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MODULE #2:

ROD AND BALL MILL

POWER DRAW

1992 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Objectives

Introduction

Energy and power

Mill power draw at the pinion

Progress Review 1

page

1

2

3

5

8

14

Ball mill power draw

Accuracy of power draw calculations

15

21

27

29

Mill speed

Other factors

30

36

41

Progress Review 2

43

Closing word

References

50

51

52

Glossary

56

ii

LIST OF FIGURES

page

Figure 1. Tumbling charge inside a grinding mill.

and pinion.

curve for a rod mill.

30

OBJECTIVES

This module will introduce you to rod and ball mill power draw *.

At the end of this module, you will be able to:

Differentiate between "energy consumed" and "power drawn"

by grinding mills.

Calculate the approximate mill power draw of operating rod

mills and ball mills given basic design and operating

conditions.

Specify practical means (and limitations) to increase the

power draw of operating rod mills and ball mills in the plant.

There is no prerequisite to this module. You will need a scientific

calculator to perform the calculations.

This module contains two Progress Reviews: one following the

Introduction and one at the end of the module. Estimated time for

completion is two hours including the two Progress Reviews.

INTRODUCTION

In this module, you will learn about the energy consumption

characteristics of rod mills and ball mills.

Energy is the primary input of size reduction processes. The

efficiency of the size reduction process is measured on the basis of

energy consumption as this energy is delivered to the ore through the

grinding mill. Therefore when studying grinding, we are intimately

concerned with the energy consumption characteristics of the grinding equipment.

ENERGY AND POWER

Throughout this module, we will be using both units of energy

consumption normally used for motors. The units of energy are the:

Kilowatt-hour, kwh (metric).

Horsepower-hour, HPh (British).

The units of power are the:

Kilowatt, kw (metric).

Horsepower, HP (British).

You will need the following conversion factors to convert units from

metric to British and vice-versa:

1 kwh = 1.341 HPh

1 kw

= 1.341 HP

Some important definitions follow:

Energy: Energy equals work. Energy is power consumed over

time as the work is done. In terms of units, we have:

Energy consumed

(kwh)

Power (kw)

x Time (h)

per unit of time. In terms of units, we have:

Power drawn

(kw)

Note

To help you differentiate between "energy" and "power", remember

that energy is consumed while power is drawn.

MILL POWER DRAW AT THE PINION

Energy is utilized inside the grinding mill by lifting the charge * on the

rising side of the rotating shell liners. This is shown in Figure 1.

As the mill rotates, the energy is expended by the impact and attrition

of the falling and tumbling charge. You can envision the constant

work load created by the charge in suspension against gravity. This

work load is proportional to the mass of the charge and the horizontal

distance d between the centre of mass of the charge, (represented

by M) and the longitudinal axis of the mill. When the mill is stopped,

M falls directly under the longitudinal axis of the mill: D is zero and

the work load is zero.

The power required to lift the charge inside the mill is transmitted

through the ring gear and pinion. Figure 2 illustrates this event.

There are certain losses in power transmission between the pinion

and the charge. For example, losses occur in the mill bearings,

where the ring gear and pinion meet, and on the outside of the

rotating shell due to air resistance. These small losses total less than

2 to 3% of the load created by the charge. Furthermore, these losses

are virtually constant (as a fraction of the total load) for all commercial

size tumbling mills.

Throughout the Metcom System, by convention, we refer to the mill

power draw at the pinion (unless otherwise noted).

Notes

1. Mill power draw calculations will give you approximate values of

mill power draw because they include basic design and operating

variables for grinding mills. The basic variables are: mill

dimensions, speed and volumetric load *, and charge density.

2. There is a difference between the power at the pinion and the

power you read on the kilowatt-meters in the plant. This will be

discussed in greater detail in the module on "Power and Charge

Level Measurements".

introduction to this module, answer the questions in the following

Progress Review.

PROGRESS REVIEW

Estimated time for completion: 3 minutes

There are six questions in this Progress Review. Refer back to the

text if necessary.

1. Answer the following "true" or "false" questions about why, in the

technical sense, we are concerned about the energy consumption

characteristics of grinding mills. Check the appropriate box.

True

False

reduction to take place.

b) Energy consumption is the basis for

measuring grinding efficiency.

c) It is the grinding mill that delivers the

energy to the ore.

2. Select the two units of measure normally used for mill energy

consumption.

Btu

joules

kilowatt-hours

gram-calories

horsepower-hours

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

Correct

Incorrect

Power consumed

Energy drawn

Power drawn

Energy consumed

apply to:

Energy, metric system

British system

___________________

___________________

British system

___________________

___________________

5. A motor has an output rating of 1000 kw. What is the output rating

of this motor in British units (HPh)?

___________________

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

industry for "mill power draw":

At the kilowatt meter

At the motor input

At the motor output

At the pinion

At the mill shell

At the charge

10

11

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

Answers

1.

2.

True

a) Energy is the primary input for size

reduction to take place.

measuring grinding efficiency.

the energy to the ore.

False

Btu

joules

x kilowatt hours

gram calories

x horsepower hours

3.

Correct

Incorrect

Power consumed

Energy drawn

Power drawn

Energy consumed

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

Answers (continued)

4. Energy, metric system:

British system:

Power, metric system:

British system:

kwh

HPh

kw

HP

6.

At the motor input

At the motor output

x At the pinion

At the mill shell

At the charge

12

How did you do in this Progress Review?

If you scored 100%, congratulations!

If you had problems answering some questions, make sure to

go back to the text and understand it clearly before moving on.

This concludes the introduction to the module. In Part I, you will learn

how to calculate power draw at the pinion for rod mills and ball mills.

13

PART I - MILL POWER DRAW CALCULATIONS

Part I presents the mill power draw equations developed and used by

Fred Bond and his co-workers.

There have been numerous individuals and organizations

researching mill power draw characteristics over the years. While all

have arrived at slightly different conclusions, the results are similar

when the same basic design and operating conditions are

considered. Some secondary factors such as liner design, feed rate

and size are a cause for variations in results and will be discussed

later in this module.

The discussion in this module is limited to rod mills and ball mills

operated under normal, stable operating conditions with the feed ON.

Mill power draw may be affected by circuit instability.

14

ROD MILL POWER DRAW

The following method for calculating rod mill power draw applies to

wet grinding overflow rod mills* . The equations presented were

originally developed with both the metric and British units. If you

prefer to work with metric units when dealing with results from your

plant, use the equations presented in Appendix A.

To estimate rod mill power draw, follow these five steps. Notes on

the presented variables follow.

Procedure

1. Estimate the weight of the rods, Tr, inside the mill in short tons:

Tr

(short tons)

where

= Vp

D2 L

)

4

375

)

2000

(fraction)

D = Mill inside diameter (feet)

L = Mill inside length (feet)

375 = Average bulk density of a rod charge (lbs/ft3)

2000 = Conversion factor to short tons.

When all the constants are combined, the equation simplifies to:

Tr

(short tons)

= Vp D2 L

6.8

15

Procedure (continued)

Cs

(rpm)

76.63

D

using the actual mill speed in revolutions per minute (rpm):

%Cs

Cs (rpm)

4. Calculate the power draw per short ton of rods in the mill, kw :

r

kwr

= 1.07 D0.34

kw/short ton

of rods )

5. Calculate the power draw of the rod mill (at the pinion), Prm:

Prm

(kw)

Tr

kw

16

Notes

1. For the purpose of this module, you can simply assume a value

for Vp. In the module entitled "Power and Charge Level

Measurements", you will learn how to determine Vp for your mills.

2. For the purpose of this module, the internal diameter of the mill, D,

does not need to be exact. Subtract 0.5 foot from the nominal

mill diameter (measured inside the shell) to account for the

thickness of the liners.

3. You can obtain the actual mill speed by either timing it or by

calculating it from the motor speed and gear reduction ratios to the

mill shell.

4. The density of a rod charge may vary slightly from 375 lbs per

cubic foot for either a brand new rod charge (with no broken

pieces of rods in it) or very large rod mills that contain an

excessive amount of pieces of rods. Go to the reference by

Rowland if either one of these factors applies to your case.

17

Example

A wet grinding overflow rod mill has the following characteristics:

Mill dimensions:

Mill speed:

Mill volumetric loading:

D

= 10 ft (inside diameter)

L

= 16 ft (inside length)

18.4 rpm

40% of total mill volume.

To calculate Prm for this mill, we must estimate Tr, Cs, %Cs,

and kwr :

2

Tr

= Vp D L = 0.40 x 10

6.8

6.8

Cs

D

10

Cs

24.2 rpm

kwr

= 1.07 100.34 [6.3 - 5.4 (0.40)] 0.76

= 7.37 kw/short ton of rods

Prm

= Tr x kw

= 694 kw

This rod mill will draw approximately 694 kw (931 HP) at the pinion

under the given conditions.

18

Exercise

Given the following characteristics of a wet grinding overflow rod mill,

estimate the power draw at the pinion during normal operation.

Mill dimensions:

Mill speed:

Mill volumetric loading:

L = 12 ft (inside length)

19.1 rpm

42% of total mill volume

What is the power draw at the pinion for this rod mill in both the

metric and British units? _____________________________

19

Answers

This rod mill draws approximately 347 kw or 465 HP at the pinion

under the given conditions.

Tr

6.8

6.8

Cs

D

8.5

%Cs

Cs

26.3 rpm

kw

= 1.07 8.50.34 [6.3 - 5.4 (0.42)]

0.726

Prm

= 347 kw

= 465 HP

Now you know how to calculate the power draw of a rod mill at the

pinion. Next, let's see how to calculate the power draw of a ball mill.

20

BALL MILL POWER DRAW

The following power draw calculations apply to wet overflow ball mills* .

The approach to calculate ball mill power draw is the same as for rod

mills. However, there is an additional step for ball mills with inside

diameters greater than 3 meters (10 feet). In such mills, media size

noticeably affects power draw and must be considered in the

calculations.

To calculate ball mill power draw at the pinion, follow these six steps.

Notes on the presented variables follow.

Procedure

1. Estimate the weight of the balls inside the mill in short tons, Tb:

Tb = Vp

where

Vp

D

L

290

2000

D2 L

)

4

290

( 2000 )

(fraction)

= Mill inside diameter (feet)

= Mill inside length (feet)

= Average bulk volume of a ball charge (lbs/ft3)

= Conversion factor to short tons.

When all the constants are combined, the equation simplifies to:

Tb

(short tons)

Vp D2

8.8

21

22

Procedure (continued)

2. Calculate the mill critical speed, Cs:

Cs =

(rpm)

76.63

D

actual mill speed in revolutions per minute (rpm):

%Cs = Actual mill speed (rpm)

Cs (rpm)

4. If D is smaller than 3 meters (10 feet) for your mill, the media size

correction factor, S, is zero. Go to step (5).

For ball mills greater than 3 meters (10 feet) in diameter,

calculate the media size correction factor, S:

S = B - 0.15 D

2

where

D = Mill inside diameter (feet)

5. Calculate the power draw per short ton of balls in the mill, kwb:

kw

(kw/short)

( ton of )

( balls )

[1

0.1

2

(9 - 10 x %Cs)

]+

Procedure (continued)

6. Calculate the power draw of the ball mill (at the pinion), Pbm:

Pbm = Tb x kwb

(kw)

Notes

1. These calculations are for overflow ball mills. However, full grate

discharge mills* draw approximately 15% more power on average

than overflow mills with the same internal length.

For dry grinding, grate overflow ball mills, the power draw is

approximately 8 % higher.

2. For the purpose of this module, you need only a rough estimate of

Vp. In the module entitled "Power and Charge Level

Measurements", you will learn how to determine Vp for your mills.

3. For the purpose of this module, the internal diameter of the mill, D,

needs not be exact. Subtract 0.5 foot from the nominal mill

diameter (measured inside the shell) to account for the thickness

of the liners.

4. You can obtain the actual mill speed by either timing it or by

calculating it from the motor speed and gear reduction ratios to the

mill shell.

5. The density of a ball charge may vary slightly from 290 lbs per

cubic foot for a brand new ball charge (with very few small balls

in it).

23

24

Example

An overflow ball mill presents the following characteristics.

Mill dimensions:

Mill speed:

Mill volumetric loading:

Make-up ball size:

D

= 13 ft (inside diameter)

L

= 20 ft (inside length)

16.3 rpm

34% of total mill volume

1.5 inches

To calculate Pbm for this mill, we must estimate Tb, Cs, %Cs,

and kwb:

Tb = Vp D2 L = 0.34 x 132 x 20 = 130.6 short tons

8.8

8.8

Cs = 76.63 = 76.63 = 21.3 rpm

D

13

%Cs = Actual mill speed = 16.3 rpm = 76.5%

Cs

21.3 rpm

Since the mill diameter is greater than 3 meters (10 feet), S must be

calculated:

S

kw

2

2

b

1 -

0.1

(9 - 10 %Cs)

10.1

(9 - 10 x 0.765)

+S

] + (-0.225)

kwb

Pbm

= Tb x kwb

= 1371 kw

of balls

of balls

This ball mill draws approximately 1371 kw (1839 HP) at the pinion

under the given conditions.

Solve this exercise.

Exercise

Given the following characteristics of an overflow ball mill, estimate

the power draw at the pinion during operation in both metric and

British units.

Mill dimensions:

Mill speed:

Mill volumetric loading:

Make-up ball size:

D

= 16 ft (inside diameter)

L

= 23 ft (inside length)

14.1 rpm

35% of total mill volume

3 inches

1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

25

Answers

The ball mill draws approximately 2618 kw, or 3511 HP, at the pinion

under the given conditions.

Tb

8.8

8.8

Cs

D

16

Cs

19.2 rpm

Since the mill diameter is greater than 3 meters (10 feet), S must be

calculated:

S

2

2

= 3.1 x 160.30

kwb = 11.18 kw per short ton of balls.

Pbm = Tb x kw

of balls

of balls

= 2618 kw

= 3511 HP

Next, let's look at the accuracy of these power draw calculations.

1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

26

ACCURACY OF POWER DRAW CALCULATIONS

The method presented in this module excludes a number of

secondary factors relative to power draw. Some of these factors are:

1. The shape of the mill ends (flat, partially conical, or conical).

2. Density variation of steel versus cast media.

3. Charge density variation due to media shape (slugs versus balls

and degree of distortion of worn media).

4. The density of the solids and slurry in the mill.

5. The size and rate of feed to the mill. These affect volumetric

loading by causing the charge to shrink or swell.

6. Liner design and degree of wear.

7. Details of the discharge design (size of trunnion opening or grate

locations).

8. The presence of a scoop or other energy consuming type of

feeder.

These secondary factors may vary in importance from one plant to

another. They are included in certain methods for power draw

calculations; however, as previously mentioned, most methods give

results similar to the method presented in this module.

You may be surprised to note the effect of certain factors on mill

power draw. Here are some examples:

Increasing the feed rate to a rod or ball mill decreases the power

draw slightly due to the effect of charge swelling (M gets closer to

the longitudinal axis of the mill and d gets smaller).

As liners wear, lifting action is lost. However, resulting power

losses may be more than offset by increased internal mill

dimensions with liner wear.

27

Your approximations of mill power draw will generally be

conservative, i.e., mills will draw at least as much power as

calculated.

the method presented in this module, are accurate to

+ 10 to 15% of the "true" power draw of a mill.

You can compare a calculated power draw value to the power draw

derived from plant instrument readings (see the module entitled

"Power and Charge Level Measurements". With properly calibrated

plant instruments and good charge level measurements (also see the

module just listed), the two power draw values will agree within 10 to

15%.

In this section, you have learned how to calculate approximate values

of power draw for rod mills and ball mills. You have also learned

about secondary factors which affect power draw.

In the second and last part of this module, you will learn how to

increase the power draw of mills in your plant.

28

PART II - INCREASING THE POWER DRAW

OF GRINDING MILLS

Your approximations of mill power draw are not very accurate in an

absolute sense. However, they are quite accurate in a relative

sense for the mills in your plant.

To change the power draw of a mill in the plant (the objective is

almost always an increase), we can use the equations presented in

this module to see how changes in the mill design and operating

conditions will affect mill power draw.

If the motor has (or is enlarged to) sufficient capability, you can

increase the power draw to either:

Increase grinding capacity (in terms of tonnage and/or fineness).

Effectively treat a tougher ore.

The following discussion covers possible ways of increasing the

power draw of rod and ball mills in the plant and practical and

economic limitations.

29

MILL VOLUMETRIC LOADING

Increasing the mill volumetric load (when possible) is the simplest

way of increasing mill power draw. Figure 3 shows a typical curve

depicting the relationship between power draw at the pinion and mill

volumetric loading for a rod mill.

Figure 3. Power draw versus volumetric loading curve for a rod mill.

This curve is basically the same for ball mills except that it may peak

at a slightly lower charge level.

It is recommended to operate rod mills and ball mills at a volumetric

loading no greater than 40 to 45%. Because the curve levels off (as

shown in Figure 3), a higher loading contributes little to an increase in

power draw, but will naturally result in greater media consumption.

Some very large overflow ball mills cannot sustain a volumetric

loading much greater than about 35%. At higher levels, balls may be

discharged with the slurry or may occasionally (and dangerously) fly

out of the mill during operation. When the mill is stopped, they may

also roll out of the discharge opening.

1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

30

If your mill operates at a low charge level, you may wish to increase

the charge level to increase the power draw. You can estimate the

potential increase in power draw from both:

A set of power draw versus volumetric loading measurements.

The relationship between volumetric loading and power draw as

characterized by the equations already presented.

For rod mills and ball mills, follow this procedure to estimate a

potential increase in power draw from an increase in volumetric

loading.

Procedure

1. For rod mills, enter the known set of values of Prm and Vp to

estimate the constant in the following equation:

Prm = constant x Vp (6.3 - 5.4 Vp)

This equation is a combination of the equations in steps (1) and

(4) of the rod mill power draw calculations procedure.

2. For ball mills, enter the known values of Pbm and Vp to estimate

the constant in the following equation:

Pbm = constant x Vp (3.2 - 3.0 Vp)

This equation is a combination of the equations in steps (1) and

(5) of the ball mill power draw calculations procedure.

3. Substitute the desired value of Vp in the calibrated equation for

your mill. The resulting value of power draw, Prm or Pbm, gives

the anticipated increase (or decrease) in power draw.

31

Here is an example.

Example

The average power draw of a rod mill was measured to be 310 kw at

the pinion, corresponding to an average volumetric load of 35%. The

potential for increasing the power draw for a mill volumetric loading of

40% can be calculated using this equation:

Prm = constant x Vp (6.3 - 5.4 Vp)

Substituting the known values of Prm and Vp, the constant is

estimated to be 201:

310 = constant x 0.35 (6.3 - 5.4 x 0.35)

The equation for this mill (assuming other conditions such as liner

design and condition, feed, etc., are held constant) is therefore:

Prm = 201 x Vp (6.3 - 5.4 Vp)

For a new desired value of Vp of 40%, the expected power draw is:

Prm = 201 x 0.40 (6.3 - 5.4 x 0.40)

Prm = 333 kw

If you increase the volumetric load of this rod mill from 35 to 40%, the

average power draw will increase from 310 to 333 kw. This

represents an increase of approximately 7%.

Solve the following exercise.

32

Exercise

The average power draw of a ball mill was measured to be 550 kw

at the pinion, corresponding to a volumetric loading of 38%.

Questions

1. What is the potential for increasing the power draw of the ball

mill if the volumetric load is increased to 45%?

2. What will be the likely effect on ball consumption over the long

term?

Write your answer: _______________________________

33

Answers

1. The power draw could be increased to 585 kw from 550 kw.

The constant in the power draw equation for ball mills equals 703:

Pbm

550

585 kw:

Pbm

34

Notes

1. Increasing the media charge level of a mill up to 50% of the mill

volume is normally within the mechanical design limitations of the

equipment. However, sometimes this does not hold true,

especially for very large ball mills that were designed for relatively

low charge levels. Always check with the equipment manufacturer

before increasing charge levels by any significant amount.

2. Check the motor rating against the present motor power output

measurements to make sure it will not become overloaded at the

higher power draw.

3. When you add balls to the ball mill, the increase in power draw

should be noticeable. As you approach the peak of the power

draw versus volumetric loading curve, power draw will no longer

increase. You will learn how to determine the particular

relationships between power draw and volumetric loading in the

module entitled "Power Draw and Charge Level Measurements".

35

36

MILL SPEED

Power draw is directly proportional to mill speed over the normal

operating range of a rod mill. The following equation (previously

shown on page 16) illustrates this:

kwr

kw/short ton

)

of rods

This is also virtually true (to a reasonable level of accuracy) for ball

mills: the second term containing %Cs in the following equation

(previously shown on page 22) has a negligible effect on power draw:

kw = 3.1 D

kw/short

ton of

balls

0.30

0.1

2

(9 -10 %Cs)

]+S

Consider 80% of critical speed as the normal practical limit for both

rod and ball mills (consult with Metcom if you are considering a higher

%Cs).

Mill speed can be expressed in terms of either rpm or % of mill

critical speed for purposes of power draw calculations. They are

directly proportional to each other.

The normal method of increasing mill speed is by changing the pinion

to one with a larger number of teeth. The speed increase (and

therefore the power draw increase) is directly proportional to the ratio

of the number of teeth in the new and old pinions:

Speed increase =

(ratio)

# teeth in the old pinion

Example

If you change a pinion that has 19 teeth to one that has 21 teeth on a

rod mill, the speed increase will be 10.5%:

21 teeth = 1.105 (10.5%)

19 teeth

If the rod mill normally draws 500 kw, the new power draw will be:

500 kw x 21 teeth = 553 kw

19 teeth

This estimate holds assuming that no mechanical or electrical

restrictions apply, and the mill is operated at the same charge level.

Using the ratio of the number of teeth on pinions is the simplest way

to estimate an expected increase in mill power draw. Alternatively, if

this change in pinion increases the mill speed from 20 rpm to 22 rpm,

the new power draw can also be estimated from the old power draw

(500 kw):

500 kw x 22 rpm = 550 kw

20 rpm

The new % of critical speed can be estimated by multiplying the old

%Cs (70%) by the ratio of the teeth or rpm created by the change:

70% x

21 teeth = 70% x

19 teeth

22 rpm = 77%

20 rpm

37

Exercise

The average power draw of a rod mill was measured to be 310 kw at

the pinion. The mill operates at 17.0 rpm (equivalent to 67% of

critical speed).

Questions

1. What is the potential for increasing the mill power draw if you

increase the mill speed to 19.3 rpm by a pinion change?

Write your answer:

38

Answers

1. The new power draw should be 352 kw:

310 kw x 19.3 rpm = 352 kw

17.0 rpm

2. Yes. The new % of critical speed is 76%. This is less than the

maximum recommended of 80%.

67%

17.0 rpm

39

Changing the mill pinion requires that you:

a) Verify the feasibility of design of a new pinion with the desired

number of teeth with the mill (or pinion) supplier.

b) Verify the mechanical and electrical design of all other drive

components with the mill supplier, particularly for starting the mill.

c) Verify that the mill can be shifted over to accommodate the larger

diameter of the new pinion (if an increase in speed is the goal).

d) Once again, verify that the motor is rated to handle the new

power.

Increasing mill speed can have an advantageous effect on media

consumption in addition to increasing mill power draw. The savings

on media consumption expected by operating at reduced charge

level and increased speed (to achieve the same net power draw) are

often very favourable.

40

OTHER FACTORS

Aside from adding new mills to a circuit, there are a few other means

of increasing rod or ball mill power draw that are not usually practical

for this singular purpose. These include the following

possibilities:

A) Media material: Forged or cast steel has a slightly higher solids

density than some cast irons. If you are using cast iron balls, it

may be possible to increase power draw slightly (i.e., 0 to 5%) by

changing media material. However, media cost and consumption

rate will usually be the key factors which determine media material

selection.

B) Media size and shape: As indicated by the media size

correction factor S, the use of larger balls will cause a particular

mill to draw slightly more power. However, the effect is quite

small and grinding efficiency will definitely be an overriding

concern.

Non-spherical shapes (e.g., slugs) tend to increase packing

density of the charge and hence increase power draw for an equal

charge level. However, the material consumption rate and

grinding efficiency will once again take precedence.

C) Mill dimensions: Increasing the mill diameter or length is rarely

feasible. Liner design and liner wear profile throughout its life

affect power draw noticeably. (For example, when new liners are

installed in a rod mill, power draw is often noted to decrease).

The use of higher lifters willl also tend to increase power draw

slightly. However, maintenance costs and wear life will

usually be overriding factors in the liner design.

The weight of the liners themselves does not affect power draw as

the complete mill shell assembly is a rotating balanced mass.

Consequently, rubber versus steel lining (of similar overall

thickness) does not noticeably affect mill power draw.

41

D) Grate discharge versus overflow ball mills: A grate discharge

ball mill will draw approximately 15% more power than an

overflow flow mill of the same internal dimensions. This will offset

the loss in mill length if you decide to convert an overflow mill to a

grate discharge as a method of trying to improve grinding

efficiency.

E) Water usage (at the ball mill feed): The effect is minor but

sometimes measureable. The overriding concern is grinding

efficiency.

This section wraps up the information presented to you in this

module. Review the contents of the module in Progress Review 2.

42

PROGRESS REVIEW

Estimated time for completion: 5 minutes

This Progress Review contains four problems. Refer back to the text

when necessary.

1. John has the following information on the rod mill in his plant:

Mill dimensions:

Mill speed:

Mill volumetric loading:

D

= 10 ft (inside diameter)

L

= 15 ft (inside length)

17.5 rpm

43% of total mill volume

What is the power draw of this rod mill when operated under these

conditions? (Reference: page 15)

___________

43

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

draw of the mill by raising the volumetric load to 46%.

What is the expected mill power draw for the new load?

(Reference: page 31)

____________

44

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

increase mill power draw, he has studied the physical and

economical impact of replacing the actual pinion (18 teeth) by a

new pinion (20 teeth).

a) What is the expected power draw following this change?

(Reference: page 37)

(Reference: page 36)

(Reference: page 37)

45

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

ball mill by approximately 10% because mining is reaching a zone

that contains ore which is tougher to grind.

From the following list, select the two most practical and useful

methods for increasing the power draw of this ball mill.

Increase the size of the motor

Increase the mill speed

Increase the charge volume

Increase the tonnage feed rate

Increase ball diameter

46

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

Answers

1. 639 kw or 857 HP

Tr

6.8

6.8

Cs

D

10

%Cs

Cs

24.2 rpm

kw

= 6.73 kw/short ton of rods

Prm

= Tr x kwr

= 639 kw

= 857 HP

2. 655 kw or 878 HP

The constant in the equation for rod mills equals 373.6:

639 kw

Prm

= 655 kw

= 878 HP

47

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

Answers (continued)

3. a) 728 kw = 655 kw x 20 teeth

18 teeth

(Remember that John has raised the volumetric loading. The

power draw is now 655 kw, not 639.)

b) 19.4 rpm = 17.5 rpm x 20 teeth

18 teeth

c) 80.3 = 72.3

x 20 teeth

18 teeth

Increase the mill speed

Increase the size of balls

In order of practical and economical priority, increasing the mill

volumetric loading should be considered prior to changing the mill

speed.

48

This concludes Progress Review 2. How did you do?

If you scored 100%, good work! If not, study the solutions carefully.

49

CLOSING WORD

You have completed the module on rod mill and ball mill power draw:

congratulations!

This module is a prerequisite to the module entitled "Power and

Charge Level Measurements". In that module, you will learn how to

estimate the actual power draw and volumetric load of your grinding

mills.

50

REFERENCES

Bond, F. C., "Crushing and Grinding Calculations", reprinted

from British Chemical Engineering, Part I - June 1961,

Part II - August 1961, with additions and revisions, April 1962.

Rowland, C. A., "Selection of Rod Mills, Ball Mills, Pebble Mills,

and Regrind Mills", Design and Installation of

Comminution Circuits, SME of AIME, New York, 1982,

Chapter 23, pp. 393-438.

51

APPENDIX A

POWER DRAW CALCULATIONS USING METRIC UNITS

1. Estimate the weight of rods, Tr, inside the mill in metric tons:

Tr

= Vp

(metric tons)

where

Vp

D

L

6.008

=

=

=

=

D2 L

)

4

6.008

Mill inside diameter (meters)

Mill inside length (meters)

Average bulk density of a rod charge

3

(tons/m )

2

Tr

= Vp D L

(metric tons)

0.2119

Cs

(rpm)

= 42.31

D

52

53

%Cs = Actual mill speed (rpm)

Cs (rpm)

4. Calculate the power draw per metric ton of rods in the mill, kw

kwr

= 1.766 D0.34

kw/metric

)

ton of rods

5. Calculate the power draw of the rod mill (at the pinion), Prm:

Prm

(kw)

Tr

kwr

Ball Mill Power Draw Calculations

1. Estimate the weight of balls, Tb, inside the mill in metric tons:

Tb

where

Vp

D

L

4.646

= Vp

=

=

=

=

D2 L

4

4.646

Mill inside diameter (meters)

Mill inside length (meters)

Average bulk density of a ball charge

(tons/m3 )

Tb

(metric tons)

Vp D L

0.2740

Cs

(rpm)

42.31

D

%Cs = Actual mill speed (rpm)

Cs (rpm)

54

55

meters (10 feet):

S = 0.3937 B - 0.4921 D

2

where

D = Mill inside diameter (m)

5. Calculate the power draw per metric ton of balls in the mill, kwb:

0.30

(3.2 - 3.0 Vp) %Cs

kwb = 4.879 D

(kw/metric

ton of balls)

[1

0.1

2(9 - 10 %Cs)

6. Calculate the power draw of the ball mill (at the pinion), Pbm:

Pbm = Tb x kwb

(kw)

]+S

GLOSSARY

Charge: The charge is composed of grinding media, solids, and

water.

Full grate discharge mills: A grinding mill from which the pulp is

discharged through a grate. "Full" grate implies that the

grate openings extend over the full diameter of the mill.

This results in a low pulp level in the mill.

Mill critical speed: The minimum mill rotational speed at which a

small particle will centrifuge on the internal wall of a grinding mill.

Mill power draw: The instantaneous work load created by the lifting

and tumbling of the charge measured at the pinion.

Overflow discharge rod/ball mills: A grinding mill from which the

slurry is discharged through the opening in the trunnion

because of the pulp level in the mill. This results in a high

pulp level in the mill.

Volumetric load: The fraction or percentage of the mill internal

volume that is occupied by the (bulk of the) grinding media

charge (voids and media).

56