advanced
materials with increased resistance to damage under operating conditions. This focus is more
demanding in the case of structural composite materials, which are, in recent years, used more
and more often in aeronautical/aerospace and automotive applications [1-2] as well ass in civil
infrastructure [3]. Thus, an inspired by biological systems concept, called self-healing, is receiving
increasing scientific interest worldwide. There are several works providing the basic theoretical
background of self-healing, with emphasis on self-healing composites. This bioinspired technology
is capable to repair damage and restore lost or degraded properties of materials, using resources
inherently available. In the large variety of self-healing types belongs the reversible self-healing,
where a meltable thermoplastic additive is incorporated into the thermoset matrix of the
composite (i.e., the epoxy resin). Then, the healing occurs by the, upon heating, melting and
subsequent redispersion of the thermoplastic material into the crack plane. This redispersion
achieves to fill the crack and interlock mechanically the thermoplastic material with the
surrounding matrix material. In the present investigation the self-healing efficiency of the Fiber
Reinforced Plastics (FRPs) using the blending method and the influence of the thermoplastic
particles introduced into the matrix as healing agent, in order to approach the intrinsic reversible
strategy was thoroughly studied. Pure PET and CNT doped Nylon micro-particles, enabled the
nanotechnology in the thermoplastics were successfully incorporated. The use of CNT technology
was applied as another updated step for enhancement of the FRPs. Mechanical, thermal, optical
microscopy, SEM examination tests, as well as Acoustic Emission recordings were conducted
before and after the healing process and compared in order to calculate the % healing-efficiency
value, under interlaminar mode I and mode II tests. The manufacturing process was the liquid
impregnation process and the specimen preparation is shown in Fig. 1. The material systems and
the mechanical experiments that were conducted for each material system are described in Table
1. Degradation of the mechanical properties was observed while embedded the thermoplastic
particles in the matrix. The healing efficiency proportions for the GIC value are low, despite the
fact that the crack opening had optically closed, while very high healing efficiency proportions
were observed for the GIIC value. After application of heating on the damaged composites for
activation of healing process, a slight increase of flexural modulus was observed close to 5%. This
behavior is associated to post curing effect as well as to the better thermoset adhesion (i.e.,
better covalent bonds) of the thermoplastic particles into the matrix.

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Book of abstracts of ICSAAM2015, The 6 International Conference on Structural Analysis and Advanced Materials

Fig.1: Outline of specimen preparation: 1) Addition of particles in the epoxy. 2) Mechanical mixing by hand
at room temperature for 30 min. 3) Addition of the curing agent and mixing. 4) Making of the GF and CF
reinforced laminas. 5) Preparation of the unmodified and modified CFRP and GFRP laminates by the hand
o
lay-up method. 6) Curing at room temperature for 24 h and at 60 C for 10 h.
Material Groups

Plies

CFRPs & pure PET


CFRPs & doped Nylon
GFRPs & pure PET
GFRPs & doped Nylon

16

% wt healing agent

Mechanical Experiments

7%

3 Point bending, Mode I & II, DMA

7% doped with 10% CNTs

3 Point bending, Mode I & II, DMA

7%

3 Point bending, DMA

7% doped with 10% CNTs

3 Point bending, DMA

Table 1. Material groups, number of plies, % wt of the healing agent in the matrix and type of experiments.

Fig. 2: Load-displacement curves during the mode II


testing of the modified CFRPs with pure PET
particles, before and after the healing process

Fig. 3: Load-displacement curves during the mode II


testing of the modified CFRPs with doped Nylon
particles, before healing and after the healing
process.

References
[1] G. WILLIAMS, R. TRASK, I. BOND, A SELF-HEALING CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER FOR
AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS, COMPOSITES: PART A, 38; 1525-1532 (2007).
[2] J. BAUR, E. SILVERMAN, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN MULTIFUNCTIONAL
NANOCOMPOSITE STRUCTURES FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS, MRS BULLETIN, 32; 328-334
(2007).
[3] K. LOH, D. RYU, MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR ASSESSING
AND MONITORING CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURES, SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR CIVIL
INFRASTRUCTURES, 1; 295-326 (2014).

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Session 1B
TUE, 11:30-12:45
Room B
TOPIC: Nanocomposites
Chair:Vivana Correia Pinto

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#20

EFFECT OF CLAY MODIFIER ON THE RHEOMETRIC BEHAVIOR AND


MECHANICAL/THERMAL AGING PROPERTIES OF STYRENE-BUTADIENE
RUBBER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
E. M. Sadek1 , D. E. El-Nashar2, and S.M.Ahmed3
1,3 Petrochemical Department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Nasr City, Cairo,
Egypt
2 Polymer & Pigment Department, National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
ABSTRACT
Rubber nanocomposites based on styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and organophilic layered
silicate were prepared via melt compounding procedure.Clay structures based on dodecyl
benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA), nonyl phenol ethoxylate (NPE) and DBSA/NPE(50/50%) as anionic ,
nonanionic and mixed surfactants, respectively were prepared. The prepared clay structures
were characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM),and
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)spectroscopy. The results indicate the intercalation of the used
surfactants within the clay layers. Varying amount of organically modified nanosilicate,2,4,6,8 and
10 parts per hundred of rubber (phr) ,was added to the SBR matrix to examine the influence of
nanosilicate on morphology and structure-property relationships. Furthermore, the XRD analysis
revealed exfoliated structure for the modified clay-SBR composites.No clear evidence for the
formation of new components in the rubber was found by FTIR spectroscopy. Scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) showed a uniform distribution of the modified clay with mixed DBSA/NPE
(6phr) in the rubber matrix. The influence of the clay modifier and organoclay content relative to
the micrometer clay on the SBR compounds was analyzed through rheometric characteristics and
physico-mechanical properties (i.e. tensile strength, elongation at break, Youngs modulus and
hardness Shore A). The effect of DBSA/NPE-clay loading on aging resistance of SBR
nanocomposites at 90 1oC for 4 and 7 days was also investigated through changes in physicomechanical properties. All the modified clay- rubber nanocomposites displayed an increase in the
minimum and maximum torques,and acceleration of the vulcanization process and improved
mechanical properties, with organoclay content up to 6phr. This effect was more noticeable in the
presence of the treated clay with mixed surfactants DBSA/NPE as compared to the cases in which
individual clay systems were used separately.Also incorporation of DBSA/NPE-clay(6phr) resulted
in significant improvement of the degradation profile of the nanocomposites at 90 1oC for 4
days, thus prolonging the tensile properties. However,at longer time of aging (7 days) and beyond
6phr organoclay, a deterioration in the aging properties of the nanocomposites takes place.
References
[1] L. FANG, M. WEI, N.WARASITTHINON, J. SHEN, R. JIAN, D. SCHMIDT, C. BARRY, J. MEAD,
PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF STYRENE-BUTADIENE RUBBER /CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
USING LIQUID RUBBER/CLAY MASTER BATCHES, RUBBER CHEMISTRY AND
TECHNOLOGY,VOL.86(1),PP.96-108,2013
[2] M. HAGHNEGAHDAR,G. NADERI,G.R. BAKHSHANDEH, S.SHOKOOHI,M.EHSANI, INVESTIGATION
INTO ELASTOMER NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON SBR/EPOXYPOLYESTER HYBRID/ORGANOCLAY,
MATERIALS RESEARCH INNOVATIONS, VOL. 17(7), PP. 483-489.2013

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[3] A. MALAS, C. K. DAS, SELECTIVE DISPERSION OF DIFFERENT ORGANOCLAYS IN STYRENE


BUTADIENE RUBBER IN THE PRESENCE OF A COMPATIBILIZER, MATERIALS & DESIGN, VOL. 49,
PP. 857-865, 2013
[4] A. MONFARED, A.. JALALI-ARANI, MORPHOLOGY AND RHEOLOGY OF (STYRENE-BUTADIENE
RUBBER/ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE RUBBER) BLENDS FILLED WITH ORGANOCLAY: THE EFFECT
OF NANOPARTICLE LOCALIZATION.,APPLIED CLAY SCIENCE, VOL.108, PP.1-11, 2015
[5] E.M.SADEK,D.E. EL NASHAR, PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NITRILE BUTADIENE
RUBBER-NANOCLAY COMPOSITES WITH MALEIC ACID ANHYDRIDE AS COMPATIBILIZER. PART
I:RHEOMETRIC AND SWELLING CHARACTERISTICS, HIGH PERFORMANCE POLYMERS, VOL.
24(7),PP.654-663,2012
[6] D.E. EL NASHAR, E.M.SADEK, PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NITRILE BUTADIENE
RUBBER- NANOCLAY COMPOSITES WITH MALEIC ACID ANHYDRIDE AS COMPATIBILIZER. PART II:
PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND THERMO-OXIDATIVE AGING, HIGH PERFORMANCE
POLYMERS, VOL. 24(7),PP.664-670,2012

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#43

ENHANCED PERFORMANCES OF DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS BASED ON


HYBRID PHOTOANODES
Dimitris A. Chalkias*, Dimitris I. Tasiopoulos, George C. Papanicolaou
Composite Materials Group (CMG), Department of Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering,
University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500, Greece, chalkias@mech.upatras.gr
ABSTRACT
Enhancement of power conversion efficiency has been a long-term objective for Dye-Sensitized
Solar Cells (DSSCs) [1]. In the current work a simple chemical technique for preparing spincoating paste from commercially-available P-25 nanopowder, with an average particles size
21nm, was used to fabricate TiO2 electrodes for DSSCs [2]. The nanoporous semi-transparent TiO2
films without cracking and peeling-off were fabricated on conductive glass substrates (Fluorine
doped Tin Oxide, FTO Glass) and were used as solar cells active layers. With an aim of enhancing
the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs, here we designed a triple layer composite photoanode
in order to suppress the recombination of electrons in anode, as also to elevate dye excitation [35]. A compact, in solution form factory available, TiO2 layer was fabricated on FTO Glass to act as
an electron-selective barrier on the anode. This n-type blocking layer, with a thickness of nm, can
obviously enhance the energy conversion efficiency due to the efficient suppression of dark
reaction in the DSSC. Moreover, knowing that an increment of light harvesting capability of anode
could improve the performance of DSSCs, here we introduced, after the nanoporous TiO2 film,
optical scatters. This light-scattering layer, composed from large TiO2 particles (approximately
200nm), was fabricated by a similar chemical technique as the active layer. This design confines
the incident light within the photo-electrode and diffracts it backward. Thereby, the dye (N719)
molecules anchored on the TiO2 surface utilize solar spectrum more efficiently. Lastly, we
demonstrate that the incorporation of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) into a TiO2
active layer contributes to a significant improvement in the energy conversion efficiency of DSSCs
[6, 7]. The TiO2MWCNTs composite electrodes have been prepared by sonication assistant of the
composite paste. The performance of DSSCs using the TiO2MWCNTs composite electrodes is
dependent on the MWCNTs loading in the electrodes, enhancing firstly the conductivity of anode
by increasing the wt% of MWCNTs, reaching a plateau where MWCNTs agglomeration and loss of
optical transparency of the electrodes occurred. In all experiments, factory available, Platinum
(Pt) nanoclusters coated FTO Glasses Counter Electrodes were used as cathode in DSSCs with a
High Performance Electrolyte between the anode and cathode to interpose. The experimental
characterization of the cells (0.25cm2 active area) included measurements of Short-Circuit Current
(ISC) and Open-Circuit Voltage (VOC), as also the determination of the maximum efficiency under
real test conditions. he experiments followed a theoretical analysis using a simple one-diode
model in order to specify the diode factor and the internal parasitic series and shunt resistances
of solar cells [8].

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References
[1] B. OREGAN, M. GRATZEL, A LOW-COST, HIGH-EFFICIENCY SOLAR CELL BASED ON DYE
SENSITIZED COLLOIDAL TIO2 FILMS, NATURE 353 (1991) 737.
[2] Y. YAN, J. WANG, Q. CHANG, M. BABIKIER, H. WANG, H. LI, Q. YU, S. GAO, S. JIAO,
FABRICATION OF MESOPOROUS TIO2 ELECTRODES BY CHEMICAL TECHNIQUE FOR DYE-SENSITIZED
SOLAR CELLS, ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA 94 (2013) 277.
[3] Z. LAN, J. WU, J. LIN, M. HUANG, A HIGHLY EFFICIENT DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL WITH A
BLOCKING LAYER AND TICL4 TREATMENT TO SUPPRESS DARK REACTION, ENERGY SOURCES, PART
A: RECOVERY, UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS 36 (2014) 1810.
[4] K.-J. HWANG, D.-W. PARK, S. JIN, S. O. KANG, D. W. CHO, INFLUENCE OF DYE CONCENTRATION
ON THE LIGHT SCATTERING EFFECT IN DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL, MATERIALS CHEMISTRY AND
PHYSICS 149 (2015) 594.
[5] H. LIU, L. LIANG, T. PENG, H. F. MEHNANE, B. SEBO, S. BAI, Z. YU, W. YU, W. LIU, S. GUO, X.
ZHAO, ENHANCE THE PERFORMANCE OF DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS BY BALANCING THE LIGHT
HARVESTING AND ELECTRON COLLECTING EFFICIENCIES OF SCATTERING LAYER BASED
PHOTOANODES, ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA 132 (2014) 25.
[6] T. SAWATSUK, A. CHINDADUANG, C. SAE-KUNG, S. PRATONTEP,G.TUMCHARERN, DYESENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS BASED ON TIO2MWCNTS COMPOSITE ELECTRODES: PERFORMANCE
IMPROVEMENT AND THEIR MECHANISMS, DIAMOND & RELATED MATERIALS 18 (2009) 524.
[7] W. FENG, Y. FENG, Z. WU, A. FUJII, M. OZAKI, K. YOSHINO, OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL
CHARACTERIZATIONS OF NANOCOMPOSITE FILM OF TITANIA ADSORBED ONTO OXIDIZED
MULTIWALLED CARBON NANOTUBES, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER 17 (2005)
4361.
[8] H. H. KYAW, T. BORA, J. DUTTA, ONE-DIODE MODEL EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS FOR ZNO
NANOROD-BASED DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS: EFFECTS OF ANNEALING AND ACTIVE AREA, IEEE
TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY 11 (2012) 763.

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#46

VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR AND MODELING OF NANO AND MICRO TiO2


POWDER-EPOXY RESIN COMPOSITES
L.C. Kontaxis, A.E. Manara, G.C. Papanicolaou*
The Composite Materials Group, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautics Engineering,
University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500, Greece, gpapan@mech.upatras.gr
ABSTRACT
In the present investigation, epoxy resin composites reinforced with different weight fractions of
TiO2 micro-particles (1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) and of TiO2 nano-particles (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%) were
manufactured. The mechanical properties of both nano-composites (21 nm) and microcomposites (0.2 m) were investigated and compared through flexural testing. The composites
were subjected to creep and creep-recovery tests as well as to relaxation tests in order to
investigate their viscoelastic behavior. The experiments were carried out at different filler-weight
fractions and loading conditions. A non-linear viscoelastic behavior was observed in all cases and
appropriate models were applied in order to describe, and/or predict the viscoelastic behavior of
the materials in each case. The non-linearity parameters (g0, g1, g2, a) of Schaperys non-linear
constitutive equation were experimentally estimated and their stress dependence was achieved
by means of a model previously developed [1,2]
In addition, the influence of the rigid TiO2 micro and nano particles on the mechanical response of
the manufactured composites was studied. For micro TiO2 composites an increase of flexural
modulus on the order of 23% was achieved, while in the nano composites, plastification of the
epoxy matrix due to the presence of TiO2 nano particles was observed. Both behaviors were
predicted by the Property Prediction Model or PPM (former Modulus Prediction Model-MPM)[3].
A fair agreement between experimental results and theoretical predictions was observed for both
viscoelastic and static results (Fig.1). Also, both the degree of matrix-particle adhesion and
particle dispersion within the matrix in all types of composites were evaluated by means of the
PPM model.
Finally the data obtained were normalized with respect to the specific surface area of micro and
nano TiO2 particles, in order to eliminate the particle size effect from the experimental results.
The results revealed a specific critical particle weight fraction (threshold) that separates the nano
from the micro level for both the mechanical and viscoelastic behavior (Fig. 2).

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Fig. 4 Comparison between experimental values and


theoretical predictions as derived from the Property
Prediction Model (PPM) for the Flexural modulus of the
TiO2 micro particle-epoxy matrix composites
investigated

Fig. 5 The specific critical weight fraction (threshold)


that separates the micro from the nano level
behavior for TiO2 particle-epoxy matrix composites
investigated

References
[1] PAPANICOLAOU, G. C.; ZAOUTSOS, S. P.; CARDON A.H., FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF A DATA
REDUCTION METHOD FOR THE NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF FRPS.
COMPOSITES, PART A, 1999, 30 (7), 839-848.
[2] PAPANICOLAOU, G. C.; XEPAPADAKI, A. G.; PAVLOPOULOU, S.; ZAOUTSOS, S. P. ON THE
INVESTIGATION OF THE STRESS THRESHOLD FROM LINEAR TO NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC
BEHAVIOUR OF POLYMER-MATRIX PARTICULATE COMPOSITES. MECH. TIME-DEPEND. MATER.,
2009, 13 (3), 261-274.
[3] PAPANICOLAOU, G. C.; KONTAXIS, L. C.; KOUTSOMITOPOULOU, A. F.; ZAOUTSOS, S. P. STRESS
RELAXATION BEHAVIOR OF STARCH POWDEREPOXY RESIN COMPOSITES. J. APPL. POLYM. SCI.,
2015.

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#55

EFFECT OF TIO2 NANOTUBES DEVELOPED ON PURE TITANIUM SUBSTRATES


ON THE MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF TITANIUM-TITANIUM SINGLE LAP
ADHESIVE JOINTS
D.V. Portan, G.N. Petropoulos, G.C. Papanicolaou
The Composite Materials Group, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering,
University of Patras, Patra 26500, Greece, gpapan@mech.upatras.gr
ABSTRACT
Adhesive joints are widely used in many different industrial sectors such as automobile,
shipbuilding, aeronautical, etc., replacing or supplementing traditional joining techniques, such as
welding or riveting. Their high resistance, low weight, water tightness and limited galvanic
corrosion, are amongst the many different advantages of adhesive joints. However, the bonding
strength of adhesive joints is influenced by a number of parameters, such as the surface
roughness of the joining parts, the loading speed, the lap joint geometry, the adhesive thickness,
the overlap length, etc. [1, 2]. Due to all these parameters affecting the bonding strength, the
strength prediction of such joints is still a controversial issue. The purpose of the present
investigation is to study the influence of TiO2 nanotubes, developed by means of electrochemical
methods on pure titanium substrates, on the mechanical performance of Titanium-Titanium
single lap adhesive joints (Fig. 1) and to propose the optimum electrochemical parameters applied
for the development of TiO2 nanotubes that combine the best mechanical performance with high
reliability for the manufactured joints.

Fig. 1 Single-lap adhesive joint geometry

In 1999 it was reported that porous TiO2 nanostructures could be fabricated by electrochemically
anodizing a Ti sheet in an acid electrolyte containing a small amount of hydrofluoric acid (HF).
Since then, many research groups have paid considerable attention to this field; because
anodization opens up ways to easily produce closely packed tube arrays with a self-organized
vertical alignment (Fig. 2) [3]. Depending on several experimental parameters combination,
different TiO2 nanotubes geometries can be obtained. These parameters include time of
anodization, type of electrolyte used, voltage applied, etc. In the present investigation, a specific
combination of the above parameters has been selected in order to develop nanotubes with
optimum geometry and achieve single lap adhesive joints with high bonding strength. Bond
strength is studied by means of three point bending experiments while nanostructural topography
is investigated by means of SEM observations.
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Fig. 2 TiO2-nanotubes developed on pure Titanium surface

References
[1] A.M. PEREIRA, J.M. FERREIRA, F.V. ANTUNES, P.J. BRTOLO (2010) ANALYSIS OF
MANUFACTURING PARAMETERS ON THE SHEAR STRENGTH OF ALUMINIUM ADHESIVE SINGLELAP JOINTS, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 210, 610617
[2] T.C. SILVA, L.C.S NUNES (2014) A NEW EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH FOR THE ESTIMATION OF
BENDING MOMENTS IN ADHESIVELY BONDED SINGLE LAP JOINTS, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
ADHESION AND ADHESIVES VOLUME 54, PAGES 1320
[3] D. V. PORTAN, K. PAPAEFTHYMIOU, E. ARVANITA, G. JIGA, G. C. PAPANICOLAOU (2012) A
COMBINED STATISTICAL AND MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF TIO2 NANOTUBES SYNTHESIZED UNDER
DIFFERENT ELECTROCHEMICAL ANODIZING CONDITIONS, J MATER SCI (2012) 47:4696-4705

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Session 2A
TUE, 14:15-15:30
Room A
TOPIC: Polymers and Polymer Matrix Composites I
Chair: Gabriel Jiga

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#7

FIBER LENGTH INFLUENCE AND FILAMENT INTERACTION ON SINGLE AND


MULTIFILAMENTS
Alexander Maier 1,*, Armin Salimi 1, Ralf Schledjewski 1
1

Chair of Processing of Composites, Department Polymer Engineering and Science,


Montanuniversitt Leoben, Otto Glckel-Strae 2, 8700 Leoben, Austria,
alexander.maier@unileoben.ac.at
ABSTRACT

Recently, the need for high-performance, low-weight structures has been growing and the
demand for polymer matrix composites (PMCs) that have high specific strength and stiffness will
continue to grow. Glass fibers are the most widely used reinforcement in PMCs. Approximately
90% of PMC products contain glass fibers. Glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) are used to
manufacture various products such as fishing rods, storage tanks, and marine structures. It has
been reported that glass fibers show unique characteristics during manufacturing. The mechanical
performance of these composites results not only from a combination of the fiber and matrix
properties and the ability to transfer stresses across the fibermatrix interface. It is well known
that the strength of glass fibers increases with increasing strain rate. However for constant strain
rates other phenomena may exist which decrease the tensile strength further on. For example
variables such as the fiber content, diameter, orientation and the interfacial strength depending
on the free fiber length are of prime importance to the final balance of mechanical properties and
especially for the manufacturing of composite parts. As another property during manufacturing
the interaction of filaments for example tow friction becomes more and more an important
mechanism in the production and processing of high performance parts.
For example the continuous manufacturing processes the Winding - Process has to deal with
different dry roving lengths at the feeding system of the machine before the actual
manufacturing. In addition to that a necessary load on the roving bundle must be supplied to gain
good manufacturing results in the end. In actual winding processes it often appears that the
preloaded fiber bundle fails to a lower strength than the given tensile strength out of the data
sheet. The reason for such a behavior is a combination of free fiber length and in that case a
change in the statistical distribution of the tensile strength, the necessary preload on the fibers
and the interaction between filaments during the tensile load [1-3].
Tensile strength of glass fibers exhibits statistical Weibull type distribution and significant size
dependence. In the present work besides the size effect a possible length dependency will be
investigated for tow bundles and single filaments. These analyses will be based on the needs of
manufacturer for continuous manufacturing processes. As very import information the maximum
strength of dry fiber filaments depending on the actual fiber length will be investigated. This is
crucial for adjusting the feeding system of the reinforcements to the actual manufacturing
machine.
For the first part in this work, a systematic analysis of glass fiber samples with different lengths
influencing the mechanical strength of fiber bundles and single filaments will be introduced.
Therefore the statistical number of voids based on the different manufacturing of glass fibers will
be discussed and additional to that the influence of the raising number of voids based on the
raising testing sample dimension will be taken into consideration. As a next step glass fibers were
tested with different gauge lengths. The length effect will be analyzed based on the Weibull
statistics. As a next step the interaction between filaments (Fig. 1) during the tensile load will be

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investigated and the result will be taken into consideration to describe the performance of fiber
bundles during manufacturing.

Fig. 1 Filament interaction depending on free fiber length during tensile test

References
[1] J.L. THOMASON. THE INFLUENCE OF FIBER LENGTH, DIAMETER AND CONCENTRATION ON
THE IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF LONG GLASS-FIBER REINFORCED POLYAMIDE 6,6.
COMPOSITES: PART A 40 (2009) 114124
[2] N. SATO, T. KURAUCHI, S. SATO, O. KAMIGAITO. REINFORCING MECHANISM BY SMALL
DIAMETER FIBER IN SHORT FIBER COMPOSITES.
J COMPOS MATER 1998;22:85073.
[3] B. CORNELISSEN, B. RIETMAN, R. AKKERMAN. FRICTIONAL BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH
PERFORMANCE FIBROUS TOWS: FRICTION EXPERIMENTS.
COMPOSITES: PART A 44 (2013) 95104

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#22

OUTDOOR WEATHERING OF STARCH-GRAFTED POLYPROPYLENE/KENAF


FIBRES COMPOSITE
Amel Hamma1,2*, Said Bouhelal2, Alessandro Pegoretti3
1,2

Emerging Materials Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University Ferhat Abbas 1, Stif
19000, Algeria, amelhamma@yahoo.fr
3
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Polo Scientifico e Technologico,
F.Ferrari, Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento, Italy

ABSTRACT
In this study, a comparison between the degradation behaviour of starch-grafted-polypropylene
reinforced with 30 %.wt of kenaf fibres (S-g-PP/KF) and the virgin matrix (S-g-PP) were carried out,
when materials were subjected to outdoor weathering. The morphology of weathered samples
has shown a discoloration and cracking after 5 months of exposure (Fig.1-a, b, c, d). This is due to
wetting and drying cycles between the exposed surfaces and interior sections and probably to the
degradation of exposed materials [1].
(a) S-g-PP before aging

(b) S-g-PP/KF before aging

(c) S-g-PP after aging

(d) S-g-PP/KF after aging

Fig. 1 Micrographs of unweathered a)- S-g-PP matrix & b)- S-g-PP/KF composite and 160 days outdoor
weathered c)- S-g-PP & d)- /KF composites.

The evolution of crystallinity index of S-g-PP and its composite (Fig.2) has shown an increase in
values with exposure time. This explains retrogradation phenomena of the matrix containing
starch, induced by the climatic conditions such as the high humidity % 60% and the low
temperature range (0-5C) above Tg values. However, composite crystal linity was more affected
by weathering than the net matrix.

Fig. 2 Evolution of the crystallinity index of S-gPP & S-g-PP/KF with exposure period

Fig. 3 Evolution of Youngs Modulus of S-g-PP &


S-g-PP/KF with exposure period

Youngs modulus evolution as illustrated in Fig.3, exhibited a decrease for both, matrix and its
composite, with outdoor weathering. However, neat matrix was less affected for exposure period

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less than 2 months (-30% decrease), than the composite (-60% decrease). After that, matrix
modulus still decrease, while, composite ones were found to increase. The same trend was also
observed for the tensile stress at break (Fig.4). This behaviour could be explained, in one side, by
the changes in samples crystallinity directly affecting the modulus of composite [2]. And on
another side, to the decrease in molecular weight and macromolecular chain length due to C-C
bond cleavage occurring in the S-g-PP samples [3]. This affected the deformation of samples
which is reduced progressively for the neat samples as shown in Fig.5.

Fig. 4 Evolution of tensile stress of S-g-PP & S-gPP/KF with exposure period

Fig. 5 Evolution of tensile strain of S-g-PP & S-gPP/KF with exposure period

For short outdoor weathering periods (below 2 months), all exposed samples display a drop off in
h*, which is less pronounced. For longer ones (beyond 2 months), the viscosity still decreases for
neat matrix samples, however, composite ones have shown closest values as unweathered one.
This behaviour indicates a competition between crosslinking reactions and chain scissions
degradation mechanism, at the later degradation stages for composite samples, against chain
scission reactions governing the degradation mechanism of neat matrix.

b)

a)

Fig. 6 Complex viscosity dependency of a) S-g-PP & b) S-g-PP/KF before and after outdoor weathering

References
[1] TEMIZ A, YILDIZ UC, AYDIN I, EIKENES M, ALFREDSEN G, OLAKOGLU G. APPLIED SURFACE
SCIENCE. 2005;250(14):35-42.
[2] ZHOU J, MA Y, ZHANG J, TONG J. JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE.2009;112(1):99106.
[3] RABELLO MS, TOCCHETTO RS, BARROS LA, DALMEIDA JRM, WHITE JR. PLASTICS, RUBBER AND
COMPOSITES 2001;30 (3):132-40.

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#68

SYNTHESIS OF GEOPOLYMER MATERIAL FROM METAKAOLIN AND


PORTLAND CEMENT
Oualit. Mehena1, Abadlia. Med.Tahar 1, Jauberthie. Raoul 2
1

Unit of Research Materials, Processes and Environment (UR-MPE), Boumerdes, Algeria;


Laboratory of Civil and Mechanics Engineering (Materials) (LCME) - INSA of Rennes, France.
ABSTRACT

The objective of this work is in a first time, the synthesis of materials geopolymers from two types
of activator solutions concentrated prepared respectively with two different bases NaOH and
KOH. These solutions have been mixed thereafter (after 24 hours) with the kaolin previously
heated under 550C in order to obtain geopolymers samples, while optimizing the Si/Al ratio.
Secondly, the study of the influence of the partial and total substitution of the metakaolin by a
portland cement is thrown in the goal to decrease the delays of hold (beginning and end) of the
gopolymer material at the fresh state. Thereafter, the physical (bulk density) and mechanical
properties of the samples at hardened state, notably the constraints limit of compression and the
resistances in traction are investigated.
The results showed that the use of the activator solution containing KOH during the preparation
of the activator solution increases the solubility between KOH and silica gel. However, the
solution based on sodium hydroxide (NaOH) promotes obtaining better mechanical resistances in
the geopolymer materials. Otherwise, the partial substitution of metakaolin by cement portland
improves the mechanical resistances on compression but to a certain doorstep before inverse
effect appears.
Finally, recommendations and perspectives are proposed in adequacy with the used raw materials
and the mechanical performances of the geopolymers materials.
References
ALCNTARA E, CHEESEMAN CH, KNIGHT J, LOIZIDOU M., 2000. PROPERTIES OF ALKALI-ACTIVATED
CLINOPTILOLITE. CEM CONCR RES; 30: 16416.
BAKHAREV T., 2005. GEOPOLYMER MATERIALS PREPARED USING CLASS F Y ASH AND ELEVATED
TEMPERATURE CURING. CEM CONCR RES; 35:12241232.
BAKHAREV T, SANJAYAN J, CHENG Y., 2002. SULFATE ATTACK ON ALKALI-ACTIVATED SLAG
CONCRETE. CEM CONCR RES; 32:2116.
DAVIDOVITS. J., 1994. GEOPOLYMERS: MAN-MADE ROCKS GEOSYNTHESIS AND THE RESULTING
DEVELOPMENT OF VERY EARLY HIGH STRENGTH CEMENT, J. MATER. EDUC. 16: 91139.
MARTNEZ-RAMREZ S, BLANCO-VARELA MT, EREA I, GENER M., 2006. POZZOLANIC REACTIVITY
OF ZEOLITIC ROCKS FROM TWO DIFFERENT CUBAN DEPOSITS: CHARACTERIZATION OF REACTIONS
PRODUCTS. APPL CLAY SCI; 32: 4052.

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#77

NATURALLY OCCURRING ABIETIC ACID FOR LIQUID CRYSTALLINE EPOXY


CURING AGENTS
Rasha A. Ibrahim El-Ghazawy1,*, Ashraf M. El-Saeed1, Hessin I. El-Shafey1, Abdel-Raheim
M. Abdel-Raheim1 and Maher A. El-Sockary1
1

Department of petroleum applications, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr city, 11727,
Cairo, Egypt, basharosh_00@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT

Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) generally incorporate linear para-substituted


structures (biphenyl or phenyl benzoate), stilbene or naphthyl structures. Thermosets of TLCPs
show improved properties with respect to the corresponding traditional ones. On the other hand,
the spectrum of practical tasks using derived rosin acids, particularly those based on their
dienoadducts is constantly widening. New fields of application for those classes of compounds are
being discovered along with such traditional directions as developing of paints, coatings and
polymers and corrosion inhibitors.
The main goal of this paper is to prepare fully bio-based epoxies suitable for high performance
application. Through this paper we concerned about preparing two abietic acid-based curing
agents (LCC1 and LCC2) incorporating two different rigid-rod components (phenyl benzoate and
biphenyl). Liquid crystal transition temperatures and textures were evaluated using differential
scanning calorimeter (DSC) and polarized optical microscope (POM). Both LCCs were used for
curing a tetra-functional abietic acid-based epoxy resin (TGDMP), prepared in our previous study.
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to evaluate
cured epoxy coats.
Two thermotropic liquid crystalline curing agents based on abietic acid with different mesogens
(LCC1 and LCC2) were synthesized for producing thermally stable liquid crystal networks suitable
for high performance epoxy coatings. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and polarized optical
microscope (POM) was used to identify the liquid crystal phase transformation temperatures and
texture, respectively. POM micrographs for both LCCs reveal nematic texture. A multifunctional
epoxy resin with two abietic acid moieties was also synthesized. Dynamic mechanical (DMA) and
thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses show that the fully bio-based cured epoxies by either LCCs
possess high glass transition temperature (Tg), high modulus (G`) and improved thermal stability.
The chemical structure of the synthesized LCCs was investigated through FTIR and 1HNMR
spectroscopic techniques.
Scientific innovation and relevance: The increasing demand to maximize bio-based share in
various products is now a challenging target. Rosin obtained from exudate of pine and fir trees
with high annual world-wide production was utilized for preparing fully bio-based epoxy resins
with good viscoelastic properties and thermal stability.
Rosin acid based thermotropic liquid crystal curing agents with nematic droplets texture (see Fig.
1) were successfully prepared. Viscoelastic properties of cured fully bio-based epoxies show high
storage modulus reaching 2 GPa and high glass transition temperatures. Both systems show good
thermal stability where that based on biphenyl mesogen withstand to higher temperature.

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Fig.1 Polarized optical micrographs of LCC1 and LCC2

Rosin is a suitable candidate for preparing liquid crystalline epoxy curative and resin. The fully biobased system show good dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stability.
Acknowledgements
This project was supported financially by the Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF),
Egypt, Grant No. 4225.

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#59

STRATEGIES ON IMPLEMENTING A POTENTIAL SELF HEALING


FUNCTIONALITY IN A COMPOSITE STRUCTURE
X. Tsilimigkra1 , A. Baltopoulos1, S. Tsantzalis1, A. Kotrotsos1, N. Siakavellas2, V.
Kostopoulos1*
1

Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering & Aeronautics, University


of Patras, Patras University Campus, GR 265 00 Patras, Greece
2
Nuclear Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering & Aeronautics, University
of Patras, Patras University Campus, GR 265 00 Patras, Greece, kostopoulos@mech.upatras.gr

ABSTRACT
Polymer composites are widely used in engineering fields due to their specific properties.
However, deteriorations generated in service cause catastrophic failure in materials. In view of
this, scientists have drawn inspirations by natural biological systems and their ability to heal an
external wound, to develop a similar repair system within a material. The aim is to reduce the
repeated repairs and extend the life time of the materials, without compromising the overall
mechanical performance. In light of this issue, self healing composites attract a considerable
interest for their potential to undertake an autonomous in situ repair of damage [1-2]. Several
conceptual approaches for implementing self healing functionality within a material have already
been explored and reported the past ten years. Self healing materials can be classified in two
main categories: (i) the intrinsic, where polymers are able to heal themselves under chemical
interactions, (ii) the extrinsic in which the healing system is stored and incorporated into the
material in advance. The first category utilizes the inherently reversible bonding in the matrix
polymer to affect healing via thermally reversible reactions [3]. The second can be separated in
two basic different modes: microcapsules containing a healing system that will be released upon
crack damage and an embedded vascular network which serves as reservoir for the distribution of
the healing system. Implementing the healing functionality during manufacturing process, healing
activation upon damage and monitoring are the main domains to be considered in the design of
self healing composites. The present study assesses the feasibility to implement the self healing
functionality within a composite material, during manufacturing, in a repeatable manner. Ideally,
this process could be achieved with the minimal disruption of the final composite in terms of its
structural integrity.

Fig. 1 Schematic of (a) Self healing strategies (b) self healing stage

he reversible polymers direction consists of three main material categories. The first category
includes polymers that are based on covalent bonds while the second regards the materials based
on Diels Alder and Retro Diels-Alder reaction. The third category encompasses materials based on
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Supra-molecular chemistry. Thermoplastic particles, belonging in the first category, were


incorporated into the matrix using the wet lay-up technique (Fig.2a). Bis-maleimade prepolymer
particles using a homogeneous surface particle dispersion (Fig.2b), and supramolecular material
film (Fig.2c) with thickness of 120 m were successfully incorporated between the UD [0]22
prepreg layers, representing the second and the third category respectively.
The incorporation of the capsules was implemented in carbon fiber reinforced prepreg UD [0]16
again through particles dispersion. Empty microcapsules were dispersed in diameters
approximately of 50m at contents of 5%wt and 10%wt (Fig 2d).
The vascular networks were integrated in the mid layer of a woven glass fabric composite plate of
sixteen layers which was manufactured with the wet layup technique. The glass fabric was
selected due to its transparency which enables the optical observation of the network. Vascules
were formed from wax wires of 0.9 mm diameter, running in parallel to adjacent fibre
reinforcement and were removed by heating after the curing process was completed (Fig 2e).
The scope of the current work was the exploration and evaluation of the arising handling and
processing issues regarding the different techniques. Optical microscopy revealed, where
possible, the disruption, vascules caused, in terms of the observed resin reach zones and ply
waviness. C-Scan was used as the demonstration tool for the quality control of the final
composites of all concepts that were studied. Additionally, IR Thermography imprinted the exact
formation of each vascule along the plate and captured the distribution of a fluid inside the
network. he potential self healing functionality will be assessed after the manually injection of
the healing system inside each vascule.

Fig. 2: Manufacturing process in each case separately

References
[1] BLAISZIK B.J., KRAMER S.L.B., OLUGEBEFOLA S.C., MOORE J.S., SOTTOS N.R., WHITE S.R., " SELF
HEALING POLYMERS AND COMPOSITES", ANNUAL REVIEW OF MATERIALS RESEARCH, 2010,
40:179-211
[2] WU D.Y., MEURE S, SOLOMON D., " SELF-HEALING POLYMERIC MATERIALS: A REVIEW OF
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS", PROGRESS IN POLYMER SCIENCE, 2008, 33:479-522
[3] PINGKARAWAT K., BHAT T., CRAZE D. A., WANG C. H., VARLEY R. J., AND MOURITZ A. P.,
''HEALING OF CARBON FIBRE-EPOXY COMPOSITES USING THERMOPLASTIC ADDITIVES'', POLYMER
CHEMISTRY, 2013,10:1039

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Session 2B
TUE, 14:15-15:30
Room B
TOPIC: NDT-NDI techniques and others
Chair: Paulo Tavares

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#35

DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION MEASUREMENTS IN AN INNOVATIVE


RAILWAY CAR BODY UNDERFRAME 3-POINT BENDING TEST
Tiago Ramos, Shayan Eslami, Paulo J. Tavares, P. M. G. P. Moreira
INEGI Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial engineering
ABSTRACT
Numerical models have been a useful tool for engineering design and analysis. They enable
simulation of systems for which experimentation can reveal itself very difficult if not impossible
altogether, expensive, too costly or very time-consuming. Nevertheless, experimentation is often
required and needed to verify and validate models predictions, sometimes adding different and
more accurate assumptions about the system under study. Differences between real and
experimental results and numerical models can rise from disparities in material properties,
surface shape, connections between different elements, boundary conditions, among others.
In order to produce a light and durable train passenger car underframe, an alternative design has
been proposed, designed and tested, based on an aluminium alloy modular components joined by
laser beam welding. In order to validate numerical predictions a section of the developed
prototype was tested according to a three point bending flexural test configuration. This was
monitored with both conventional techniques, such as load cells, linear variable differential
transducers and strain gauges, as well as optical techniques such as digital image correlation.
The experimental data showed differences from the numerical forecast exhibiting the influence of
the main defects, which are characteristic of a complex welding procedure (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 Strain in y direction (yy) comparison between simulation and DIC measurements for the last
monitored step.

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#36

DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF


AN INNOVATIVE PROPOSAL FOR SEISMIC RESISTANT STRUCTURES
Tiago Ramosa, Andr Furtadob, Shayan Eslamia, Sofia Alvesa, Hugo Rodriguesc, Antnio
redeb, Paulo J. Tavaresa, P.M. G. P. Moreiraa
a

INEGI Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial engineering


LESE Laboratory for Earthquacke and Strucutral Engineering, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
c
RISCO-ESTG, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
ABSTRACT

Common architectural designs regularly resort to reinforced concrete structural frames


strengthened with infill masonry panels. Due to their brittle nature, these components may be
subjected to failure and collapse during seismic activities that can endanger human lives. The
study of these structural elements behaviour during seismically resembling loads can lead to
proper structural design and diagnose to improve their safety.
In one of these studies, digital image correlation has been used to validate its ability for large
specimens control and future structural health monitoring applications. Two experiments with
different equipment setups were performed. While the first consisted in an in-plane shear stress
solicitation test (2D), to promote crack initiation, the second one was a quasi-static out-of-plane
cyclic test in order to induce wall collapse. Digital image correlation data showed to agree with
the conventional linear variable differential transducers for displacement measurements, for
accurate determination of full displacement and strain fields, the presence of corner crushing and
the separation between the wall infill and the concrete resistant frame.

Corner Crushing
Fig. 2 Displacement field, strain field and detailed view for the right half of the wall, in the in-plane test.

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Fig. 3 LVDT and DIC results comparison for both in-plane and out of plane tests.

References
[1] H. R. H. V. A. C. A. J. M. S. R. VICENTE, "PERFORMANCE OF MASONRY ENCLOSURE WALLS:
LESSONS LEARNED FROM RECENT EARTHQUAKES," EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND VIBRATION,
VOL. 11, NO. 1, PP. 23-34, 2012.
[2] C. C. A. A. A. H. R. ANDR FURTADO, "GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISATION OF PORTUGUESE RC
BUILDINGS WITH MASONRY INFILL WALLS," EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND CIVIL
ENGINEERING, VOL. IN PRESS, 2015.
[3] J. V. H. S. D. LECOMPTE, "CRACK DETECTION IN A CONCRETE BEAM USING TWO DIFFERENT
CAMERA TECHNIQUES," STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING, VOL. 5, NO. 1, PP. 59-68, 2006.
[4] J. B. F. P. F. H. MICHEL KNTZ MARC JOLIN, "DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF
CRACK BEHAVIOUR IN A REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM DURING A LOAD TEST," CANADIAN
JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, VOL. 33, NO. 11, PP. 1418-1425, 2006.
[5] E. T. E. F. J. F. DESTREBECQ, "ANALYSIS OF CRACKS AND DEFORMATIONS IN A FULL SCALE
REINFORCE CONCRETE BEAM USING A DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION TECHNIQUE,"
EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS, VOL. 51, PP. 879-890, 2011.
[6] N. M. A. H. SALMANPOUR, "APPLICATION OF DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION FOR STRAIN
MEASUREMENTS OF LARGE MASONRY WALLS," APCOM & ISCM, ZURICH, 2013.
[7] F. M. M. A. S. R. GHORBANI, "FULL-FIELD DEFORMATION MEASUREMENT AND CRACK
MAPPING ON CONFINED MASONRY WALLS USING DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION,"
EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS, VOL. 55, PP. 227-243, 2014.
[8] M. J. E. G. ABRAHAM SAVITSKY, "SMOOTHING AND DIFFERENTIATION OF DATA BY SIMPLIFIED
LEAST SQUARES PROCEDURES," ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, VOL. 36, NO. 8, PP. 1627-1639, 1964.
[9] Y. Z. VYACHESLAV V. VOLKOV, "DETERMINISTIC PHASE UNWRAPPING IN THE PRESENCE OF
NOISE," OPTIC LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 22, 2003.

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#70

WIRELESS STRAIN GAUGE FOR COMPOSITE MATERIALS


melko Miroslav1, Praslika Duan1, Draganov Katarna1, Lipovsk Pavol1, Kn Viktor1,
Bajs Jn1
1

- Technical University Of Koice, Faculty of Aeronautics

ABSTRACT
The article deals with the possibility of wireless sensor creation with magnetic microwires
embedded in a composite material. Conventional strain gauge measuring methods cover surface
stress measurement, however measurement inside the material is limited. Strain gauges have one
significant disadvantage - galvanic connection between sensor and sensing device. Magnetic
microwires [1] offer the ability to create a built-in sensor inside the material. No galvanic
connection is needed and no structure violation will occur. Moreover, sensor itself reacts to
several physical quantities [2] and special measuring method allows us the possibility to measure
this parameters simultaneously. These advantages make this technology application very
perspective and interesting [3]. Experimental results confirm this statement and are discussed in
the article.
References
[1] A.V. ULITOVSKI, METHOD OF CONTINUOUS FABRICATION OF MICROWIRES COATED BY GLASS
RU PATENT NO128427, (3.9.1950)
[2] R. SABOL, R. VARGA, J. HUDAK, J. BLAZEK, D. PRASLICKA ET AL. , J. APPL. PHYS. 111.
053919(2012)
[3] M. SMELKO, D. PRASLICKA, J. BLAZEK , ICMT 2013, P. 1521-1525. - ISBN 978-80-7231-918-3

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#71

INFLUENCE OF ULTRASOUNDS IN THE DAMPING CAPACITY OF ALUMINIUM


ALLOYS
H. Puga1, V.H. Carneiro2
1

Centre for Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (CMEMS)


University of Minho, Campus de Azurm, 4800-058 Guimares Portugal

ABSTRACT
The use of light-alloys is necessary in specific applications that require both mechanical strength,
reduced system mass and high damping characteristics. This is the case of industrial fields such as
aerospace, aeronautics, railway and transportations in general. As the value per added structural
weight in this fields may be extremely high, it is mandatory to select materials with low density
that are able to sustain structural loads [1]. Additionally, the life expectance of mechanical
components and the noise that is generated by this structures when they are subjected to
dynamic loads is directly related to the damping capacity of the materials. Thus, it is necessary to
develop techniques that can improve the referred characteristic in materials, for example by
microstructural modification of the base material [2]. In this study, was evaluated the effect of
Ultrasound grain refinement [3] in the Al7075 alloy and if this technique is a viable and an
interesting opportunity to be used in the production of light-weight structural components with
enhanced damping capacity. The referred technique is applied directly to the metal mold were
the liquid metal is casted [4], forming ingots from which the samples are drawn. The evaluation of
the enhanced damping capacity is obtained by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). This
technique was applied in samples with and without Ultrasound treatment. The values of the
internal friction (tan ) were determined, using a single-cantilever clamping configuration. The
results suggest that the grain refinement, achieved by the Ultrasounds, is able to enhance the
damping capacity of this Aluminium alloy and therefore is an interesting path for further
development and to be applied in the referred industrial fields.
References
[1] E. PHIL, C. SOUTIS (EDS). POLYMER COMPOSITES IN THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY, ELSEVIER,
2014.
[2] Y. ZHANG, N. MA, Y. LE, S. LI, H. WANG. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND DAMPING CAPACITY
AFTER GRAIN REFINEMENT IN A356 ALLOY MATERIALS LETTERS, VOL.59, PP.2174-2177, 2005.
[3] H. PUGA, J. BARBOSA, S. COSTA, S. RIBEIRO, A.M.P. PINTO, M. PROKIC. INFLUENCE OF
INDIRECT ULTRASONIC VIBRATION ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF
AL-SI-CU ALLOY, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A, VOL.560, PP. 589-595, 2013.
[4] N.Q. TUAN, H. PUGA, J. BARBOSA, A.M.P. PINTO. GRAIN REFINEMENT OF AL-MG-SC ALLOY BY
ULTRASONIC TREATMENT, METALS AND MATERIALS INTERNATIONAL, VOL.21 NO.1, PP.72-78,
2015.

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#19

ACOUSTIC EMISSION MONITORING FRACTURE OF A COMPOSITE MATERIAL


Cristian Ctlin Petre1, Gabriel Jiga1, Mihai Valentin Predoi2, Cristian Diba3, Marian
Soare3
)

Dept. of Strength of Materials, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei, 313,


Bucharest, 060042, Romania
2
Dept. of Mechanics, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei, 313, Bucharest,
060042, Romania
3
S.C. Nuclear NDT Research & Services S.R.L., oseaua Berceni, 104, Bucharest, Romania
ABSTRACT
Acoustic Emission (AE) is the phenomenon of mechanical wave generation by stress or pressure,
during dynamic processes in materials, known as the Kaisers effect [1]. Failure of engineering
materials is often preceded by audible events. The emitted waves are usually recorded by
piezoelectric transducers that are fixed on the surface of the component under test. The nature of
the waves measured is identical to those used in ultrasonic testing (UT) which is another nondestructive testing (NDT) method. The fundamental difference between AE and UT is the absence
of external wave excitation since the emissions originate from the cracking events within the
material. Additionally, in AE the material should be stressed in order to produce active cracking
events.
Failure in composite laminates typically starts by the creation of cracks of the off axis plies. The
cracks in the off-axis layers usually propagate along the whole width of the specimens parallel to
the fibers direction of the corresponding off-axis laminae. The crack density which is a parameter
that characterizes these systems is defined as the number of cracks normalized by the length of
the specimen. Load level, layer orientation with respect to the load direction, temperature
change, number of fatigue cycles, laminate stacking sequence, ply thickness and material fracture
toughness are the most important parameters that dominate the crack density. Damage
development in the form of transverse matrix cracking reduces the stress-bearing ability of
individual layers resulting in the deterioration of the laminates thermo-elastic properties [2].
Studies on AE in fiber reinforced laminates concentrated on waveform analysis [3], numerical
models [4] and identification of guided Lamb-like modes [5]. The AE method was included in the
wider Health Monitoring strategy [6-9]. Optimization of the sensor arrays distribution and
capability to detect smaller defects is a recent objective [10].
Recently in our country began the implementation of this method for industry beneficiaries, using
the Vallen Systeme GmbH equipment available at S.C. Nuclear NDT Research & Services. The
application of AE for composite laminates is one recent research direction. A destructive test
concerning a carbon fiber laminate is among the first applications of AE monitoring. The bending
test led to the plate total fracture, beginning from machined notches.
The objectives of the present work are to simulate by finite elements the acoustic signal and to
present experimental results showing the ability to detect and localize AE events for a composite
laminate. The fixation of the AE transducers as well as the best signal threshold, were also tested.
The AMSY 6 Vallen Systeme, with two active channels connected to sensors of 75 kHz central
frequency were used in the experiment.

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Fig. 1. The experimental equipment (left), the composite sample (up) and the transducers attached (bottom
right)

The finite elements simulation provided information on directivity and signal velocity. The
processed experimental signals revealed the increase of the AE activity, the approximate
localization of cracks locations and values for the signal level. The devices used attach the
transducer to the laminate surface proved to be adequate, even for large displacements/strains.
References
[1] J. KAISER: UNTERSUCHUNG BER DAS AUFTRETEN VON GERUSCHEN BEIM ZUGVERSUCH
(STUDY ON THE OCCURRENCE OF NOISE IN THE TENSILE TEST), PH.D. THESYS, TECHNISCHEN
UNIVERSITT MNCHEN 1950.
[2] A.S. PAIPETIS, D.G. AGGELIS DAMAGE ASSESSMENT IN FIBROUS COMPOSITES USING ACOUSTIC
EMISSION,
ACOUSTIC EMISSION, DR. WOJCIECH SIKORSKI (ED.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0056-0, INTECH, (2012),
AVAILABLE FROM: HTTP://WWW.INTECHOPEN.COM/BOOKS/ACOUSTIC-EMISSION/DAMAGEASSESSMENT-IN-FIBROUS-COMPOSITES-USING-ACOUSTIC-EMISSION
[3] T. BIDLINGMAIER, A. WANNER, S. RITTER, WAVEFORM-BASED ANALYSIS OF ACOUSTIC
EMISSION FROM FIBER FRACTURE IN MODEL COMPOSITE PLATES, REV. PROG. QUANT.
NONDESTR. EVAL., 17, 517-524, 1998
[4] C. G. KOH, G. Q. QIAO, S. T. QUEK, DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS:
NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES, STRUCT. HEALTH MONIT, 2(1), 4155, 2003.
[5] Z. SU, L, YE, FUNDAMENTAL LAMB MODE-BASED DELAMINATION DETECTION FOR CF/EP
COMPOSITE LAMINATES USING DISTRIBUTED PIEZOELECTRICS, 3(1), 4368, 2004.
[6] J. J. SCHOLEY, P.D.WILCOX,, C.K.LEE, M.I. FRISWELL, M.R.WISNOM, ACOUSTIC EMISSION IN
WIDE COMPOSITE SPECIMENS, ADV. MAT. RES., 13-14, 325-332, 2006.
[7] A.MAL, F. RICCI, S. BANERJEE, F. SHIH, A CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING
SYSTEM BASED ON VIBRATION AND WAVE PROPAGATION, 4(3), 283293, 2005.
[8] S.S. KULKARNI AND J.D. ACHENBACH, STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING AND DAMAGE
PROGNOSIS IN FATIGUE, 7(1), 3749, 2008.
[9] V. GIURGIUTIU, A. CUC, EMBEDDED NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION FOR STRUCTURAL
HEALTH MONITORING, DAMAGE DETECTION, AND FAILURE PREVENTION, SHOCK VIBR. DIG., 37,
83-105, 2005
[10] D. ALJETS, A. CHONG, S. WILCOX, K HOLFORD, ACOUSTIC EMISSION SOURCE LOCATION IN
PLATE-LIKE STRUCTURES USING A CLOSELY ARRANGED TRIANGULAR SENSOR ARRAY, J. ACOUSTIC
EMISSION, 28, 85-98, 2010.

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Session 3A
TUE, 16:00 -17:30
Room A
TOPIC: Analytical and Numerical Modeling I
Chair: Srgio M. O. Tavares

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#3

INFLUENCE OF DEFORMABILITY OF HORIZONTAL DIAPHRAGMS IN THEIR


PLAN ON THE SEISMIC LOADS DISTRIBUTION TO RESISTING WALLS
A.Benanane1, A.Ouazir1, S.Benanane2, M.Titoum3, G.Mezoudj1
1

Laboratory of Materials and Processes of Construction, University of Mostaganem, Algeria,


abdelkaderbenanane@yahoo.fr
2
Laboratory of Materials and Design of Structures, University of Oran, Algeria
3
Laboratory of Materials and Mechanics of Structures, University of Msila, Algeria
ABSTRACT

In the buildings, the floors play a very important role in the overall seismic behavior of the
structure. They act as horizontal diaphragms, which collect the inertial forces, transmit them to
the vertical structural elements, and make these elements interdependent to resist at the
horizontal seismic action. However, this function depends strongly on their relative rigidity
compared to the one of the vertical resistant veils. For the analysis of structures, diaphragms
(floors) are classified as rigid, flexible and semi- rigid, based on this relative rigidity. If a diaphragm
is considered as rigid, it can distribute horizontal forces to vertical elements in proportion to their
relative rigidities. In this case, the deformation of the diaphragm will be insignificant compared to
the one of the vertical elements. In return, in a flexible diaphragm the distribution of horizontal
forces to vertical elements is independent of their relative rigidity and deformation of the
diaphragm will be substantially large compared to the one of vertical elements. The flexible
diaphragm distributes lateral loads to vertical elements as a series of simple beams. In reality, no
diaphragm is perfectly rigid or perfectly flexible. However, the diaphragms can be considered as
rigid or flexible in order to simplify the analysis. In the case where the deformations of the
diaphragm and vertical elements are similar, the diaphragm cannot reasonably be assumed as
rigid or flexible. It is therefore considered as semi-rigid. The analysis of structural systems
containing semi-rigid diaphragms is complex, because this analysis should take into account the
relative stiffness of all structural elements including diaphragms. The distribution of lateral loads
of a semi-rigid diaphragm can be considered as a continuous beam supported on elastic supports.
It has generally recognized that the modeling of non-rigid floor behavior is much more complex
than the one of rigid floors. For many years, the simplified elastic methods of calculation have
usually used in the design of structures based on skewered models by concentrated masses and
equivalent stiffness, since they are easy to implement and well understood by Engineers.
However, this approach can provide only limited understanding of the real seismic behavior, the
linear response of a structure with flexible floors under the seismic action in terms of
displacement, is largely unexplored. Some seismic standard (European or American), to overcome
these disadvantages; recommend the use of specific methods based on the principle of finite
elements which could give good indications on the seismic behavior of the structure. In Algeria,
since the earthquake of Boumerdes town, the frame structures showed their limit and their
inefficiency with respect to the seismic actions. To attenuate the risk of possible catastrophes, the
Algerian seismic Standard (RPA), modified in 2003, recommends the use of the reinforced
concrete veils like resistance systems. This change in method of construction should encourage
the engineers of structures to give a special attention for the allowed assumption and never
checked in the occurrence, the rigidity of the floors. Indeed, if this latter one has manifestly
allowed when the resistant systems has constituted by frames; it is necessary to ensure
consequently, in the case of veils, of this rigidity because the distribution of the seismic actions

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can move away from the one corresponding to an infinitely rigid diaphragm. In practice, therefore
a certain ambiguity covers the deformation of the floors in their plan like the diversity of criteria
used in the international seismic standard in force. In addition, the comparison of the different
international seismic standard makes clear the range of the limits characterizing the rigidity of a
diaphragm. Some criteria can show enormous differences as the proportions of openings in a
floor.
To get round this ambiguity about the criteria used by the existing standard, case studies are
necessary. That is the purpose of this present study, using numerical simulation where the
stresses and strains calculated in the floors and resistant veils can bring a response to apprehend
the flexibility of the horizontal diaphragms (floors) in their plan by the use of computer codes
based on the finite elements method. By this manner, we will try to establish limits, non-existent
in the Algerian seismic standard (RPA), for taking into account their influence on the lateral loads
distribution.
References
[1] GARDINER D. R., BULL D.K. AND CARR A. J. INTERNAL FORCES OF CONCRETE FLOOR
DIAPHRAGMS IN MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY
OF ANTERBURY, CHRISTCHURCH.(2008) NZSEE CONFERENCE.
[2] RECOMMENDATIONS OF A NZSEE STUDY GROUP ON EARTHQUAKE RISK BUILDINGS, NEW
ZEALAND OF SOCIETY FOR EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF
THE STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS IN EARTHQUAKES, JUNE (2006).
[3] AKHIR L. THE EFFECTS OF DIAPHRAGM COMPONENTS IN RESISTING LATERAL STABILITY OF
PRECAST CONCRETE FRAMES,VOT 75139,6 NOVEMBER (2006).
[4] SCHIERLE G G, PHD,FAIA DESIGN FOR EARTHQUAKE SAFETY NATIONAL CONVENTION AND
DESIGN EXPOSITION, JUNE (2006).
[5] SARKISSIAN L., KHALILI K. JAHROMI AND ZAHRAI S.M. IMPACT OF JOISTS DIRECTION ON THE
DIAPHRAGM BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE FLOOR SYSTEMS JSEE: VOL. 8, NO. 1 / 29, SPRING (2006).
[6] DHIMAN B. AND SUDHIR K.J. SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF ASYMMETRIC BUILDINGS WITH FLEXIBLE
FLOOR DIAPHRAGMS JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING ASCE / 1169 AUGUST (2004).

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#4

A MODERN METHODOLOGY OF DESIGN OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL


STRUCTURES BY A GENETIC ALGORITHMS APPROACH
S.Benanane1, D.Kerdal1, A.Benanane2, A.Ouazir2, M.Titoum3
1

Laboratory of Materials and Design of Structures, University of Oran, Algeria,


benanane.sofiane@yahoo.fr
2
Laboratory of Materials and Processes of Construction, University of Mostaganem, Algeria
3
Laboratory of Materials and Mechanics of Structures, University of Msila, Algeria
ABSTRACT
The computer aided design is realized today by the significant development of computational
tools. These computer codes are often intended for advanced design phase of projects. However,
there is to our knowledge very few design support tools in preliminary design phase. Indeed, in
the life cycle of a construction project, the design phase is often the place of conflicting situations
that prevent the overall optimization of the said projects production costs. During this phase,
various technical treatments should be held to verify the feasibility of the works in relation to the
structural constraints, neighborhood, implementation, etc ... In this work, we propose a
formulation of the optimization problem of the overall design of a simple metal structure and a
methodology of resolution based on the approach of Genetic Algorithms. The aim is to minimize
the overall execution cost. In conclusion, The ultimate aim of this research is the development of
a software tool based on the approach of Genetic Algorithms that could help engineers of design
offices to make the right decisions from the early design phases to best minimize the cost of
projects. However, we are going to detail this as following:
The building has knew many improvements, so much on an architectural level as technological
and economic levels due to the results provided by the scientific research. However, one still feel
the need that this work (or product) must be perfected yet. It is therefore to optimize the
qualities of multi-levels building. In the life cycle of a steel structure, the design phase is often the
location of discontinuities which prevent the overall optimization of production costs. During this
phase, various technical treatments take place to test the feasibility of the structure, in terms of
structural constraints, neighborhood, implementation, etc. However, these verifications take
place once the designer has made the main choices on the shape of the structure, the
arrangement of the different components, the holder system, the foundation system, etc. These
choices influence considerably the technical and economic characteristics of the project and the
realization of the structure. The traditional approach of optimization of steel structures is based
on the minimization of weigh of the structure. However, the assemblies rarely exceed 5% of total
weight of a structure. This low percentage hides in reality a high cost which can reach 30% of the
total manufacturing cost of a structure [1]. Indeed, the cost of a structure consists mainly by the
cost of labor which essentially depends on the complexity of the assemblies. An optimised
structure definition, made only on the unique weight criterion may therefore lead .to structural
arrangements far from optimal in terms of realization cost.
On the other hand, the modeling of assemblies can affect, significantly, the distribution of internal
forces in the structure and also the forces to resume in the foundations. That is why Eurocode 3
(through its National Application Document) now allows the use and justification of semi-rigid
connections. The aim is to approach as much as possible, the actual behavior of connections. The
Taking into account of the behavior of nodes in the overall analysis is an innovative but promising
aspect. The economic benefits of this approach were the subject of various benchmarking [2]. Its

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implementation is greatly facilitated by appropriate analysis softwares already available on the


market [3] and various aids to calculation and to characterizing the nodes [4]. The optimization of
the global design process of steel structures therefore requires anticipating further upstream
construction problems in the early steps of design. For this we have developed an optimization
methodology based on minimizing the total cost of realisation of the structure. This cost includes
material costs, manufacturing and installation of the steel superstructure and the material costs
and achievement of foundation systems. This global optimization approach takes into account in
addition to the dimensional caracteristics of the elements, the nature of supports and the design
of assemblies. The optimization is based on the application of Genetic Algorithms.
References
[1] HAMCHAOUI M. (1997) CONCEPTION ECONOMIQUE DES ASSEMBLAGES EN CONSTRUCTION
METALLIQUE. THESE DE DOCTORAT, UNIVERSITE DE SAVOIE, FRANCE.
[2] COLSON A., HOTTIER J.M., MORICET A. (1996) MODELE SIMPLIFIE D.ASSEMBLAGES SEMIRIGIDES. ANALYSE ECONOMIQUE COMPARATIVE. REVUE DE LA CONSTRUCTION METALLIQUE, 4,
55-67.
[3] GALEA Y., BUREAU A., (1998) PEPMICRO - ANALYSE PLASTIQUE AU SECOND ORDRE DE
STRUCTURES PLANES A BARRES. MANUEL D.UTILISATION, CTICM, FRANCE.
[4] JASPART J.P. (1994) STEEL MOMENT CONNECTIONS ACCORDING TO EUROCODE3, SIMPLE
DESIGN AIDS FOR RIGID AND SEMI-RIGID JOINTS. IN: COST C1. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND
STATE OF THE ART WORKSHOP, PRAGUE, 159-167.

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#6

SURFACE STRUCTURAL INHOMOGENEITIES AND FRACTAL PROPERTIES OF


MnO2 SEMICONDUCTOR THIN FILMS
L.Skatkov1, V.Gomozov2, S.Deribo2
1

PCB "Argo',Israel
NTU "KhPI", Ukraine

ABSTRACT
The significant influence of fractal layer on electrical characteristics of MDS capacitors was
reported earlier. This feature as well as the developed surface microrelief ob MnO2 films are
responsible for the interest in investigating the fractal properties of this compound.The theory of
scattering by a porous solid was developed by Wong [1], and the theory main formula is as
follows: I(q) ~ constant x q-D .( Here D is the surface fractal dimension that shows fractal
behavior ).

Fig. 1. Logarithmic dependence of the SAXS intensity I vs the wavevector q for the
semiconductor layer: ( experimental
)
data; ( ___ )- approximation to the linear range.
On the graph, the coefficient of the curved part slope, which can be closely approximated by line
, (Fig.1) is:
= -dlgI(q)/dlgq = 2.87
(1)
Comparison result (1) with the Wong's formula (1) gives ( for = D ) the value of D=2.87. Obtained
D value coincides with the previously [1] found value of surface fractal dimensionality in a
sintered niobium powder pellet with high accuracy, D =2,81.
References
[1] PO-ZEN WONG, PHYS.REV B 32 (1985) 7417.

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#30

MULTIBODY DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF AN ELECTRIC BUS WITH FLEXIBLE


PARTS
Ricardo R. Teixeira1, Srgio R. D. S. Moreira1, S. M. O. Tavares1
1

INEGI Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Porto,
Portugal
ABSTRACT

In the design stage of a bus, as well as any other road vehicles, it is important to understand its
response to different critical maneuvers, such as curves, bumps and emergency braking. Virtual
simulations can give worthwhile information and knowledge about the behavior of these vehicles
under these different conditions, allowing faster, cheaper and more precise design. However,
numerical models of passenger buses are not straightforward due to the multiple elements that
interact with each other and with nonlinear responses, making it harder to predict their behavior
to different requests. In this case study, an electric bus dynamic behavior was analyzed for
different conditions. This study was fundamental for design decisions since the batteries mass
increases the center of gravity, which may instigate risks of instability. Aiming a multibody
dynamics study, a model in MSC ADAMS/Car was built taking into account the dynamic
interactions of the different components. Parameters quantification, as mass, moment of inertia
of major elements and also characteristic curves of springs, dampers, bushings and bumpstops,
among others were defined, supporting the problem definition and to describe the bus behavior,
understanding if the suspension elements are well chosen. This allows to describe the bus
behavior, and to understand if the suspension elements are well chosen. Mass and moments of
inertia were determined from the geometry and material density of the different components.
Through a literature review, were found the spring characteristic curves and experimentally were
measured the dampers characteristic curves. Remaining components were characterized by
standard values proposed by MSC ADAMS/Car. A sensitivity analysis showed that these standard
values have low influence in the results.
A multibody simulation in MSC ADAMS taking into account the flexibility of each part in the model
was performed. Although a coupled simulation between Abaqus and MSC ADAMS is possible
allowing to consider the stiffness of each part and estimate the stress due to the different critical
maneuvers. An MNF file considering the stiffness and mass matrix of the model was generated in
Abaqus, and then used in MSC ADAMS considering the stiffness of the different parts. This
coupled simulation allowed to estimate in a more accurate way the mechanical behavior of the
electric bus structure.

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#92

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS IN THE DESIGN OF PATIENT-SPECIFIC


OSTEOTOMIES GUIDES. CASE STUDY
Anton Hadar
University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania
ABSTRACT
The use of patient specific guides (PSG) in orthopedics, cranimaxillofacial or dental applications [13] can improve the accuracy of some surgical procedures by supporting the surgeons to better
orient during complex interventions, thus reducing the surgery time and cost, risk of infections
and X-ray exposure for both patient and surgeons.
PSGs are designed to match the patients bone structures and contain geometrical features such
as hollow or full angled cylinders, slots, support or connection structures, arches or trusses, blocks
and bars, handles, etc., all these contributing to materialize the pre-planned trajectories for
drilling, tapping and/or cutting. These guides design should ensure unique and accurate
positioning and orientation, to be easily to place and maintained in a stable position during use
[4-5].
The PSGs design process starts by reconstructing the 3D virtual model of the anatomical zones of
interest from patient Computer Tomography (CT) data in a typical Reverse Engineering approach.
This virtual model is then used: (1) for communication between surgeon and
engineering/designer for setting the surgical tools (drills, oscillating saws) trajectories, and (2) as a
base on which the customized guide is designed usually using 3D CAD (Computer-Aided Design)
software.
For manufacturing the guide, Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes are preferred because they
provide the ability to obtain complex geometrical features, as is the case of anatomical structures,
directly from a 3D CAD model, in the same time ensuring the required accuracy and material
properties [6] for this type of medical applications.
The current paper focuses on the design process of a customized template used for guiding the
cutting paths for hand osteotomy. Using the approach above described and patients CT scans,
the 3D model of the hand was reconstructed in Mimics and imported in CATIA V5. Surgeon
general specifications regarding the guides design were: double cutting customized template
with 1.5mm slots for accommodating the cutting tool (oscillating saw). The parts of the guide in
contact with the bone should be modeled as negative of bone surfaces. Three holes of 2mm
diameter for accommodating the K-wire are required. Based on this data, several models of
guides were designed and manufactured using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process for
visualization and fit-and-form testing, from ABS material.
Considering the importance of an accurate positioning of the cutting blade provided by guides
design supporting areas and slots FEA (Finite Element Analysis) was employed for checking if the
fingers pressure, applied by the surgeon during guides positioning and use, causes deformation
of the two cutting slots and thus accuracy diminish.
Moreover, as FDM process can build parts in different spares interior modes, which help saving
building time and cost, it was investigated also the case in which the guide is built with thin walls.
The results obtained allowed optimizing the design of the guides, which is an important aspect of
study with practical implication as presented in this paper.

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Acknowledgements
The work has been funded by the Partnerships in Priority Areas Programme PN II of MEN
UEFISCDI, through the Agreement 5/2014.
References
[1] HU Y, YUAN ZS, KEPLER CK, ALBERT TJ, YUAN JB, DONG WX, SUN XY, WANG CT (2014)
DEVIATION ANALYSIS OF C1-C2 TRANSARTICULAR SCREW PLACEMENT ASSISTED BY A NOVEL
RAPID PROTOTYPING DRILL TEMPLATE: A CADAVERIC STUDY. J SPINAL DISORD TECH 27(5):E181-6
[2] THIENPONT E, SCHWAB PE, FENNEMA P (2014) A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS
OF PATIENT-SPECIFIC INSTRUMENTATION FOR IMPROVING ALIGNMENT OF THE COMPONENTS IN
TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT. BONE JOINT J 96-B:105261
[3] LEVINE JP, PATEL A, SAADEH PB, HIRSCH DL, COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN AND
MANUFACTURING IN CRANIOMAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY: THE NEW STATE OF THE ART, J
CRANIOFAC SURG. 2012, 23(1):288-93
[4] BIBB R, MEDICAL MODELING: THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
TECHNIQUES IN MEDICINE. WOODHEAD PUBLISHING LIMITED, 2006.
[5] BAGARIA, V., RASALKAR, D., BAGARIA, S.I., ILYAS, J., MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF RAPID
PROTOTYPING - A NEW HORIZON, ADVANCED APPLICATIONS OF RAPID PROTOTYPING
TECHNOLOGY IN MODERN ENGINEERING, DR. M. HOQUE (ED.), 2011
[6] RADERMACHER K ET AL (1998) COMPUTER ASSISTED ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY WITH IMAGE
BASED INDIVIDUAL TEMPLATES. CLIN ORTHOP RELAT RES 354:283

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#11

HOMOGENIZATION OF A FIBRED STRUCTURE WITH A CONDITION ON THE


INTERFACE MATRIX-FIBRE
H.Samadi, M.Eljarroudi
Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tangier, Morroco, ha.samadi@gmail.com;
ABSTRACT
In this work, one consider the homogenization of a non linear problem in a fibred structure
medium with a condition on the interface matrix fibre depending on a parameter = () who
tends towards 0 or +. is the size of the basic cell intended to tend towards 0.
This parameter can represent several physical situations; interfacial coefficient of conduction
between fibre and matrix when one deals with a thermal problem, viscosity coefficient in a
problem of joining to component not perfectly stuck.
REFERENCES
[1] H.SAMADI, M.MABROUK : HOMOGENIZATION OF A COMPOSITE MEDIUM WITH A THERMAL
BARRIER, MATH. METH. APPL. SCI. 2004 ; 27 ;405-425.
[2] ACERBI(E), CHIADO PIAT (V), DALMASO(G), PERCIVALE(D) : AN EXTENSION THEOREM FROM
CONNEXTED SETS AND HOMOGENIZATION IN GENERAL PERIODIC DOMAINS ; NON LINEAR
ANALYSIS,THEORY,MATH,APPL,VOL8,N5 ;418-496 ;1992.
[3] ATTOUCH(H) : VARIATIONAL CONVERGENCE FOR FUNCTIONS AND OPERATORS ;APPL. MATH.
SERIES PITMAN, LONDON,1984
[4] BELLIEUD(M), BOUCHITT(G) : HOMOGENIZATION OF ELLIPTIC PROBLEMS IN A FIBER
REINFORCED STRUCTURES. NON LOCAL EFFECTZ, ANN. CSI. NORM. SUP. PISA(4)26,PP. 407436,1998.
[5] DAL MASO(G) : AN INTRODUCTION TO CONVERGENCE, BIRKHUSER,1993
[6]MOSCO(U) : COMPOSITE MEDIA AND DIRICHLET FORMS, J.FUNCT.ANAL. 123 ; PP.368-421,1994
[7]E. YA. KHRUSLOV : HOMOGENIZED MODELS OF COMPOSITE MEDIA, BIRKHUSER (1991),
PP ;159-182

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Session 3B
TUE, 16:00 -17:30
Room B
TOPIC: Polymer matrix composites, sandwich composites structures and green composites
Chair: George Papanicolaou

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#81

DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS DATABASE FOR AEROSPACE


CERTIFICATION
Ho-Sung Lee* and Kyung-Ju Min
Korea Aerospace Research Institut, 45 Eoun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333, Korea,
hslee@kari.re.kr
ABSTRACT
It is well known that composite materials are very important in aerospace application with high
strength-to-weight ratio. Under airworthiness requirement, applications of composite materials
to aerospace structures require safety and certification initiatives to support these applications.
Therefore, it is important to establish the efficient composite materials characterization database
based on the airworthiness standard and requirement. Since, unlike to metal, the property of
composites depends on greatly on the fabricating process, which is driven by temperatures,
pressure, degree of curing, and other factors like vacuum and moisture. This variability is due to
many factors, including raw material and prepreg manufacturing process, material handling, part
fabrication techniques, ply stacking sequence, environmental conditions, and testing techniques.
This inherent variability drives up the cost
of composite testing and tends to render smaller data sets than those produced for metallic
materials. This presentation provides the composite materials database developed by global
aviation regulation to be certified by the authority. It summarizes the efforts to approve the
composite materials characterization procedure for composite aircraft and provides the effective
statistical methodology for evaluating composite materials manufacturing process. The result was
applied to the materials certification procedure for domestic composite materials to be used to
aircraft within the level of a global standard. The database includes mechanical property
databases for three composite materials; carbon tape/epoxy, carbon fabric/epoxy, and glass
fabric/epoxy.
REFERENCES
[1] DOT/FAA/AR-03/19, MATERIAL QUALIFICATION AND EQUIVALENCY FOR POLYMER MATRIX
COMPOSITE MATERIAL SYSTEMS, SEPTEMBER 2003, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.
[2] H. S. LEE, S. A. LEE, J. U. CHOI, "DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION
PROCEDURE FOR COMPOSITE AIRCRAFT", APPLIED MECHANICS AND MATERIALS, VOLS. 325-326,
PP. 46-49, JUN. 2013.
[3] J. TOMBLIN, J. TAURIELLO, S. DOYLE, A COMPOSITE MATERIAL QUALIFICATION METHOD THAT
RESULTS IN COST, TIME AND RISK REDUCTION.

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#82

DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE PLATES MADE WITH GREEN


MATERIALS
Florin Baciu1, Anton Hadr1, Horia Gheorghiu1, Mihaela Sava1, Bolcu Dumitru2
1

Department of Strength of Materials, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul


Independentei, 060032, Bucharest, Romania, florinbac@yahoo.com
2
Department of Mechanics, University of Craiova, 165 Calea Bucureti, 200620, Craiova, Romania
ABSTRACT
In this work we studied the dynamic behavior of laminated plates made with green composite
materials reinforced with cotton (denoted as B), silk (M) and flax (I) fibers.
The paper presents comparatively the measured and estimated natural frequencies and also the
corresponding modes shapes of a rectangular orthotropic panel. The experimental tests were
performed using a shaker. The plate was fixed in horizontal position directly on the shaker
armature using a rigid rod. The experimental modes shapes were visualized using semolina
particles. The paper pointed out that the measured natural frequencies and also the modes
shapes correspond to the whole system in motion. So, the analytic model of the plate must
include the effects of the additional systems of the vibrator connected to the plates .
The plate was rigid fixed in the middle on the armature of a vibration exciter using a rod and was
excited with sinusoidal force. The signal was generated by an oscillator and then amplified.
(Fig.1)[1,2].

Fig.1 Experimental results at 191 Hz

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Fig.2. Numeric results at 175 Hz

In order to observe the dynamic behavior of the considered plates, numerical simulations were
carried out in addition to the experimental determination of the eigen frequencies of these
materials [3,4].
One of the forms shape of the plate captured experimentally [5] is presented in the Figure 2.
Acknowledgement
The work has been funded by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources
Development 2007-2013 of the Ministry of European Funds through the Financial Agreement
POSDRU/159/1.5/S/132397
References
[1] GIBSON, R.F. (1994). PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL MECHANICS, MC GRAW-HILL, ISBN
0-07-113335-6, USA.
[2] BUZDUGAN, G., MIHAILESU, E., RADES, M. (1986). VIBRATION MEASUREMENT, MARTINUS
NIJHOFF PUBLISHERS, ISBN 90-247-3111-9, ROMANIA.
[3] RADES, M. (1986). EFECTUL ATASARII VIBRATORULUI ASUPRA RASPUNSULUI DINAMIC AL
STRUCTURILOR, BULETINUL IPB, SERIA MECANICA, TOMUL XLVIII, PAG. 50-59.
[4] RADES, M. (1976). COMPENSAREA MASELOR LA MASURAREA IMPEDANTELOR MECANICE,
STUDII SI CERCETARI DE MECANICA APLICATA, VOL 4, TOMUL 35, OCTOMBRIE-DECEMBRIE,
PAG. 547-568.
[5] FRISWELL, M.I., MOTTERSHEAD, J.E., FINITE ELEMENT MODEL UPDATING IN STRUCTURAL
DYNAMICS, KLUVER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS, ISBN 0-7923-3431-0, THE NETHERLANDS.

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#84

MACROPOROUS GREEN CERAMICS BY SIMULTANEOUS RECYCLING OF COAL


ASH AND GLASS WASTES
Enik Volceanov1, Simona BADEA2, Camelia Cristea3, Alexandru Micu3, Alberto Ion,
Mihai EFtimie3, Adrian Volceanov3
1

University Politehnica Bucharest, Centre for Surface Science and NanoTechnology, Romania
2
Scientific Research Centre for CBRN Defence and Ecology, Bucharest, Romania
3
University Politehnica Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, Romania
ABSTRACT
The energy industry generates yearly great amounts of coal ash accompanied by a lot of work for
transport and storage by landfill which cause negative environmental impacts such as leaching of
potentially toxic substances into soils and groundwater [1,2]. The best way to solve the disposal
problem of ash is to decrease the quantity for disposal with utilization of such waste. To deal with
these problems, our paper assesses the recycling of coal ash generated in thermal power plants in
conjunction with the re-use of waste glass. Due to its unique properties combination: i.e. thermal
insulating, chemically corrosion resistance, lightweight, rigid, waterproof and low cost, these
foam ceramic materials could be an alternative for application in building industry and other
fields. Various processing methods have been developed to produce porous ceramics, such as:
replica [3], sacrificial template [4] and direct foaming method [5]. The foaming agent could be
used to prepare a foam ceramics includes carbonates, sulphates, carbon, SiC, etc.
The chemical composition analysis (by X-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption) indicates that
the coal ash consists mainly of Si, Al, Ca and Fe oxides. The ash type is silico-aluminous with a
composition close to clay lands. The chemical composition of the investigated waste is given in
the table bellow.
%

SiO2

TiO2

Al2O3

coal
ash

49.7

0.77

20.95

71.48

0.07

2.33

glass

MgO

CaO

MnO

Na2O

K2O

P2O5

SO3

LOI

8.96

2.48

9.25

0.08

0.21

1.55

0.2

0.59

5.06

0.31

5.26

8.96

12.98

0.04

0.5

Fe2O3

Preliminary measurements of radioactivity show the existence of 226Ra and 232Th, the irradiation
on radiation protection being at a level, close but lower than of the health admitted norms. Such
comprehensive characterization helps to find out the appropriate ways of ash recycling, giving
also the useful information about the power plant combustion efficiency.
In our research the porous ceramics was obtained by high temperature foaming process. As main
starting materials were used coal fly ash and bottom ash and various glass wastes and silicon
carbide (SiC) as foaming agents.
o

Foaming gas was produced in the glass melt at 950 C as follows:


SiC (s) + 3/2 O2(g) SiO2 (s) + CO2 (g)
SiC (s) + 3/2 O2(g) SiO2 (s) + CO(g)

(1)
(2)

2-

SiC (s) + O (glass) SiO2 (glass) + CO2 (g)


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2-

SiC (s) + O (glass) SiO2 (glass) + CO (g)


(4)
where: s, l, g = solid, liquid and gas, respectively.
Bulk density, expansion index and compressive strength in conjunction with structural and
morphological analysis are presented in detail. Some of the developed characteristics of the
investigated macroporous ceramic are given bellow.
Properties of the investigated macroporous ceramics
Value

Property
Porosity, %
Bulk density, kg/m
Expansion rate
Compression
strength, MPa

73- 82
3

261.3
3.5 - 4.8
0.92 -1.12

XRD pattern of foam glass at 950 C


Mineralogical phases: cristobalit, mulit

Macrostructure of the sample


foamed at 950o C

CONCLUSIONS
The development of porous ceramic by high temperature foaming process was effective by using
as starting materials 85% bottom coal ash and 15% glass waste and SiC as foaming agent.
226
232
Preliminary measurements of radioactivity on coal ash show the existence of Ra and Th, the
irradiation on radiation protection being at a level, close but lower than of the health in the
admitted norms.
Due to its unique properties combination: i.e. thermal insulating, chemically corrosion resistance,
lightweight, rigid, waterproof and low cost, these foam glass materials could be an alternative for
application in building industry and other fields.
Acknowledgements
This work was partially supported by the Romanian Executive Unit for Financing Higher
Education, Research Development and Innovation (Grant no. nr.283/2014 - Collaborative applied
research projects).
References
[1] G. FERRAIOLO, M. ZILLI, A. CONVERTI, FLY ASH DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION, J. CHEM.
TECHNOL. BIOTECHNOL. 47 (1990) 281305.
[2] C.L. CARLSON, D.C. ADRIANO, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF COAL COMBUSTION RESIDUE, J.
ENVIRON. QUAL. 22 (1993) 227247.
[3]. NOR MAAM, HONG LC, AHMAD ZA, AKIL HM. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERI-ZATION OF
CERAMIC FOAM PRODUCED VIA POLYMERIC FOAM REPLICATION METHOD. JMATER PROCESS
TECHNOL 2008;207(13):2359.
[4]. ANDERSSON L, BERGSTRM L. GAS-FILLED MICROSPHERES AS AN EXPANDABLE SACRIFICIAL
TEMPLATE FOR DIRECT CASTING OF COMPLEX-SHAPED MACROPOROUS CERAMICS. J EUR CERAM
SOC 2008;28(15):281521.
[5]. BARG S, SOLTMANN C, ANDRADE M, KOCH D, GRATHWOHL G. CELLULAR CERAMICS BY
DIRECT FOAMING OF EMULSIFIED CERAMIC POWDER SUSPENSIONS. J AM CERAMSOC
2008;91(9):28239.

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#52

GREEN COMPOSITE MATERIALS: THE BREAKING NEW GROUND ABCMATRIX


D.E. Anastasiou, L.C. Kontaxis, G.C. Papanicolaou*
Composite Materials Group (CMG), Department of Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering,
University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500, Greece,gpapan@mech.upatras.gr
ABSTRACT
The age of synthetic polymers and their derived composite materials seems to have come close to
its end. Due to major problems concerning waste management issues, increased carbon footprint,
fossil resources exhaustion and many more, the absolute need for green materials development is
raising rapidly. Currently, many new and more environmental friendly polymers, plastics and
composites have been developed, characterized and marketed, but their number still remains a
small percentage of the whole, meaning that the market is thirsty for new greener materials,
especially new base matrices for composite materials, since every new green matrix developed
leads to a series of new composite materials, thanks to the big number of the possible
reinforcements available. The aim of the current study is the development of such a new
polymeric base matrix, suitable for the construction of new semi-green or totally green composite
materials. After trying a big number of different plant raw materials and after testing many
different combinations, we have developed a new and original totally green polymeric base
matrix, consisting of 60% w/w Giant Bean Protein isolate and 40% of a mixture containing
sorbitol, gelatin, agar and pectin (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 ABC Matrix

The product behaves in an especial way, compared to other similar materials or to alternative
combinations of its ingredients and it is given the name ABC (Advanced Bean Composite). The
production process is environmental friendly, with insignificant environmental impact, since it
uses raw materials of plant origin, there are zero gas emissions and the sub-products can be used
as animal feed. The process is fast and easy and non laborious, using ordinary laboratory
equipment.

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(b)

(a)

Fig.2 ABC Matrix reinforced with: (a) Aluminum micro-granules


(Rubber-like green composite) (b) Zinc micro-granules
(Alloy-like, green composite)

The developed new matrix is a 100% green material, totally biodegradable, totally recyclable,
environmental friendly. ABC-Matrix is suitable to be easily reinforced with a great variety of
reinforcements (Fig. 2 and 3) to produce a series of novel composite materials covering a long
range of mechanical properties mimicking materials as rubber, plastics and more, breaking new
ground in green composite materials scientific research.

Fig. 3 ABC Matrix reinforced with olive-seeds micro-granules (green composite)

References
[1] F.P. LA MANTIA, M. MORREALE, "GREEN COMPOSITES: A BRIEF REVIEW, COMPOSITES PART A:
APPLIED SCIENCE AND MANUFACTURING", COMPOSITES PART A: APPLIED SCIENCE AND
MANUFACTURING, VOLUME 42, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2011, PP. 579588
[2] O. FARUK, A.K. BLEDZKI, H.P. FINK, M. SAIN, BIOCOMPOSITES REINFORCED WITH NATURAL
FIBERS: 20002010, PROG. POLYM. SCI. 2012, 37, 15521596
[3] X.Z. TANG, P. KUMAR, S. ALAVI, K.P. SANDEEP, RECENT ADVANCES IN BIOPOLYMERS AND
BIOPOLYMER-BASED NANOCOMPOSITES FOR FOOD PACKAGING MATERIALS, CRIT. REV. FOOD
SCI. NUTR. 2012, 52, 426442
[4] L.L. MCKINNEY, W.F.SOLLARS, E.A. SETZKORN, STUDIES ON THE PREPARATION OF SOY BEAN
PROTEIN FREE OF PHOSPHORUS, J. BIOL.CHEM. 1949

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#8

COMPOSITE MAGNETIC MICROWIRES SANDWICH STRUCTURE FOR


SENSOR APPLICATION
A. Chizhik1, A. Stupakiewicz2, A. Zhukov1,3, J. Gonzalez1
1

Dpto. Facultad de Quimica, Universidad del Pas Vasco UPV/EHU, San Sebastian, Spain
2
Laboratory of Magnetism, University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland
3
IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain

ABSTRACT
The study of the magnetic properties of glass-covered amorphous microwires is a topic of growing
technological interest related to their peculiar magnetic behaviour such as magnetic bistability
and giant magnetoimpedance effect (GMI). The GMI effect provides opportunities for the use of
magnetic wires in sensor elements. Optimization of amorphous wires for sensor applications
requires investigation of their electric and magnetic properties. Because the GMI effect is mainly a
surface effect, the surface magnetic structure of the microwires should be investigated for this
optimization.
Microwire has a sandwich structure: axially magnetized inner core, radial or circularly magnetised
outer shell and pirex-glass covering. There are three lines of study of the composite microwires:
magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometry, MOKE polarizing microscopy (Fig. 1) and
MOKE-modified SixtusTonks method to study the surface domain wall dynamics [1]. The main
idea of our experiments is MOKE without external magnetic field: the studies have been
performed in the presence of the circular magnetic field that was produced by electric current
flowing along the microwire.
Magnetic domain imaging of the microwire surface was performed by MOKE optical polarizing
microscopy in reflection mode. Surface magnetic domains were observed because the different
in-plane components of the surface magnetization transform to blackwhite contrast when
polarized light reflects from the cylindrically shaped microwire surface. Therefore, images of the
domain structures (Fig. 2) obtained by MOKE microscopy show differences of the in-plane
magnetization components (Fig.1).

Fig. 1 MOKE magnetometry and microscopy.

Fig. 2 Image of surface magnetic domain structure. Red arrows show domain wall motion.

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The surface magnetic hysteresis loops were obtained using a magneto-optical magnetometer. A
polarized light of HeNe laser was reflected from the wire to the detector. When the longitudinal
Kerr effect was used, the rotation of the angle of the light polarization was proportional to the
magnetization, which was parallel to the plane of the light. When the transverse Kerr effect was
used, the intensity of the reflected light was proportional to the magnetization, which was
perpendicular to the plane of the light. An electric current flowing along the wire produced a
circular magnetic field. An axial magnetic field was produced by the pair of Helmgolz coils.
It was discovered the great variety of the domain structures as a response to such external
parameters as magnetic field, high frequency electric current, tension and torsion stresses,
temperature, etc. It permits us to predict and control the details of the magnetization reversal in
microwires to optimize the functioning of magnetic sensors.
References
[1] A. CHIZHIK, J. GONZALEZ, MAGNETIC MICROWIRES: A MAGNETO-OPTICAL STUDY, PAN
STANFORD PUBLISHING PTE. LTD., SINGAPORE, 2014.

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Session 4A
WED, 14:15 -15:30
Room A
TOPIC: Fatigue
Chair: Stefan Dan Pastrama

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#18

CRACK INITIATION ANALYSIS UNDER MEAN STRESS EFFECT IN 2024 T351


AL-ALLOY
Mustapha Benachour1, Nadjia Benachour1,2, Mohamed Benguediab3
1

Ingeniery of Mechanical Systems and Materials Laboratory IS2M, Department of Mechanical


Engineering, University of Tlemcen, 13000, Tlemcen, Algeria
2
Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Tlemcen, 13000, Tlemcen, Algeria
2
LMSR Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, 22000, Algeria
ABSTRACT

In recent years it has been recognized that the fatigue failure process involves three phases, crack
initiation, crack propagation and finally, the unstable crack growth to fracture of components. The
aim of this work is to present mean stress effect on fatigue failure in 2024 T351 aluminium alloy
used in aircraft components. In this investigation, fourth bending fatigue test was carried out to
evaluate evolution in initiation fatigue life under specified fatigue loading level from notched
specimens. A crack initiation law was developed using opening stress theory. Fractography
analysis was conducted in order to show the effect of mean stress on fractured surfaces. In
initiation phase, crystallographic fracture was apparent.
The experimental study was performed on 2024 T351 Al-alloy. The chemical composition of
studied material and mechanical properties are reported in others authors works [1]. Bars with a
rectangular section 1010 mm2 in 2024 aluminum alloy were loaded under four point bending
specimen. Evolution of fatigue initiation lives for a crack between 105 and 120 m under mean
stress effect are summarised in Table 1. Detected initiation crack lengths remain lower than the
grain size. The applied loadings cycles characterized by P loading amplitude until final fracture
are shown in Fig. 1. It is noticed that initiation fatigue lives increase with decreasing in mean
stress (mean loading) and increasing in stress ratio R from 0.1 to 0.3. This conclusion is confirmed
in studies conducted by all researchers for 2024 Al-alloys [2-4]. The transition from R=0.1 and
R=0.3 represents a decrease in amplitude loading P from 2727 KN 1928 KN and has increased
initiation fatigue life from 15400 cycles to 37800 cycles. This difference represents a decrease rate
of 2.45 times.
The evolution in the number of initiation cycles depending on the load ratio, R or mean stress is
shown in figure 2. This evolution is approximated by an exponential function given on the same
figure. It covers the area of 103 to 104 cycles. Under applied spectrum loading, fatigue crack
initiation life varies from 4% to 7% of the total fatigue failure. The fatigue fracture surfaces were
examined on SEM to obtain more detailed information on crack growth contributions of different
load cycles. The fractured surfaces indicate crystallographic fracture near the notch and in
initiation zone as illustrated in Fig 3a. Due to the high applied load in initiation stage, secondary
cracks are presents Fig 4b.
Table 1: Effect of mean or stress ratio on fatigue initiation Lives Ni
R
0.1
0.2
0.3

Pmax (KN)
2.755
2.755
2.755

Pmoy (KN)
1.515
1.653
1.791

P (KN)
2.727
2.203
1.928

106

ai (m)
115
105
120

Ni (Cycles)
15400
24000
37800

Nf (Cycles)
382000
569500
547000

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3,0

40000

2,5
Nombre de cycle Ni

30000

2,0
1,5

20000

Ni = 9812,3e4,49 R
r2 = 1

10000

1,0
0,5

100 000

200 000

300 000

400 000

500 000

600 000

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

Rapport de charge R

Fig. 1. Evolution of applied spectrum

Fig. 2. Stress ratio effect on fatigue initiation


lifefor variables mean stress

Notch

Crack growth direction propagation

Crack growth direction

Initiation site at notch


due to milling default

Secondary cracks
at boundary grains

Fig. 3. Fractography of fractured surfaces in initiation stage for 2024 aluminium alloy at R=0.1
(a) fracture surface near the notch (b) At (a=3.23 mm, da/dN=7.8010-6 mm/cycles)
References
[1] M. BENACHOUR, A. HADJOUI, M. BENGUEDIAB, N. BENACHOUR. EFFECT OF THE AMPLITUDE
LOADING ON FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH. PROCEDIA ENGINEERING 2, 121-127, 2010.
[2] S. PEARSON. INITIATION OF FATIGUE CRACK IN COMMERCIAL ALUMINIUM ALLOYS AND THE
SUBSEQUENT PROPAGATION OF VERY SHORT CRACKS. ENGNG. FRACT. MECH. 7, 235-247, 1975.
[3] N. RANGANATHAN, H. ALDROE, F. LACROIX, F. CHALON, R. LEROY, A. TOUGUI. FATIGUE CRACK
INITIATION AT A NOTCH. INT. J. FATIGUE 33, 492-499, 2011.

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#28

STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS OF A COMPACT MIXED MODE SPECIMEN:


FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
S. M. O. Tavares1, D. Peixoto1, P. J. Tavares1, P.M.G.P. Moreira1
1

INEGI Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Porto,
Portugal
ABSTRACT

Material fracture mechanics properties are commonly obtained by standardized and well
stablished specimens. However, since the standards are focused on mode I material
characterization, other specimens have been developed in order to describe the fracture behavior
of materials in mode II and mode III.
A compact mixed mode specimen was developed by H.A. Richard, [1], aiming to characterize
materials in mixed mode loading taking in to account tension and shear loading (mode I and mode
II). H.A. Richard labeled this specimen as new compact shear specimen (NCS specimen). This
NCS specimen can be tested in a multipurpose grip system, due to its capacity to load the
specimen with different directions, from 0 degrees to 90 degrees, correspond to pure mode I to
pure mode II, respectively.
This research revisits this specimen and the respective stress intensity factor calibration using
numerical models. The crack behavior is modeled using the eXtended Finite Element Method
(XFEM) and the stress intensity factors were calculated for different conditions using the stress
field simulated with conventional finite element models (FEM) with post-processing technique
proposed by R. Krueger. [2]: modified virtual crack closure technique (mVVCT).
These models allowed to understand how the grip system allots the load to the specimen and, the
respective the stress field and the principal stress direction. In addition, it allows to reexamine the
stress intensity factor calibration proposed by H.A. Richard for different conditions.
References
[1] RICHARD, H. A. "A NEW COMPACT SHEAR SPECIMEN." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
FRACTURE 17.5 (1981): R105-R107.
[2] KRUEGER, R. "VIRTUAL CRACK CLOSURE TECHNIQUE: HISTORY, APPROACH, AND
APPLICATIONS." APPLIED MECHANICS REVIEWS 57.2 (2004): 109-143.

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#85

COMPARISON BETWEEN THREE FATIGUE DAMAGE MODELS AND


EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR COMPOSITE MATERIALS SUBMITTED TO
SPECTRUM LOADING
Mohammed Bousfia1*, M. Aboussaleh1, B. Ouhbi2
1

Equipe Mcanique et Ingnierie Intgre (MII)


Ecole National dArts et Mtiers (ENSAM). Mekns, Marjane II, Beni Mhamed, Morocco,
mohammedbousfia@hotmail.com
2
Equipe dAnalyse Mathmatique et Simulation Numrique des problmes en mcanique
Ecole National dArts et Mtiers (ENSAM). Mekns, Marjane II, Beni Mhamed, Morocco
1

ABSTRACT
Thanks to their excellent fatigue resistance and low weight ratio, today; composite materials are of
great importance in humanity life, either in civil or military fields such as aerospace, automotive,
marine and as is usual, each material reaches failure towards the end of his life which is manifested by
the occurrence of fractures. Until now, researchers put their efforts into service in order to achieve
accurate and general models for predicting damage of this mysterious material. On our side, we
compared three fatigue damage models in order to see the most accurate and consistent with our
experimental results. Throughout the work, we adopted a stationary ergodic Gaussian random
loading.
First, we conducted a thorough study of the interlaminar fracture of composite laminates subjected to
stochastic loads. The choice of this failure mode was inspired by the fact that this failure mode is most
predominant among others; moreover, it is more dangerous because its invisible and undetectable
and occurs suddenly between the layers of material. The results of the experiments carried out with
graphite epoxy composite laminates [ 45/0/90]3s, were compared to the predictions of three models
namely: Linear damage model based on the law of Miner, damage mathematical expectancy E (t) and
stiffness degradation model.
Second time, following an analysis of the results, we found that the three models mentioned
above are close to the experimental results. We see that the correlation is the best for the
stiffness degradation model. On the other hand, the effects of load sequence and interaction are
not taken into account in linear damage model, which can lead to some difference between the
model predictions and experimental results.
References
[1] DIAO X, YE L, MAI YW. A STATISTICAL MODEL OF RESIDUAL STRENGTH AND FATIGUE LIFE OF
COMPOSITE LAMINATES. COMPOS SCI TECHNOL 1995; 54:329336.
[2] ADDEN S, HORST P. STIFFNESS DEGRADATION UNDER FATIGUE IN MULTIAXIALLY LOADED
NON-CRIMPED-FABRICS. INT J FATIGUE 2010; 32:108122.
[3] M. ABOUSSALEH AND R. BOUKHILI. LIFE PREDICTION FOR COMPOSITE LAMINATES
SUBMITTED TO SERVICE LOADING SPECTRA. JUNE 1998; VOL. 19. P. 241-245.
[4] YUNG-LI LEE, TANA TJHUNG. CHAPTER 3 - RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING TECHNIQUES. METAL
FATIGUE ANALYSIS HANDBOOK 2012. P. 89-114.
[5] DOWLING NE. FATIGUE-FAILURE PREDICTIONS FOR COMPLICATED STRESSSTRAIN HISTORIES.
J MATER ASTM 1972; 7(1):7187.

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[6] WATSON P, DABELL BJ. CYCLE COUNTING AND FATIGUE DAMAGE. SYMPOSIUM ON
STATISTICAL ASPECTS OF FATIGUE TESTING, WARWICK UNIVERSITY, 1975.
[7] PASSIPOULARIDIS VA, PHILIPPIDIS TP. A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING LIFE PREDICTION OF
COMPOSITES UNDER SPECTRUM LOADING. INT J FATIGUE 2009; 31:40817.
[8] ZHEN GAO AND TORGEIR MOAN. FREQUENCY-DOMAIN FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF WIDE-BAND
STATIONARY GAUSSIAN PROCESSES USING A TRIMODAL SPECTRAL FORMULATION. INTER J OF
FATIGUE 2008; 30. P.19441955.
[9] REIFSNIDER KL, SCOTT C, JERMY D. COMPOS SCI TECHNOL 2000; 60:2539.
[10] ZHAI HONGJUN, YAO WEIXING. A SURVEY ON STIFFNESS REDUCTION MODELS OF FIBER
REINFORCED PLASTICS UNDER CYCLIC LOADING. ADV MECH 2002;32(1):6980.
[11] TALREJA R. FATIGUE OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS. TECHNOMIC PUBLISHING COMPANY; 1987.
[12] RATWANI MM, KAN HP. COMPRESSION FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF FIBER COMPOSITES. IN:
AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS 21ST STRUCTURES, STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS AND MATERIALS
CONFERENCE, PART 1, MAY 1980, SEATTLE, WASHINGTON, USA, PP. 27984.
[13] SCHN J, BLOM AF. LOAD-RATIO DEPENDENCE ON FATIGUE LIFE COMPOSITES. PARIS: ICCM,
1999.
[14] SCHN J, BLOM AF. FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION AND LOAD CYCLE ELIMINATION DURING
SPECTRUM LOADING OF COMPOSITES. INT J FATIGUE 2002; 361-367.
[15] MILLER KJ. METAL FATIGUE-A NEW PERSPECTIVE. IN: ARGON AS, EDITOR. TOPICS IN
FRACTURE AND FATIGUE. BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG; 1992. P. 30930.
[16] PAGANO N, SCHOEPPNER G. DELAMINATION OF POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES: PROBLEMS
AND ASSESSMENT. IN: KELLY A, ZWEBEN C, EDITORS. COMPREHENSIVE COMPOSITE MATERIALS.
OXFORD: PERGAMON; 2000. P. 433528.
[17] JM. HODGKINSON. MECHANICAL TESTING OF ADVANCED FIBER COMPOSITES. CRC PRESS,
2000.
[18] SR. REID AND G. ZHO. IMPACT BEHAVIOR OF FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS
AND STRUCTURES. CRC PRESS, 2000.

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#86

FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF A HOPPER KNUCKLE CONNECTION OF A 181K TON


DWT BULK CARRIER UNDER GLOBAL AND LOCAL LOADS
1

V K Kapnopoulou , P A Caridis
1

National Technical University of Athens, Department of Naval Architecture and Marine


Engineering, Athens, Greece

ABSTRACT
Fatigue and fracture problems arose the last few decades, as HTS-steels were introduced to the
shipbuilding industry. To ensure that the steel structure will fulfill its intended function, a fatigue
assessment of the structure by a detailed fatigue analysis should be performed [1]. In the present
study, fatigue evaluation is conducted through the structural hot spot approach which estimates
the structural stress range at the hot spot. The structural hot spot approach implemented here, is
based on the idea of excluding the nonlinear stress peak from the structural stress, due to the fact
that the designer might not be certain about the exact geometry of the weld toe at an early
design stage. Thus, the effect of the notch is implicitly included in the experimental S-N curves. [2]
The aim of this study is to establish the fatigue life of a ship detail which is considered as hot spot,
using the finite element method by the use of Abaqus/CAE. A ship of 181k Ton DWT Bulk Carrier is
employed and the detail that is sub-modeled is the lower hopper knuckle connection. The cargo
hold model extents longitudinally by two hold lengths ( + 1 + ) and transversely by its full
breadth.
The elements that are employed are 4-noded shell elements (S4), quadrilateral, with 4 integration
points. According to the CSR Rules [3], the mesh should preferably represent the actual plate
panels between stiffeners so that the stresses for the control of yield and buckling strength can be
read and averaged from the results directly [3]. In this model, the mesh is a size of 0.425x0.425
when the typical longitudinal stiffener spacing is 0.85m. Linear, elastic analysis is performed
because linear elastic material behavior can be presumed as only localized yielding is allowed by
most design codes [2, 3].
Due to the size of the ship being over 200m, CSR Rules identify four loading conditions to be taken
into consideration; Homogenous, Alternate, Heavy Ballast and Normal Ballast [3]. In each loading
condition, a Hogging and Sagging load case is explored. In Alternate condition two separate cases
are examined; one with the cargo loads applied to the outer holds and one at the center hold thus
emphasizing the hogging and sagging effect on the structure. Therefore, the loads applied to the
model are a wave bending moment; either sagging or hogging, a cargo/ballast load and the
hydrodynamic pressure.
The lower hopper knuckle connection at the midship is one of the locations that CSR Rules
consider as hot spots in a Bulk Carrier and is sub-modeled [3]. To establish the fatigue life of the
hot spot of the detail, a fine mesh is generated at the hot spot. In order to increase efficiency, the
density of the mesh is explored through a mesh dependence analysis. At the structural stress
range calculation the transverse to the ship stress, is considered [2]. It is found that the most
affected area is at the hopper plate, hence the structural stress range calculation concerns this
area.
Figure 1 shows the cargo hold model (1a) and the sub-model (1b). Figure 2 illustrates the submodel with the fine mesh zone at the hopper knuckle connection on the left side (2a) whereas on
the right (2b), it focuses on the red circle area as illustrated at Figure 2a of the connection
showing the stress at the hopper plate.

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(a)

(b)

Fig 1: The cargo hold model (a) and sub-model (b)

In the present study results of the stress distribution (Figures 2a-2b) are presented for the
Alternate Condition which is considered the most critical. Table 1 presents the results of fatigue
life of the hopper knuckle connection. It is revealed that Alternate Condition draws the most
damage compared to all the other conditions due to the cargo load being spread in a way that
enhances the hogging-sagging effect to the structure. Therefore, it is considered as the most
critical situation and is proposed to be taken as a critical case when examining ways to reduce the
structural hot spot stress range, as means of increasing fatigue life.
(a)

(b)

Fig. 2: Results from the most critical condition-Alternate (a) and the right figure (b) zooms in to the red
circle of figure 2a.
Table 1: Results of the Cumulative Damage Ratio (D) and Fatigue Life for the hot spot of the connection

Final D
Fatigue Life (years)

Hot Spot
1,068
23,39(<25)

References
[1] P A CARIDIS., 2000, THE STEEL STRUCTURE OF THE SHIP; LOCAL STRENGTH
ISSUES, 1ST EDITION, ATHENS: G. ARGIROPOULOS LTD
[2] E NIEMI, W FRICKE, SJ MADDOX, 2006, FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF WELDED
COMPONENTS; DESIGNERS GUIDE TO THE STRUCTURAL HOT SPOT STRESS
APPROACH, 1ST EDITION, WOODHEAD PUBLISHING

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[3] CLASSIFICATION NOTES 31.1, 2012, STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF HULL


STRUCTURES IN BULK CARRIERS, DET NORSKE VERITAS AS, [ONLINE],
HTTP://WWW.DNV.COM

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#27

MECHANICS CRACK GROWTH-BASED FATIGUE EVALUATION CONSIDERING


CRACK CLOSURE AND EQUIVALENT INITIAL FLAW SIZE
A.S.F. Alves1, J.A.F.O. Correia1, A.M.P. De Jesus1,2, P.J.S. Tavares1, P.M.G.P. Moreira1
Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Porto
Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
2
Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Two different crack growth-based fatigue analysis are presented for fatigue life prediction in this
paper. The first proposed method is based on an equivalent initial flaw size (EIFS). The EIFS is
determined by the Kitagawa-Takahashi diagram [3]. The second method proposed is crack
closure. This analysis strongly affects the fatigue crack growth rate. Accounting for crack closure in
fatigue life prediction models allows the description of mean stress effects on fatigue life [6].
This latter approach is applied to a notched plate made of P355NL1 steel. Fatigue crack growth
data of the material is evaluated using CT specimens, covering several stress R-ratios. Also, S-N
fatigue data is available for the double notched plate, covering stress R-ratios equal to 0, 0.15 and
0.3. The crack propagation model takes into account stress ratio effects, account for propagation
threshold and a correction for plasticity. Stress intensity factors are computed using the J-integral
technique. The performances of predictions are analyzed and deviations discussed [7].
References
[1] KITAGAWA H., TAKAHASHI S. APPLICABILITY OF FRACTURE MECHANICS TO VERY SMALL
CRACKS OR CRACKS IN THE EARLY STAGE. PROC. OF THE 2ND INT. CONF ON MECH. BEHAVIOUR
OF MATERIALS, ASM, 627631, 1976.
[2] FERNNDEZ-CANTELI A., BRIGHENTI R., CASTILLO E. TOWARDS A PROBABILISTIC CONCEPT OF
THE KITAGAWA-TAKAHASHI DIAGRAM. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
ON CRACK PATHS (CP 2012), GAETA, ITALY, 2012, 1041-1048.
[3] XIANG Y., LU Z., LIU Y. CRACK GROWTH-BASED FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION USING AN
EQUIVALENT INITIAL FLAW MODEL. PART I: UNIAXIAL LOADING. INTENATIONAL JOURNAL OF
FATIGUE, VOL. 32, NUM. 2, PP. 341-349, 2010.
[4] SAVAIDIS G., SAVAIDIS A., ZERRES P., VORMWALD M. MODE I FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH AT
NOTCHES CONSIDERING CRACK CLOSURE. INTENATIONAL JOURNAL OF FATIGUE, VOL. 32, NUM.
10, PP. 1543-1558, 2010.
[5] CASTILLO E., FERNNDEZ-CANTELI A. A GENERAL REGRESSION MODEL FOR LIFETIME
EVALUATION AND PREDICTION, INT. J. FRACT., 2001; 107, PP. 117137.
[6] FISCHER C., SCHWEIZER C., SEIFERT T., ASSESSMENT OF FATIGUE CRACK CLOSURE UNDER INPHASE AND OUT-OF-PHASE THERMOMECHANICAL FATIGUE LOADING USING A TEMPERATURE
DEPENDENT STRIP YIELD MODEL. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FATIGUE, VOL. 78, PP. 2230,2015.
[7] ALVES A. S. F., SAMPAYO L.M.C.M.V., CORREIA J.A.F.O., DE JESUS A.M.P., MOREIRA P.M.G.P.,
TAVARES P.J.S., FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION BASED ON CRACK GROWTH ANALYSIS USING AN
EQUIVALENT INITIAL FLAW SIZE MODEL: APPLICATION TO A NOTCHED GEOMETRY. PROCEDIA
ENGINEERING OF THE 1ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY [ACCEPTED]

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Session 4B
WED, 14:15 -15:30
Room B
TOPIC: Manufacturing Techniques
Chair: Pedro Moreira

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#14

VIABILITY ANALYSIS OF DOUBLE COLD WIRE GAS METAL ARC WELDING


PROCESS
R. A. Ribeiro 1, P. D'Angelo Assuno 2, E.M. Braga3
1. Master student at Mechanical Engineering Post Graduation Program (PPGEM) - UFPA
2. PhD student at Amazon Natural Resources Engineering Post Graduation Program (PRODERNA)
- UFPA.
3. Professor, Metallic Materials Characterization Laboratory (LCAM) - UFPA

ABSTRACT
The shipbuilding industry is fundamental to the regional development of Amazon Region due to
its natural calling expressed in the extension of its navigable rivers. One increasing issue of local
shipbuilding industry as a whole is its productivity rate that should be as high as possible to allow
international competition with other naval industries.Thinking on this issue the Materials
Characterization Laboratory (LCAM) of the Federal University of Par (UFPA) developed the called
Double Cold Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding (DCW - GMAW) process, which consists of the injection
of two cold wires (non energized) in the direction of the welding pool besides the energized wire
of the conventional GMAW process, these two wires profit of the heat produced by the electric
arc that was not used to melt the hot wire (energized) or transferred to the weld piece, and,
consequently, are melted and deposited on the weld piece increasing the deposition rate and
decreasing the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), due to the fact that these cold wires act as heat sinks,
diminishing the heat transferred to the base metal and the consequent distortions. This work
aims to compare the operational behavior of the conventional GMAW and DCW - GMAW
processes and the metallurgical, mechanical and geometrical features of the steel welds produced
by these welding processes. The automated welds were conducted on flat plates with an electrical
source in positive Direct Current (DC+), in a flat position and under protection of 75% Argon (Ar)
and 25% Carbon Dioxide (CO2) gas mixture, in a welding workbench constituted of an automated
welding displacement system, a energized wire feeding system and an additional two cold wire
feeding systems. The weld beads were made with the electrode AWS 70S-6 wire applied to ASTM
131 steel grade A as base metal. The base metal had the following dimensions: 150 x 60 x 53 x 9
mm. The input variables were the electrode wire feeding rate (10, 12 and 14m/min), a constant
welding speed (40cm/min) and feeding rates of the non-energized wires (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%
and 100% of the electrode wire feeding rates). The evaluation of the deposits was based in their
geometrical characteristics (Width (W), Height (H) and Penetration (P) and Dilution (D)),
microhardness values in Vickers and general characteristics of the resulting micrographies. The
microstructural characterization consisted of qualitative analysis of the micrographies obtained
by standard metallographic procedures. The DCW - GMAW welding process showed a good
operational stability and lower incidence of splash compared to the conventional GMAW process.
Also showed good geometrical characteristics, with adequate P/W ratios and absence of defects
such as finger and porosities. Besides, the DCW - GMAW processes showed a higher deposition
rate, as expected, when compared to the usual GMAW process. The micrographies showed that
there were microstructural variations among the welded samples by the usual GMAW, and DCW
- GMAW processes for similar welding conditions. The hardness profiles collected in the weld
metal fusion zone showed a hardness increase in this region DCW - GMAW in a feeding rate
higher than 60% of non-energized wires, which can be related to the increase of second phase
non-aligned ferrite.
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#34

FRICTION STIR WELDING OF POLYMERS: REVIEW AND PROSPECTS


Shayan Eslamia, Paulo J. Tavaresa, P. M. G. P. Moreiraa
a

INEGI Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 4200-465
Porto, Portugal
ABSTRACT

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining technique that has seen remarkable
developments during the last decade. Due to its numerous benefits over the conventional welding
techniques along with growing industrial demands for lightweight design structures [1], FSW
found its way to be one of the main attractions of engineering subjects. FSW process is based on
the generation of frictional heat, between the FSW tool and the parent material surface, under an
axial force [2]. Originally, this method was used for welding metallic materials, which are hard or
somehow impossible to weld with conventional techniques.
However, due to polymeric materials significant consumption growth in the industry, recently,
FSW has been utilized for pursuing the possibility of implementing this technique for welding
polymers together with different configurations. Nevertheless, polymeric materials behave
differently than metallic ones, and up to this point, scarce investigations have been done in this
specific area.
This article reviews the previous studies, which have investigated for welding polymers using FSW
technique. A brief historical review is performed in order to analyse tool developments, welds
strength and the most effective welding parameters for different polymeric materials. New
materials, configurations and test specifications are currently under investigations, including the
possibility for dissimilar materials joining, taking FSW to a new phase in industrial applications.
References
[1] BILICI, M.K., A.. YKLER, AND M. KURTULMU THE OPTIMIZATION OF WELDING PARAMETERS
FOR FRICTION STIR SPOT WELDING OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE SHEETS. MATERIALS &
DESIGN, 2011. 32, 4074-4079 DOI: 10.1016/J.MATDES.2011.03.014.
[2] REZGUI, M.A., ET AL. APPLICATION OF TAGUCHI APPROACH TO OPTIMIZE FRICTION STIR
WELDING PARAMETERS OF POLYETHYLENE. EPJ WEB OF CONFERENCES, 2010. 6, 07003 DOI:
10.1051/EPJCONF/20100607003.

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#89

FRICTION STIR WELD-BONDED ALUMINUM JOINTS


Daniel F. O. Braga1, L. M. C. de Sousa1, V. Infante2, Lucas F.M. da Silva3, P. M. G. P.
Moreira1
1

Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (INEGI), University of
Porto, Campus da FEUP, Av. Roberto Frias, 400, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
2
LAETA, IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001
Lisboa, Portugal
3
Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Campus da FEUP, Av. Roberto Frias, s/n,
4200-465 Porto, Portugal
ABSTRACT

Lightweight construction although has always been a goal of every structural designer has
become ever more relevant with regulatory imposition of fuel efficiency goals in the
transportation industry together with customer perception of fuel efficiency and environmental
friendliness. In the pursuit of better, more lightweight structural designs, the adoption of new
materials such as lightweight alloys and new manufacturing processes are required. Joining
aluminum alloys was normally a concern due to their poor weldability properties, but the
advancements in adhesive bonding technology and the development of solid state welding such
as friction stir welding (FSW) [1], has increased the possibilities of application of theses alloys in
structural design. In FSW the interaction of a non-consumable tool rotating and traversing along
the joint line creates a welded joint through visco-plastic deformation and consequent heat
dissipation resulting in temperatures below the melting temperature of the materials being
joined. In contrast with conventional fusion processes, FSW creates low distortions, excellent
mechanical properties in the weld zone, and allows for execution without a shielding gas, and is
suitability to weld all aluminum alloys. These characteristics have not only generated vast interest
in the research community but also industrial applications of FSW may be found in the literature
[2]. Adhesive bonding (AB) has garnish much attention from structural designers, since it is a
technology capable of efficiently joining dissimilar materials and vast differentiation exists in
adhesives resulting in the existence of specific adhesives for particular applications and
requirements. The research in adhesive bonding is vast and broad, from fracture mechanics [3] or
self-healing and thermally expandable particles in adhesive joints [4] to application cases [5, 6].
Adhesive bonding has also been used together with other joining methods to form hybrid joints,
since AB complements very well the benefits of other technologies. Spot welding, riveting,
clinching [7] along with many other joining processes have been used in conjunction with AB to
form these hybrid joints. As FSW is a relatively more recent technology, studies regarding hybrid
joints made with FSW are more uncommon. One study found in the literature was the one by
Chowdhury et al. in [8] where friction stir spot welded bonded dissimilar joints of magnesium and
aluminium were produced and tested. The hybrid bonded joints shown improvement in lap shear
strength and failure energy regarding the only friction stir spot welded joints. Fatigue life was
improved as well when using adhesive in the friction stir spot welded. Hybrid FSW and AB joints of
AA6082 aluminium alloy will be studied in this work.
References
[1] THOMAS, W.M., E.D. NICHOLAS, J.C. NEEDHAM, M.G. MURCH, P. TEMPLESMITH, AND C.J.
DAWES, IMPROVEMENTS RELATING TO FRICTION WELDING, E.P. OFFICE, EDITOR. 1993.
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[2] KUSUDA, Y., HONDA DEVELOPS ROBOTIZED FSW TECHNOLOGY TO WELD STEEL AND
ALUMINUM AND APPLIED IT TO A MASS-PRODUCTION VEHICLE. INDUSTRIAL ROBOT: AN
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, 2013. 40(3): P. 208-212.
[3] CHAVES, F.J., M. DE MOURA, L. DA SILVA, AND D. DILLARD, FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION OF
BONDED JOINTS USING THE DUAL ACTUATOR LOAD APPARATUS. JOURNAL OF ADHESION SCIENCE
AND TECHNOLOGY, 2014. 28(5): P. 512-524.
[4] BANEA, M.D., L.F. DA SILVA, R.D. CAMPILHO, AND C. SATO, SMART ADHESIVE JOINTS: AN
OVERVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS. THE JOURNAL OF ADHESION, 2014. 90(1): P. 16-40.
[5] KADIOGLU, F. AND R.D. ADAMS, FLEXIBLE ADHESIVES FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION UNDER
IMPACT LOADING. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADHESION AND ADHESIVES, 2015. 56: P. 73-78.
[6] SCHIEL, M., S. KRELING, C. UNGER, F. FISCHER, AND K. DILGER, BEHAVIOR OF ADHESIVELY
BONDED COATED STEEL FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS UNDER IMPACT LOADS.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADHESION AND ADHESIVES, 2015. 56: P. 32-40.
[7] MORONI, F., A. PIRONDI, AND F. KLEINER, EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF
THE STRENGTH OF SIMPLE AND HYBRID STRUCTURAL JOINTS. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
ADHESION AND ADHESIVES, 2010. 30(5): P. 367-379.
[8] CHOWDHURY, S., D. CHEN, S. BHOLE, X. CAO, AND P. WANJARA, LAP SHEAR STRENGTH AND
FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF FRICTION STIR SPOT WELDED DISSIMILAR MAGNESIUM-TO-ALUMINUM
JOINTS WITH ADHESIVE. MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING: A, 2013. 562: P. 53-60.

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#73

OPTIMIZATION OF MILLING PARAMETERS TO IMPROVE THE SURFACE


ROUGHNESS USING THE TAGUCHI METHODOLOGY
Alberto Blanca1, Jorge Meireles2, Hernni Lopes3,4, Joo Ribeiro2,4
1

Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain


Instituto Politcnico de Bragana, Bragana, Portugal
3
Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Porto, Portugal
4
Instituto de Engenharia Mecnica e Gesto Industrial, Porto, Portugal
2

ABSTRACT
Manufacturing industry is one of the most important industries in the developed countries. This
industry uses different machining techniques like drilling, turning, milling as well as the
combination of those techniques.
Depending on machining aim and for each cutting tool there are different combinations of
parameters, like feed rate, spindle speed, axial or radial depth of cut to obtain different results in
terms of quality of machined surface and tool wear. Each cutting parameters combination will
result in a different surficial roughness of workpiece and tool life. However, it is very difficult to
define the best combination that provides the lower surface roughness and maximum tool life [1].
One of the most important features in the manufacturing industry is to predict the surface
roughness and tool life for a particular combination of machining parameters in order to choose
the best combination for producing a part [2, 3]. Furthermore, is essential to reduce the costs for
the required quality.
This paper presents a study of Taguchi design application to optimize surface quality in a CNC
milling operation. Maintaining good surface quality usually involves additional manufacturing cost
or loss of productivity. The Taguchi design is an efficient and effective experimental method in
which a response variable can be optimized, given various control and/or noise factors, using
fewer resources than a factorial design. This study includes feed per tooth, cutting speed and
radial depth of cut as control factors. An orthogonal array of L9(34) was implemented and the
ANOVA analyses were carried out to identify the significant factors affecting surface roughness as
well as the determination of optimal cutting combination by seeking the best surface roughness
(response) and signal-to-noise ratio.
In this study we have machined a cylindrical hardened plastic mould steel (GMTC 1.2738)
specimen using a milling tool provided by Palbit which the reference is PLUS 49095 / WNHU
04T310.
The experimental work was done in the milling machine Deckel Maho DMC 63V and the cutting
parameters were combined agreeing the defined Taguchi orthogonal array (table 1), the only
parameter maintained fixed was the axial depth with a value of 0.3 mm. Between each
experiment, the roughness was measure on three different points of specimen using a portable
surface roughness tester (Mitutoyo SJ-301).
The results were analyzed and statistical treated to obtain the best combination in terms of
surficial roughness and the influence of each cutting parameter in the surface quality.
In the table 1 is presented the Taguchi orthogonal array, the average of the measured roughness
and the signal to noise ratio which, is this case, was chosen the smaller is the better in order to
minimize the surface roughness.

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Table 1. Taguchi orthogonal array, S/N and average roughness values.


Experiment
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Vc
[m/min]
150
150
150
180
180
180
200
200
200

fz
[mm/tooth]
0,1
0,15
0,2
0,1
0,15
0,2
0,1
0,15
0,2

Ae
[mm]
0,075
0,1
0,125
0,1
0,125
0,075
0,125
0,075
0,1

Roughness
[m]
2,44
2,39
2,6
2,19
1,94
2,18
2,05
2,28
2,03

S/N
[dB]
-7,776
-7,567
-8,286
-6,834
-5,751
-6,757
-6,217
-7,168
-6,172

Analyzing the table 1, is possible to observe that the cutting parameters combination of
experiment 5 gives the lower value of roughness and signal to noise ratio.
With all the roughness measurements, was implemented an ANOVA analysis using the
Statgraphics software. The results are shown in table 2.
Source of Variance
MAIN EFFECTS
A:Vc
B:fz
C:ae
RESIDUAL
TOTAL

Table 2. ANOVA results. Sum of Squares Type III


Sum of Squares
df Mean Squares
0,266867
0,00686667
0,0200667
0,0758
0,3696

2
2
2
2
8

0,133433
0,00343333
0,0100333
0,0379

F-Ratio

P-value

3,52
0,09
0,26

0,2212
0,9169
0,7907

Evaluating the ANOVA analysis, it is possible to observe that the most important factor is the
Cutting Speed (Vc) with a P-value=0,22 and the feed rate (fz) has the lower effect in the value of
roughness. Due to the low number of degrees of freedom, we must be cautious with the results,
however for a preliminary test, the results are good enough for the industry application.
References
[1] NALBANT, M., GKKAYA, H. AND SUR, G. (2007). APPLICATION OF TAGUCHI METHOD IN THE
OPTIMIZATION OF CUTTING PARAMETERS FOR SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN TURNING. MATERIALS &
DESIGN, 28(4): 1379-1385.
[2] GHANI, J.A., CHOUDHURY, I.A. AND HASSAN, H.H. (2004). APPLICATION OF TAGUCHI METHOD
IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF END MILLING PARAMETERS. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS PROCESSING
TECHNOLOGY, 145(1): 84-92.
[3] ZHANG, J.Z., CHEN, J.C. AND KIRBY, E.D. (2007). SURFACE ROUGHNESS OPTIMIZATION IN AN
END-MILLING OPERATION USING THE TAGUCHI DESIGN METHOD. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS
PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY, 184(1-3): 233-239.

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#88

STRUCTURAL GLASS MATERIAL FOR MEMBERS AND PARTS OF LOADCARRYING STRUCTURES IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
Marcela Karmaznov, Jindrich Melcher, Ondej Peek
Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering
ABSTRACT
The paper is focused on the problems of properties of structural glass and its usage in the
members and parts of load-carrying structures of building constructions. Glass as a traditional
material is usually used for transparent fills of window or door openings, but recently it is also
used for load-carrying structures, the most often as a material of load-carrying parts of wall or
roof claddings, but still more often also for parts of usual load-carrying structures, like as
staircases, floors, roof structures and of course, their partial parts, but also, for example, largevolume aquariums. The essential part of this paper presents the overview of some selected
results of the verification of structural glass used for several various types of structures, which
have been performed on the paper authors workplace in the period of about 20 last years. For
the verification of mentioned glass structures the experimental, analytical and numerical methods
have been applied.
There are many various types of components made of structural glass, from the viewpoint of
chemical composition, technological treatment and structural composition. The basic type of
construction glass is clear float glass. Increasing in mechanical strength can be achieved by
tempering or toughening. Due to cooling, the tensile stress occurs inside the structure of
tempered glass, while on the surface the compressive stress occurs. It is classified as a safety
glass. Another type of heat-strengthened glass is semi-hardened partially tempered glass. Its
mechanical properties are not changed during the gradual heating up to 200 C and are not
affected by temperatures below freezing. Laminated safety glass is composed of two or more
panes of tempered or heat-strengthened glass, with intermediate foil.

a)
b)
c)
d)
Fig. 1 Examples of typical glass structures of buildings: a) Audio-Video Center in San Francisco; b)
Lincoln Center in New York; c) Waterloo Station in London; d) International Forum in Tokyo

a)

b)

c)

d)
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Fig. 2 Examples of large glazed facades with stiffening fins: a) South Bank University in London; b)
Holiday Inn in Paris; c) Burj Al Arab Hotel in Dubai; d) Harbour Grand Kowloon Hotel in HK.
Among many known and interesting glass structures over the world, the following selected
examples can be mentioned as typical: In Fig. 1, staircase grades, as well as the vertical support
structure of the walls reinforced by transverse ribs, are made of glass; the wall structure stiffened
by twisted rope is indicated in Fig. 1b; high glazed external walls of buildings need to stiffen by
load-carrying steel structure forming a support system of glass cladding, with regard to the
considerable effects of pressure and suction of the wind; Fig. 1c and Fig. 1d show constructions of
the glass walls with a supporting system forming by the rods and struts; the most spread systems
are the large glazed building facades with the stiffening ensured by the transverse glass fins see
examples in Fig. 2. Authors workplace deals with the problems of structural glass already longterm. Some selected examples of the verification of structural glass intended for different types of
members and parts of civil structures are shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 3a shows one of the first
experiments of this type, which was used for the verification test of the resistance of glass panels
of the railing at the bridge "Vysoina" in Velk Mezi, for the load effects corresponding with
pressure and sucking of the wind. Fig. 3b is an illustration of one of the test specimens failed
within the experimental verification of the panels intended for the bus station roofing in Ostrava.
In both cases the effective vacuum testing method has been applied for the uniform load
simulating wind effects. As another example of the behaviour of the panels made of structural
glass, the failure of the specimen composed of three-layer insulating glass intended for cladding
buildings is indicated in Fig. 3c. Within the verification and evaluation of glass structures, also
numerical models have been utilized, similarly as for example in the case of assessment of the
causes of the accident of the aquarium at ZOO see Fig. 4.

a)
b)
c)
Fig. 3 Selected examples of experimental verification of structural glass components

a)
b)
Fig. 4 Illustration of fracture of aquarium walls and appropriate numerical model in ANSYS
References
HALDMAN, M, LUIBLE, A. AND OVEREND, M. STRUCTURAL USE OF GLASS, ZURICH: ETH ZURICH,
2008, 215 PP. ISBN 3-85748-119-2.
GORIS, A. BAUTABELEN FUR INGENIEURE: MIT BERECHNUNGSHINWEISEN UND BEISPIELEN, KLN,
WOLTERS KLUWER DEUTCHLAND GMBH (IN GERMAN LANGUAGE), 2008, 555 PP. ISBN 978-38041-5236-6.
MELCHER, J. AND KARMAZNOV, M. PROBLEMS OF BEHAVIOR AND ANALYSIS OF GLASS
STRUCTURAL MEMBERS WITH RESPECT TO THEIR APPLICATION IN CONSTRUCTION, IN PROC. OF
THE SEVENTH INTL STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION CONFERENCE ISEC-7
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Session 5A
WED, 16:00 -17:30
Room A
TOPIC: Analytical and Numerical Modeling II
Chair: Paulo Tavares de Castro

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#78

THREE DIMENSIONAL FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF ROTATING


FUNCTIONALLY GRADED CYLINDRICAL SHELLS IN THERMAL ENVIRONMENT
Abbas Ali Jami, Esmaeil Bahmyari
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran,
Jami_1355@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
The free vibration analyses of the functionally graded (FG) rotating cylindrical shells subjected to
thermal environment are investigated. The material properties are assumed to be temperature
dependent and graded in the thickness direction, which vary according to the simple power law
distribution. The governing equations and the related boundary conditions, which include the
effects of initial thermal stresses, are derived using the Hamiltons based on the threedimensional elasticity theory. The initial thermal stresses are obtained by solving the thermoelastic equilibrium equations. Differential quadrature method (DQM) as an efficient and accurate
numerical tool is adopted to solve the thermo-elastic equilibrium equations, free vibration
equations and natural frequencies are obtained. The high accuracy of the method is
demonstrated by comparing the results with those of the existing solutions. Finally, the
parametric studies are performed to show the effects of boundary conditions, material graded
index, temperature rise, the thickness-to-length and the aspect ratios for the rotating cylindrical
shells on the frequency.

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#5

ANALYSIS OF CONDITIONS FOR TRANSITION OF MULTIPLE CRACKS INTO


SINGLE MAIN CRACK LOCATED IN STRESS CONCENTRATION ZONES UNDER
LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE LOADING REGIME
Nikolay A.Makhutov, Vladimir V. Zatsarinniy, Dmitry O. Reznikov
Institute of Machine Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences
ABSTRACT
Local plastic deformations eS are being developed in stress concentration zones due to low-cycle

N 10 10 ). Their distribution is
fatigue loading (number of loading cycles varied in the range =
determined by the level of nominal stresses N and by the theoretical stress concentration
0

factor .
The problem related to distribution of es is solved using analytical, numerical or experimental
methods. Here the type of eS distribution depends on resistance of the material to elastic
(Young's modulus E ) and plastic deformations (hardening modulus m ). Material properties in
case of low-cycle fatigue depend on N and eS . As the values of N , N and are increased and
the value of m is decreased the nonuniformity of eS is magnified. This leads to the development
of local cyclic damages d that depend on eS and N . To describe them the Neiger-Coffin relation
is used.
As damages d reach critical values dC in stress concentration zones, a large number of
microcracks nCN are being initiated. The number of microcracks nNC in the laboratory specimens
at the initial stage of loading lies in the range of 10 to 20. The crack growth rate dl / dN depends
on d , eS and N . When d and N are further increased, the number of growing cracks nCN starts
to reduce gradually while their growth rate rises up.
At the final stage one can see a single crack (nCN = 1) that is growing at a high rate dl / dN . This
stage of damage accumulation and single crack growth is characterized by a transition from
multiple crack development mode of failure ( nNC >> 1 ) to critical main crack destruction mode of
failure (nNC = 1) .
The process of initiation and growth of low-cycle fatigue cracks in stress concentration zones is
characterized by the deflection from well-known Paris Erdogan crack growth law. Initial multiple
cracks in zones of intensive damage d grow at higher rates dN / dl than it could have been
expected according to classical equations of cyclic fracture mechanics.
The paper presents the results of experiments and calculations for fields of deformations eS and

emax and damages d , number of cracks nNC and crack growth rates dl / dN . The experiments
were carried out on flat specimens with holes ( = 2.5) . The specimens were made of steels
used in construction of pressure vessels that have different yield points y and hardening
moduli m .

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#16

AN ANALYTICAL MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE MAXIMUM TENSILE STRESS IN


SPLICED BEAMS UNDER TENSILE LOAD USING THE EXAMPLE OF A
FIVEFOLD LAMINATE
Ren Ringli, Thomas Vogel
Institute of Structural Engineering (IBK), ETH Zurich
ABSTRACT
An innovative application of laminated safety glass is found in the manufacture of spliced
structural glass beams. Such beams consist of several panes in the lateral as well as in the
longitudinal direction, which leads to geometric singularities within the beam. Consequentially,
stress concentrations occur in the region of the joints. These stress concentrations limit the
bearing capacity of such elements due to the brittle failure behavior of glass. By considering one
joint and approximating the lower edge of the beam as a region of pure tensile load, a
symmetrical problem is obtained which can be solved analytically. The analytical model is based
on a symmetrical problem as illustrated in Figure 1.

Fig. 1: Model of a spliced fivefold laminate under tensile load


The analytical model, which assumes linear elastic material properties, consist of the following
five steps:
(i) Load redistribution based on the elastic analysis of adhesive: In the first step, the load
redistribution, based on the elastic analysis of adhesive as proposed by [1], will be calculated. For
the case of a fivefold laminate, this can be described with a system of five second-order
differential equations. At this stage, any bending load is neglected.
(ii) Calculating the eccentricity of the residual force: Due to the new stress distribution, the
residual force Fres has an eccentricity e(x) along the longitudinal direction, which leads to lateral
bending M(x) = Fres e(x). The distribution of the eccentricity e(x) depends on the stiffness ratio
E/G, the thickness ratio t/tint and the length L and can range between an almost linear to a highly
nonlinear relation.
(iii) Bending in a sandwich element: In order to calculate the stresses due to M(x), a loading state
is chosen which leads to the same bending load at the joint cross section and shows a similar
progression along x. The stresses and strains due to bending of a sandwich element can be
calculated on an equivalent bar with a laminate cross section of the continuous panes and its
embedded interlayers by adapting the approach stated by [2] for laminates with thick cover
sheets.
(iv) Influence of local effects: In step (i), the stresses were assumed to be uniformly distributed
over each pane. This assumption is not valid in the cross section of the joint for pane 4, since the

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force, which is transferred right before and after the joint, cannot be equally distributed.
Consequentially an additional bending load of pane 4 has to be considered.
(v) Superposition: Subsequently, the resulting stress / strain distribution in the joint cross section
can be calculated by superposition of the results obtained in step (i), (iii) and (iv).
The results presented below are based on the following assumptions: L = 583 mm, t = 10 mm, tint =
1.52 mm, Youngs modulus E = 67,000 MPa, case 1 interlayer shear modulus G = 182 MPa, case 2
interlayer shear modulus G = 7 MPa.
Figure 2 illustrates the predicted strain distribution according to the model in the longitudinal
direction as well as along the joint cross section for both cases of G. The prediction is compared to
the strain distribution obtained by FE simulations, as well as in experimental tests.

The strain distributions in figure 2 indicate that the prediction obtained with the
analytical model corresponds well to the results obtained from FE simulations and
experimental tests. Figure 2: Comparison of the analytical model to results obtained by FE

simulations and experimental tests: (a) and (b) strain distribution along the x and y-directions
respectively with E/G 370 and F = 4,001 N; (c) and (d) strain distribution along the x and ydirections respectively with E/G 9,500 and F = 4,020 N
The load-bearing behavior of a spliced laminate with linear elastic material properties under
tensile load can be described with an analytical model, which is based on the load redistribution
due to stiffness and bending of a sandwich element. The results indicate that the joint has a
significant influence by considerably increasing the maximal strain. Furthermore, the joint shows a
wide-reaching influence zone.
References
[1] VOLKERSON, O.: DIE NIETKRAFTVERTEILUNG IN ZUGBEANSPRUCHTEN NIETVERBINDUNGEN
MIT KONSTANTEM LASCHENQUERSCHNITT. LUFTFAHRTFORSCHUNG, 15, 41-47, (1938).
[2] STAMM, K.; WITTE, H.: SANDWICHTRAGKONSTRUKTIONEN BERECHNUNG, FERTIGUNG,
AUSFHRUNG. SPRINGER-VERLAG; WIEN, NEW YORK, (1974).
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#72

BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF PDMS CHANNELS USING DIFFERENT


HYPERELASTIC CONSTITUTIVE MODELS
Ctia Cardoso1, Carla Fernandes1, Rui Lima1,2, Joo Ribeiro1,3
1-

Polytechnic Institute of Bragana, Bragana, Portugal


University of Minho, Mechanical Engineering Department, Guimares, Portugal
3Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Management, Porto, Portugal
2-

ABSTRACT
A constitutive model for a mechanical analysis is a relationship between the response of a body
(for example, strain state) and the stress state due to the forces acting on the body, which can
include the environmental effects. A wide variety of material behaviours are described with a few
different classes of constitutive equations [1].
The hyperelastic models have been used extensively to model the non-linear behaviour and
anisotropic material, since the soft tissues under large deformations often regain their elasticity.
The constitutive behaviour of hyperelastic materials is defined in terms of deformation energy
potential [2].
In this study, were performed simulations of Newtonian fluid flow in channels with disorders such
as the aneurysms. The main goals of these simulations were to analyse the fluid flow in the
channels and the mechanical behaviour of channels walls. The material used for channels was the
PDMS which has a hyperelastic behaviours and to simulate that structure were used different
constitutive models, under the same conditions, aiming to analyse the most appropriate model
for this type of study. Thus, the deformations suffered were visualized on the walls of the
channels, caused by the internal pressure induced by the internal fluid.
It was used Ansys - Fluent software, to perform the simulation of the Newtonian fluid flow
(glycerin, with well-known properties and sufficient viscosity to measure the pressure drops), in
order to determine the speed and the internal pressure. This pressure, approximately 11.742e-6
MPa for an input flow rate of 300 L/min, was imported into the channels in Ansys - Static
Structural, in order to be able to evaluate and analyse the deformations and stresses in the
channel wall, caused by internal pressure induced by the fluid flow. To do this, was used the most
known hyper-elastic constitutive models.Six constitutive models were simulated, they being:
Ogden 2nd and 3rd Order, Yeoh 2nd and 3rd Order and Mooney-Rivlin 5 and 9 Parameter. All the
analysed constitutive models converged for a solution.
The obtained results of numerical simulations for these six models showed little variation among
them. This small variation is explained because the flaw rate used in the Fluent simulation
induced a low pressure within the channel which caused a small deformation field and for these
values all the constitutive models could follow the material mechanical behaviour. If the internal
pressure is much higher, probably the results obtained for the different constituent models will be
very different. In Fig. 1 is presented an example of the resulted obtained for two different
constitutive models.

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Figura 1 - Total deformation occurred in the channel wall calculated by the constitutive model of MooneyRivlin 5 Parameter and Yeoh 3rd Order, respectively.

In the Table 1 is present the comparison among the maximum and minimum displacements
obtained in the FEM simulations. It is possible to verify that the obtained displacements are very
low for all the analysed models, even for maximum values. The standard deviation is also low that
indicates the calculated values tend to be very close to the average and range from 0.755E-4 and
0.05E-8 for the maximum and minimum values.
Tabela 1 Maximum and minimum values of the different models and mean and standard deviation
corresponding.

Constitutive model
Mooney-Rivlin 5 Parameter
Mooney-Rivlin 9 Parameter
Ogden 2nd Order
Ogden 3rd Order
Yeoh 2nd Order
Yeoh 3rd Order
Average
Standard deviation

Maximum value [mm]


9,366E-04
8,865E-04
10,27E-04
9,672E-04
10,88E-04
10,49E-04
9,924E-04
0,755E-04

Minimum value [mm]


6,215E-08
5,883E-08
6,816E-08
6,418E-08
7,216E-08
6,963E-08
6,585E-08
0,500E-08

In summary, it is concluded that any constitutive model referred to above, can be applied to such
studies, allowing the study behaviour of the PDMS channel wall, particularly for the analysis of
stress and displacement field on the aneurysm. In further studies it would be interesting analyse
the channel wall behaviour for higher internal pressures and for a Non Newtonian fluid which the
properties were more close to blood.
References
[1] P. R. FERNANDES, P. BARTOLO, TISSUE ENGINEERING: COMPUTER MODELING,
BIOFABRICATION AND CELL BEHAVIOR, EDITED BY SPRINGER, COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN
APPLIED SCIENCES, LISBON PORTUGAL, 2014.
[2] J. MART, A. OLIVER, J. FREIXENET, R. MART, DIGITAL MAMMOGRAPHY: 10TH
INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP, EDITED BY SPRINGER, INSTITUTE OF INFORMATICS AND
APPLICATIONS, UNIVERSITY OF GIRONA, CATALONIA, SPAIN, PG. 729, JUNE 2010.

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#76

A PROCEDURE TO OBTAIN THE PROBABILISTIC KITAGAWA-TAKAHASHI


DIAGRAM
J.A.F.O. Correia1, A.M.P. De Jesus1,2, R. Brighenti3, P.M.G.P. Moreira1, R.A.B. Calada2, A.
Fernandez-Canteli4
1

Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Porto
Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.
2
Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.
3
Department of Civil-Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Parma, Viale G.P.
Usberti 181/A, 43100 Parma, Italy.
4
Department of Construction and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Oviedo, Campus de
Viesques, 33203 Gijn, Spain.
ABSTRACT
The Kitagawa-Takahashi (KT) diagram [1] represents a boundary in terms of crack size and stress
range for which infinite fatigue lifetime of structural or mechanical components can be safely
ensured due to non-propagating micro- and macrocracks [2]. The fatigue life assessment can be
related to the classical fatigue limit concept, based on experimental S-N curves, and the threshold
stress intensity factor range or threshold value of the cyclic J-integral, based on fracture
mechanics using propagation laws.
In this paper, a procedure is proposed to obtain the probabilistic Kitagawa-Takahashi diagram for
structural components. This procedure is based on the equivalent initial flaw size (EIFS) model [34] and is supported by the probabilistic S-N model proposed by Castillo and Fernndez-Canteli [5].
With the EIFS concept and based on fracture mechanics, particularly on elastoplastic cyclic Jintegral, the initial defects of the structural components will be taken into account. This approach,
combined with the probabilistic S-N field, allows the generation of the probabilistic distribution of
the EIFS. Also, a probabilistic KT diagram (P-KT) is presented as an alternative way to understand
the distribution of the EIFS. The procedure proposed is applied to a notched plate made of
P355NL1 steel. The performances of predictions are analyzed and deviations discussed.
References
[1] KITAGAWA H., TAKAHASHI S. APPLICABILITY OF FRACTURE MECHANICS TO VERY SMALL
CRACKS OR CRACKS IN THE EARLY STAGE. PROC. OF THE 2ND INT. CONF ON MECH. BEHAVIOUR
OF MATERIALS, ASM, 627631, 1976.
[2] FERNNDEZ-CANTELI A., BRIGHENTI R., CASTILLO E. TOWARDS A PROBABILISTIC CONCEPT OF
THE KITAGAWA-TAKAHASHI DIAGRAM. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
ON CRACK PATHS (CP 2012), GAETA, ITALY, 2012, 1041-1048.
[3] XIANG Y., LU Z., LIU Y. CRACK GROWTH-BASED FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION USING AN
EQUIVALENT INITIAL FLAW MODEL. PART I: UNIAXIAL LOADING. INTENATIONAL JOURNAL OF
FATIGUE, VOL. 32, NUM. 2, PP. 341-349, 2010.
[4] SAVAIDIS G., SAVAIDIS A., ZERRES P., VORMWALD M. MODE I FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH AT
NOTCHES CONSIDERING CRACK CLOSURE. INTENATIONAL JOURNAL OF FATIGUE, VOL. 32, NUM.
10, PP. 1543-1558, 2010.
[5] CASTILLO E., FERNNDEZ-CANTELI A. A GENERAL REGRESSION MODEL FOR LIFETIME
EVALUATION AND PREDICTION, INT. J. FRACT., 2001; 107, PP. 117137.

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Session 5B
WED, 16:00 -17:30
Room B
TOPIC: Testing II
Chair: Jos Correia

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#63

EFFECT OF ALUMINOSILSESQIOXANE ADDITION AND VARIOUS CURING


CONDITIONS ON THE THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF GLASS FIBER
REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITE
Danuta Matykiewicz1, Mateusz Barczewski1, Beata Dudziec2
1

Institute of Materials Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 61-138 Poznan


2
Department of Organometallic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University,
Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan, Poland
ABSTRACT

Glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites have become very attractive engineering materials
in recent years and have extensively replaced popular metallic and polymeric materials in many
industrial application [1-2]. The polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) which are inorganic
organic modifiers may be used as additives, catalytic agent, reinforcement, processing aids and
flame retardants in the epoxy compositions [3-5]. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify
the influence of aluminosilsesquioxane (POSS) addition on thermo mechanical properties of glass
fiber reinforced epoxy composite prepared at various curing conditions.
The following components were used in this studies: epoxy resin Epidian 6 (E6) based on
bisphenol A, triethylenetetramine as a curing agent (both produced Chemical Works OrganikaSarzyna, Poland) and bis(heptaphenylaluminosilsesquioxane) (POSS) C84H70Al2O24Si14
(synthesis by Department of Organometallic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz
University, Poland
The epoxy composites were fabricated in a mould using hand lay-up with glass woven fabrics (GF).
Two different types of epoxy composites were produced: first group of samples only with glass
woven fabrics and second group of samples with glass woven fabrics and 1wt %POSS as the epoxy
resin modifier. Composites were cured at ambient temperature (20C) for 24 h and post-cured for
2 h at the different temperatures: 80C, 100C, 120C, 140C and 160C.
The dynamic-mechanical properties of the post-cured samples were investigated by DMTA
measurements in a torsion mode, at frequency f = 1 Hz in the temperature range between 25C
and 150C, and at heating rate 2C min. Detailed analysis of storage modulus vs. temperature
curve provides information about stiffness, degree of cross - linking and fibre/matrix interfacial
bonding of materials [6]. Plots of the storage modulus G and tan versus temperature T for
representative types of composites are shown in Figures 1. The composites with POSS indicated
more constant properties (G at 25 C) during various curing conditions when compared to the
reference sample. The values of the glass transition temperature of the composites increase
together with the increase of the temperature post-curing. The increase of the composites glass
transition temperature indicated that a post-curing process had occurred.
The composites modified with POSS showed more stable properties at higher post-curing
temperatures than reference sample. Hence, these types of composites can be used as
construction materials with resistance to temperature changes.

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Fig.1 The DMTA curves of the E6_GF and E6_GFPOSS samples post-cured at 140C

References
[1] BORREGO LP, COSTA JDM, FERREIRA JAM, SILVA H., COMPOSITES PART B: 2014, 62, 65-72
[2] KLING S., CZIGNY T., COMP. SCI. TECH. 2014, 99, 82-88
[3] CHO H., LIANG K., CHATTERJEE S., PITTMAN JR. CU., J INORG ORGANOMET POLYM 2005,15,
541-553
[4] CONSTANTIN F., GAREA S.A., IOVU H., U P B SCI BULL SERIES B 2010, 2 (2),103-114
[5] CHRUCIEL JJ., LENIAK E., PROGRESS IN POLYMER SCIENCE 2015, 41,67-121
[6] JAWAID M., ABDUL KHALIL H.P.S., OMAR S. ALATTAS COMPOSITES: PART A, 2012, 43, 288293

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#75

VALIDATION OF THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS


WITH DISCONTINUITIES
Mihaela Sava1, Anton Hadr1, Ioan Pruanu1, Florin Baciu1, Stnescu Marius Marinel2
1

Department of Strength of Materials, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul


Independentei, 060032, Bucharest, Romania; e-mail: savamihaela@hotmail.com
2
Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Craiova, 13 A.I. Cuza, 200396, Craiova,
Romania
ABSTRACT
In this work we studied the influence of discontinuities on the dynamic behavior of laminated
composite materials reinforced with carbon (denoted as C), aramid (K) and carbon-aramid (C-K)
fibers, using both specimens without defects and specimens with interrupted layers [1,2].
Experimental determinations were performed using a vibration sensor mounted at the free end of
a rectangular specimen while the other end was fixed, as shown in Figure 1. For each of the three
above mentioned materials, five samples were manufactured for each one of the following
defects: no layers broken (no defects, denoted as 00), two layers of fiber broken (20), two layers
broken with a distance of 2cm between fibers (22), two layers broken with a distance of 4cm
between fibers (24), four layers broken (40), four layers broken with a distance of 2cm between
fibers (42), and four layers broken with a distance of 4cm between fibers (44).
[dB/1.00 V]

Fourier Spectrum(Signal 1) - Input (Magnitude)


Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer

0
-10
29 Hz

-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
0

40

80

120

160

200
[Hz]

240

Fig.1 The frequency obtained for carbon specimen C40

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320

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Fig.2. Variation of dynamic elastic modulus depending on the type of defect

In order to observe the dynamic behavior of the considered specimens, numerical simulations
were carried out in addition to the experimental determination of the eigenfrequencies of these
materials [4].
The dynamic modulus of elasticity is influenced by the non-uniformity coefficient, calculated from
[5]. The greater the number of defects, an increasing value of the non-uniformity coefficient is
obtained and the modulus of elasticity decreases as shown in Figure 2.
Acknowledgement
The work has been funded by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources
Development 2007-2013 of the Ministry of European Funds through the Financial Agreement
POSDRU/159/1.5/S/132397
References
[1] TANAKA, M., AND OTHERS, INFLUENCE OF NON-UNIFORM FIBER ARRANGEMENT ON TENSILE
FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF UNIDIRECTIONAL FIBER/EPOXY MODEL COMPOSITES, COMPOSITE
INTERFACE, 12(3-4), 2005, P. 365-378.
[2] JARVE, E.V., KIM, R., STRENGTH PREDICTION AND MEASUREMENT IN MODEL MULTILAYERED
DISCONTINUOUS TOW REINFORCED COMPOSITES, JOURNAL OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS, 38(1),
2004, P. 5-18.
[3] GIBSON, R.F. (1994). PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL MECHANICS, MC GRAW-HILL, ISBN
0-07-113335-6, USA.
[4] FRISWELL, M.I., MOTTERSHEAD, J.E., FINITE ELEMENT MODEL UPDATING IN STRUCTURAL
DYNAMICS, KLUVER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS, ISBN 0-7923-3431-0, THE NETHERLANDS.
[5] BOLCU. D., STNESCU, M.M., CIUC, I., DUMITRU, S., SAVA, M., THE NON-UNIFORMITY FROM
THE COMPOSITE MATERIALS REINFORCED WITH FIBER GLASS FABRIC, MAT. PLAST., 51(1), 2014, P.
97-100.

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#90

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MAGNETO SENSITIVE ELASTOMER WITH


IRON PARTICLES AT UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY
Sneha Samala,b, Jarmil Vlach, Pavel Kavan
a

V partner pro vzkum, vvoj a inovace


VTS, a.s. , Svrovsk 619 , Liberec XI - Rodol 1 , 460 01, Liberec XI , Czech Republic
b
Department of Applied Mechanics, Technical University of Liberec , 46117, Liberec, Czech
Republic
ABSTRACT
Mechanical behavior of magneto sensitive elastomer (MSE) is investigated with the influence of
external applied uniform magnetic field. MSE samples were fabricated using silicon elastomer as
the matrix and iron particles (30 Vol. %, purity 99 %) as the filler of the composite. MSE samples
were configured as cylindrical shape for contributing magneto active particles (iron particles)
forming chain, plane like structure. The external magnetic field is generated by lower and upper
core the electromagnet (coupled magneto) circuit. The concept of magnetic intensity is based on
the free energy versus strain on the MSE material. The magneto induced deformation,
compression of the MSE materials were calculated as the function of various magnetic intensity. It
is shown that small chain like structure of iron chain within matrix of the MSE composite. The real
stress and induced stress of the MSE materials increases with increasing applied magnetic field.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1 (a) Microstructure image of iron particles (b) Scanning electron microscope image of elastomer

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Fig. 2. (a) Photographic image of experimental set up for deformation test (b) Schematic diagram of testing.

Fig. 3 (a) Hysteresis loss of the MSE samples (b) Force versus time curve of the MSE samples at various
magnetic intensity.

Acknowledgement
Authors acknowledge for the work carried out at Technical University of Liberec.
References
[1] M . KALLIO, THE ELASTIC AND DAMPING PROPERTIES OF MAGNETO RHEOLOGICAL
ELASTOMER, 2005.
[2] JARMIL VLACH, HOANG SY TUAN, BOHDANA MARVALOV: EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL
RESEARCH OFMAGNETO-SENSITIVE ELASTOMERS. 47TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF
EXPERIMENTAL STRESS ANALYSIS. SYRCHOV, JUNE 8-11, 2009, CZECH REPUBLIC, PP.283-290, ISBN
978-80-7372-483-2.483-2.

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#65

PLASTICITY DETERMINATION OF COCRMOTI ALLOY


Alexandru Ghiban1, Brandusa Ghiban1, Nicolae Serban1, Cristina Maria Bortun2
University Politehnica Bucharest, Romania
Victor Babes Medicine and Pharmacy University, Timisoara, Romania
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this paper is to investigate de plasticity behaviour of new dental materials with
superior mechanical performance and corrosion resistance as well as high biocompatibility. The
attention was focused on the possibility to obtain a new class of cobalt based alloy by Ti addition.
Different compositions of the CoCrMo base system were produced in a cold crucible melting
furnace, in argon protective atmosphere. The present paper take in consideration the fomability
behaviour of these alloys. The investigations were carried out in laboratory conditions by
investigation the upsetting behaviour in a range of temperature about 1050-1300C. The
specimens used were original size 10 x 15 (H / d = 1.5), in the range of temperature 1100-1250
C (from each 50 to 50C) sufficient admissible up to the rank of deformation. Cylindrical
specimens had worked having fine polished surface without defects. After control, the specimens
were heated at trial and were subject to upsetting with varying degrees of plastic deformation,
using limit switch. The tested samples were analysed at stereomicroscope and scaning
microscope. Finaly it was established the best range of temperature for hot plastic forming of
these class of material.

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#66

DEFORMABILITY BEHAVIOUR OF NEW COBALT BASED ALLOYS


Alexandru Ghiban1, Brandusa Ghiban1, Nicolae Serban1, Cristina Maria Bortun2
University Politehnica Bucharest, Romania
Victor Babes Medicine and Pharmacy University, Timisoara, Romania
ABSTRACT
Currently, both removable and fixed prostheses are made from Co-Cr-Mo alloys, which possess
good corrosion resistance owing to the appropriate microstructure, but present low
machinability. Occasionally, allergic responses to the constituents of the base metal alloys are
observed. However most adverse tissue reactions attributed to the wearing of a base metal
removable prosthesis, were manifestations of an improper design or a poor fit. Being the major
component, cobalt imparts to the alloy its intrinsic corrosion resistance. On the other side, Ti is
one of the best biocompatible metals and is widely used as implant. In addition, the total weight
of a prosthesis can be reduced by Ti incorporation in the alloy composition. The purpose of this
paper is to develop new dental materials with superior mechanical performance and corrosion
resistance as well as high biocompatibility. The attention was focused on the possibility to obtain
a new class of cobalt based alloy by Ti addition. Different compositions of the CoCrMo base
system were produced in a cold crucible melting furnace, in argon protective atmosphere. The
present paper take in consideration the fomability behaviour of these alloys. The investigations
were carried out in laboratory conditions by investigation the upsetting behaviour in a range of
temperature about 950-1300C. The tested samples were analysed at stereomicroscope and
scaning microscope. Finaly it was established the best range of temperature for hot plastic
forming of these class of material.

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#1

VALORISATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE


Didouche Yasmina-Fadhla1
1

Research Unit: Materials, Processes and Environment (UR/MPE), University of Boumerdes, 35000
Boumerdes, Algeria, fadyesdid@yahoo.fr

ABSTRACT
The work undertaken deals with the valorisatin of industrial waste .To do so it was a good idea to
proceed to different studies namely :
A characterization carried on crude vegetable oils from sunflower (feedstock) has provided a
good understanding of their lubricating character, resulted in a publication. The study of
industrial waste which is actually wash water following a neutralization of refining a crude oil
vagtale resulted in a communication. The separation of the wash water has demonstrated that
the presence of the soap and neutral oil forming a stable emulsion with the qualities of
biodegradable surfactants also followed by a communication. Following its recovery, we have
proceeded the characterization of this proven biodegradable water to lubricating properties a
multi-use that have been two communications followed a study of a biomass (for the soap)
another statement on the identification of a viscous fluid (concerning oil)
For the valorisation of industrial waste, we have decided for its use as food for leather tanning.
Preliminary tests were encouraging for its use as a lubricant fibrillar, and this , after rechomage
. In addition to that, we have alaboared many formulations, with different percentages ,
based on commercials food associated to wash water which shall be our subject of discussion
for the presente conference . These formulations were submitted to different oleo-chemical tests
and gave satisfactory result.Physiocomcaniques tests carried on formal tests concerning the
NAPPA in the wet bleu state ( trivalent chromium tanned leather ) were verified and gave
convincing results for the tanners .

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Session 6
THU, 16:00 -17:30
Room B
TOPIC: Degradation, durability and corrosion
Chair: Rui Miranda Guedes

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#23

THE ELECTROCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF


TWO TITANIUM ALUMINIDE IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTS
Maria Marcu1, Alexandra Banu2, Luminita Georgescu2, Cristina Juganaru2
1.

Institute of Physical Chemistry Ilie Murgulescu, Splaiul Independentei 202, Bucharest, Romania
2
. Politehnica University from Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Romania
alexandrabanu14@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT

In literature, there are a lot of data concerning the mechanical properties of titanium alumides
materials and correlation between the chemical composition and their capability to undertake
and transmit efforts at high temperatures. Less data exist about the corrosion behavior, even this
is a challenging and the most limiting characteristic. Through these data, those about corrosion
behavior in aqueous environments are less than oxidation data.
The poor resistance of these materials in chlorides and sulphates is one of most important
characteristic for their utilization in waste burning equipment or aero and hydro components in
contact with salted water.
This work have as main task the corrosion behavior study of two titanium aluminides (chemical
composition Table 1) in synthetic seawater using voltametric and EIS techniques in order to
identify the influence of chemical composition and structure on corrosion behavior and of
coatings necessity for these applications. The alloys structure and corrosion products analysis is
done using SEM, EDAX, Raman and XRD techniques. The used aggressive environment with
chemical composition of: NaCl 243,6gL-1; KCl 0.67gL-1; CaCl2x2H2O 1,36gL-1; MgSO4x7H2O 6,29gL-1;
MgCl2x6H2O 4,66 gL-1; NaHCO3 0,18 gL-1 was prepared from Aldrich reagents.
Table 1 Chemical composition of titanium aluminides (at%)

Samples

Ti

Al

Nb

Zr

Mo

o- TiAl

50

22

25

2 -Ti3Al

68

19

10

As is shown in the figures 1 and 2 orto titanium aluminide in cast form presents a better
electrochemical behavior in seawater environment.

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2
1

Fig 1 Polarization curves of 1-2 -Ti3Al and 2 o-TiAl in


synthetic seawater after 72 hours of immersion

Fig. 2 Bode curves of 1-Ti3Al and 2 o- TiAl in


synthetic seawater after 72 hours of immersion

References
[1] D. ALVARADO, P.A SUNDARAM , A STUDY OF THE CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF GAMMA
TITANIUM ALUMINIDE IN 3.5 WT% NACL SOLUTION AND SEAWATER, CORROSION SCIENCE 49
(2007) 37323741
[2] Y. XIONG, S. ZHU, F. WANG, SYNERGISTIC CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF COATED TI60 ALLOYS
WITH NACL DEPOSIT IN MOIST AIR AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE, CORROSION SCIENCE 50 (2008)
1522

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#24

NEW COATINGS FOR SHORT-TERM OXIDATION PROTECTION OF TITANIUM


ALUMINIDE
AT 850C
Alexandra Banu1, Marcu Maria2, Alexandru Paraschiv3, Oana Trusca4
1.

Politehnica University from Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Romania


alexandrabanu14@yahoo.com
2.
Institute of Physical Chemistry Ilie Murgulescu, Splaiul Independentei 202, Bucharest, Romania
3.
COMOTI- R&D Romanian Institute for Gas Turbine, Bd Iuliu Maniu 220, Bucharest, Romania
4. S.C PLASMAJET Ldt. Magurele, Romania
ABSTRACT
The conventional titanium-based alloys represent one third of the weight of modern aircraft
engines and, are the second most used engine material following Ni-based superalloys. [1] This
intermetallic alloys as titanium aluminides (TiAl) are potential candidates for aerospace uses
(advanced turbine blades) operating at moderately elevated temperature [2-4]. Modern highpressure compressors employ near- titanium alloys in the front and Ni-base superalloys in stages
exceeding 500C. The improved trust to weight ratio of todays jet engines is in part a result of a
higher stage pressure ratio of modern compressors in conjunction with higher mechanical loads,
as well as significant weight reduction by replacing Ni-based alloys by last generation near-
titanium alloys. After 40 years of development of this class of material, the temperature capability
is up to 550-6000C and it seems to be an upper limit [1]. The work addresses in particular to
aircraft engines applications (high-pressure compressor blades and vanes, low-pressure turbine
blades, turbocharger wheels and exhaust valves) but the results will offers a number of attractive
features for use in high-production of automobiles. Titanium aluminide alloys based on
intermetallic phases (TiAl) and 2 (Ti3Al) and the most recent orthorhombic titanium
aluminide, are widely recognized as having the potential to meet the design requirements for high
temperature applications. Despite their low density, high specific strength and stiffness, good
creep resistance, the TiAl resistance against oxidation decreases steeply above 750 C due to the
non-protective oxides (TiO2) formed on the surface. However, the lifetime of the metals and alloys
operating in extreme conditions (air, water, high temperature, etc.) can be prolonged if
continuous protective layers, thermal protective coatings, are applied on the surface of the
material [3,5].Were studied two types of coating one of Ni22Cr10AlY (Amdry 9624) and the
second of Al2O3 Coatings were made by air plasma jet techniques. Experimental studies are
focussed on oxidation resistance because during oxidation, the coating (diffusion barrier) material
must form a protective oxide scale on the basis of Al2O3 and oxides of Cr,Mo,Nb, etc., according to
the chemical composition of the coat. Were checked the structure and weight changes after 100
hours of oxidation at 850C.In order to analyze the oxide layers thicknesses evolution and the
semi quantitative elemental analysis with EDS, the SEM Analysis of samples was made on the
samples surfaces and in transversal sections. After 100 of exposure hours at 850C the surface
following aspects have been observed by the SEM + EDS investigation:
- the NiCrAlY and Al2O3 layers are 20-50 um thick and 30-70 um respectively; a good bonding has
been kept between the support and the NiCrAlY layer and also between the NiCrAlY and Al2O3
coatings;
- on the Al2O3 surface, small microcracks were observed (fig.1) but the transverse observation has
prooved that they are superficials;

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Fig 1 SEM image (SEI) showing the Al2O3 coating aspect: compact layer having some superficial
microcracks

- it can be seen in the BSE image in fig.2 that a 10-20 um depth diffusion zone from the NiCrAlY
toward the support, during the high temperature exposure; the EDS spectrum collected from one
of these areas (fig.3)demonstrated that the most obvious diffusion tendency is shown by nickel.

Fig 2 Transverse section in a BSE image

Fig.3. EDS spectrum collected from the diffusion zone

References
[1] C. LEYENS, M. PETERS, Titanium and titanium alloys: fundamentals and applications, WileyVCH Verlag GmbH, Wenheim, 2003.
[2] J. XIA, X.Y. LI, C.X. LI, H. DONG, The structural and mechanical property characterisation of
thermal oxidation treated g-based titanium aluminide, Thin Solid Films 458 (2004) 212222.
[3] G. MOSKAL, Thermal barriers coatings: characteristic of microstructure and properties,
generation and directions of development of bonds, Journal of Achievements in Materials and
Manufacturing engineering, 37 (2013) 323-331.
[4] S.L. DRAPER, B. A. LERCH, J. M. PEREIRA, K. MIYOSHI, Durability Assessment of Gamma TiAl
Final Report, NASA/TM2004-21230
[5] M. KEMDEHOUNDJA, J.L. GROSSEAU-POUSSARD, J.F. DINHUT, Raman microprobe
spectroscopy measurements of residual stress distribution along blisters in Cr2O3 thin films, Appl.
Surf. Sci. 256 (2010) 27192725.

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#25

DSC ANALYSIS OF TITANIUM ALUMINDE CORRELATED WITH SHORT TERM


OXIDATION BEHAVIOR.
Alexandra Banu1, Marcu Maria2, Elena Anghel2, Cristian Doicin1
1.

Politehnica University from Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Romania,


alexandrabanu14@yahoo.com
2.
Institute of Physical Chemistry Ilie Murgulescu, Splaiul Independentei 202, Bucharest, Romania
ABSTRACT
There has been a major effort aimed at developing TiAl-based alloys because they have a density
about one half that of Ni-based alloys and they retain their strength up to about 750C. It has
been argued that if these alloys could be manufactured so that an acceptable balance could be
obtained between their high and low temperature properties they would be used widely in
aerospace engineering (gas-turbine parts), heat power engineering (gas-turbine units), and car
engine (internal combustion engine) parts. Because of the sharp increase in the cost of nickel in
the last few years, titanium aluminides, whose cost is more than an order of magnitude cheaper
than nickel and density is twice lower, have become promising competitors for nickel superalloys,
which operate at temperatures up to 7500C.
This study intends to evaluate the Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) information, XRD an
Raman analysis correlated with structural transformations that occur during heat treatment at
temperatures of 850C of 2 titanium aluminide. The heat treatment consists from 100 hours of
exposure at 850C. At the end of experiments, the structure transformation and oxide coatings
formation are evaluated by SEM/EDS microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.
Prior to oxidation experiments was done a Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of base
material in order to rapid characterization of base material to oxidation at this temperature. This
experiment was done using APS TG-DSC-DTA SETARAM LabSys Evo 1600, in air, at heating rates
and cooling rates of 5, 10, 15 si 30C/min., respectively up to 1050C.
Differential scanning calorimetry analysis highlights the influence of heating rate at different
temperature levels on oxidation process. The DSC curves of the TiAl based alloy illustrated in
Figure 1 for heating rate of 5 C and 15 C / min show that oxidation initiated at a few degrees
below the 995 and 997 C respectively. Identification of oxidation products was performed by Xray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy analysis. The oxide layer formed on the surface of the
heated specimen 5 and 10 C / min. was peeled partially on the surface thereof. Therefore kinetic
measurements made by Kissinger method (Figure 2) using the peak temperature of the
exothermic oxidation effects are strongly affected by the exfoliation. To determine the oxidation
products and properties of oxide layers resulting from thermal oxidation have used different
characterization techniques:
-morphology and elemental analysis of oxide films is performed with SEM and EDX;
Identify types of oxides resulted after thermal oxidation was performed by Raman spectroscopy
and X-ray (XRD).

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-2

-1

Fig. 1 DSC curves for two heating rates 5C and


15C

Fig. 2 Kissinger dependence Rln(T )=f(T ) where is


heating rate 5,10,15 and 30C respectively

Fig. 3 Raman spectra before and after heating al


850C

Fig. 4 XRD curve spectra performed after 100 hours


of oxidation at 850C

References
[1] M. MARCIUS, M. RISTIC, M. IVANDA, S. MUSIC, FORMATION AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF
NICKEL OXIDE FILMS, JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS 541 (2012) 238243
[2] P.M. SOUSA, A.J. SILVESTRE, O. CONDE, CR2O3 THIN FILMS GROWN AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
BY LOW PRESSURE LASER CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, THIN SOLID FILMS 519 (2011) 3653
3657

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#74

DEGRADATION ANALYSIS OF FIBER-METAL LAMINATES UNDER SERVICE


CONDITIONS TO PREDICT THEIR DURABILITY
A.Viandier 1,2*, D. Stefaniak 1, C. Hhne 1, M. Sinapius 1,2
1

Institute of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems, DLR - German Aerospace Center,
Germany, aurelie.viandier@dlr.de
Institute of Adaptronics and Functional integration, Technical University of Braunschweig,
Germany
ABSTRACT
High-performance industries such as aviation, aerospace or automobile require structures with
high specific strength and stiffness along with outstanding damage tolerance, fire resistance,
fatigue and impact resistance. One possibility to meet these numerous demands is a judicious
combination of different materials. In this regard, Fibre-Metal Laminates (FMLs), advanced
materials consisting of layers of polymer matrix composite alternated with metal foils as in Fig. 1,
are developed and benefit from growing attention. The present study focuses on FMLs composed
of carbon-fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP, based on Prepreg HexPly 8552/AS4) and stainless steel
1.4310 (AISI 301). This material choice is based on the similar mechanical properties of both parts,
especially strength and stiffness, in order to reach a high structural efficiency. As a heterogeneous
system, it is expected to ally the beneficial properties as well as compensate the weaknesses of its
sole constituents, while fulfilling its service life requirements. Nevertheless, the hybrids durability
and reliability under operating conditions is of concern [1-2]. Indeed, FMLs based on carbon fibres
and metal alloys are expected to experience degradation over time in service. In fact, since the
CFRPs resin can absorb moisture, carbon fibres are electrically conductive and CFRP plies are in
direct contact with the steel sheets, stainless steel could undergo the natural and inevitable
process of corrosion. Yet, corrosion inevitably leads to the detrimental change of the chemical,
physical and mechanical properties of the material. Therefore, the reactions taking place inside
the FML should be investigated and the properties deterioration described.
The study's objective is hence to comprehend the undergone
degradation at the CFRP/metal-interface in order to allow predicting
the change in mechanical properties of the FML subjected to
hygrothermal conditions. For this purpose, an appropriate testing is
selected given the materials, the corrosion forms that might occur for
this particular system and the service conditions. Conventional
methods based on physical changes are hence hardly feasible but it is
possible to observe chemical state changes utilizing electrochemical
techniques. The latter are commonly used for the study of metals
corrosion and receive increasing attention for studying CFRP as selfFig. 1 CFRP/stainless
sensing
materials for health monitoring applications. The two
steel-FML
electrochemical tests utilized are:
- Potentiodynamic polarisation - the recording of the polarization curves of steel and CFRP taken
separately by means of a potential sweep over a broad range. Subsequently, the curves are
overlapped to have an insight into the galvanic corrosion behaviour of the heterogeneous system
as in Fig. 2.
- Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) - the measurement of the electrode response to a
low amplitude sinusoidal potential modulation. It permits to characterize electrochemical

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processes taking place in the vicinity of the electrode through the determination of an equivalent
electrical circuit [3]. Thus, the electrolytes resistance, the double layer capacitance and the
materials polarization resistance can be defined; and kinetic parameters can be extracted. In
addition, EIS is a non-destructive technique (NDT) and can be coupled with mechanical testing.
Besides, both techniques require the same experimental configuration: a three-electrode test
setup connected to a potentiostat (here a Vertex from Ivium Technologies). The probe under
study works as the working electrode, a Ag/AgCl-electrode serves as reference electrode and a
Pt/C-foil as the counter electrode.

Fig. 2: Overlapping of the polarisation curves for determining the corrosion parameters

The methods could be implemented with success and led to the following results. The polarization
measurements show that CFRP forms a galvanic corrosion cell with stainless steel; the carbon
composite being the systems cathode (more positive potential) and steel the anode. Besides, the
system displays a critical potential difference of 397 mV. So stainless steel corrodes and pits
appear on its surface. The polarisation tests also enable determining all corrosion parameters
including the systems galvanic current density of 23.1 nA/mm indicating the corrosion rate; its
galvanic potential of 50 mV ie. the energy barrier from which the corrosion occurs; and the
polarisation resistance of each material - the parameter to be improved in order to slow down the
FMLs degradation. It is noted that EIS permits at best to define the materials polarisation
resistance since it dissociates it from the ohmic drop. Thus, the steel presents a higher
polarisation resistance (about 8,943 ) than CFRP (352 ), which is supposedly due to its passive
behaviour. Nonetheless, the pit formation implies the local destruction of the passive oxide layer.
In the end, carrying out potentiodynamic polarisation and EIS is a powerful approach to foresee
the galvanic corrosion behaviour of FMLs under service conditions.
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank the following persons from the InES-Institute at TU Braunschweig: Prof.
Ulrike Krewer for hosting and enabling the performance of pre-tests in her lab; Daniel Schrder for
discussions on and assistance for the polarization measurements; Nina Bge for friendly advice.
References
[1] T. SINMAZELIK, E. AVCU, M.. BORA, AND O. OBAN. A REVIEW: FIBRE METAL LAMINATES,
BACKGROUND, BONDING TYPES AND APPLIED TEST METHODS. MATERIALS AND DESIGN,
32(7):3671-3685, 2011.
[2] Z. PENG AND X. NIE. GALVANIC CORROSION PROPERTY OF CONTACTS BETWEEN CARBON
FIBER CLOTH MATERIALS AND TYPICAL METAL ALLOYS IN AN AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENT.
SURFACE AND COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, 215(0):85-89, 2013.
[3] M.E ORAZEM AND B. TRIBOLLET. ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY. JOHN
WILEY & SONS, 2008.

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#87

A COMPLETE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY OF ANOMALOUS BEHAVIOUR


OF HYGROTHERMALLY AGED FRPs
Sotirios A. Grammatikos, Mark Evernden
BRE Centre for Innovative Construction Materials, Department of Architecture and Civil
Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom, s.grammatikos@bath.ac.uk
ABSTRACT
This paper presents a combined characterization study of the hygrothermal aging effects on Glass
Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRPs). Different GFRP flat sheet materials were examined and
discussed. Short-term coupled exposure to temperature and moisture was adopted, in order to
acquire information regarding the materials long-term performance. FRP samples were
immersed in distilled water at elevated temperatures for a period of 224 days. Moisture
absorption measurements on both unsealed and edge sealed samples were conducted in order to
determine the bulk and directional moisture diffusivity values. Diffusivity values were calculated
via the Fickian theory. In addition, the mechanical performance of the aged laminates was
assessed both in tension and shear. With a view to examining the physicochemical changes due to
hygrothermal aging, Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA), Scanning Electron Microscopy
(SEM) and Infrared spectroscopy were employed on both aged and as-received materials. To
provide a fuller understanding of the chemical degradation process, a decomposition assessment
of the materials was achieved by analyzing the electrical properties of the water medium. Lastly,
impedance spectroscopy was used as a supplementary technique in order to follow hygrothermal
aging /moisture absorption during exposure. Experimental results revealed that moisture
diffusion is more pronounced along the fibre reinforcement direction than the transverse and
through-thickness directions, respectively. It was also found that increased aging temperatures
induced more significant changes in both mechanical and physicochemical properties of the
investigated composite plates.

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Session 7
THU, 16:00 -17:00
Room B
TOPIC: Polymers and Polymer Matrix Composites II
Chair: Daniel F. O. Braga

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#2

STABLE AND DEGRADABLE ALL-ALIPHATIC POLYURETHANE ELASTOMERS


Milena prkov, Magdalena Serkis, Rafa Porba, Ji Hodan, Jana Kredatusov, Luka
Machov and Dana Kubies
Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., Heyrovskho nm. 2, 16206 Praha 6, Czech
Republic
ABSTRACT
Polyurethanes (PUs) are widely used in industry, mainly as foams but also as plastics, elastomers,
coatings and adhesives. They are also very popular in medicine and biochemistry. The initial PU
applications in medicine were connected with their use as vascular implants, grafts, catheters and
biomedical devices featuring long-time stability. Nowadays, PU systems with defined
biodegradability are more and more used as temporary scaffolds, in tissue engineering, as drug
delivery systems, as bioresorbable material, etc. The material chemistry is seeking about new
polymeric systems with the characteristics fulfilling the specified demands depending on the given
objective of the practical use.
All aliphatic polycarbonate-based polyurethanes belong to relatively new PU materials. If they are
prepared from commercially available polycarbonate-based macrodiols, hexamethylene-1,6diisocyanate and butane-1,4-diol, thermoplastic PU elastomers with excellent mechanical and
suitable thermal properties are obtained. The optimum of end-use properties is achieved at
relatively low hard-segment contents (about 20 to 30 wt%) [1,2].
However, if short degradable oligomeric diol based on D,L-lactide is built into the polyurethane
backbone [3], the system dramatically changes functional properties. It was found that tensile
properties are the most sensitive characteristics reflecting changes in PU compositions. The best
functional properties of four-componental PUs are achieved at equimolar concentration of
hydroxyl groups of macrodiol, butane-1,4-diol and degradable oligomeric diol. Compared to this
PU sample, mechanical properties of all PUs prepared at ratios of hydroxyl groups other than
1:1:1 are considerably deteriorated [4]. In this way, the possible practical utility of fourcomponental PUs was concentrated only on the system containing equal molar concentration of
the polycarbonate-based macrodiol, oligomeric D,L-lactide-based diol and butane-,4-diol.
If compared three- and four-componental PU films before hydrolytic tests (untreated PUs), both
types of materials feature very good functional properties. Hydrolytic and thermal stabilities of
both types of PU elastomers were studied as the changes of properties of untreated PU
material and treated PU, i.e. PU samples being exposed to physiologically simulated conditions
(the immersion into phosphate-buffered saline and conditioning at 37 C) for a period of up to 12
months. The multiscale characterization of three- and four-componental untreated and
treated PU elastomers using DSC, TGA, SEM, AFM, FTIR, together with tensile and swelling
analyses was realized. Stability test of three-componental PUs revealed their very high hydrolytic
resistance (without any substantial changes of functional properties) within the period up to 12
months. On the other hand, end-use properties of four-componental treated PUs substantially
differed if compared to their untreated analogues. Thus, it was found that D,L-lactide based
oligomeric diol is the component contributing efficiently to the hydrolytic degradation process of
complex PU systems. Relatively low amount of oligomeric diol (ca 9 wt%) present in the PU
backbone dramatically influences tensile properties, see. Fig. 1, but other functional properties
(e.g. surface relief, thermal and swelling properties) are also substantially changed during the
tests of hydrolytic stability.

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Fig. 1. The comparison of stress-strain dependences of hydrolytically stable three-componental PU (left)


and degradable four-componental PU (right). Black stress-strain curves: untreated samples, green curves:
tensile characteristic of samples after 12 months of PBS immersion.

The set of analytical methods (enabling the multiscale material characterization from the
segmental up to macroscopic levels) revealed that all-aliphatic three-componental polycarbonatebased PU films can be considered as hydrolytically and thermally stable elastomeric materials
keeping excellent mechanical properties within the period up to 12 months. On the other hand,
four-componental PU elastomeric films containing in addition oligomeric D,L-lactide-based linker
can be considered as efficient and prosperous biodegradable materials.
Acknowledgement
The Authors wish to thank the financial support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (Czech
Science Foundation, project No. 13-06700S).
References
[1] PRKOV M, PAVLIEVI J, STRACHOTA A, PORBA R, BERA O, KAPRKOV L, BALDRIAN J,
LOUF M, LAZI N, BUDINSKI-SIMENDI J. NOVEL POLYCARBONATE-BASED POLYURETHANE
ELASTOMERS: COMPOSITION-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIP. EUROP POLYM J 2011;47(5):959-972.
[2] PORBA R, PRKOV M, BROOV L, LAZI N, PAVLIEVI J, STRACHOTA A. ALIPHATIC
POLYCARBONATE-BASED POLYURETHANE ELASTOMERS AND NANOCOMPOSITES. II.
MECHANICAL, THERMAL, AND GAS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES. J APPL POLYM SCI 2013;127(1):329341.
[3] PRKOV M, MACHOV L, KOBERA L, BRUS J, PORBA R, SERKIS M, ZHIGUNOV A.
MULTISCALE APPROACH TO THE MORPHOLOGY, STRUCTURE, AND SEGMENTAL DYNAMICS OF
COMPLEX DEGRADABLE ALIPHATIC POLYURETHANES. J APPL POLYM SCI 2015;132(10):41590.
[4] PORBA R, KREDATUSOV J, HODAN J, SERKIS M, PRKOV M. THERMAL AND MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES OF MULTIPLE-COMPONENT ALIPHATIC DEGRADABLE POLYURETHANES. J APPL
POLYM SCI 2015; 132:41872.

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#10

THE ACCELERATED EFFECT OF NANOPARTICLES ON THE DEGRADATION OF


THE THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A BIO-BASED POLYMER
Evagelia Kontou
School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Department of Mechanics, National
Technical University of Athens, 5 Heroes of Polytechnion, 15773, Athens, Greece,
ekontou@central.ntua.gr
ABSTRACT
Polylactic acid (PLA) is nowadays one of the most important polymers, due to its combined
properties, as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties, appropriate for a
wide range of medical, textile and packaging applications. PLA degrades during thermal
processing or under hydrolytic conditions, giving a reduction of molecular weight that affects the
final properties of the material, such as the mechanical strength [1]. The degradation behavior
depends strongly on the molecular weight and the crystallinity of the PLA [2]. The
thermomechanical and barrier properties of polylactide (PLA) can be enhanced by the
incorporation of a fairly low amount of nanosized fillers (1-5 wt %) [3]. The manner in which the
thermomechanical and viscoelastic properties of PLA and PLA/nanocomposites alter over time, is
still an issue of great importance. In the present work, a series of PLA nanocomposites with a
filler content of 2, 3 and 5 wt.% of silica (Si) has been prepared, and experimentally examined. The
degradation ability of PLA and PLA/Si nanocomposites under specific environmental conditions,
namely immersion at a buffer solution at temperatures of 37 C with a pH of 7.4 for various time
periods has been studied experimentally. These conditions simulate those in the human body,
appropriate in medical applications. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of
nanoparticles on the variation of the thermomechanical and viscoelastic properties of PLA under
the specified aging conditions. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), tensile testing and tensile
creep experiments were employed to examine the thermomechanical and viscoelastic properties
variation with aging time for PLA and PLA/Si nanocomposites. A matter of importance has been
proved to be the crystallization behavior in PLA and the way it is affected by the presence of
nanofillers during degradation procedure. As far as crystalline behavior of PLA and
PLA/nanocomposites under aging conditions is concerned, it must be noted that for a
semicrystalline polymer, the initial crystalline structure strongly affects the hydrolytic degradation
of PLA. Regarding elastic properties, a general Youngs modulus incerement of the order of 39% is
obtained for PLA due to the incorporation of nanofillers. As far as degradation is concerned, PLA
exhibits a 11% reduction of Youngs modulus after 23 weeks of aging, while the PLA/Si
nanocomposites showed in average an average 23% decrement, revealing this way the
accelerated aging of PLA due to the nanoparticles. Tensile creep experiments were performed at
room temperature, for 60 min, and varying aging time for all materials examined. In the unaged
samples, the creep resistance of PLA/nanocomposites is obvious compared to that of pure PLA.
After 30 days of aging, the creep strain of PLA/nanocomposites was equivalent to that of pure
PLA, while after 90 days of aging the PLA/nanocomposites were driven to creep failure within 50,
40 and 20 min of creep time, depending on the silica content (Fig. 1).

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Fig.1 : Creep strain versus time of PLA and its nanocomposites, at various aging time periods.

Creep strain data were simulated by employing linear viscoelastic models. The accelerated creep
strain at the tertiary creep stage, has been successfully modeled by a nonlinear viscoplastic model
[4], while the stress-strain curves were predicted with the same set of parameters.
It must be concluded that at the particular aging conditions studied, silica nanoparticles
accelerate the degradability of PLA, having a higher impact on Youngs modulus, and creep
response.
References

[1] S. K. SAHA AND H. TSUJI. EFFECTS OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND SMALL AMOUNTS OF D-

LACTIDE UNITS ON HYDROLYTIC DEGRADATION OF POLY(L-LACTIC ACID)S. POLYM DEGRAD


STAB, 91(8):1665-1673,2006.
[2] K. FUKUSHIMA, C. ABBATE, D. TABUANI, M. GENNARI AND G. CAMINO. BIODEGRADATION OF
POLY(LACTIC ACID) AND ITS NANOCOMPOSITES. POLYM DEGRAD STAB, 94(10): 1646-1655,
2009.
[3] P.GEORGIOPOULOS , E.KONTOU , A. MERISTOUDI, S.PISPAS, AND M. CHATZINIKOLAIDOU.HE
EFFECT OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES ON THE THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND
DEGRADATION BEHAVIOR OF POLYLACTIC ACID. JOURNAL OF BIOMATERIALS APPLICATIONS,
29(5): 662-674, 2014.
[4] G. SPATHIS, E.KONTOU. NONLINEAR VISCOELLASTIC AND VISCOPLASTIC RESPONSE OF GLASSY
POLYMERS. POL. ENG. SCI., 41: 1337-1344, 2001.

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#95

OPTIMIZATION OF THE HYBRID VISCOELASTIC INTERPHASE MODEL


Psarra Erato1, Papanicolaou George2
1

Laboratory of Solid Mechanics, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128, Palaiseau, France
Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Composite Materials Group, University
of Patras, Patras 26500, Greece
ABSTRACT

In this study, the hybrid viscoelastic interphase model [1] meets its optimization development,
incorporating assumptions which extend models influence and validity. In composite materials,
by the term hybrid interphase, it is meant the interphase material having a volume fraction that
represents the percentage of the bulk matrix surrounding the reinforcement, in which a specific
matrix property is strongly affected by the existence of the reinforcement. The hybrid interphase
thickness represents the maximum radial distance from the inclusion to the matrix boundary, a
regime where all the properties exponentially vary [2]. This third phase includes micro-cracks,
stress concentrations [3-5], residual stresses etc, having properties that are strongly affected not
only by the presence of the reinforcement, but also by the imperfect bonding between the
constituent materials. Thus, it is a possible region for failure initiation, while it exhibits a timedependent response, as a matrix-modified viscoelastic material [6-8].
According to the hybrid interphase model, the interphasial thickness is not a constant value, but it
depends on the property considered at the time, as well as on the creep time. In addition, the
parameter of the imperfect bonding is introduced through the degree of adhesion [9]. Despite
models indisputable effectiveness and significant contribution to the field of interphase
modeling, the assumptions of a time-dependent adhesion coefficient and Modulus come to
enhance the analytical expressions, providing a better description of the conflicting
microstructural phenomena occurring in the interphasial regime.
In the present investigation, experimental findings were initially modeled by means of the
originally developed model. The experimental outputs combined with analytical and numerical
results gave a better understanding of the viscoelastic response of long fiber polymer composites.
The application of the model carried out on Epoxy Resin/Luffa Cylindrica (ER/LC) specimens,
subjected to tensile creep at 9.6 MPa stress level (20% of max).
To go one step further, the effective response was recalculated based on the new assumptions,
which were successively added to the model. The adhesive bonds were stochastically distributed
along fibers longitudinal direction, turning the RVE into 2D, depicting a more realistic condition of
the interphase, formed during the manufacturing process. Poissons ratio affects the variation of
the interphasial thickness vs. time and thus it was, also, taken into account in the calculations. The
local - global strains were defined through experiments and homogenization schemes.

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Fig. 1. Left: Luffa Cylindrica fibers, reinforcement of epoxy resin specimens; right: Creep Compliance curves
of pure resin and ER/LC, stress level: 20% of Su

Fig. 2. Interphase Modulus Ei vs. position through the interface thickness for: left: the original hybrid
interphase model; right: the optimized hybrid interphase model taking into account the degradation of
interfacial bonds.

References

[1] PAPANICOLAOU, G. C.; XEPAPADAKI, A. G.; DRAKOPOULOS, E. D.; PAPAEFTHYMIOU, K. P.;


PORTAN, D. V. J. APPL POLYM SCI, VOL. 124(2), 15781588 (2012)
[2] PAPANICOLAOU, G. C.; XEPAPADAKI, A. G.; KARAGOUNAKI, K.; ZAOUTSOS, S. P. J APPL POLYM
SCI 2008, 108, 640.
[3] COX, H. L. BRIT J APPL PHYS 1951, 3, 72.
[4] THEOCARIS, P. S.; PAPANICOLAOU, G. C. FIBRE SCI TECH 1979, 12, 421.
[5] HAQUE, A.; RAMASETTY, A. COMPOS STRUCT 2004, 71, 68.
[6] FISHER, F. T.; BRINSON, L. C. COMP SCI TECH 2001, 61, 731.
[7] LI, J; WENG, G. J COMP 1996, 27B, 589.
[8] WEI, P. J.; HUANG, Z. P. INT J SOL STRUCT 2004, 41, 6993.
[9] PAPANICOLAOU, G. C.; DEMETRESCU, I.; PORTAN, D. V.; PAPAEFTHYMIOU K. P. COMP INTERF
2011, 13, 23.

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Poster Session
TUE, 17:30 -18:00
Exhibition Area

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#21

DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PLA AND PLA/CNT-COOH


BIODEGRADABLE NANOCOMPOSITES THIN FILMS
Viviana Correia Pinto1,2, Marta Martins1, Nuno Rocha1, Rui Miranda Guedes1,2,3
1

INEGI - Institute of Science and Innovation on Mechanical Engineering and Industrial


Management, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal,
vpinto@inegi.up.pt
2
LABIOMEP, Laboraty of Biomechanics of Porto, University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
3
Mechanics Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Roberto Frias, 4200-465
Porto, Portugal
ABSTRACT
Biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) have been studied for biomaterials
applications such as natural human ligament replacement [1], however these materials could be
applied to other sectors as aerospace, aeronautics, automotive, food packaging. Biodegradable
polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) have been studied for being used on a temporary approach
of the natural ligament replacement, combined with Tissue Engineering techniques, instead of the
permanent approach. These approach aims to recover damaged natural ligament remaining from
a rupture, by using a biodegradable scaffold that allows the growing of the new tissue, promoting
the regeneration. Biodegradable scaffold should degrade during the recovery period of the
ligament maintaining essential mechanical properties and loosing molecular weight until scaffold
is no longer required [2].
PLA presents a relatively brittle with a mode I fracture behaviour, being often blend with other
biodegradable or non-degradable polymers to improve its fracture energy [3]. For some existing
applications, PLA components exhibit accumulated permanent deformation resulting from
dynamic mechanical inputs, resulting on failure by laxity of parts [4]. Aiming the improvement of
PLA mechanical properties, the inclusion of carbon nanofillers into PLA matrix as reinforcements,
in particular, functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT-COOH) have been developed, due to their
strong sp2 carbon-carbon bondings and their geometric arrangement that enhance mechanical
properties of the polymer matrix.
PLA (4% D-lactide, L-lactide 96%, Mw ~ 170,000 gmol-1, Natureworks LLC, USA) and PLA/CNTCOOH nanocomposites were produced by melt blending followed by compression molding in a
hot press. Small weight percentages of CNT-COOH (Nanocyl, Belgium) were added to PLA,
namely, 0.3 and 0.7 for PLA/CNT-COOH nanocomposites.
Static mechanical tests were performed according to standard D882 on a mechanical testing
machine (Instron ElectroPuls E1000), along with DMA tests (DMA Q800 TA Instruments) with
multi-frequency (1,10, 50 and 100Hz) and relaxation analysis for a range of temperatures near
glass transition temperature, between 27 and 62C with 5C steps. Relaxation modulus behaviour
was determined during approximately 1 hour relaxation test. For DMA tests samples were 5x25
mm.

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Fig. 1 Results for relaxation modulus and strain variation, at a constant load, for PLA, PLA/CNTCOOH0.3 and PLA/CNT-COOH0.7, at 37C.

Tensile tests results revealed tensile strength of PLA was around 61.04 MPa and between 65.75
and 73.40 MPa for PLA/CNT-COOH nanocomposites, depending on their weight percentage of
nanofillers, followed by the plastic regime, ending up on the specimen break. Youngs modulus for
PLA was determined as 4.1 GPa, being improved for nanocomposites, between 4.2 and 4.9 GPa.
Augmentation of toughness, Youngs modulus and tensile strength simultaneously are the most
valuable functionality of these of PLA/CNT-COOH nanocomposites, comparing to previous studies,
indicating a real load transfer from PLA-matrix to nanofillers. Poissons ratio results indicate
mixtures isotropy.
After 1hour, relaxation modulus for PLA was about 1.2 GPa, 1.7 GPa for PLA/CNT-COOH.3 and
2GPa for PLA/CNT-COOH.7. PLA and PLA/CNT-COOH nanocomposites demonstrate nonlinear
viscoelastic behaviour. Storage modulus for PLA/CNT-COOH nanocomposites was higher than the
PLA one, verifying the same tendency on tensile tests.
References
[1] L. S. NAIR, C. T. LAURENCIN, BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS AS BIOMATERIALS, PROGRESS IN
POLYMER SCIENCE, 32, 762-798, 2007.
[2] D. W. HUTMACHER, SCAFFOLDS IN TISSUE ENGINEERING BONE AND CARTILAGE,
BIOMATERIALS, 21, 2529-2543, 2000.
[3] R. AURAS, L.-T. LIM, S. SELKE, H. TSUJI. POLY(LACTIC ACID): SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURES,
PROPERTIES, PROCESSING, AND APPLICATIONS. POLYMER ENGINEERING AND
TECHNONOLOGY. NEW JERSEY, USA: JOHN WILEY & SONS, 2010.
[4] A.C. VIEIRA, J. C. VIEIRA, J. M. FERRA, F. D. MAGALHES, R. M. GUEDES, A. T. MARQUES.
MECHANICAL STUDY OF PLA-PCL FIBERS DURING IN VITRO DEGRADATION, JOURNAL OF THE
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS, 4(3):451-60, 2011.
[5] D882 ASTM STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR TENSILE PROPERTIES OF THIN PLASTIC SHEETING:
ASTM INTERNATIONAL: WEST CONSHOHOCKEN, 2012.

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#29

EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF CREEP AND STRESS


RELAXATION BEHAVIOUR OF PLA-PCL FIBRES

Ctia Martins1,2, Viviana Correia Pinto1,2, Rui Miranda Guedes1,2,3, Antnio T. Marques1,3
1

INEGI Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 4200-465
Porto, Portugal
2
LABIOMEP, Laboraty of Biomechanics of Porto, University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, 4200-465
Porto, Portugal
ABSTRACT

Current solutions for soft tissues replacements based on biodegradable polymers are susceptible
to visco-elastoplastic behavior which may lead to the device failure. When they are submitted to
large deformations, above the elastic limit, in dynamic or static loading conditions, these materials
will progressively accumulate permanent deformation, which part of it is internal damage, due to
creep and fatigue [1]. Biodegradable devices can fail in long term due laxity or by sudden failure
and, in the case of polymers, creep and fatigue interactions occur at low temperature and these
two phenomena are coupled [1]. An ideal scaffold for ligament repair must display a similar
mechanical behaviour to the natural ligament, being essential to analyze and reproduce
viscoelastic behaviour of the scaffold for the medical device production.
In this work, the focus was given to the study of creep and stress relaxation behaviour of PLA-PCL
fibres and the Burgers model was used to describe the experimental data. PLA-PCL fibres (
0.5mm, length: 80mm), dry and saturated specimens with normal saline solution (0.9% NaCl),
were tested under static and dynamic mechanical loading conditions, i.e. tensile, creep and stress
relaxation tests. Saturated samples were placed in a recipient containing the solution for at least 2
hours, for mimic the human body environment. Additionally, a dropper was used to moisten the
samples and efforts were made to ensure that all the specimens remained saturated throughout
the mechanical tests. The different creep and stress relaxation levels were defined based on
tensile strength (dry specimens: 237.75MPa; saturated specimens: 232.22MPa) and maximum
strain (dry specimens: 76.57%; saturated specimens: 77.40%) values collected from tensile tests
data (engineering curve).
The most linear region of the different creep and relaxation curves are represented in Fig. and
Fig. 2 respectively (in a log-log scale). A linear approach was used in order to calculate creep and
stress relaxation rates.
a

Fig. 1- Creep rate at multiple levels: (a) dry specimens; (b) saturated specimens.

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Fig. 2: Relaxation rate at multiple levels: (a) dry specimens; (b) saturated specimens.

Creep experimental data was used to obtain the Burgers model parameters [2]. Fig. 3 depicts a
good fit of the model to the experimental data. Similarly, experimental stress relaxation data was
used to test the model.
The prediction of stress relaxation behavior using the Burgers model may be considered
qualitatively satisfactory in spite of the assumptions implied by this simple model.

st

Fig. 3: Modelling results for the 1 creep level (dry specimens).

References
[1] VIEIRA, A., ET AL., TIME-DEPENDENT DAMAGE ON BIODEGRADABLE DEVICES. JOURNAL OF
BIOMECHANICS, 2012. 45: P. S59.
[2] FINDLEY, W. N., CREEP AND RELAXATION OF NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC MATERIALS (WITH AN
INTRODUCTION TO LINEAR VISCOELASTICITY). 1976, NEW YORK: DOVER PUBLISHER, INC.
[3] PROVENZANO, P.P., ET AL., APPLICATION OF NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC MODELS TO DESCRIBE
LIGAMENT BEHAVIOR. BIOMECH MODEL MECHANOBIOL, 2002. 1(1): P. 45-57.

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#44

PREPARATION OF PVP POLYMER ELECTROLYTES AND THEIR APPLICATION


IN SOLID STATE DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS
Dimosthenis I. Giannopoulos, Dimitris A. Chalkias*, George C. Papanicolaou
Composite Materials Group (CMG), Department of Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering,
University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500, Greece, chalkias@mech.upatras.gr
ABSTRACT
Polymer electrolytes are an important class of solid or quasi solid-state electrolytes used in Dye
Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) [1, 2]. In the present investigation, solid polymer electrolytes
consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), as the solidification agent, and different quantities wt%
of potassium iodide (KI), were prepared for the intended use of them in solid-state DSSCs (see Fig.
1). The compositions of PVP: x wt% KI (where x = 20, 25, 30, 35, 40) were studied with the
purpose to achieve the maximum conductivity and consequently the maximum photo-current
combined with low dark reaction, i.e. high voltage [3]. PVP deserve a special attention among
conjugated polymers because of good environmental stability, easy processability and moderate
electrical conductivity. Moreover, as a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic polymer, can form PVP-I2
by reaction with I2, enhancing therefore the open-circuit photovoltage of solar cells [4]. A simple
chemical technique for preparing doctor-blading paste from commercially - available P-25
nanopowder was used to fabricate TiO2 electrodes for DSSCs. The nanoporous semi-transparent
TiO2 films without cracking and peeling-off were fabricated on conductive glass substrates
(Fluorine doped Tin Oxide, FTO Glass) and were used as solar cells active layers [5]. Subsequently,
the working electrodes were coated with a monolayer of a charge-transfer dye (N719) to sensitize
the TiO2 films for light harvesting [1]. Different concentrations of dye and solvents were studied.
The polymer electrolytes, in all cases, were casted onto the nanoporous films while were in a low
viscosity solution form for complete penetration of them through the voids of nanopores [6]. The
study continued by fabricating TiO2 electrodes using spin-coating technique where the
centrifugal force contributed to a perfectly, uniform deposition of the paste. Configuring the
revolutions per minute (rpm) of the coater, different thicknesses of TiO2 films were obtained and
used in DSSCs, influencing subsequently their electrical characteristics [7]. In all experiments,
factory available, Platinum (Pt) nanoclusters coated FTO Glasses were used as cathode counter
electrodes in DSSCs. The experimental characterization of the cells (0.25cm2 active area) included
measurements, under real test conditions, from Short-Circuit Current (ISC) to Open-Circuit
Photovoltage (VOC) in order to extract a continuous I-V curve and the accurate energy convention
efficiency of solar cells. The experiments followed a theoretical analysis using a simple one-diode
model in order to specify the diode factor and the internal parasitic series and shunt resistances
of solar cells [8].

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Fig. 1- PVP solid polymer electrolyte

References
[1] B. OREGAN, M. GRATZEL, A LOW-COST, HIGH-EFFICIENCY SOLAR CELL BASED ON DYE
SENSITIZED COLLOIDAL TIO2 FILMS, NATURE 353 (1991) 737.
[2] A. F. NOGUEIRA, C. LONGO, M. -A. DE PAOLI, POLYMERS IN DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS:
OVERVIEW AND PERSPECTIVES, COORDINATION CHEMISTRY REVIEWS 248 (2004) 1455.
[3] M. SINGH, V. K. SINGH, K. SURANA, B. BHATTACHARYA, P. K. SINGH, H. -W. RHEE, NEW
POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL APPLICATION, JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL AND
ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY 19 (2013) 819.
[4] J. WU, P. LI, S. HAO, H. YANG, Z. LAN, A POLYBLEND ELECTROLYTE (PVP/PEG+KI+I2) FOR DYESENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS, ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA 52 (2007) 5334.
[5] Y. YAN, J. WANG, Q. CHANG, M. BABIKIER, H. WANG, H. LI, Q. YU, S. GAO, S. JIAO,
FABRICATION OF MESOPOROUS TIO2 ELECTRODES BY CHEMICAL TECHNIQUE FOR DYESENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS, ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA 94 (2013) 277.
[6] M.-S. KANG, J. H. KIMB, J. WON, Y. S. KANG, DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS BASED ON
CROSSLINKED POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL) ELECTROLYTES, JOURNAL OF PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND
PHOTOBIOLOGY A: CHEMISTRY 183 (2006) 15.
[7] W. ZHAO, H. BALA, J. CHEN, Y. ZHAO, G. SUN, J. CAO Z. ZHANG, THICKNESS-DEPENDENT
ELECTRON TRANSPORT PERFORMANCE OF MESOPOROUS TIO2 THIN FILM FOR DYE-SENSITIZED
SOLAR CELLS, ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA 114 (2013) 318.
[8] H. H. KYAW, T. BORA, J. DUTTA, ONE-DIODE MODEL EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS FOR ZNO
NANOROD-BASED DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS: EFFECTS OF ANNEALING AND ACTIVE AREA,
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY 11 (2012) 763.

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#45

LOW ENERGY IMPACT AND POST IMPACT BEHAVIOR OF EPOXY MATRIXWOVEN FLAX FABRIC COMPOSITES
D.A. Chalkias, A.F. Koutsomitopoulou, G.C. Papanicolaou+
Composite Materials Group (CMG) Department of Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering,
University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500, Greece, gpapan@mech.upatras.gr
ABSTRACT
Predicting the residual properties after impact of polymeric composites is an important issue in
determining their ability to post impact loading. Low-energy impact damage is often internal and
invisible, but can minimize the residual strength of the material [1-3]. Epoxy matrix-woven flax
fabric composite panels, designed of four laminates, were fabricated using a simple open
molding, hand lay-up, manufacturing process. This work presents the results of experimental
investigations concerning low-energy impact tests on the composites, as also the very good
correlation between experimental and analytical results of their post impact behavior, by applying
two analytical models developed by the corresponding author [4, 5]. Experimental impact tests
were performed according to ASTM standards using an instrumented falling weight impact testing
machine, from increasing impact heights until visible damage in composite was induced (see Fig.
1). The progressive damage due to increased impact energy levels was studied, as also the
variation of the maximum impact load and absorbed energy/impact energy as a function of
impact energy was calculated. The maximum damage zone, in all experiments, existed on the
back face of the impacted composite panels, where cracks appeared in direction of 45 with
respect to woven fibers and proceed in the radial direction from the center of the panel for higher
impact-energy level (> 2.507 J). This pattern of cracking is characteristic of woven composites [6].
At impact-energy 3.76 J, the composite appeared to lose 60% of the maximum strength in
bending, while the modulus was almost halved. The mechanical properties degradation of the
composites was approached through quasi-static characterization in 3-point bending of composite
beams sectioned from composite panels, investigating in addition the spread of damage in the
panel. For this purpose, four strips were taken symmetrically from both sides of the panels, and
the fifth one was obtained from the central panel area, thus containing the impact zone (see Fig.
2).

Fig.1 Falling weight impact testing machine

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Fig. 2 - Position of bending specimens arising from the composite panel

References
[1] W. J. CANTWELL, J. MORTON, THE IMPACT RESISTANCE OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS- A
REVIEW, COMPOSITES 22 (1991) 347.
[2] M. O. W RICHARDSON, M. J. WISHEART, REVIEW OF LOW-VELOCITY IMPACT PROPERTIES OF
COMPOSITE MATERIALS, COMPOSITES PART A 27 (1996), 1123.
[3] S. ALBRATE, IMPACT ON LAMINATED COMPOSITE MATERIALS, APPLIED MECHANICS REVIEW
44 (1991) 155.
[4] G. C. PAPANICOLAOU, C. D. STAVROPOULOS, D. E. MOUZAKIS, J. KARGER-KOCSIS, RESIDUAL
TENSILE STRENGTH MODELLING OF POLYMER-POLYMER MICROLAYER COMPOSITES AFTER
LOW ENERGY IMPACT. PLASTICS, RUBBER AND COMPOSITES PROCESSING AND APPLICATIONS
26 (1997) 412.
[5] G. C. PAPANICOLAOU, T. V. KOSMIDOU, A. S. VATALIS, C. G. DELIDES, WATER ABSORPTION
MECHANISM AND SOME ANOMALOUS EFFECTS ON THE MECHANICAL AND VISCOELASTIC
BEHAVIOR OF AN EPOXY SYSTEM, JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE 99 (2006) 1328.
[6] P. N. B. REIS, J. A. M. FERREIRA, P. SANTOS, M. O. W. RICHARDSON, J. B. SANTOS, IMPACT
RESPONSE OF KEVLAR COMPOSITES WITH FILLED EPOXY MATRIX, JOURNAL OF COMPOSITE
STRUCTURES 94 (2012) 3520.

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#47

STRAIN-RATE EFFECTS IN NANO AND MICRO TiO2 PARTICLES -EPOXY RESIN


PARTICULATE COMPOSITES BEHAVIOR
A.E. Manara, L.C. Kontaxis, G.C. Papanicolaou
The Composite Materials Group, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautics Engineering,
University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500, Greece, gpapan@mech.upatras.gr
ABSTRACT
The effect of strain rate on the viscoelastic behavior of composite materials has been previously
investigated by many researchers [1-3]. In the present investigation, epoxy resin with different
weight fractions of TiO2 micro-particles (1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) and of TiO2 nano-particles (0.5%,
1%, 2%, 3%) was prepared. The particle size of the nano particles was averaged around 21nm
while the particle size of the micro TiO2 particles was averaged around 0.2 m. The morphology of
the prepared particulate composites was studied by the means of Scanning Electron Microscopy
(SEM). The dispersion of the micro and nano fillers in the matrix was observed and the existence
of agglomerations was found in high concentrations. There were agglomerations in both microcomposites and nano-composites, as seen in figures below (Fig. 1, 2), for 20% weight fraction of
micro TiO2 particles and 3% weight fraction of nano particles. The flexural tests were carried out
at different filler weight fractions and different strain rates (0.1, 0.5, 5, 50 mm/min). In this
investigation, the aim was to evaluate the effect of different particle size and different strain rates
on the viscoelastic behavior of the particulate composites that were prepared.

Fig. 1 SEM image of epoxy resin reinforced with TiO2 micro-particles (0.2 m, Wf =20%)

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Fig. 2 SEM image of epoxy resin reinforced with TiO2 nano-particles (21 nm, Wf =3%)

References
[1] G.C. PAPANICOLAOU, C. BAXEVANAKIS. "VISCOELASTIC MODELLING AND STRAIN-RATE
BEHAVIOUR OF PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)." J. MATER. SCI., 1991, 26, 4323-4330.
[2] S.BARRE, T. CHOTARD AND M.L. BENZEGGAGH. "COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STRAIN RATE
EFFECTS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF GLASS FIBRE-REINFORCED THERMOSET MATRIX
COMPOSITES". COMPOSITES, PART A., 1996, 27,1169-1181.
[3] D.P. PIOLETTI, L.R. RAKOTOMANANA,J.-F. BENVENUTI, P.-F. LEYVRAZ. "VISCOELASTIC
CONSTITUVE LAW IN LARGE DEFORMATIONS: APPLICATION TO HUMAN KNEE LIGAMENTS AND
TENDON." J. BIOMECH., 1998, 31,753-757.
[4] P.S.THEOCARIS; G.C.PAPANICOLAOU; E.A.KONTOU "THE EFFECT OF FILLER-VOLUME FRACTION
AND STRAIN RATE ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF IRON-EPOXY PARTICULATE COMPOSITES", J. REINF.
PLAST. COMPOS. 1982, 1(3), 206-224

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#48

THERMAL SHOCK CYCLING EFFECT ON THE FLEXURAL STRESS RELAXATION


BEHAVIOR OF GLASS FIBER-EPOXY LAMINATES
E.A. Tsiangou, G.C. Papanicolaou*, L.C. Kontaxis
The Composite Materials Group, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautics Engineering,
University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500, Greece, gpapan@mech.upatras.gr
ABSTRACT
Glass fiber reinforced polymer composites are exposed to varied temperature cycles during their
applications in many areas. It is important to evaluate the extent of degradation effects of
thermal fatigue on the viscoelastic properties of such materials. The effect of thermal shock
cycling of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) specimens on their creep behavior was studied
extensively in a previous work [1]. The present investigation aims to study the effect of thermal
shock cycling [2] of the same composites on their relaxation behavior [3]. For this purpose, the
relaxation specimens were first subjected to a number of thermal cycles. They were exposed to
50 0C temperature for 5 minutes in an oven and afterwards were immediately placed in a freezer
at -27 0C for another 5 minutes (Fig. 1). The thermal cycling was repeated for 6, 12, 24, 36, 48
cycles (Fig.2). Relaxations tests were then performed on virgin and damaged specimens in order
to examine the effect of the thermal shock cycling on the relaxation behavior. For each number of
cycles, deflections of 4mm, 5mm and 6mm were applied to specimens and the reduction of the
developed stress was recorded for 100 minutes. For the flexural deflections imposed, the
isochronous curves demonstrated a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. Thus, the viscoelastic models
of the nonlinear viscoelastic-degradation model [4] and the Residual Property Model (RPM) [5]
were applied in order to predict the relaxation curves and calculate the parameters. Predicted
values were compared with respective experimental results. In all cases, a fair agreement
between experimental findings and theoretical predictions was found.

Fig. 1 Thermal fatigue profile

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Fig. 2 Relaxation Curves of undamaged and damaged specimens after 12,24,36,48 thermal shock cycles

References
[1] PAPANICOLAOU, G. C.; XEPAPADAKI, A. G.; TAGARIS, G. D. EFFECT OF THERMAL SHOCK
CYCLING ON THE CREEP BEHAVIOR OF GLASS-EPOXY COMPOSITES. COMPOS. STRUCT., 2009, 88
(3), 436-442.
[2] RAY, B. C. THERMAL SHOCK AND THERMAL FATIGUE ON DELAMINATION OF GLASS FIBER
REINFORCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES. J. REINF. PLAST. COMPOS., 2005, 24(1). 111-116.
[3] FERRY, J. D. VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS JOHN WILEY AND SONS: NEW YORK,
1980.
[4] MULIANA, A. NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC-DEGRADATION MODEL FOR POLYMERIC BASED
MATERIALS. INT. J. SOLIDS STRUCT., 2014, 51 (1), 122-132.
[5] PAPANICOLAOU, G. C.; KONTAXIS, L. C.; KOUTSOMITOPOULOU, A. F.; ZAOUTSOS, S. P. STRESS
RELAXATION BEHAVIOR OF STARCH POWDER-EPOXY RESIN COMPOSITES. J. APP. POLYM. SC.,
2015, 132 (12).

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#49

THE DOUBLE ROLE OF FIBERS AS REINFORCEMENTS AND HEATING


ELEMENTS FOR POLYMER CURING IN THERMOSET MATRIX-FIBER
COMPOSITES
I. E. Chontzoglou, L.C.Kontaxis, G.C. Papanicolaou*
The Composite Materials Group, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautics Engineering,
University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500, Greece, gpapan@mech.upatras.gr
ABSTRACT
Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) have become one of the most widely used family of
composite materials. Thermoset Polymers as the Matrix Component are considered to be highly
stable, since their microstructure is impossible to demodulate once they are cured. A very
common reinforcement medium with many applications in modern technology and an extensive
amount of global references are the carbon fibers. Carbon fibers are used in such a large scale
because of their extremely high mechanical special properties and their multifunctionality. One of
their many well-known functions is electrical conductivity [1].
However, the advantages of CFRPs are known for many years, since they are very common in
material industry. The conventional way of their curing though is by granting heat through ovens.
The aim of this study is to achieve a fully cured Renlam CY219 thermoset matrix using heat
produced by a direct electric current through the fiber. Two types of fibers were used as heating
mediums in order for the polymerization reaction to occur. At first, Kanthal resistance wires were
used [2] and subsequently they were replaced by a Torayca Carbon Tow of the same radius.
The specimens were cured by the heat produced by an electric current through the fibers at
temperatures of 50 0C and 70 0C. These temperatures were applied at the specimens with Kanthal
wire and Carbon Fibers alike. As a way of comparison with the conventional way of curing, the
same specimens, including the fibers, were cured in an oven. The specimens were characterized
in three point bending experiments. The comparison of the values of Flexural Modulus is an early
estimation of the mechanical properties of the thermoset and also an indication of the differences
of the two different curing mechanisms.
Thermal modeling [3] was also applied using both Analytical and Finite Element methods. In these
analyses the specimens were approached as 2-D concentric cylindrical fields, implying a
transverse section of the specimens. The heat conduction between the two parts of the
composite is simulated by theoretical models of heat conduction between a cylinder and an
external medium. The FEA was divided in three steps of problem solving. We begin with a steadystate problem, where the properties of the matrix are considered as stable. The second step
includes properties that depend on time and the radius from the fiber [4]. The third step aims to
imitate as precisely as possible the natural problem, involving the phase change factor as well.
Concluding, a feasibility study was conducted in order to determine whether a curing via
electricity after the shaping of the composite, not only leads to the same quality of product, but
also is recourse-efficient by the means of energy, money etc. This idea is based on the belief that
during this technique the excess of heat will be minimized and likewise will be the
aforementioned resources.

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Fig. 1 The experimental setup: Carbon Fiber rowing as heating medium for the polymerization of Epoxy
resin

References
[1] G.C. PAPANICOLAOU, D. MOUZAKIS, COMPOSITE MATERIALS, KLEIDARITHMOS PUBL.,
ATHENS, 2007
[2] S.VERBIS, A.KOTROTSOS, G.C.PAPANICOLAOU, AN INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CURING OF
THERMOSETS AND SELF HEALING OF THERMOPLASTICS, THE 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
ON STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS (ICSAAM), 23-26 SEPTEMBER 2013, KOS,
GREECE
[3] Y. A. CENGEL, A. GHAJAR, HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, 4TH EDITION, TZIOLAS
PUBLICATIONS, 2012
[4] I. VARDAKOSTAS, G.C. PAPANICOLAOU, THERMAL STRESSES IN FIBROUS COMPOSITE
MATERIALS AND APPLICATION HYBRID INTERPHASE MODEL, FINAL YEAR THESIS, UNIVERSITY OF
PATRAS, 2005

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#50

MODELING THE MECHANICAL DEGRADATION DUE TO MOISTURE


ABSORPTION IN POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES
P.D. Fotou, G.C. Papanicolaou
Composite Materials Group (CMG), Department of Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering
University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500, Greece, gpapan@mech.upatras.gr
ABSTRACT
This work aims to develop a descriptive model for the mechanical degradation induced by
moisture absorption in polymer matrix composite materials. The model combines statistical logic,
clear mathematical and natural interpretation as well as experimental data, incorporating a
number of different moisture absorption mechanisms, in a systematic approach to achieve a
better understanding of the evolution of the whole phenomenon investigated [1,2]. The final
mathematical form attempts to be used in any composite system of different constituting
materials and immersion conditions. In this way, results shown cover a wide range of composite
materials both fibrous and particulate such as epoxy and polyester to polypropylene resins as
matrix materials reinforced with glass, iron, flax or even wood flour fillers. Furthermore, both
distilled and sea water immersion environments of different immersion temperatures were
considered as well. Thus, the extracted mathematical form was successfully applied to every
single case, but having in mind that due to the complexity of the systems investigated and the
great differences that might be present amongst them and at the same time a unique and exact
interpretation of every one of them may be given, based on four different arising
micromechanical phenomena during moisture absorption procedure such as the matrix
plastification, the filling of internal voids with water molecules, the hydrolysis of the interfacial or
bulk matrix bonds and the hydrogen bonds forming. From mathematical point of view, the final
equation describing the experimental points variation for the modulus of elasticity as a function
of time of immersion is constituted by two exponential functions derived as the result of the
superposition of all the above-mentioned mechanisms of absorption. Thus, a full description of
the experimental data is performed followed by respective physical explanations of the different
mechanisms incorporated at different time intervals of the whole water immersion time range is
also given.
Chopped strand Glass mat-Epoxy resin Renlam CY219 (3L)

Epoxy resin Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)


0,1

experimental values
theoretical values

experimental values
theoretical values

0,0

0.0

(Ec-E0)/E0

(Ec-E0)/E0

-0,1

-0,2

-0,3

-0.1

C1= -0.18
T =18h

Distilled water
Immersion temperature=600C
1

10

-0,4

10

100

C1= -0.57
T=49h

Sea water
Immersion temperature=400C
100

exposure time (h)

exposure time (h)

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Wood flour-Polypropylene
Flax unidirectional fabric-Epoxy (11L)

0.1

experimental values
theoretical values

experimental values
theoretical values

0.0

0.0

-0.1

(Ec-E0)/E0

(Ec-E0)/E0

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3

vf=0.51
C1= -0.14
T =480h
Distilled water
Immersion temperature=250C

-0.4

-0.5
10

-0.2

-0.3

-0.4

10

100

0.6

0.4

vf=0.16
C1= 0.92
T =950h

experimental values
theoretical values

0.5

0.3

vf=0.2
C1= 1.1
T =950h

0.4

(Ec-E0)/E0

(Ec-E0)/E0

1000

Iron particles-Epoxy resin Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)

Iron particles-Epoxy resin Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)


experimental values
theoretical values

100

exposure time (h)

exposure time (h)

0.5

wf=0.4
C1= -0.7
T =1470h

Distilled water
Immersion temperature=26.70C

-0.5

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.0

0.1
-0.1

Distilled water
Immersion temperature=200C

Distilled water
Immersion temperature=200C
0.0

1000

1000

exposure time (h)

exposure time (h)

Fig. 1. Comparison between experimental points and theoretical predictions for different material systems.

As it is obvious from the diagrams shown above, a very satisfactory agreement between
experimental points and values derived from the theory can be observed.
References
[1] P.S. THEOCARIS, G.C. PAPANICOLAOU, E.A. KONTOU, INTERRELATION BETWEEN MOISTURE
ABSORPTION, MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR, AND EXTENT OF THE BOUNDARY INTERPHASE IN
PARTICULATE COMPOSITES, JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, VOL. 28, ISSUE 10, PP.
3145-3153, (1983).
[2] G.C. PAPANICOLAOU, TH.V. KOSMIDOU, A.S. VATALIS, C.G. DELIDES, WATER ABSORPTION
MECHANISM AND SOME ANOMALOUS EFFECTS ON THE MECHANICAL AND VISCOELASTIC
BEHAVIOR OF AN EPOXY SYSTEM, JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, VOL. 99, ISSUE 4, PP.
1328-1339, (2006).

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#51

MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE INCLUSION


GEOMETRY AND CONCENTRATION EFFECT ON THE QUASI-STATIC
PROPERTIES OF A SEMI-GREEN EPOXY MATRIX
F.K. Kozaniti, L.C. Kontaxis, G.C. Papanicolaou
The Composite Materials Group, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautics Engineering,
University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500, Greece, gpapan@mech.upatras.gr
ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study is to investigate the inclusion geometry and concentration effect on
the quasi-static properties of a semi-green epoxy matrix. The composites investigated consisted of
a starch-epoxy hybrid matrix reinforced with four different e-glass inclusions such as chopped
strands (3 mm long), short glass fibers (0.2 mm long), glass beads (120 m in diameter) and glass
bubbles (40 m in diameter) at different concentrations. The hybrid matrix consisted of corn
starch in a 9:1 weight ratio to Epoxy resin (Renlam CY219). The flexural modulus and flexural
strength of all materials tested were determined using 3-Point-Bending tests, according to the
ASTM D790- 99 Standard.
In order to predict the mechanical behavior of the tested composites, a semi- empirical model
was developed. Property Prediction Model (PPM), previously known as Modulus Prediction Model
(MPM) [1], developed by G.C. Papanicalaou, was applied in both flexural modulus and strength.
Fig. 1 shows the experimental results of the Flexural Modulus as a function of filler volume
fraction in the case of Glass Fiber 3 mm long. The model predicted remarkably well the
mechanical behavior of all materials manufactured and tested (Figs. 1, 2). The maximum value of
the flexural modulus in the case of chopped strands 3 mm long was found to be 75% greater than
the modulus of the hybrid matrix. Furthermore, the addition of these glass fibers leads to flexural
strength decrease, as illustrated in Fig. 2. The same behavior was observed in the cases of the
short glass fibers 0.2 mm long and the glass bubbles. On the other hand, adding glass beads in the
hybrid matrix led to a simultaneous increase in flexural modulus and strength, a behavior
uncommon in particulate composite materials according to literature.

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Fig. 1 Comparison between experimental values and theoretical predictions as derived from property
prediction model (PPM) for the Flexural modulus of the Glass Fiber (3mm) hybrid epoxy matrix composites
investigated

Fig. 2 Comparison between experimental values and theoretical predictions as derived from property
prediction model (PPM) for the Flexural Strength of the Glass Fiber (3mm) hybrid epoxy matrix composites
investigated.

References
[1] PAPANICOLAOU, G. C.; KONTAXIS, L. C.; KOUTSOMITOPOULOU, A. F.; ZAOUTSOS, S. P. STRESS
RELAXATION BEHAVIOR OF STARCH POWDEREPOXY RESIN COMPOSITES. J. APPL. POLYM.
SCI., 2015.

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#53

DEVELOPMENT OF A STARCH REINFORCED CHIOS MASTIC- OLIVE OIL


MATRIX NEW GREEN COMPOSITE MATERIAL
D.E. Anastasiou, L.C. Kontaxis, G.C. Papanicolaou*
Composite Materials Group (CMG), Department of Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering
University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500, Greece, gpapan@mech.upatras.gr
ABSTRACT
Chios Mastic is a natural resin gum obtained from the tree Pistacia lentiscus cultivated in Chios
island of Greece. Chios Mastic is well known since ancient years and is currently used as a chewing
gum, food flavoring or food ingredient and as an additive in liqueurs, perfumes, cosmetics, even
as a medicine and is the major ingredient of traditional medicine recipes.

Fig. 1 Chios Mastic is produced exclusively from


Pistacia lentiscus cultivated in Chios island

Fig. 2 Pistacia lentiscus or Mastichodendro tears


form Chios Mastic

In the current investigation, Chios Mastic was used as the base ingredient to produce a new food
grade and totally green composite material [1-3]. Chios Mastic traditionally collected was treated
thermally to evaporate the natural occurring essential oils and to overcome the consequent
brittleness of the material, taking care not to overheat it. A small quantity of olive oil is added,
followed by starch micro-globules addition at elevated temperature and constant agitation until
saturation is obtained.

Fig. 3 Furnace melting to prepare the reinforcement addition


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Then, the pigment is transferred to molds and left to cool slowly to room temperature. This new
composite material contains 50% (w/w) solid starch as reinforcement and shows significant
strength compared to pure matrix. The residual composite is a food grade plastic, totally green,
100% recyclable and biodegradable. It is easy to be prepared, and has no significant
environmental impact. The emitted essential oils can be collected and used as a food flavoring or
perfume. Mechanical characterization will be made to describe the properties of the composite
and prefigure the possible uses of this new and promising material.

Fig. 4 Final composite unformed

References
[1] SOTIRIOS PARASCHOS, PROKOPIOS MAGIATIS, SOFIA MITAKOU, KALLIOPI PETRAKI, ANTONIOS
KALLIAROPOULOS, PETROS MARAGKOUDAKIS, ANDREAS MENTIS, DIONYSSIOS SGOURAS,
ALEXIOS-LEANDROS SKALTSOUNIS, IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ACTIVITIES OF CHIOS MASTIC
GUM EXTRACTS AND CONSTITUENTS AGAINST HELICOBACTER PYLORI, IN
VIVO, SEPTEMBER 2012 26:5 777-785.
[2] ADEODATO VIEIRA, M. G., DA SILVA, M. A., DOS SANTOS, L. O., AND BEPPU, M. M.
NATURALBASED PLASTICIZERS AND BIOPOLYMER FILMS: A REVIEW, EUROPEAN POLYMER
JOURNAL, 2011, 47: 254- 263.
[3] ALESSANDRO GANDINI,, TALITA M. LACERDA, FROM MONOMERS TO POLYMERS FROM
RENEWABLE RESOURCES: RECENT ADVANCES, PROGRESS IN POLYMER SCIENCE, JANUARY
2015.

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#54

NITINOL LAYERED COMPOSITES: MANUFACTURING


AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
E.J. Pappa1, G.C. Psarras2, D.V. Portan1, G.C. Papanicolaou1
1

The Composite Materials Group, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical


Engineering,University of Patras, Patras 26500, Greece, gpapan@mech.upatras.gr
2
Department of Materials Science, School of Natural Sciences, University of Patras, Patras 26504,
Greece
ABSTRACT
Hybrid materials do not represent only a creative alternative to designing new materials and
compounds for academic research, but their improved or unusual features allow the development
of promising applications in many areas such as optics, electronics, ionics, mechanics, energy,
environment, biology and medicine. Some applications of such materials are membranes and
separation devices, functional smart coatings, fuel and solar cells, catalysts, sensors, etc. [1] Smart
materials can represent an attractive tool for reducing deflections and stresses in the structures
subjected to a low-velocity impact; in particular, shape memory alloys (SMA) can generate
significant tensile stresses. The necessary effect can be achieved if SMA is embedded within a
composite material resulting in a hybrid smart composite [2]. Although smart composites have
been proposed long time ago, there is still need of an intense research of their mechanical and
electrical behavior when involved in complex structures.
The present study is focused on the investigation of the electrical properties of Nitinol multilayered hybrid composites. A simple and inexpensive manufacturing procedure permitted the
assembly of two layered (Nitinol and CNTs/ Nitinol and Acrylic Resin) and a three layered (NitinolCNTs-Acrylic Resin) hybrid composites (Figure 1).
Broadband dielectric material characterization of hybrid composites was performed by means of
Dielectric Spectroscopy in a wide frequency and temperature range without changing sample
geometry or sample cells. Dielectric properties in control temperature environment were
measured via Novotherm Temperature Control System and Alpha Single Unit Analyzer (including
low frequencies for characterization of dielectric relaxations, electrochemical and high impedance
effects) by Novocontrol Technologies [3, 4].

Fig. 1 Micrograph of a layered composite formed by three materials in


contact, respectively nitinol, Acrylic Resins & CNTs

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Individual phases of hybrid composites were evaluated dielectrically for reference reasons.
Results were discussed, on the basis of the interphasial phenomena existing at the separating
surfaces between the individual layers of the hybrid composites.
References
[1] CLMENT SANCHEZ, BEATRIZ JULIN, PHILIPPE BELLEVILLE, MICHAEL POPALL (2005)
APPLICATIONS OF HYBRID ORGANICINORGANIC NANOCOMPOSITES, J. MATER. CHEM., 15, 35593592, DOI: 10.1039/B509097K
[2] VICTOR BIRMAN, K. CHANDRASHEKHARA, SUKHENDU SAIN (1996) AN APPROACH TO
OPTIMIZATION OF SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY HYBRID COMPOSITE PLATES SUBJECTED TO LOWVELOCITY IMPACT, COMPOSITES: PART B 27B, 439-446
[3] ATHANASIOS KANAPITSAS, CHRISTOS TSONOS, CONSTANTINOS G. DELIDES, GEORGIOS C.
PSARRAS (2013) THERMOGRAVIMETRIC AND DIELECTRIC STUDY OF ER/BATIO3/ZNO COMPOSITES,
MACROMOLECULAR SYMPOSIA, VOLUME 331-332, ISSUE 1, PAGES 181188, OCTOBER 2013
[4] GEORGIA N. TOMARA, ARIADNI P. KERASIDOU, ANASTASIOS C. PATSIDIS, PANAGIOTA K.
KARAHALIOU, GEORGIOS C. PSARRAS, STAVROULA N. GEORGA, CHRISTOFOROS A. KRONTIRAS
(2015) DIELECTRIC RESPONSE AND ENERGY STORAGE EFFICIENCY OF LOW CONTENT TIO2POLYMER MATRIX NANOCOMPOSITES, COMPOSITES PART A: APPLIED SCIENCE AND
MANUFACTURING, VOLUME 71, PAGES 204211

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#60

THERMOMECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF EPOXY/CARBON


BLACK/GRAPHENE OXIDE HYBRID NANOCOMPOSITES
A. Stimoniaris1, 2*, D. Gournis2, M. Karakassides2 and C. Delides1
1

Department of Environmental Engineering, T.E.I. of Western Macedonia, Greece,


adamstimoniaris@gmail.com
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Greece
ABSTRACT
Nanocomposites show different properties than the bulk polymer matrix because of the small size
of the filler and the corresponding increased specific surface area. Additionally, certain polymer
nanocomposites based on hybrid fillers have been shown to undergo more substantial
improvements in mechanical, thermal, electrical and dielectric properties, than those containing a
single filler type. The synergy of fillers, which may even differ in terms of chemical structure,
shape and size, seems to play a dominant role on the properties of the composites [1-4]. For our
investigation, specimens were prepared by dispersing carbon black (CB) and graphene oxide (GO)
in an epoxy matrix, in different proportions. Particularly, we used diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
(DGEBA) resin with triethylenetetramine (TETA) hardener for the host material, while different
amounts of CB and organo-modified GO [5, 6] were used as fillers. The preparation procedure is
fully presented elsewhere [7]. For the characterization of the nanocomposites, Scanning and
Transmission Electron Microscopy, (SEM and TEM), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA),
Thermogravimetric measurements, Raman and IR spectroscopy techniques were carried out. It
was found that the addition of low amounts of GO into CB loaded epoxy nanocomposites can
modify several of its properties such as mechanical, electrical, glass transition and crystallization
processes. In spite of the fact, that the incorporation of GO dramatically improved the electrical
conductivity [3], as expected, the investigation of the thermomechanical behavior of these hybrid
composites has its own interest from academic and industrial point of view. A major parameter
explaining these effects is the excluded volume created by the m-scale GO clusters forming a
segregated network of nanoparticles [1, 4].
References
[1] G. D. LIANG, S. P. BAO, S. C. TJONG, MAT. SCIENCE ENG., B, 142, 55 (2007).
[2] L. LIU, J. C. GRUNLAN, ADV. FUNCT. MATER., 17, 2343 (2007).
[3] H. PALZA, B. REZNIK, M. WILHELM, O. ARIAS, A. VARGAS, MACROMOL. MATER. ENG., 297, 474480 (2012).
[4] A.B. DA SILVA, J. MARINI, G. GELVES, U. SUNDARARAJ, R. GREGRIO JR., R. E.S. BRETASA,
EUROP. POL. J. 49(10), 3318 (2013).
[5] A. ENOTIADIS, K. ANGJELI, N. BALDINO, N. ISABELLA, AND D. GOURNIS. SMALL 8 (21), 33383349 (2012).
[6] G. PAPAGEORGIOU, Z. TERZOPOULOU, D. BIKIARIS, K. TRIANTAFYLLIDIS, E. DIAMANTI, D.
GOURNIS, P. KLONOS, E. GIANNOULIDIS AND P. PISSIS. THERMOCHIMICA ACTA, 597, 48-57(2014).
[7] TH.V. KOSMIDOU, A.S. VATALIS, C.G. DELIDES, E. LOGAKIS, P. PISSIS, G.C. PAPANICOLAOU, EXPRESS POLYMER LETTERS, 5(2), 364 (2008).

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#61

MONITORING THE FLY ASH DISPERSION IN EPOXY MATRIX AND ITS EFFECT
ON THE THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE OBTAINED
COMPOSITES
Adamos Stimoniaris1, 4*, Haralampos Zois2, Athanasios Kanapitsas3, Michael
Karakassides4, Constaninos Delides1
1

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of West


Macedonia, Kila, GR 50100, Kozani, Greece, adamstimoniaris@gmail.com
2
Merchant Marine Academy of Epirus, Vathi, GR 48100, Preveza, Greece
3
Depapartment of Electronic Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Sterea Ellada, GR
35100, Lamia, Greece
4
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR 45110, Ioannina,
Greece
ABSTRACT
Fly ash rainforced composites reinforced with fly ash particulates have attracted considerable
interest due to their inherent good mechanical properties and low cost [1-6]. In this work, the fly
ash (FA) dispersion in epoxy (ER) matrix and its effect on the thermomechanical properties of the
composites is investigated. Our interest was focused on the optimization of sample preparation
conditions with different sonication times on FA dispersion. Scanning Electron Microscopy
(SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) were used to observe the fractured
surfaces of the composites and clarify the dispersion, distribution and the agglomeration of fly ash
particles into the matrix. Fly ash composition was estimated from SEM mapping measurements.
As, shown in figure 1, FA composition in the same order and close to those derived from typical
chemical analysis in Table I [7]. This is an extra advantage of SEM mapping beside the accurate
picture of dispersion and agglomeration. Figure 2 presents the SEM EDS images of specimens
with 5%w/w content in FE/ER composite.

Fig. 1 SEM fracture image and EDS map spectrum of FA/ER 5%w/w composite.
Table I. Fly Ash chemical composition

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(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 2 (a) SEM fracture image with EDS spectrum of Si, O, Ca and
EDS spectra (b) Ca and (c) Si of FA/ER 5%w/w composite.

In addition, the dynamic mechanical and thermogravimetric measurements [8] were also
employed to characterize the thermomechanical performance of the composites with parameter
the sonication time (Fig.3).

Fig 3. DMA (tan) and TGA spectra of ER/5%w/w FA composites.

These results can be used to tailor the mechanical and thermal properties of syntactic foams
based on the application parameters. In addition the fabrication of new composites addresses the
disposition problem of fly ash as well as brings down the production cost giving an economical
and eco-friendly solution.
References
[1] K.W. WONG, R.W. TRUSS, COMPOS. SCI. TECHNOL. 52, 361-368 (1994).
[2] J. GU, ET AL. MATER. SCI. ENG. A 452-453, 614-618 (2007).
[3] I. AHMAD, A. MAHANWAM, J. MINER. MATER. CHARACT. ENG. 9,183-198 (2010).
[4] R.S. RAJA, ET AL. INT. J. MIN. MET. MECH. ENG. 1 (1), 34-37 (2013).
[5] MATTHEW LABELLA, STEVEN E. ZELTMANN, VASANTH CHAK. SHUNMUGASAMY, NIK. GUPTA,
PRAD. K. ROHATGI., FUEL 121 (1), 240-249 (2014).
[6] AJIT KUM. SENAPATI, AB. BHATTA, SAT. MOHANTY, P.C. MISHRA, B.C.ROUTRA, INTER. JOUR.
OF INNOVATIVE SC. AND MODERN ENGIN. (IJISME) 2 (3) 4-9 (2014).
[7] D.T. KOUNTOURAS, A. TSOUKNIDAS, G.E. KIOURTSIDIS, AND S.M. SKOLIANOS, JOUR. OF
MATERIALS ENGINEERING AND PERFORMANCE 22 (8), 2210-2218 (2013).
[8] ZOIS H., STIMONIARIS A., KANAPITSAS A., KARAKASSIDES M. AND DELIDES C., 10TH HELLENIC
POLYMER SOCIETY CONFERENCE 4-6 DECEMBER, PATRA (2014).

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#64

EFFECT OF PIGMENTS ADDITION ON PROPERTIES OF THE ISOTACTIC


POLYPROPYLENE
Mateusz Barczewski1, Bartomiej Hoffmann2
1

Polymer Processing Division, Institute of Materials Technology, Pozna University of Technology,


Piotrowo 3, 61-138 Pozna, Poland, mateusz.barczewski@put.poznan.pl
2
R&D Project Office Laboratory, Hempel A/S, Lundtoftegrdsvej 91, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
ABSTRACT

Isotactic polypropylene (iPP) is one of the most often used thermoplastic polymer due to its low
price, good processability, mechanical properties and chemical resistance. Despite more than
forty years of researches modification of this polymeric material is current problem. Even low
amounts of additives or fillers incorporated to polypropylene matrix may cause strong
heterogeneous nucleation effect and influence on structure and properties of modified polymer.
Therefore, purposeful addition of specially designed nucleating agents (NA) became the interest
of many studies. Nucleating agents are additives which provide additional nuclei that accelerate
crystallization process and promote nucleation for crystal growth. As a result, a larger amount of
smaller spherulites is generated. Actual three different polymorphic phases in isotactic
polypropylene are known: monoclinic (), hexagonal () and triclinic (). Most of the pigments
reveal a good nucleating ability and led to increase polypropylene crystallinity level. Moreover,
some of them are described in literature as highly effective nucleating agents that promote
crystallization of hexagonal phase in polypropylene. The aim of our studies was to assess the
influence of two different quinacridone pigments addition on the mechanical and thermal
properties of isotactic polypropylene.
Commercial isotactic polypropylene Moplen HP500J with MFR=10 g/10 min (230C. 2.16 kg) from
Basell Orlen Polyolefins (Poland) was modified with two quinacridone pigments: Hostaperm Red
Violet ER 02 (-quinacridone) and Hostaprem Red E5B 02 (-quinacridone) delivered by Clariant
(Switzerland). Both pigments in various amounts (0.01; 0.05; 0.1; 0.5; 1; 2 wt %) were
incorporated into polymer matrix in melt processing by twin screw extrusion, test specimens were
formed via injection molding process (Fig. 1).
The influence of pigments addition on mechanical properties was investigated by tensile test. The
effect of quinacridone pigments amount on thermal properties of modified isotactic
polypropylene was assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In order to understand the
differences in modification efficiency and changes in polymorphism of polypropylene matrix
caused by incorporation of pigments, wide angle X-ray scattering experiments were prepared.
Both pigments act as highly effective nucleating agents provide to strong increase of crystallinity
level which results in changes of mechanical properties of the modified isotactic polypropylene.
Differences between polypropylene samples nucleated by two different pigments may be
attributed to different heterogeneous nucleation behavior dependent of pigment type. As it was
proved by WAXS investigations addition of -quinacridone (E5B) provided to partially
crystallization of polypropylene in hexagonal phase. For -quinacridone (ER 02) modified
polypropylene no evidence of -phase was observed.

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Fig. 1. Polypropylene injection molded samples containing various amounts of - and -quinacridone
pigment

References
[1] KARGER-KOCSIS, J. (1999). POLYPROPYLENE - AN A-Z REFERENCE. DORDRECHT - BOSTON
LONDON: KLUVER ACADEMIC.
[2] GAHLEITNER M., GREIN C., KHEIRANDISH S., WOLFSCHWENGER J. NUCLEATION OF
POLYPROPYLENE HOMO- AND COPOLYMERS, INTERNATIONAL POLYMER PROCESSING 26(1), 2-20,
2011.
[3] VARGA J. SUPERMOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF ISOTACTIC POLYPROPYLENE, JOURNAL OF
MATERIALS SCIENCE, 27(10), 2557-2579, 1992.
[4] STERZYNSKI T., CALO P., LAMBLA M., THOMAS M. TRANS- AND DIMETHYL QUINACRIDONE
NUCLEATION OF ISOTACTIC POLYPROPYLENE, POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, 37, 19171927, 1997.
[5] STERZYNSKI T. PROCESSING AND PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT IN ISOTACTIC POLYPROPYLENE BY
HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEATION, POLIMERY, 45, 786-791, 2000.
[6] BRODA J. NUCLEATING ACTIVITY OF THE QUINACRIDONE AND PHTHALOCYANINE PIGMENTS IN
POLYPROPYLENE CRYSTALLIZATION, JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, 90, 3957-3964,
2003.
[7] BRODA J. STRUCTURE OF POLYPROPYLENE FIBERS COLOURED WITH A MIXTURE OF PIGMENTS
WITH DIFFERENT NUCLEATING ABILITY, POLYMER, 44, 6943-6949, 2003.
[8] GRADYS A., SAJKIEWICZ P., MINAKOV A. A., ADAMOVSKY S., SCHICK C., HASHIMOTO T., SAIJO
K. CRYSTALLIZATION OF POLYPROPYLENE AT VARIOUS COOLING RATES, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND
ENGINEERING, 413-414, 442-446, 2005.

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#69

USE OF DIFFERENT ACIDS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF CHROMIUM


CONTAINED IN ASH FROM THE INCINERATION OF WASTE LEATHER
H. Aksas*, S. Boughrara, H. Cherifi, K. Louhab
Food Technology Laboratory - Faculty of Engineer Science
University of Boumerdes, 35000 - BOUMERDES ALGERIA, aksas_ha@yahoo.fr

ABSTRAC
Our study is to use the potential of different acids for the extraction of chromium from the
bottom ash obtained by incineration of the leather waste shavings. Benzohydroxamic acid
(BHA), citric and oxalic acid were chosen because of their high extraction efficiency of chromium
in form of Cr (III). The preliminary experiments showed that the extracted chromium with
Benzohydroxamic (BHA), citric and oxalic acid have a potential tanning capacity. This method has
potential for application to environmental and industrial problems concerning chromium waste.
References
[1] Bartlett R.J. and Kimble JM. (1976), Behaviour of chromium in soils: Trivalent Forms.J.Environ.
Qual. 5, 379 386.
[2] Dugenest S.C.J; Casabianca H. and Grenier-Loustalot M.F (1999a), Municipal solid waste
incineration bottom ash: characterization and kinetic studies of organic matter. Environmental
science and technology, 33(7), 1110 -1115.
[3] Eddings, E.G. and light, J.S. (1992), Fundamental Studies of Metal Behavior During Dolids
Incineration. Combust. Sci.Technol., 85, 375 485.

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#80

HYDROGEN GAS SENSORS BASED ON PALLADIUM/SILICON OXIDE/SILICON


CARBIDE SANDWICH STRUCTURES
Jenica Neamtu 1, Florea Craciunoiu2, Dragos Ovezea1, Razvan Pascu 2
1

National Institute for Research&Development in Electrical Engineering, Bucharest Romania


2
National Institute for Research&Development in Microtechnology Bucharest Romania
ABSTRACT

Palladium/silicon oxide/silicon carbide sandwich structures are metal/oxide/semiconductor


(MOS) devices, very attractive for gas sensing in harsh, high temperature environments [1,2].
The base of this structure is silicon carbide (SiC), a wide-bandgap semiconductor with excellent
thermal conductivity (34.9 W/cmK), chemical inertness and radiation hardness. The basic
concept of our work is represented by a silicon carbide (SiC) MOS capacitor structure which can
detect environmental toxic and flammable gases. The structure has four layers: catalytic metal
electrode, oxide, n-type 4H-SiC and ohmic contact electrode. In order to explain the detection
mechanism we will consider two environments: hydrogen based and air atmosphere. In this paper
we describe the development of MOS structure with palladium (Pd) catalytic gate. The response
of the sensor depends not only on the type of metal electrode, thickness of oxyde layer and the
gas species that interact with the sensor, but also on the operating temperature. When the sensor
is exposed to hydrogen, the gas molecules dissociate in contact with the metal electrode at
temperatures as low as 150C. Some of the hydrogen atoms remain at the surface of the
electrode and some diffuse through the metal and reach the metal-oxide interface. When the
sensor is exposed to oxygen, the gas molecules also dissociate in contact with the metal
electrode. The resulted oxygen ions react with any residual hydrogen ions and form water. This
reaction reduces the number of hydrogen atoms that reach both the metal-oxide and oxidesemiconductor interfaces. This is translated into a smaller shift of the MOS capacitor C-V
characteristic. There is a correlation between the voltage shift of the C-V characteristic and the
concentration of the detected gas. The sandwich structures have been fabricated on n-type 4HSiC wafers, 0.015-0.028 ohm-cm resistivity, with 2 epitaxial layers: a buffer with thickness of
0.5m, highly doped (1E18 cm-3) and the active layer with thickness of 7.9m and lightly doped
(2.07E16 cm-3). The gate silicon oxide(SiO2) was grown via dry oxidation at 11000 C/3h with
thickness of 13nm and 30 nm. The catalytic metal Pd was deposited by DC sputtering at 150 W in
a 5mTorr argon 99.999% .

Fig. 1. The fabricated of four MOSiC structures (with 18, 24, 36, 68 m diameter of gates).

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The microstructures of Pd thin films (50nm thickness) were investigated by Field Emission
Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM-FIB) Zeiss-Auriga Germany.

Fig.2 SEM microstructure of Pd thin film (thickness of


50 nm). Magnitude 200 000 x

Fig. 4 The experimental setup


used to measure the C-V
characteristic of the sensors
is comprised of an Agilent E4980A
RLC meter, PC, NI-USB 6009 DAQ
board, +/-10V power source. Cx is
the capacitance of the sensor
under test.

Fig.3. EDS analysis of sputtered Pd thin film

Fig 5 C-V characteristics of Pd (50nm)/SiO2 (13nm)/SiC sensors,


at RT.
The sensors were measured in air (24.7C and 49.2RH) and
under a constant flux of 5000ppm H2 in Ar. Measurements were
taken from -10V to 10V in 0.5V steps. An average of 5
measurements was taken for each point.

Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the grants of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research,
ANCSI&UEFISCDI, project PCCA number 204/2012
References
[1] F. SERINA, K. Y. S. NG, C. HUANG, G. W. AUNER, L. RIMAI AND R. NAIK, PD/ALN/SIC THIN-FILM
DEVICES FOR SELECTIVE HYDROGEN SENSING, APPL. PHYS. LETT. 79,3350-3352 (2001).
[2] R. N. GHOSH, P. TOBIAS, S. EJAKOV AND B. GOLDING, INTERFACE STATES IN HIGH
TEMPERATURE SIC GAS SENSING, PROC. IEEE SENSORS 2002, 2, 1120-1125, PAPER 6-4 (2002).

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#83

DIFFERENCES IN DEGRADATION MECHANISM OF THE STANDARD AND THE


NEW - CORE-SHELL CATALYST DURING AMMONIA OXIDATION PROCESS
Jarosaw Pura1, Piotr Kwasniak1, Halina Garbacz1, Joanna Zdunek1,
Zbigniew Laskowski2, Maciej Gierej 1,2
1

Faculty of Material Science an Engineering, Warsaw university of Technology, Wooska 141, 02507 Warsaw, Poland
2
Precious Metal Mint, Weteranw 95, 05-250 Radzymin, Poland
ABSTRACT

The most common catalysts for the ammonia oxidation process are 80m diameter platinumrhodium wires knitted or woven into a form of a gauze. In the aggressive environment and under
extreme conditions (temperature 800-900C, intensive gas flow and pressure) precious elements
are drained from the surface of the wires. Part of this separated material quickly decompose on
the surface in form of characteristic cauliflower-shape protrusions, second part of material
decompose on located beneath palladium capture gauzes and the other part is lost.
Despite of the use of capture gauzes, platinum loss during oxidation process is significant and
strongly determine profitability of the process. Other economic disadvantage is the value of
precious metals catalyst itself, when only part of the material located on the surface of the wires
works as a catalyst. This problem brings the idea of core-shell catalyst which ones core is made of
less expensive, but still high temperature resistant material and shell is made of common-known
platinum-rhodium alloy. There were several attempts to produce ammonia oxidation catalyst like
this, that is also able to work in existing industrial reactors. The main problem was the insufficient
durability of the joint between the core and the shell.
In our investigation we focused on effects of the degradation of gauze made of standard Pt-Rh
wires and the new gauze made of core-shell wires. Bi-alloy structure of the material was obtained
using powder metallurgy, and complex plastic processing. In this case both, shell and core are
made of alloys
from the same materials group and are characterized by wide range of mutual solubility. The
manufacturing method and selection of materials allowed to obtain gentle gradient joint between
core and shell of the wires. This eliminate some of disadvantages of the joint without transition
zone (like thermal and mechanical properties mismatch of the materials).
Changes in the spatial morphology of the wires after 1 month exploitation were examined using
X-ray Computer Microtomography (XCT). The XCT researches allowed obtaining threedimensional models of studied wires and their structure quantitative characterization.
Observations of surface were performed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy
Dispersive Spectroscopy device (EDS) to obtain chemical composition.
Microscope observations and microtomography analysis showed that all wires surfaces were
strongly developed by etching and deposition processes occurring under extreme conditions.
Analyzed wires differed slightly in rate of degradation and morphology of the characteristic
cauliflower-shape protrusions. Also small differences in elements distribution on surface of the
wires were observed. Obtained results can be basis of further investigation on improvement of
precious metals catalysts in high temperature chemical applications.

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#91

RELATIONSHIP OF CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENTS OF STRUCTURAL


ALUMINUM ALLOY TO STRENGTH OF GLUED JOINT
Vinov Lenka, Vlach Jarmil, Konek Jan
VTS, a. s., Svrovsk 619, Liberec XI - Rodol 1, 460 01 Liberec XI, Czech Republic

ABSTRACT
This article is focused on the chemical coating of structural adhesive joints of the constructive
aluminum alloy EN-AW 6082. The samples were glued by the epoxy resin Epoxy 1200. Glued joints
which represent the modern method of jointing materials where the most important aspect is the
low consumption fasteners and resulting reduction in product weight. Glued connections are
usually designed so as to transfer shear, thrust and combined load. Their strength depends on the
physical and chemical properties associated materials, their surfaces and properties of the
adhesive.
Main objective of this work was to increase the strength of the glued joint that had been
chemically treated dilute hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid. This type epoxy resin was not chosen
only because it is widely available, but also has very good mechanical properties and chemical
resistance to non-oxidizing acids. Samples of glued joints were subjected to shear strength. These
findings may be used to produce light metal and fiber reinforced composites.

Glued joint

Fig 1 Drawing the test sample glued joint

Fig 2 Photographic documentation of the


shear strength test

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References
[1] CRITCHLOW, G. W., ET AL. STRATEGIES FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF CHROMIC ACID ANODISING
FOR THE STRUCTURAL BONDING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
ADHESION AND ADHESIVES, 2006, VOL. 26, P. 419453.
[2] ZHANG J. ET AL.: THE BONDING STRENGTH AND CORROSION RESISTENCE OF ALUMINIUM
ALLOY BY ANODIZING TREATMENT IN A PHOSPHORIC ACID MODIFIED BORIC ACID/SULFURIC
ACID BATH. SURF. COAT. TECHNOL., 2008, VOL. 202, P. 31493156.-4

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#93

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF


POLYPROPYLENE SANDWICH PANEL AND COMPARE THE MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES OF THE ALUMINUM HONEYCOMB PANELS
Lukasova Vera, Kavan Pavel
VTS, a.s., Svrovsk 619, Liberec, 460 01, Czech republic
ABSTRACT
When designing the ceiling, in practice, taking an aluminum honeycomb panels. Due to the weight
of such constructions is considering the use of polypropylene honeycomb panels whose basis
weight is lower. Mechanical properties and behavior of these materials at various temperatures
makes their potential application. When designing floor structures and include a strong emphasis
on safety. These requests are recorded in the Eurocodes e.g. Eurocode 1 Actions on structures.
The object of the research was to determine the mechanical properties of polypropylene
sandwich panels and their comparison with aluminum honeycomb panels. Tests were performed
in laboratories VTS, as on test device temperature chamber at -40 C, 23 C and 80 C
according to current ASTM Standards. The results were statistically analyzed using a regression
was observed dependence of mechanical properties on the temperature. Result tests
demonstrated that the effect of temperature on mechanical properties of polypropylene
sandwich panels is not negligible. It was verified that aluminum honeycomb panels have better
mechanical properties than polypropylene panels. Based on information about the behavior of
polypropylene sandwich panels and based on the studies of standards dealing with ceiling
structures testing the recommendations for the use of polypropylene sandwich panels as the
ceiling.

Fig. 1 Description of the test specimen [8]

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Fig. 2 Test specimen with dimensions of 50x50x25 mm, intended for the pressure tests

Fig. 3 Test specimen with dimensions of 50x220x25 mm intended for test the bend

References
[1] HJEK, PETER. BUILDING STRUCTURES 10: BEARING STRUCTURES I. ED. 2ND, REWORKING.
PRAGUE: CTU PUBLISHING HOUSE, 2000, 259 PP. ISBN 80-010-2243-9.
[2] MATOUKOV, DAGMAR. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING I.: SUPPORTING STRUCTURES I. 1ST ED.
OSTRAVA: VB - TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 1997, 182 PP. ISBN 80-707-8503-9.
[3] EN 13964 ED. SECOND SUSPENDED CEILINGS - REQUIREMENTS AND TEST METHODS. PRAGUE:
CZECH OFFICE FOR STANDARDS, METROLOGY, TESTING, 2015.
[4] HSSLER, RDIGER A WOLFGANG KUNZE. THERMISCHE EIGENSCHAFTEN POLYMERER
WERKSTOFFE: DMA - DSC - TGA - TMA; STOFFSAMMLUNG THERMOANALYTISCHER MESSUNGEN.
1. AUFL. ESCHBORN: TA-INSTRUMENTS, 2007. ISBN 978-3-940184-01-6.
[5] ASTM C364 / C364M-07(2012), STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR EDGEWISE COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH OF SANDWICH CONSTRUCTIONS, ASTM INTERNATIONAL, WEST CONSHOHOCKEN, PA,
2012, WWW.ASTM.ORG
[6] ASTM C365 / C365M-11A, STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR FLATWISE COMPRESSIVE
PROPERTIES OF SANDWICH CORES, ASTM INTERNATIONAL, WEST CONSHOHOCKEN, PA, 2011,
WWW.ASTM.ORG
[7] ASTM C393 / C393M-11E1, STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR CORE SHEAR PROPERTIES OF
SANDWICH CONSTRUCTIONS BY BEAM FLEXURE, ASTM INTERNATIONAL, WEST CONSHOHOCKEN,
PA, 2011, WWW.ASTM.ORG
[8] WOLVEGA PANELEN & COMPOSITES: COMPOSITES [ONLINE]. 2015 [CIT. 2015-07-22].
DOSTUPN Z: HTTP://WWW.WOLVEGAPANELEN.NL/COMPOSITES.ASPX

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Chairmen
Pedro Moreira (INEGI/FEUP, Portugal) (chairman)
Gabi Jiga (UPB, Romania) (co-chairman)
George Papanicolaou (UP, Greece) (co-chairman)

Organizing Committee
Mrio Vaz, University of Porto, Portugal
Paulo Tavares de Castro, University of Porto, Portugal
Paulo Tavares, INEGI, Portugal
Pedro Moreira, INEGI/FEUP, Portugal local chairman
Rui Miranda Guedes, University of Porto, Portugal
Tiago Ramos, INEGI, Porto
Viviana Correia Pinto, INEGI, Porto
Joaquim Silva Gomes, University of Porto, Portugal
Mrio Vaz, University of Porto, Portugal
Paulo Tavares de Castro, University of Porto, Portugal
Srgio Tavares, INEGI, Portugal