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# SolutionsforRevisionPackage3:ComplexNumbers

Q1

VJC/2012Prelim/I/12

RVHS/2012Prelim/I/1
Q2

Let f ( z ) z 4 2 z 3 14 z 2 az b
Consider z 4 2 z 3 14 z 2 az b 0 (1)
Sub z 1 2i into(1),usingGC

## ( 7 24i) 2( 11 2i) 14( 3 4i) a (1 2i) b 0

( 7 22 42 a b) ( 24 4 56 2a )i 0
( 27 a b) (36 2a )i 0 0i
Comparingtherealandimaginarycoefficients

27 a b 0 ----(2)

----(3)
36 2a 0
Solving(2)and(3),
a 18 and b 45

Therefore f ( z ) z 4 2 z 3 14 z 2 18 z 45
UsingGCtosolve f ( z ) z 4 2 z 3 14 z 2 18 z 45 0 ,
z 1 2i , z 1 2i , z 3i , z 3i

## Replace z with iz in(1),weobtain

z 4 2iz 3 14 z 2 18iz 45 0
iz 1 2i , iz 1 2i , iz 3i , iz 3i

z i 2 , z i 2 , z 3 , z 3

Alternatively,sinceallthecoefficientsofthepolynomial f ( z ) arereal
z 1 2i and z 1 2i arerootsof f ( z ) 0

## z (1 2i) z (1 2i) z 2 2 z 5 isaquadraticfactorof f ( z ) .

Let z 2 qz r betheotherquadraticfactorof f ( z ) .

z 4 2 z 3 14 z 2 az b z 2 2 z 5 z 2 qz r
Comparingcoefficientof z 3 : 2 q 2 q 0
Comparingcoefficientof z 2 : 14 r 5 r 9

Therefore f ( z ) z 2 2 z 5 z 2 9
f ( z ) z 4 2 z 3 14 z 2 18 z 45
a 18 and b 45
f ( z ) 0 z 1 2i , z 1 2i , z 3i , z 3i

Q3 TJC/2012Prelim/I/2

Since 2 isarootoftheequation,

2 2 1 2i 2 a bi 2 2 2i 0
3

16 4 8i 2a 2bi 2 2i 0
10 6i 2a 2bi

by comparing coeff., a 5, b 3

Let z bethethirdroot.

2 z 3 1 2i z 2 5 3i z 2 2i 2 z z 2 z 1 i
Bycomparingconstantterm,wehave

2 2 1 i 2 2i

2 2 1 i 2 2i

1
2

Q4

SAJC/2012Prelim/I/4

(i) | iz 3 | 3

3
| i || z | 3
i
| z 3i | 3

arg z 3
i 4

arg( z (3 3i ))

arg( z ( 3 3i ))

(ii)

(a)
Min |z - (3+3i)|=PT

PT
sin PT 3 2
6
4
Max possible |z - (3+3i)|=QT = 6 units, but Q is not to be included.
Therefore 3 2 | z 3 3i | 6 since Q is not included. (Ans)
(b)
Max arg( z (3 3i )) occurs at point Q (not included) and min arg( z (3 3i )) occurs at
point P.
3
arg( z (3 3i )) (Ans)
4

Q5
(i)

(ii)

MJC/2012Prelim/I/4

Im

4
O

A(2, 0)

Im

8
4
O

A(2, 0)

(2, 4)

sin

4 1

8 2

smallestvalueof arg z 2 4i
(iii) Method1:
2
2
AP= 4 4 4 4

2 1

2 6 3

## required region for (i)

Re

Re

w 2 4

2 4

2 1 cos 4 2 1 sin i
4
4
1
1
2 1
4 2 1
i
2
2

2 1 2 2 2 2 i

Method2:
Equationofcircle: x 2 y 4 16 (1)
2

x 2 y x 2, x 2 (2)
4

Equationofhalfline: y 0 tan
Sub(2)into(1):

x 2 x 2
2
x 2 8
x 2 2 2
2

x 22 2
y 42 2

16

or

x 2 2 2 rej. x 0

w 2 1 2 2 2 2 i
Method3:

PN 4 cos 2 2
4

CN 4sin 2 2
4
x 22 2
y 42 2

w 2 1 2 2 2 2 i

Q6

AJC/2012Prelim/I/11

.
4

c 2ia a ia ia a OC OB AB OB BC

AnglethatlocusofZmakeswiththerealaxis=

Geometricalrelationship:ACisthediameterofthecirclewithcentreB.
[OrA,B,Carecollinear;OrBisthemidptofAandC]

## z a 2ia z c =DistancebetweenZandC.Least z a 2ia 2

(i)

2
2 ACD
(ii) ABD cos
2 3
6

AcuteangleCAmakeswiththerealaxis=
2 4
4
1

## Largest arg( z a 2ia ) =

6 4
12

Q7 TPJC/2012Prelim/II/3

3(a)
i
4
z 3 i 2e 6
1

1
i 2 k
4

z 24 e 6

1
4

z2 e

23
i

24

for k 2, 1, 0, 1
1
4

, 2 e

11
i

24

1
4

, 2 e

i
24

1
4

, 2 e

13
i

24

(b)(i)

z ei cos i sin

## ei( ) cos() i sin() cos i sin

z

(ii)

ByDeMoivresTheorem

## z n cos i sin cos n i sin n

n

1
n
cos i sin cos( n) i sin( n) cos n i sin n
n
z
1
z n n cos n i sin n cos n i sin n 2 cos n
z

1
3 1 3 1
1

3
z z 3z 3 z 3 3 z
z
z z
z
z

2cos

2 cos 3 6 cos

1
3
cos3 cos 3 cos
4
4
1
3
p
and q
4
4

1
2

2 3 22

Q8 SRJC/2012Prelim/II/4

## (i) Since P(z) has real coefficients and r e is a root of P(z) = 0, r e

A quadratic factor is a product of two linear factors
i
i
= (z r e )( z r e )
i

## is also a root of P(z) = 0.

= z2 zr ( e + e ) + r2
= z2 zr (2 cos ) + r2
= z2 2rz cos + r2
(ii) z 243
z 5 243e i , k = 0, 1 , 2
5

z = 3e

2 k
5

)i

, k = 0, 1 , 2

z 3 , 3 e

i
5

, 3e

3
i
5

5
(iii) z 243

3
i
5

i
5

3
i
5

## = (z + 3)( z 3 e )(z 3 e )(z 3 e )(z 3 e )

3
= (z + 3)(z2 6z cos + 9)(z2 6z cos + 9)
5
5
5

Im

-3

Re
3

-3
G1 Roots are located corrected and are equally far from the origin (3 units)
G1 Adjacent roots are equally spaced out
Area of the pentagon
1
2
5 (3)2 sin

5
2

## 21.4 square units

(v) z1 3e

i( )
5

i(

( z1 ) n 3n e 5
For (z1)n to be purely imaginary,
n
where k
k
5
2
5
n +5k where k
2

Q9

SRJC/2014Prelim/II/4

2
(a) z 3 z 3

arg iz

arg i arg( z )

4 2
3

4
wz 2 3
arg( z )

w z 2 3
w 2

z2 5
arg
w 6

5
2 arg( z ) arg( w)
6

3 5
arg( w) 2
4 6
2

3
2
2
w 2 cos
i sin

3
3

1 3i
(b) z4 = 81 = 81ei = 81ei ( 2 n )
1
4

z 81 e
3e

n
i
4 2

, n 0, 1, 2

n
i
4 2

(i)z4+81

=(z 3e 4 )(z 3e

i
4

)(z 3e 4 )(z 3e

3
2
2
+3 )(z 6zcos
4
4

=(z26zcos

3
i
4 )

2
+3 )

= (z2 3 2 z + 9)(z2 + 3 2 z + 9)
(ii)Given z z3 z z2 (1)
Forz=0+0i,wehave 0 z3 z3 3
Forz=0+0i,wehave 0 z2 z2 3 0 z3

(0,0)isoneofthelocuspointsfor(1)
Hence,thelocus z z3 z z2 passesthroughtheorigin.
(iii) w3 is obtained from z3 by rotating radian about origin and a scaling by a scale
factor of half in the direction of OZ1.
1
3
So required area 6 3 6
2
2
9
units2
2

Q10
(i)

MJC/2012Prelim/I/11
z 5 32

32ei 2 k
1

z 32 5 e

z 2e
(ii)

i2 k
5

4
i
5

, where k 2, 1, 0,1, 2

, 2e

2
i
5

, 2, 2e 5 , 2e 5

Im

Re z 1

2
i

5
z

2e

i
5
z2 2e

z5 2

Locusof

4
i
z 2

z3 2e 5
2

i
z4 2e 5

Thereare4pointswithintheregiongiven.

Re

(iii)

Locusof

z z1 z z2

4
i
5

z2 2e

4
i

z3 2e 5

Method1:
Sincetheargumentof z

Im

z1 2e

2
i
5

z5 2

2
Locusof

z 2

z4 2e

2
i
5

2
2 3
or
,

5
5
5

1 2

2 5

2
i

5
z 2e 5
or z 2e

0.62 1.90i
0.62 1.90i

Method2:
Equationofcirclecentred0+0iandradius2: x 2 y 2 2 2

3
3.077683
5

EquationofperpendicularbisectorthatpassesthroughtheOrigin:
y 3.077683 x

x 2 3.077683x 4
2

x 2 0.381966
x 0.618034 or x 0.618034
y 1.9021127 or y 1.9021127

## z 0.62 1.90i or z 0.62 1.90i

(iv)

Method1:

w 2

2 w 2 4 w 2 8 w 2 16 0
3

w 2 5
16 1

2 0
w2
1
2

Re

w2
1
0 ,w 4
2

w 2

25 32

## replace z by w 2 in previous answer (excluding z 2 since w 4)

w 2 2e
w 2 2e

4
i
5
4
i
5

, 2e

2
i
5

, 2e 5 , 2e 5

, 2 2e

2
i
5

i
2

, 2 2e 5 , 2 2e 5

Method2:

z 5 32 z 2 z 4 2 z 3 4 z 2 8 z 16

For w 2 2 w 2 4 w 2 8 w 2 16 0
4

## replace z by w - 2 in previous answer (excluding z 2),

w 2 2e
w 2 2e

4
i
5
4
i
5

, 2e

2
i
5

, 2e

, 2 2e

2
i
5

2
i
5

, 2e

4
i
5

, 2 2e

2
i
5

, 2 2e

4
i
5

p i

w 2 1 e 5 ,where p 4, 2, 2, 4

w 2e
2e

p i
10

p i
10

p i
p10 i

e 10
e

p
2 cos 10

p i
p 10
4 cos
e ,where p 4, 2, 2, 4
10

Q11

ACJC/2014Prelim/II/3

arg 5w2 2

Im(z

arg 5 2 arg w 2
arg w

Re(z)

## (i) arg p arg q 2

(ii) p q
2

pq p q ei 2 p ei 2

Im(z)

When

2
2
, pq p cos i sin p i
4
2
2

Re(z)

## Therefore the locus of R is the positive portion of the imaginary axis.

Im(z)

z 3 3i 2

3,3

z (3 3i) 2 .
The locus is a circle centre at 3,3 , radius

2.

Re(z)
2

z 2 ipq z (2 ipq) z (2 p )
Therefore minimum z 2 ipq 3 2
Q12

(a)

JJC/2014Prelim/I/11

z 1 i t

1 i

1
t

1
t

t t i

1
t

Let x t (1)

1
t

y t (2)
(1)+(2): x y 2t
(1) (2): x y

x y

x y
2

x 2 y 2 4

(b)

Im

5a

3a

Re

If arg p arg q ,

p
arg arg p arg q POQ
q
2 tan 1

2a

3a

2 tan 1

2
3

p q 2 3a 6 a

## Permutations & Combinations

1

4boysand3girls

(a)

(i)

_B_B_B_B_4!5P3=2460=1440

Or

GBBBBGGtypeso4!4!=576

(ii)

Case(i):3boysand3girls

(b)

4!(5C33!)=2460=1440

G
B B
G
G B

=426=48

C3(31)!3!

Case(ii):4boysand2girls

G
B B
B
G B

(41)!3C24P2

=6312=216

Or

(41)!3C24C22!=216

Totalnumberofarrangements=48+216=264
2

PPEEECRTIV

6! 7 6 5 4
50400
3! 2!

i)

numberofways=

ii)

P__P______

Case 1: 2 E

7! 5040

Case2:1E

C 2! 2!7! 25200
5

Total=30240

3(a)

8!
10080
(i) Number of ways
2!
2!

8 letters

2 N's 2 A's

(ii)

## Number of ways Number of ways without restrictions

number of ways that each pair is together
8!

6! 9360
2!2!

(iii)

5
4! 4!
4 720
Number of ways
2!2!

(b)

4 3 4 4
(i) Number of ways 432
3 2 2 2

(ii)
Case 1: 3 trumpet players, 3 saxophone players

4 4 7
Number of ways 560
3 3 3
Case 2: 3 trumpet players, 4 saxophone players

4 4 7
Number of ways 84
3 4 2
Case 3: 4 trumpet players, 3 saxophone players

4 4 7
Number of ways 84
4 3 2
Case 4: 4 trumpet players, 4 saxophone players

4 4 7
Number of ways 7
4 4 1
Total number of ways = 560 + 84 + 84 + 7 = 735
4

## (ii) Number of ways if at least one of the sisters are included

= number of ways without restriction number of ways if none of the sisters is included
= 11C6 8C6 434
Or 3C1 8C5 3C2 8C4 3C3 8C3 434

(iii) Select a man to be between the 2 sisters and group the 3 of them as one unit and
arrange 4 units round a table
3
C1 3! 2 36
(iv)First arrange the other 4 persons round the table. There are 4 ways to insert the sisters.
3! 4 24
or 4C2 2! 2! 24

Three cases:
Case 1: All three balls distinct (ABC)
n(ABC) = 6C3 (6 types of balls available)
Case 2: two identical (AAB)
n(AAB) = 2C 1 5C1 .(2 types of balls available to choose the 2 identical balls from,
then 5 types of balls available remaining to choose the last ball)
Case 3: three identical (AAA).
n(AAA) = 1
n(Total) = n(ABC) + n(AAB) + n(AAA) = 20+10+1=31

6(a)

(b)

(i)

## Number of parking arrangements

9! cases where the two cars are taking the side with 4 lots
cases where the two cars are taking the side with 5 lots
9! 7C2 3!2!5! 7C3 4!2!4!

= 292320
(ii)

## Number of parking arrangements

4C2 (2!)(7!) = 60480

## (i) Number of ways 6! 5! 2 480 or

5 1! 5 P2 480

(ii) Group Mary and the 2 men as one unit, number of ways 5 1 ! 2 48
(iii) Group 3 empty seats as one unit, number of ways 8 1 ! 5040
(iv) Number of ways 7! or 7 P3 4 P2 2 P2 7! 5040

(a)
Number of arrangements = 7! 8C3 3! 1693440 ways
Alternatively,
Number of arrangements = No. of arrangements without restrictions
No. of arrangements with all three men seated together
No. of arrangements with two of the three men seated
together
= 10! 8! 3! 7! 8C2 2! 3C2 2!

= 1693440 ways
(b)(i)
5
Number of arrangements = 4! 2! 768 ways
(b)(ii)
Number of arrangements = 9! 5! 5! 348480 ways

9(i)

(ii)

## (or 3 2 7C3 4C2 2C2 1260)

There are 3 ways of assigning a car to A, 2 ways to B, followed by slotting the remaining
people 7 people into the 3 cars.
Alternative Solution
When A and B are in the same car, number of ways
= 3 7C1 6C3 3C3 = 420
(There are 3 ways of assigning a car to both A and B, followed by slotting the remaining 7
people into the 3 cars)

= 1680 420 1260
(iii)

## Number of ways = 11! 10!2! 32659200

Alternative Solution
Number of ways = 9! 10 P2 32659200
(Arrange the remaining 10 people first, then look for separated slots to accommodate A and
B)

(iv)

## Number of ways when A and B are together (B on As left)

= 10!
Number of ways when there is 1 person between A and B (B on As left) = 10C1 9!
Number of ways when there are 2 people between A and B (B on As left) = 10C2 2! 8!

number of ways
= 11! 10! 10C1 9! 10C2 2! 8! 29030400

Alternative Solution
Number of ways = 9! 10C1 8C1 = 29030400
(Arrange the remaining 10 people first, then choose 1 slot to accommodate A or B, followed

by choosing one slot to accommodate the last person, with at least 3 people between A
and B)

## 2014 AJC/II/Q7 (Question1)

1(i)

1(ii)

1
2
P( A B' ) 1

P ( B ')
2
1
11 1
P ( A B ' ) 1 P B
2
2 4 8
A
'
P(A B) = P(A) - P ( A B )
AB
3 1
=
5 8
19
=
(ans)
40
P( A ' B)
P( B) P( A B)

(ii) P(A | A B)
=
P( A B) P( A) P( B) P( A B)
A
B
3 19

4
40

3 3 19
AB

5 4 40
11

35
P( A | B ) =

## 1(iii) (iii) A independent of C

P(A C) = P(A) . P(C )
=

2 1

5 2

1
5

## 1(iv) P(A B C ) is greatest when A C is totally in B.

1
1
P(A C) = P(A B C )
5
5

B
C

## P(A B C ) is least when A C is furthest away from B.

A
Since P(A B ) = 1/8

1 1
3
- =
5 8 40
3
1
P(A B C )
40
5

P(A B C )

Alternative method:

P( A B C ) 1
P( A B ) P( A ' C ) P( A ' B C ) 1
7 1
P( A ' B C ) 1
8 5
3
P( A ' B C )
40

2(i)

(ii)

## 2014 RI/II/Q9 (Question 3)

3(i)

Let A and B be the event that a student takes Math A and Math B respectively.
Let F be the event that a student failed the paper that he/she sat for.

F
A
F
B

0.4

F
F

P(F ) =

0.3 p
100 p 40 0.1 p
0.4

100
100
100

P(F ') = 1

40 0.1 p 60 0.1 p

100
100

## P(exactly one out of 2 failed)

= P(one failed and one passed )
40 0.1 p 60 0.1 p
2C1

100 100
2

2400 4 p 6 p 0.01 p 2
10000
0.0002(2400 2 p 0.01 p 2 ) (shown)
(ii)

## P(both take Math A | exactly one out of 2 failed)

=

P(one takes Math A and failed and the other takes Math A and passed )
P(exactly one out of 2 failed)

0.3 p 0.7 p
C1

100 100

0.0002(2400 2 p 0.01 p 2 )
2

0.21 p 2
7

2
2400 2 p 0.01 p
48

Hence,

## 10.08 p 2 16800 14 p 0.07 p 2

10.15 p 2 14 p 16800 0
1200
p 40 or
(n.a since p 0)
29

2014/VJC/II/Q6 (Question 4)
4. Let B and C denote the events in which a Beef and a Chicken
Combo Meals are chosen respectively.

0.6

0.4

0.7

0.6
B

0.4

0.8

0.3
0.6
0.7

0.2

0.4

0.3

0.7

C
B

0.3

## (i) P(BBB) = (0.8)(0.6)(0.6) = 0.288

4(ii) P(BCC) + P(CBC) +P(CCB)
= (0.8)(0.4)(0.3) + (0.2)(0.7)(0.4) + (0.2)(0.3)(0.7)
= 0.194
4(iii) P(Beef meal chosen in 2nd visit|2 Chicken meals)
P(CBC)

(0.2)(0.7)(0.4)
0.194
0.289

## 4(iv) No, as the probability of Mr Ong choosing a Beef Combo Meal

on each visit is not a constant.
Alternative Solution
It is not possible to use a binomial distribution because the events that
Mr Ong buys a beef combo meal on the 5 visits are not independent of
one another.

DHS/II/Q11
5(a)
(i)

5(a)
(ii)

11
1
P Abbey is first and Betty is sixth in the queue =
8 7 56
6!
1
Or
=
8! 56
1 6 5 4 3 1 1
Or =
8 7 6 5 4 3 56
Required probability
=P(Abbey is first) + P(Betty is second) P(Abbey is first and Betty second)
1 7 1 1 1
7! 7! 6!
= + or
+
8 8 7 8 7
8! 8! 8!

5(b)

(i)

5
(b)
(ii)

13
56

Alternatively,
Required probability
= P(Abbey is first but Betty is not second) + P(Abbey is not first but Betty is
second) + P(Abbey is first and Betty second)
6 6! 6 6! 6! 13

8!
8!
8! 56
Let A, B & C be the events a drawer containing:
2 gold coins;
1 gold coin and 1 silver coin; and
2 silver coins is selected, respectively.
Let G & S be the events:
a gold coin is selected; and
a silver coin is selected, respectively.
1
P( A) P( B ) P(C )
3
1 1 1 1
1 1
and P( S ) 1 P(G ) 1
P(G )
3 3 2 2
2 2
P(Drawer containing 2 gold coins is selected given that the coin selected is
gold)
=P( A | G)
P( A G )

P(G )
1
2
3
1
3
2
P(a gold coin is selected, followed by a silver coin)
=P( A G ).P( S |{ A G}) P( B G ).P( S |{B G})
1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2

3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 3 2
11 1 2

3 2 6 3

5
18

HCI/II/Q8

6(i)

P( A B )
P( A B )
P( B)
P(2 Curry,1Spicy,1others) P(3Curry,1Spicy)
=
P(exactly 1 Spicy )

10 9 10 60 4! 10 9 8 10 4!
141
80 79 78 77 2! 80 79 78 77 3!

or

10 70 69 68
2737
4
80 79 78 77
0.0515162587 0.0515 (3 s.f.)
OR

P( A B )
P( B)
10
10
( C2 C1 60C1 ) ( 10C3 10C1 )
80
141
C4
or 0.0515162587 0.0515 (3 s.f.)

10
70
2737
C1 C3
80
C4

P( A B )

(ii)

P( A)
1 P(0 curry) P(1 curry)
70 69 68 67 10 70 69 68
1 4
80 79 78 77 80 79 78 77

70 10 70

or 1 4 1 3

80
80

4
4

## 0.0741568558 0.0742 (3 s.f.)

Or
P( A)
P(2 curry) P(3 curry) P(4 curry)
10 9 70 69 4! 10 9 8 70 4!

80 79 78 77 2!2! 80 79 78 77 3!
10 9 8 7

80 79 78 77

10 70 10 70 10

or 2 2 3 1 4

80
80
80

4
4
4

## 0.0741568558 0.0742 (3 s.f.)

Method 1:
Show P( A B ) P( A) . Hence A and B are not independent, and A ' and B '
are not independent.

## From (i), P( A B ) 0.0515

Since 0.0515 P( A B ) P( A) 0.0742 ,
A and B are not independent.
Hence A ' and B ' are not independent.
Method 2:
Show P( A B ) P( A) P( B ) . Hence A and B are not independent, and A '
and B ' are not independent.
From (i), P( A B )
10 9 10 60 4! 10 9 8 10 4!

80 79 78 77 2! 80 79 78 77 3!

or

80
C4

10 70 69 68
4
80 79 78 77
10

C1 70C3
or

80
C4

P( B )

## P( A) P( B) 0.0742 0.346 0.0256663987 0.0257

Since 0.0178 P( A B ) P( A) P( B ) 0.0257 ,
A and B are not independent.
Hence A ' and B ' are not independent.

## P( A ' B ') P( A ') or

P( B ' A ') P( B ')
NJC/II/Q8
7

2nd CCA

Sports
1p

0.45

0.40

No 2nd CCA

0.25

2nd CCA

0.75

No 2nd CCA

0.50

2nd CCA

0.50

No 2nd CCA

Music &
Dance

0.15
Clubs &
Societies

7(i)
7(ii)

40 1 15 1
45
=
p

100 4 100 2
100
9p 1 3 9p 7

=
20 10 40 20 40

9 p 7 13

20 40 40
1
p
3

7(iii)

7(iv)

## P(first CCA Clubs and Societies | no second CCA)

P first CCA Clubs and Societies and no second CCA
=
P no second CCA
15 1
3

100 2 40 1
=

13
27 9
1
40
40
P A B P A P B P A B
2

40 1 15 1
40 15 13
2

2

100 100 40
100 4 100 2
3 169
3

25 1600 200
337

1600
NYJC/II/Q8
8
(i) P(first red bead is obtained on or before the 5th draw)
2

2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2
. or
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
= 0.922

3 2

r 0 5 5
4

3
Or 1 P(no red on first 5 draws) = 1 0.922
5
th
(ii) P(obtaining a first green bead on the 8 draw given that no green bead has been
obtained after 5 draws) = P(red on 6th and 7th draws and green on 8th draw)=
2

2 3
= 0.096
5 5
(iii) P(exactly r draws are required for beads of both colours to be obtained)
2
=
5
2
=
5

r 1

r 2

3 3

5 5

r 1

6 3

25 5

2

5

r 2

6

25
r 2
r 2
6 2
3
= , where r = 2,3,4,
25 5
5

(iv)

## P(first obtaining beads of different colours after 5 or more draws)

3
3
4
4

6 2 3 2 3
...
25 5 5 5 5

Or

3 3
2 3
6 5 5
2

25 1 5 1 53

0.155
P(first obtaining beads of different colours after 5 or more draws)
= P(obtaining same colour in the first 4 draws)
4

2 3
= = 0.155
5 5

RI/II/Q10
9i
P(A B) P(rise, rise, fall) + P(rise, fall,fall)
(0.1 0.7 0.3) (0.1 0.3 0.9)
0.048
9ii
P(B)
P(A B) P(A ' B)
0.048 P(fall, fall, fall) + P(fall, rise, fall)
0.048 (0.9 0.9 0.9) (0.9 0.1 0.3) 0.804
9iii

## P(A B) 1 [P(A) P(A B)]

1 [0.1 0.048] 0.948

9iv

P( B A )

P(A B) 0.048

P(A)
0.1
0.48
Since [P(B) = 0.804] [ P( B A )= 0.48] A and B are not independent.

RVHS/II/Q10

10a

10b
Bi

Bii

## Given that P( B ) 0.4 and P( A | B ') 0.15 ,

P( A | B ') 0.15
P( A B ')
0.15
P( B ')
P( A B ) P( B )
0.15
1 P( B )
P( A B ) 0.4
0.15
1 0.4
P( A B ) 0.49
2 1 1
(Shown)
P(wins grand prize in 2nd round)
6 5 15
P(correct key in 1st round and wins grand prize)
= P(1st correct, 2nd correct) +
P(1st correct, 2nd wrong, 3rd correct)
2 1 2 4 1 2

6 5 6 5 4 15
P(correct key selected in first round | wins grand prize)

## P(correct key in 1st round and wins grand prize)

P(wins grand prize)
2
15

2
1
2
4
1 4 2 1

6 5 6 5 4 6 5 4
2
15
3
15
2

## Solution: Binomial and Poisson Distributions

1(i)
The average number of H1 buses arriving in any 10-minute period is constant at 1
and the average number of H2 buses arriving in any 12-minute period is constant at
1.
(ii)
(a)

(ii)
(a)

(ii)
(b)

(iii)

(iv)

Let X be the random variable number of buses from bus service H1 in 10 minutes
X ~ Po 1
Let Y be the r.v number of buses from bus service H2 in 10 minutes
1

Y ~ Po 10
12

Required probability = P X 0 P Y 0
= (0.36787944)(0.4345982)= 0.15987975
= 0.15988 (shown)
1

OR
X Y ~ Po 1 10
12

11
X Y ~ Po
6
Required probability = P X Y 0
= 0.15987975 = 0.15988 (shown)
Required probability = P X 3 | X Y 3
P X 3 P Y 0
=
P X Y 3
0.061313 0.434598
=
P 0.164197
= 0.162284 = 0.162 (to 3 s.f)
Let A be the random variable number of 10-minute intervals with at least one
bus service at the main entrance boarding point, out of 24 10-minute
intervals.
A ~ B 24 , 1 0.15987975
A ~ B 24 , 0.8401202539

P A 19.2 = P A 20
= 1 P A 19
= 0.66403
= 0.664 (to 3 s.f)
Let T be the random variable total number of buses from both bus services in t
hours
2.2 60
T ~ Po
t T ~ Po 11 t
12

P T 10 0.8
1 P T 9 0.8
P T 9 0.2 0
Solve using GC,

y P T 9 0.2

q = 68.284106 minutes
t = 1.13807 hrs
= 1.14 hrs (to 2 d.p)
OR Let T be the r.v total number of buses from both bus services in q min
2.2
11
T ~ Po
q T ~ Po q
12
60
P T 10 0.8
1 P T 9 0.8
y
y P T 9 0.2
P T 9 0.2 0
Solve using GC,
O
q = 68.284106 minutes
t = 1.1381 hrs
= 1.14 hrs (to 2 d.p)
(v)

Let C be the random variable number of buses from bus service H1 in 240
minutes
1

C ~ Po 240 C ~ Po 24
10

## Since 24 10 , C ~ N 24, 24 approx.

Let D be the r.v number of buses from bus service H2 in 240 minutes
D ~ Po 20
Since 20 10 , D ~ N 20, 20 approx.
D C ~ N 4, 44 approx
Probability that there are more buses of bus service H2 than of bus service H1
between 9.30am to 1.30pm = P ( D C )
= P ( D C 0)
= P ( D C 0.5) (continuity correction)
= 0.2487588
= 0.249 (3 s.f)

2(i)

## The probability of obtaining a faulty item is a constant.

The event of obtaining a faulty item is independent of other event of obtaining a
faulty item.

(ii)

Let F be the random variable denoting the number of faulty items assembled out of
15 items.
F ~ B(15, 0.04)
P(2 F 7)

P(2 F 6)
P(F 6) P(F 1)
0.11911
0.119
(iii)

Let G be the random variable denoting the number of faulty items assembled out of
100 items.

G ~ B(100, 0.04)
n is large, np = 4 < 5,
G ~ Po(4) approximately
P(G ' 90) P(G 9)
= 0.99187 = 0.992

3
(i)

## Let X = number of Math appointments in 5-day period

X ~ Po 5(1.8) X ~ Po 9

## P X 6 0.207 (3 sf, by GC)

Use GC Poisson pdf to generate listing:
r
P X r
7
0.11712

8
9

0.13176
0.13176

10

0.11858

## The most probable numbers = 8 and 9.

Recall fact: For Poisson distribution where is an integer, Mode = ( 1) and
(ii)

Let D denote the number of days out of 30, that there are exactly 3 Math
appointments a day.

D ~ B 30, 0.161
Find minimum n such that P( D n) 0.95
Use GC Binomcdf listing:
P( D 7) 0.903 0.95
P( D 8) 0.958 0.95
P( D 9) 0.984
least n 8

(iii)

The mean number of appointments may not be constant from day to day because
there may be more appointments near exam period and few or none during the
non-exam period.
Let M and S denote the number of Math & Science appointments respectively in 30 day period.

M ~ Po 30(1.8) M ~ Po 54
S ~ Po 30(2.2) S ~ Po 66
Since M 54 > 10 and S 66 > 10 , hence
M ~ N(54, 54) approx and S ~ N(66, 66) approx
Thus, S M ~ N(12, 120) approximately

P( S M 12)

= 0.482 (3 sf)

4 (i)

(ii)

## Let X be the number of emergency admissions per day

X Po(3)
X 1 X 2 Po(6)
P( X 1 X 2 3) 0.0892 ( to 3 s.f. )
Let length of time = t hr
Let T be the number of emergency admissions in t hours.
3t
T Po
24

(iii)
(iv)

(v)

3t

P(T 0) e 24 0.2
3t

ln 0.2
24
t 8ln 0.2
13 hr
P( X 4) 1 P( X 4)
0.18474 0.185 ( to 3 s.f. )
Let Y be the number of days with at most 4 admissions out of 50 days.
Y B(50, 0.81526)
Since n 50 is large, np 40.763 5 , nq 9.237 5 ,
Y N(40.763, 7.5306) approximately
C.C.
P(Y 40)

## P(Y 39.5) 0.323

Let W be the number of patients who require surgery out of 15.
W B(15, 0.4)
E(W ) 15(0.4) 6
Var(W ) 15(0.4)(1 0.4) 3.6
Let W be the mean number of patients who require surgery. Since n is large, so by
Central Limit Theorem,
3.6
W N(6,
) approximately.
50
P(W 5.5) 0.96880

0.969 ( to 3 s.f )
5 (a)
(i)
(a)
(ii)

P X 34 or 35 P X 34 P X 35
0.075128
0.0751 (to 3 s.f.)

P X 34 or 35 X E( X )

P X 34 or 35 X 64
8

P X 34 or 35

P X 40
0.075128
0.547067
0.13732
0.137 (to 3 s.f.)

(b)

## Since n 64 30 is large, p is large enough such that

np 40 5 and n 1 p 24 5 , X ~ N 40, 15 approximately.
P 30 X 45 P 30.5 X 45.5
(by continuity correction)
0.915 (correct to 3sf)
(i) (a) The probability of willing to take part is 0.3 remains constant for all patients
(b) All patients willing to take parts are independent

(ii) The patients may not be independent as the disease is genetic, may affect same
people from same family
iii

## R ~ number of patients willing to take part in the trial out of 8 patients

R ~ B(8, 0.3)
P(R 2) = 1 P(X 1) = 0.7447 0.745

iv

## R ~ number of patient willing to take part in the trial out of n patients

R ~ B(n, 0.3)
P(R 2 ) > 0.9
1 P(R 1) > 0.9
P(R 1) < 0.1
From GC:
n = 11, P(R 1) = 0.11299
n = 12, P(R 1) = 0.8503
n = 13, P(R 1) = 0.06367
So n = 12

7(i)

## Let X represent number of large air bubbles in a glass panel X ~ Po 0.2

Let Y represent number of small air bubbles in a glass panel Y ~ Po 1.8
Since X and Y are independent, X Y ~ Po 2.0
P X Y 2 0.677 (3 s.f)

(ii)

P X 1 X Y 2

P X 1, Y 0,1 P X 2, Y 0
P X Y 2

## 0.16375 0.46284 0.016375 0.16530

0.67667

0.116 (3 s.f)
(iii)

Let S represent the number of glass panels out of 12 containing at most 2 air
bubbles.
S ~ B 12, 0.67667

P S 7 1 P S 6 0.842 (3 s.f)

(iv)

T ~ Po 24

P T 30

0.869 (3 s.f.)
8(i)
(ii)

## The probability of an egg being damaged is constant.

Whether an egg is damaged or not is independent of that of any other egg.
p

X ~ B 30,

100
P X 1 0.87945
P X 0 P X 1 0.87945
30

29

p
p

p
1
30
1
0.87945
100
100 100

## 100 p 30 p 100 p 0.87945 10030

29
100 p 100 29 p 8.7945 1059
30

29

Using GC,
p 2.00
(iii)

P X 1 1 P X 1 1 0.87945 0.12055
Let Y be the number of trays with more than 1 damaged egg out of 40 trays
Y ~ B 40, 0.12055
Since n is large, np 40 0.12055 4.8218 5 ,

Y ~ Po 4.8218 approximately
P Y 4 1 P Y 4
1 P Y 3
0.70909
0.709

(iv)

## Let A be the number of rejected cartons out of 100 cartons.

A ~ B 100, 0.709
E A 100 0.709 70.9
Var A 100 0.709 1 0.709 20.6319

## Since n is large, by Central Limit Theorem,

A A52
20.6319

~ N 70.9,
A 1
approximately
52
52

A ~ N 70.9, 0.39677

P A 71 0.563
9i

1) The typing errors on a randomly chosen page of a novel occur independently (or

randomly or singly)
2) The average number of typing errors on a page is constant.
Ii

iii

## Let X be the number of errors on a page of a novel.

X~Po(0.4)
Required probability = 3 C1 P(X = 0)2 [1 P(X = 0)]
= 3(0.67032004)2(1 0.67032004)
= 0.444
Let W be the number of errors on n pages in a novel.
W~Po(0.4n)
P(W = 1) 0.1
e-0.4 n (0.4n) 0.1
From GC, 0.280 n 8.94
Therefore the largest n is 8

Iv

Let Y ~Po()
P(Y = 2) = 2P(Y = 3)
2
-l l 3
-l l

= 2 e
e

2!
3!

3
= .
2
3
Therefore E(Y) =
2
Let U and V be the number of errors on the first 100 pages of a novel and a Math
textbook respectively.
U~Po(40), V~Po(150)
Since both >10,
U~N(40, 40) approximately
V ~ N(150, 150) approximately
4UV ~ N(10, 790) approximately
P(V 4U)
= P(4UV 0)
c.c.
P(4UV< 0.5)
= 0.368