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QUIK SERIES SOFTWARE

Steel Detailing Services


Building Design and Documentation
Steel Detailing Software Development

Truss Design Statement for AS/NZS4600:2005


Preface
This document applies only to the 2007 edition of Quik Series Software. The
softwares engineering modules are operated purely from first principals, this means that
all sectional properties and section capacities are calculated from scratch each time in real
time. This document gives a basic outline of the calculations performed and methods used.
AS/NZS4600:2005 requires the extensive use of effective sectional properties at
varying stress level, plus the section capacities are a variable against the effective lengths
of the material, because of this requirement it is not possible to give worked examples as
each sample would run into many hundreds of pages.
Appendix B contains a list of sections that are covered by this software.

Principles of Operation
The method of analysis is via a 2D plane frame analysis using the displacement
method with skyline matrix technology used to solve the equilibrium. The software takes
the truss or rafter from the screen and reduces it to a single line drawing using the centroid
of each member as the reference points. Apparent intersections are created thus creating
node points with connecting lines. Each line is then subdivided into four more points, this
enables us to do far more accurate bending and deflection calculations.
Full sectional properties are calculated from the shape information stored. These
full properties also take into account the radii of all corners. The warping constant and St
Venants torsion constant are also calculated totally from first principles mostly using
matrix methods or methods of integration.
For each load case, the software calculates the forces imposed on each node and
element within the truss. Also calculated are the effective sectional properties for both
members under uniform compression and members under stress gradient. These effective
sectional properties vary with the imposed load and length of each member, therefore the
length of the member is taken to be the distance between the major node points.
On the completion of the analysis, the overall truss is checked for serviceability
deflections and each member is checked for compliance with the code. The screwed,
riveted or bolted joints are all designed by the software based on the largest terminating
load at that point. Whilst the software designs the required fasteners at each joint, it does
not do any checks to ensure that the quantity of fasteners will fit within the allowed space.
This may be addressed in future versions.

This document is subject to copyright and remains the property of Robert Cummings and
Associates. 2006, 2007, 2008

Page 2 of 13

Load Combinations
Load combinations are a regional or location base item and not directly coupled to
the actual design code. However most countries use the load combinations listed below.
Load Case 1
Load Case 2
Load Case 3
Load Case 4
Load Case 5
Load Case 6
Load Case 7
Load Case 8
Load Case 9
Load Case 10
Load Case 11
Load Case ?

G+S
Ws
2G + 2S
1.2G + 1.5Q
0.9G + Wu
0.9G + Wu
1.2G + Wd
1.2G + Wd
0.9G + Wl
0.9G + Wr
1.2G + 0.4Q + 1.5S
1.2G + 1.5P

(only used in -S codes)

(not used in -D codes)


(not used in -D codes)
(not used in -D codes)
(not used in -D codes)

Where
G
Q
S
Ws
Wu
Wd
Wl
Wr
P

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

gravity load or dead load


live load or short term load
snow load
wind servicabilty load
wind load upwards
wind load downwards
wind left to right
wind right to left
1.1kN applied mid span

Load Cases 1 & 2 are used for servicability checks, and all load cases are checked
for strength and stability checks.
Load Case 3 is intended to be a redundancy check on trusses. The purpose of this
check is to ensure that the truss will not collapse should a truss on either side fail, thus
preventing a progressive faiure. This check is above and beyond any code requirements,
but a check that we consider essential.
Snow loads will not appear when there is no snow load present.
Load Case 5 applies the internal wind pressure to the truss bottom chord, where as
Load Case 6 applies the internal presure to the truss top chord. The same method has been
applied to Load case 7 and Load Case 8.
For Load Case ?, each member is checked for strength and stability by applying a
point load of 1.1kN mid span of each major segment. This check is applied to members
where the length of the major segment if greater tha five time the height of the section.
Load redistributuon factors (ks) are applied to this point load.
Where

ks = 0.2log10(10L-3/ ns-3) + 0.75


ks
L
s
n

=
=
=
=

0.2 ks 1.0

load redistribution factor


major segment length of member being designed
spacing of crossing members
number of crossings

This document is subject to copyright and remains the property of Robert Cummings and
Associates. 2006, 2007, 2008

Page 3 of 13

Wind Loads
The wind speed expressed is the ultimate design wind speed expressed in m/s for
metric users and mph for imperial users. From this wind speed, the free stream gust wind
pressures are derived. If the wind speed has a trailing C then cyclonic conditions are
assumed.
=
ultimate design wind speed
Vu
=
serviceability wind speed
=
0.4017Vu
Vs
=
ultimate wind pressure
=
0.0006(Vu)2
qu
=
serviceability wind pressures
=
0.0006(Vs)2
qs
For wind loads upwards the external pressure coefficient is set at 0.90. with the
internal pressure coefficients preset at 0.20, for cyclonic conditions the internal pressure
coefficient is set at 0.70. If shuttered conditions have been selected then for cyclonic
conditions the internal pressure coefficient is set a 0.20.
For wind loads downwards the external pressure coefficient is set at 0.40, with the
internal pressure coefficients set at 0.30, for cyclonic conditions the internal pressure
coefficient is set at 0.65.
For wind loads left to right the external pressure coefficient is set at 1.00, with the
internal pressure coefficients set at zero.
For serviceability wind loads downwards the external pressure coefficient is set at
0.90. with the internal pressure coefficients set at 0.20, for cyclonic conditions the internal
pressure coefficient remains set at 0.20.
For serviceability wind loads upwards the external pressure coefficient is set at
0.40. with the internal pressure coefficients set at 0.30, for cyclonic conditions the internal
pressure coefficient remains set at 0.30.

Serviceability Checks
For serviceability checks, all members are checks for deflection mid span and
displacement at each node point.
For members under dead load, the limits are set at a maximum of length on 300,
were a member is cantilevered the limit is set at length on 150. Where members are under
wind load only, the limits are set at a maximum of length on 150, were a member is
cantilevered and under wind load only the limit is set at length on 75.

Strength and Stability Checks


For strength and stability checks, all members in all load cases are checked without
exception. Methods of calculating the above are listed in much more detail below. Items
check for are listed below:

Compression
Bending
Shear
Tension
Bearing
Combined bending and compression
Combined bending and tension
Combined bending and shear
Combined bending and bearing

This document is subject to copyright and remains the property of Robert Cummings and
Associates. 2006, 2007, 2008

Page 4 of 13

Units of Measure
The software is not flexible with the units of measure. Units of measure used are
listed below.
Abbreviation
Location coordinates
Lengths and distances
Applied Point Loads
Applied moments
Applied distributed loads
Yield/Tensile strength
Moment of Inertia
Torsion constants
Warping constant
Rotation
Reactions
Joint loads and capacities
Axial forces
Bending moments
Shear force
Compression capacity
Bending capacity
Shear capacity
Effective area
Section modulus
Bearing Capacity
Various

Report Type
Node inputs
Various
Node inputs
Node inputs
Node inputs
Section Data
Sectional Properties
Sectional Properties
Sectional Properties
Node Results
Node Results
Node Results
Member Results
Member Results
Member Results
Member Capacities
Member Capacities
Member Capacities
Member Capacities
Member Capacities
Member Capacities
Code Compliance

Unit of Measure
Metric
Imperial
Nominal units
mm
kN
N/m
kpa/m
mpa
mm4
mpa
mpa
Degrees
N
N
N
Nmm
N
N
Nmm
N
mm2
mm3
N
Percentage %

This document is subject to copyright and remains the property of Robert Cummings and
Associates. 2006, 2007, 2008

Page 5 of 13

Common Notations
Ag
An
lx
ly
Ix
Iy
Zx
Zy
rx
ry
xo
yo
ro1
J
Iw
E
G
df
tw
fy
fu

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

gross area of section


nett area of section
effective length in X axis
effective length in Y axis
second moment of inertia about X axis
second moment of inertia about Y axis
section modulus about X axis
section modulus about Y axis
radius of gyration about X axis
radius of gyration about Y axis
distance from X centroid to X shear centre
distance from Y centroid to Y shear centre
polar radius of gyration
torsional constant
warping constant
Youngs modulus of elasticity 200000
shear modulus
80000
screw or bolt diameter
material thickness
material yield strength
material ultimate design strength

Tension Capacity
Need to satisfy:

Where

N*
N*

tNta
tNtb

N*

applied tensile load

Nta

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

tensile capacity of member


Agfy
tensile capacity of member
0.85k1Anfu
correction factor
0.85
capacity reduction factor
0.90

Ntb
k1
t

AN/NZS4600:2005 Clause 3.2.2


AN/NZS4600:2005 Clause 3.2.2

Reporting:
Quik Series Software reports the tensile capacity for each member in each
load case. The value reported is notated by the symbol Nt which is the
lesser value of Nta and Ntb.

This document is subject to copyright and remains the property of Robert Cummings and
Associates. 2006, 2007, 2008

Page 6 of 13

Bearing Capacity
Need to satisfy:

R*

wRb

AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.3.6

Rb

Ctw2fy(1 Cr(ri/tw)0.5)(1 + Cl (75/tw)0.5)(1 Cw(d1/tw)0.5)

R*
Rb
ri
d1
w

=
=
=
=
=

applied bearing load


bearing capacity of section
inside bend radius of section
depth of flat portion of web
capacity reduction factor

Where

For sections supported an the end


C
=
4
=
0.14
Cr
=
0.35
C1
=
0.02
Cw
=
0.85
w
Reporting:

For sections supported internally


C
=
13
Cr
=
0.23
C1
=
0.14
Cw
=
0.01
w
=
0.90

Quik Series Software reports the bearing capacity for each member in each
load case where there is a support point. The values are reported are
notated by the symbol Rbe and Rbi.

Shear Capacity
Need to satisfy:

V*

vVv

AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.3.4

V*

applied shear load

Vv

shear capacity of member

Where

For
For
For

d1/tw (5.34E / fy)0.5


(5.34E / fy)0.5 d1/tw 1.415(5.34E / fy)0.5
d1/tw > 1.415(5.34E / fy)0.5
d1
v

Reporting:

=
=
=

Vv = 0.64fyd1tw
Vv = 0.64tw2(5.34Efy)0.5
Vv = 4.83Etw3 / d1

depth of flat portion of web excluding curves


capacity reduction factor
0.90

Quik Series Software reports the shear capacity for each member in each
load case. The value reported is notated by the symbol Vv.

This document is subject to copyright and remains the property of Robert Cummings and
Associates. 2006, 2007, 2008

Page 7 of 13

Compression Capacity
Need to satisfy:

Where

N*
N*

cNs
cNc

N*
Ns

Ae

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

applied compression load


section compression capacity
A ef y
capacity reduction factor
0.85
effective area at yield stress fy
member compression capacity
A ef n
effective area at critical stress fn

For
For

c 1.5
c > 1.5

c
foc

fox
foy
foz
foc
x
y

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

c
Ae
Nc

AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.4.1


AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.4.1

fn = (0.658c2)fy
fn = (0.877/c2)fy
(fy/foc)0.5
lesser of foc or fox
1 (xo / ro1)2
2E/(x)2
2E/(y)2
(GJ/Agro12)(1 + 2EIw/(GJIx2))
(0.5 / )[(fox + foz) ((fox + foz)2 - 4foxfoz)0.5]
lx / rx 200
ly / ry 200

Reporting:
Quik Series Software reports the compression capacity for each member in
each load case. The values reported are notated by the symbols Ns and
Nc.

This document is subject to copyright and remains the property of Robert Cummings and
Associates. 2006, 2007, 2008

Page 8 of 13

Bending Capacity
Need to satisfy:

Where

M*
M*

bMs
bMb

M*

maximum moment

Ms

=
=
=
=
=

section moment capacity


Z ef y
effective sectional modulus calculates at fy
capacity reduction factor
0.90

Zc
fc

=
=
=
=

member moment capacity


Zcfc
effective sectional modulus at fc
Mc/Zf

For
For
For

b 0.60
0.6 < b < 1.366
b 1.366

b
My
Zf
Mo
Cb
fox
foy
foz

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Ze
b
Mb

AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.3.2.2


AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.3.3.2

M c = My
Mc = 1.11My[1 (10b2/36)]
Mc = My[1/ b2]

(My/Mo)0.5
Zf * fy
full sectional modulus
CbAgro1(foyfoz)0.5
12.5Mmax / (2.5Mmax + 3M3 + 4M4 + 3M5)
2E/( lx / rx)2
2E/( ly / ry)2
(GJ/Agro12)(1 + 2EIw/(GJIx2))

Reporting:
Quik Series Software reports the moment capacity for each member in each
load case. The values reported are notated by the symbols Ms and Mb.

This document is subject to copyright and remains the property of Robert Cummings and
Associates. 2006, 2007, 2008

Page 9 of 13

Combined Bending and Compression


Need to satisfy:

Reporting:

(N*/cNc) + (M* / bMb)


(N*/cNs) + (M* / bMb)

1
1

AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.5.1


AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.5.1

Quik Series Software reports the moment capacity for each member in each
load case. The value reported are notated by the symbol Mb + Nc and Mb
+ Ns which is expressed as a percentage.

Combined Bending and Tension


Need to satisfy:
(N* / t Nt) + (M* / b Mb)
(N* / t Nt) + (M* / b Ms)

1
1

AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.3.5


AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.3.5

Reporting:
Quik Series Software reports the moment capacity for each member in each
load case. The value reported are notated by the symbol Mb + Nt and Ms
+ Nt which is expressed as a percentage.

Combined Bending and Shear


Need to satisfy:

(V*/ b Vv)2 + (M* / b Ms) 2 1

AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.3.5

Reporting:
Quik Series Software reports the moment capacity for each member in each
load case. The value reported are notated by the symbol Ms + Vv which is
expressed as a percentage.

Combined Bending and Bearing


Need to satisfy:

1.07(R* / wRb) + (M* / b Ms ) 1.42

AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.3.5

Reporting:
Quik Series Software reports the moment capacity for each member in each
load case. The value reported are notated by the symbol Ms + Rb which is
expressed as a percentage.

This document is subject to copyright and remains the property of Robert Cummings and
Associates. 2006, 2007, 2008

Page 10 of 13

Screw Connections (Type SC)


Need to satisfy:

Where

Reporting:

Screw Type
6-16
6-20
8-16
10-16
10-24
12-14
12-24
14-10
14-20

V*
V*
V*
V*

vVsc
bVst
bVsb
vVsv

AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 5.4.2.2


AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.3.5
AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.3.5

V*

applied shear force

Vst
Vsb
Vsc
Vsv

=
=
=
=

connection tilting capacity per screw


connection bearing capacity per screw
screw shear capacity per screw
shear capacity of material

b
v
Vst
Vsb
Vsc
Vsv

=
=
=
=
=
=

reduction factor
=
0.50
reduction factor
=
0.90
4.2(tw3df)0.5fu
2.7twdffu
screw manufacturers shear value
2.5dftwfy

Quik Series Software reports the total joint capacity at each node plus it
also reports the total load on each joint or node for each load. Further
reporting is not required as the software designs the fastener quantity to
suit each joint load.
Common Tek Screw Capacities
Screw Gauge
Screw Diameter
Single Shear
6g
3.6 mm
3.4 kN
6g
3.6 mm
3.5 kN
8g
4.1 mm
6.3 kN
10 g
4.8 mm
6.8 kN
10 g
4.8 mm
6.2 kN
12 g
5.5 mm
8.8 kN
12 g
5.5 mm
9.0 kN
14 g
6.2 mm
10.9 kN
14 g
6.2 mm
11.2 kN

Axial Tensile
4.2 kN
4.3 kN
6.3 kN
11.9 kN
11.4 kN
15.3 kN
16.7 kN
19.7 kN
21.2 kN

The above table reproduced from the Buildex Product Catalog 2003 edition.

This document is subject to copyright and remains the property of Robert Cummings and
Associates. 2006, 2007, 2008

Page 11 of 13

Screw Connections (Type SJ)


Need to satisfy:

V*
V*
V*

vVsc
bVsb
vVsv

AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 5.4.2.2


AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 3.3.5

V*

applied shear force

Vsb
Vsc
Vsv

=
=
=

connection bearing capacity per screw


screw shear capacity per screw
shear capacity of material

b
v
Vsb
Vsc
Vsv

=
=
=
=
=

reduction factor
=
0.50
reduction factor
=
0.90
2.7twdffu
screw manufacturers shear value
2.5dftwfy

Where

Reporting:
Quik Series Software reports the total joint capacity at each node plus it
also reports the total load on each joint or node for each load. Further
reporting is not required as the software designs the fastener quantity to
suit each joint load.

Bolted Connections
Need to satisfy:

V*
N*
V*

vVf
nN f
vVb

AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 5.3.2


AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 5.3.3
AS/NSZ4600:2005 Clause 5.3.4

V*
N*

=
=

applied shear force


applied tension force

Vf
Nf
Vb

=
=
=

nominal shear capacity of member


nominal tensile capacity of member
nominal bearing capacity of member

v
n
Vf
Nf
Vb
e

=
=
=
=
=
=

capacity reduction
=
0.60
capacity reduction
=
0.65
twefu
2.5dftwfu
(4.64tw + 1.53)dffu
distance from centre of hole to edge of the member

Where

Reporting:
Quik Series Software reports the total joint capacity at each node plus it
also reports the total load on each joint or node for each load. Further
reporting is not required as the software designs the fastener quantity to
suit each joint load.

This document is subject to copyright and remains the property of Robert Cummings and
Associates. 2006, 2007, 2008

Page 12 of 13

Appendix B

Available Sections

This document is subject to copyright and remains the property of Robert Cummings and
Associates. 2006, 2007, 2008

Page 13 of 13

Contents
Truss Design Statement for AS/NZS4600:2005 ........................................................ 1
Preface .................................................................................................. 1
Principles of Operation ............................................................................... 1
Load Combinations..................................................................................... 2
Wind Loads .............................................................................................. 3
Serviceability Checks .................................................................................. 3
Strength and Stability Checks ........................................................................ 3
Units of Measure ....................................................................................... 4
Common Notations ..................................................................................... 5
Tension Capacity ....................................................................................... 5
Bearing Capacity ....................................................................................... 6
Shear Capacity ......................................................................................... 6
Compression Capacity ................................................................................. 7
Bending Capacity....................................................................................... 8
Combined Bending and Compression ............................................................... 9
Combined Bending and Tension ..................................................................... 9
Combined Bending and Shear ........................................................................ 9
Combined Bending and Bearing ...................................................................... 9
Screw Connections (Type SC) ....................................................................... 10
Screw Connections (Type SJ)........................................................................ 11
Bolted Connections ................................................................................... 11
Appendix B Available Sections ................................................................... 12
Contents ................................................................................................ 13

This document is subject to copyright and remains the property of Robert Cummings and
Associates. 2006, 2007, 2008