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HISTORY OF ADVERTISING

Amandeep Kaur
Chaitanya Shitole
Hitesh Arora
Nikita Gupta
Stuti Pandey
Swati Huria
FMS 2008-10
NIFT, Gandhinagar

The Evolution of Advertising


1441 1850
Age of
Print

World War
I - World War
II
Advertising
Declines

1850 s 1900

1900 1950 s

1920 s

Industrial
Revolution
&
Consumer
Society

Age of
Science

Rise of
Agencies

1950
s

Reintroducin
g
Consumers to
Marketing

1960 s
1970 s
Creative
Era

1970 s
1990 s
Accountabili
ty
Era

Historical Roles of Advertising


m

The Post Industrial Age (Starting 1980)


Age of social responsibility / Quality of life issues
m Lifestyle advertising
m

Historical Roles of Advertising


m

The Global Interactive Age (Last 15 years)


m

Growth in world markets

Historical Roles of Advertising


The Pre-industrial Age (up to start of 19th century)
m The Industrializing Age (To WW1)
m The Industrial Age (1900s to 1970s)
m The Post Industrial Age (Starting 1980)
m The Global Interactive Age
m

18th Century
Concrete advertising history begins with classified advertising
Ads appear for the first time in print in Hickey's Bengal Gazette.

India's first newspaper (weekly)


Studios mark the beginning of advertising created in India (as
opposed to imported from England) Studios set up for bold type,
ornate fonts, more fancy, larger ads
Newspaper studios train the first generation of visualisers &
illustrators
Major advertisers: Retailers like Spencer's, Army & Navy and
Whiteaway & Laidlaw
Marketing promotions: Retailers' catalogues provided early
example
Ads appear in newspapers in the form of lists of the latest
merchandise from England
Patent medicines: The first brand as we know them today were a
category of advertisers
Horlicks becomes the first 'malted milk' to be patented on 5th June
1883 (No. 278967).

The 1900s

1905

- B Dattaram & Co claims to be the oldest existing Indian agency in


Girgaum in Bombay
1912
- ITC (then Imperial Tobacco Co. Ltd.) launches Gold Flake
1920s
- Enter the first foreign owned ad agencies
- Gujarat Advertising and Indian Advertising set up
- Expatriate agencies emerge: Alliance Advertising, Tata Publicity
- LA Stronach's merges into today's Norvicson Advertising
- D J Keymer gives rise to Ogilvy & Mather and Clarion
1925
- LR Swami & Co, Madras

1926

- LA Stronach & Co (India) Pr. Ltd, Bombay starts


- Agency called National set up for American rather than British
Advertisers
- American importers hire Jagan Nath Jaini, then advertising
manager of Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore. National today is still
run by Jaini's family
- Beginning of multinational agencies
- J Walter Thompson (JWT) opened to service General Motors
business
1928
- BOMAS Ltd (Formerly DJ Keymer & Co Ltd) set up
1929
- J Walter Thompson Co Pr. Ltd formed

Indian agencies, foreign


advertising in the thirties
1931

- National Advertising Service Pr. Ltd. Bombay set up


- Universal Publicity Co, Calcutta formed

1934

- Venkatrao Sista opens Sista Advertising and Publicity Services as first full
service Indian agency

1935

- Indian Publicity Bureau Pr Ltd, Calcutta established

1936

- Krishna Publicity Co Pr. Ltd, Kanpur begins operations


- Studio Ratan Batra Pr. Ltd, Bombay established
- Indian Broadcasting Company becomes All India Radio (AIR)

1938

- Jayendra Publicity, Kolhapur started

1939

- Lever's advertising department launches Dalda - the first major example


of a brand and a marketing campaign specifically developed for India
- The Press Syndicate Ltd, Bombay set up

Indianising advertisements in
the forties

1940

- Navanitlal & Co., Ahmedabad set up


1941
- Lux signs Leela Chitnis as the first Indian film actress to endorse
the product
- Hindustan Thompson Associates (HTA), the current incarnation of
JWT, coins the Balanced Nourishment concept to make Horlicks
more relevant to India
- Green's Advertising Service Agents, Bombay formed
1943
- Advertising & Sales Promotion Co (ASP), Calcutta established
1944
- Dazzal, Bombay comes into existence
- Ranjit Sales & Publicity Pr. Ltd, Bombay started

1945

- Efficient Publicities Pr. Ltd, Madras set up


- Tom & Bay (Advertising) Pr. Ltd., Poona begins
operations in India
1946
- Eastern Psychograph Pr. Ltd., Bombay set up
- Everest Advertising Pr. Ltd, Bombay established
1947
- Grant Advertising Inc, Bombay formed
- Swami Advertising Bureau, Sholapur started
1948
- RC Advertising Co, Bombay set up
- Phoenix Advertising Pr. Ltd, Calcutta formed

Corporate advertising in the


fifties
1950s

- Radio Ceylon and Radio Goa become the media option

1951

- Vicks VapoRub: a rub for colds, causes ripples with its entry in the balm
market

1952

- Shantilal G Shah & Co, Bombay

1954

- Advertising Club, Mumbai set up


- Express Advertising Agency, Bombay
- India Publicity Co. Pr. Ltd., Calcutta

1956

- Aiyars Advertising & Marketing, Bombay


- Clarion Advertising Services Pr. Ltd, Calcutta

1957

- Vividh Bharati kicks off

1958

- Shree Advertising Agency, Bombay

1959

- Associated Publicity, Cuttack

Creative revolution in the


sixties
1960

- Advertising Accessories, Trichur started


- Marketing Advertising Associates, Bombay set up
1961
- Industrial Advertising Agency, Bombay comes into existence
- Bal Mundkur quits BOMAS to set up Ulka the same year
1962
- India's television's first soap opera - Teesra Rasta enthralls
viewers
1963
- BOMAS changes names to SH Benson's
- Stronach's absorbed into Norvicson
- Lintas heading for uncertainty
- Levers toying with giving its brands to other agencies
- Nargis Wadia sets up Interpub
- Wills Filter Tipped cigarettes launched and positioned as made for
each other, filter and tobacco match

1965

- Kersey Katrak sets up Mass Communication and Marketing


(MCM)
1966
- Government persuaded to open up the broadcast media
- Ayaz Peerbhoy sets up Marketing and Advertising Associates
(MAA)
1967
- First commercial appears on Vividh Bharati
1968
- Nari Hira sets up Creative Unit
- India wins the bid for the Asian Advertising Congress
1969
- Sylvester daCunha left Stronach's to run ASP; later sets up
daCunha Associates
1970
- Frank Simoes sets up Frank Simoes Associates

The problematic seventies


1970-1978

- National Readership Studies provided relevant data on


consumers' reading habits
1970
- Concept of commercial programming accepted by All India
Radio
- Hasan Rezavi gives the very first spot on Radio Ceylon
1971
- Benson's undergo change in name to Ogilvy, Benson &
Mather
1972
- Western Outdoor Advertising Pvt Ltd (WOAPL) introduces
first closed circuit TV (CCT) in the country at the race
course in Mumbai
1973
- RK Swamy/BBDO established

1974

- MCM goes out of business


- Arun Nanda & Ajit Balakrishnan set up
Rediffusion
1975
- Ravi Gupta sets up Trikaya Grey
1976
- Commercial Television initiated
1978
- First television commercial seen
1979
- Ogilvy, Benson & Mather's name changes to
Ogilvy & Mather

Glued to the television in the


eighties
1980

- Mudra Communications Ltd set up


- King-sized Virginia filter cigarette enters market with brand name
of 'Charms
1981
- Network, associate of UTV, pioneers cable television in India
1982
- The biggest milestone in television was the Asiad '82 when
television turned to colour transmission
- Bombay Dyeing becomes the first colour TV ad
- 13th Asian Advertising Congress in New Delhi
- Media planning gets a boost
1983
- Maggi Noodles launched to become an overnight success
- Canco Advertising Pvt. Ltd. founded
- Manohar Shyam Joshi's Hum Log makes commercial television
come alive
- Mudra sponsors first commercial telecast of a major sporting
event with the India-West Indies series

1984

- Hum Log, Doordarshan's first soap opera in the colour era is born
- Viewers still remember the sponsor (Vicco) of Yeh Jo Hai Zindagi!

1985

- Mudra makes India's first telefilm, Janam

1985-86

- 915 new brands of products and services appearing on the Indian Market

1986

- Sananda is born on July 31. The Bengali magazine stupefies India by


selling 75,000 copies within three hours of appearing on the newsstands.
- Mudra Communications creates India's first folk-history TV serial
Buniyaad. Shown on DD, it becomes the first of the mega soaps
- Price quality positioning of Nirma detergent cakes boost sales

1988

- AAAI's Premnarayan Award instituted

1989

- Advertising Club Bombay begins a biennial seminar called 'Advertising


that Works'
- Advertising & Marketing (A&M) magazine launched

Tech savvy in the nineties

1990

- Marks the beginning of new medium Internet


- Agencies open new media shops; go virtual with websites and
Internet advertising
- Brand Equity (magazine) of The Economic Times is born
1991
- First India-targetted satellite channel, Zee TV starts broadcast
- Close on the throes of the Gulf War enters STAR (Satellite
Transmission for Asia Region)
1992
- Spectrum, publisher of A&M, constitutes its own award known as
'A&M Awards'
- Scribes and media planners credit The Bold And The Beautiful
serial on STAR Plus channel as a soap that started the cultural
nvasion

1993

- India's only advertising school, MICA (Mudra


Institute of Communications Ahmedabad), is born

- Tara on Zee TV becomes India's first femalecentric soap


1995
- Advertising Club of Bombay calls its awards as
Abby
- Country's first brand consulting firm, SABRE
(Strategic Advantage for Brand Equity) begins
operations
1996
- The ad fraternity hits big time for the first time
by bagging three awards at the 43rd International
Advertising Festival, Cannes
- Sun TV becomes the first regional TV channel to
go live 24 hours a day on all days of the week

1997

- Media boom with the growth of cable and satellite; print medium sees an
increase in titles, especially in specialised areas
- Government turns towards professional advertising in the private sector
for its VDIS campaigns
- Army resorts to the services of private sector agencies
- Advertising on the Internet gains popularity
- Equitor Consulting becomes the only independent brand consultancy
company in the country
- Several exercises in changing corporate identity
- For the first time ever, Indians stand the chance of winning the $ 1million booty being offered by Gillette as part of its Football World Cup
promo 1998
- Events assume important role in marketing mix
- Rise of software TV producers banking on ad industry talent
- Reinventing of cinema -advertising through cinema begins

1998

- Lintas becomes Ammirati Puri Lintas (APL)

1999

- B2B site agencyfaqs.com launched on September 28, 1999


- The Advertising Club Bombay announces the AdWorks Trophy

In the new millennium


2000

- Mudra launches magindia.com - India's first advertising and


marketing Gallery
- Lintas merges with Lowe Group to become Lowe Lintas and
Partners (LLP)
- bigideasunlimited.com - a portal offering free and fee ideas for
money launched by Alyque Padamsee and Sam Mathews
- Game shows like Kaun Banega Crorepati become a rage; media
buying industry is bullish on KBC
- Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi marks the return of familyoriented soap on TV
- French advertising major Publicis acquires Maadhyam
2001
- Trikaya Grey becomes Grey Worldwide
- Bharti's Rs 2.75-crore corporate TV commercial, where a baby
girl is born in a football stadium, becomes the most expensive
campaign of the year
2002
- Lowe Lintas & Partners rechristened Lowe Worldwide
- For the first time in the history of HTA, a new post of president is

Historical Roles of Advertising


m

The Pre-industrial Age (up to start of 19th century)

Historical Roles of Advertising

The Industrializing Age (Mid 1700s Europe / 1800s in


U.S. To WW1)
m Mass production / Need for mass consumption
m Cost people less to buy products than to make them
m Manufacturers were concerned with production

Historical Roles of Advertising


m

The Industrial Age (1900s to 1970s)


Luxury goods developed
m Manufacturers changed from a production orientation to a
sales orientation
m

Roles of Advertising

Advertisng

Advertisng

Directoy

Advertisng

Respon

DirectBusinetoAdvertisng

Politca

Instiuoal

Local

Advertisng

Busine

Advertisng

Retailor
Advertisng
Brand

Advertisng

PublicServ

Interaciv
dverAtisng

Types of Advertising

Functions of Advertising

The shift from seller initiative to


buyer initiative

But what it can not do

UNITED COLORS OF BENETTON


The United Colors of Benetton: a company of colors

and controversies. Offering the world an insight


to fashion, as well as, human equality and world
issues, Benetton gives us stylish clothing and
innovative promotion. While trying to capture an
audience favoring Italian character in style and
design, the company additionally desires to
present the world with contentious campaigns to
awaken thoughts and debates. These
controversies are jeopardizing Benettons position
in the industry, and its reputation of being
trendily unique and committing to world harmony.
The United Colors of Benetton (Benetton), an
Italian based company, is primarily focusing its
business on clothing and controversial
advertising.

UCB- Advertising
a) How it is perceived?
Benetton has earned worldwide recognition by
creating advertisement themes that promote
diversity and various other social causes.
The company strives to promote itself as a
socially responsible business, by supporting
social organizations and discussing moral
issues in its print campaigns throughout the
world.
Unlike most advertisements which are centered
on a companys product or image, Benettons
advertising campaigns addressed social and
political issues.

b) Appeal of the advertisement


Most of its advertisements were severely
rebuked by governments, media and general
public.
But Benetton has been successful in delivering
its socially responsible message amidst
controversies.

c) Campaign and its importance

S.No. Campaign

Importance

1.

All the colors of the world altered as United Colors of Benetton

The company adopted the slogan as its


actual logo

2.

Images showed youth of both sexes and every skin tone

Suggested a somewhat abstract universe


ruled by the easy straightforwardness of
relationships and feelings

3.

Religious and political conflict (the Palestinian and the Israeli)

4.

Religious and sexual conflict (a priest kissing a nun)

5.

Moral conflict (the stereotypes of good and evil, symbolized by an angel


and the devil)

All of these conflicts were based on taboos,


on the impossibility of co-existence, on a
difference that separates rather than unites.
By acknowledging these differences and
prohibitions, the brand appeared more
involved.
Benetton had a plan: to integrate opposites,
to unite differences under a single flag, the
flag of its own logo

6.

A photo of a war cemetery

This photo signaled a break with the previous


campaigns. The style became realistic,
introducing depth of field, and a bit of real
life burst into the artificially sweetened
universe of advertising

7.

Image of a newborn baby still attached to the Intended as an anthem to life


umbilical cord

8.

A man dying of AIDS,

Benettons use of it in its advertising that


brought it to the attention of the world media
and made people talk about dying of AIDS

9.

A soldier gripping a human thigh bone

10.

A man assassinated by the Mafia,

11.

A car on fire,

Introduced a new and intriguing question


about the fate of advertising: can marketing
and the enormous power of advertising
budgets be used to establish a dialogue with
consumers that focuses on something other
than a companys products

12.

A ship being stormed by emigrants

13.

Sixth World AIDS Day, on December 1st


A symbol of the fight against AIDS, Benetton
1993, an enormous pink condom, 22 meters proved that a different use of advertising
high and 3.5 meters wide, was placed on the was indeed possible
obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris

14.

Dying AIDS patient

The motif "Dying AIDS patient" addresses


the serious problems of the AIDS disease
and the pain as well as the grief this disease
entails. It is legally important that Benetton
had the consent of the dying AIDS patient .

16.

Priest kissing nun

17.

Military cemetery with Star of David

The motifs "Priest kisses nun" and "Military


cemetery with Star of David" use religious
forms and affect religious feelings.

18.

T-shirt of Bosnian soldier

19.

Gunman with bone

20.

Container with refugees

21.

H.I.V. positive

22.

Oil-polluted duck

23.

Child labor

The motifs "Gunman with bone" and "Tshirt of Bosnian soldier" address the
genocides, which took place in Africa and
Bosnia.
The motifs "Container with refugees" and
"Ship with refugees" address war and
political
upheavals taking place
in to the
The
"H.I.V.-positive"-motif
appeals
developing
and
third
world
countries
prejudice of people against others that carry
the
of an abnormality
such persons
Theburden
motif "Oil-polluted
duck"- concerns
the
become
"branded"
by
society.
problems of environment pollution and big
environmental
catastrophes.
The motif "Child
labor" alludes to a social
and economic problem of developing
countries

d) Benettons communication philosophy


Benetton believes that it is important for companies to take a stance
in the real world instead of using their advertising budget to
perpetuate the myth that they can make consumers happy
through the mere purchase of their product.
The company opted for a communication strategy in which issues
and not clothes play the lead part. The company has decided to
devote some of its advertising budget to communicate on themes
relevant to young and old people worldwide.
Using these images in this unconventional way is an effort by
Benetton to break through the complacency that exists in our
society due to the constant flow of even the most horrendous
realities communicated through conventional media such as the
evening news or the morning paper.
By removing these images from their familiar contexts and putting
them in a new context they are more likely to be noticed and
given the attention they deserve as the viewer becomes involved
in the process of answering the questions.

e) The Changing Society Values (COUNTRY


SPECIFIC)

The Benettons strategy to handle the cross


cultural issues is through popularizing the brand
unlike most advertisements which centered around
a companys product or image, Benettons
advertising campaigns addressed social and
political issues like racial integration, AIDS
awareness, war, poverty, child labor, death,
pollution etc. The company tried more to
communicate to the world about these issues
rather than to sell apparel and accessories. In
every country Benetton aimed at creating world
peace and harmony. Benetton also aims at Reality
advertising, by showing social issues (Two people in
flood in Calcutta)

Marlboro The Marlboro Man


PERU

USA

Argentina

Dominican
Republic

Hong Kong

Philippines

Louis Vuitton uses celebrity

Challenges in Achieving
Local Relevance: Coca cola
Keeping The Classic Look
and Taste Worldwide
When Coca-Cola was first introduced
into the Chinese market, Chinese
characters selected sounded like
Coca-Cola but actually meant, bite
the wax tadpole.

In Russian, enjoy was changed to


drink, because enjoy has a
particular sensual connotation, in
that language, that doesnt apply to
soft drinks.

US version

Arab version

European version

Arab version

Most controversial ads in the


history of advertisement

1. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH 774 COMPLAINTS


The controversial ad which could 'frighten and distress

youngsters'
As part of the NHS's anti-smoking drive, this television, press,
internet and poster ad campaign showed smokers having a
fish hook pulled through their cheek, representing their
craving for cigarettes.
Many of those who complained said the adverts were
offensive, frightening and distressing. The largest group of
complaints related to the poster ads and the effect they
could have on children.
The ASA found the adverts were unlikely to cause serious
offence or distress to adult viewers.
But despite an "ex-kids restriction" - which stops adverts
being shown during or around programming aimed at
children - two of the television adverts and the poster ads
were found to have the potential to frighten and distress
youngsters.

2. TRIDENT GUM - 519


COMPLAINTS
These adverts showed

people speaking in
Caribbean accents while
extolling the virtues of the
new gum from Cadbury's
and drew complaints that
they were offensive and
racist.
People argued the ads shown on television and in
cinemas - showed
stereotypes that ridiculed
black or Caribbean people
and their culture.
The ASA decided the adverts
did not incite racial
discrimination but
acknowledged that a
significant minority of
viewers had been
unintentionally offended.

3. RUSTLERS - 219
COMPLAINTS
Television adverts for Rustlers

drew ire from viewers who


thought they were sexist and
demeaning to women.
The adverts for the microwaveable
burgers showed a man and a
woman arriving at the man's
flat, with the woman agreeing
to having a coffee while sitting
on a sofa.
The man then punches into a
microwave style keypad which
sets the sofa rotating, soon
revealing the woman wearing
just underwear.
The humour in the ads would be
unlikely to cause serious or
widespread offence the ASA
ruled. But it had an ex-kids
restriction and was shown
during Bugsy Malone, a film
that would appeal to children,
so complaints about scheduling
were upheld.

Thank You