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Introduction

Common protocols that are used in commercial networking for inter-networking include IP(Internet
Protocol) and TCP(Transmission Control Protocol).

The design Philosophy has been changing all the time as time passed by based on the repeated
pattern of implementation and testing. Then the standard or protocol can be set.
Anyway for the improvement of the ISO protocol, they are evolved based on the history of the
internet suite.

Fundamental Goal
DARPA Internet design is purpose is developing and efficient technique for multiplexed utilisation
of the existing interconnected networks.
Originally the objectives of DARPA was connecting the packet radio networks together so the users
were able to access the large server machines.
The replacement of interconnecting existing networks is an unified system that can incorporate a
various transmission media which can be called multi-media network.
The approach to unified network was packet switching such as remote login. When integrated, we
call it packet switching networks which was accepted as fundamental component of the internet
architecture. The layer of the internet packet switch are called gateway which implement a store
and forward packet forwarding algorithm.

Second Level Goals


Goals of an effective interconnection.
1. No network or gateway loss.
2. Support various types of communication services.
3. Capable of variety of network.
4. Distributed resource management.
5. Cost Efficiency
6. Effortlessly allow host attachment.
7. Accountable resources.
Note that the order of these goals results in the types of network. Different usages of network
should have different order of goals.

Survivability in the face of failure.


Another important feature for a good interconnection is the ability to continue the communication
even though the network or gateway are failing.
To be capable of surviving from those failure, data protection is used. Those data that are kept to
avoid failure include number of packets transmitted, number of packets acknowledged or even the
number of outstanding flow control permission.

Some architecture, states are store in the intermediate packet switching nodes of network which
must be replicated. Anyway, the replication process can be very complex so there is an alternative
by storing data at the endpoint of the net which is called fate-sharing. It is named like this
because it is acceptable when both of the state information and the associate entity are lost
together in the same time.
Advantages of fate-sharing are protection from any number of intermediate failure and easy to
work with.
For fate-sharing architecture, the intermediate packet switch must not be a stateless packet switch.
Also the more trust is placed in the host machine than in an architecture where the network
ensures the reliable delivery of the data.

Types of Service
From above, that have been mentioned about second level goals, one of them are supporting
various types of communication services. Basically, various type of communication services are
different by their speed, latency and reliability. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is the method
that most services use to achieve this goal. TCP basic concept is to be general enough to support
any type of need. Anyway it is not practical to build support for all need in on one protocol.
However there are still some services that are out of TCP range including XNET ( the crossInternet debugger) and digital speech. For XNET, it is not realistic when the debugging program is
coded in the complex fashion. For digital speech which is used in many occasions such as the live
broadcasting, the delay is very concerned to be the least. Surprisingly, the most dominant cause of
those delay is the method lead to the reliability of system.
As a result, it is decided that the design of internet architecture must require more than one
transport service and support to simultaneously transports that follow reliability, delay, to band
witch at least.
Originally TCP(Transmission Control Protocol) and IP(Internet Protocol) are united as one protocol
in the architecture but now, they are separated into two different layers. TCP gives more reliable
services while IP provides a basic building block out of which a variety of types of service could be
built. Datagram that have been mentioned above is also a building block. The UDP (User
Datagram Protocol) was created to provide a application-level interface to the basic datagram
service of the internet.
It is better to design an architecture that multiple types of services can be made out of basic
datagram instead of supporting multiple types of services.

Variety of Networks
Another point of second level goals is the capability of variety of networks. Internet architecture in
the past have been very successful in achieving this task. To illustrate, the DARPA packet radio
can communicate in the range from 1200 bps.
To approach that capability, the internet architecture must create a minimum set of assumptions
about the function which the net will provide. The size of the packet must be reasonable.
Sometime when unsupported network is called, the architecture can adjust to simulate these
services at the endpoint of the networks.

Other Goals
Apart from first 3 goals mentioned above. The remaining goals with lower importance can be meet
with certain respects.
For distributed management goal, is facing with a problem of insufficient tools and can only be
done in limited way. Obviously, the change of internet architecture in the next several years will be
about management of resources in the context of multiple administrations.
For the cost efficiency goal, internet architecture still doesnt produce as cost effective a utilisation
of expensive communication resources as a more tailored architecture would. Another possible
source of inefficiency is retransmission of lost packets. Internet is not able to recover the lost
packet at the network levels so retransmission from end to the other end is needed which is not
cost effective. The cost of attaching a host to the Internet is also higher than in other architectures.
For the host-resident mechanism, we face poor implementation that damage the host system.
Thus the goal is to reduce this damages.