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Appendix A

A CFD Study of Air-fuel Mixing in a

Lean Premixed Combustor

The overall goal of the project titled Analysis and Design Tools for Combustion Instabilities (STTR AF00-T019 Phase I: Contract No. F49620-00-C-0056) was to develop an accurate design tool for predicting and controlling oscillations in high-performance, gas-turbine

combustors. The sensitivity equation method (SEM) was developed by Aerosoft, Inc. (a

stand-alone commercial package called SENSE) to investigate turbulent ow sensitivities for

chemically reacting ows. The focus during Phase I was to develop a tool using the GASP

(Aerosofts CFD solver) and SENSE CFD software to study thermoacoustic instabilities

observed in a National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) lean premixed combustor.

The Phase I goal was to simulate a forced instability in a simplied geometry of the NETL

combustor. The inlet boundary condition for the combustor comprised of a planar jet prole

and the species mass fraction of air and fuel were specied as a function of the radial distance.

This prole was determined by solving the steady-state, axisymmetric ow equations for the

fuel nozzle alone. To determine the sensitivity prole, it was assumed that the mass-fraction

proles can be approximated using a cubic Lagrange polynomial. Turbulent mixing of air

and methane in the nozzle was simulated using a two-equation model and a second moment

213

214

closure Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The baseline prole was made unsteady by imposing

a time-dependent sinusoidal uctuation in velocity, where the amplitude and frequency were

obtained from experimental data.

Four dierent swirler congurations were attainable in the fuel-nozzle section of the NETL

combustor. In particular, the swirl vanes could be placed at dierent locations upstream

of the fuel-spoke injector in increments as shown in Figure A.1. The rst case corresponds

to locating the swirl vanes 3.25 inches upstream of the combustor. Each successive case

corresponded to the vanes being located one inch farther upstream (i.e., to the left). One

of the design variables in the study was the swirler location relative to the fuel injection

location.

Figure A.1: The DOE NETL Combustor air-fuel mixing nozzle. The range of positions for

the swirling vanes are shown.

To determine the inlet to the combustor boundary proles of velocity and species mass

fractions, three-dimensional mixing of air and fuel that takes place in the fuel nozzle was

simulated. The Fluent segregated CFD solver was used for the calculations and the grid was

generated using the Gambit preprocessor. Axisymmetric modeling of the air-fuel mixing

process was simulated by selecting the axisymmetric-swirl model in Fluent. The inlet air

215

was preheated to 578 K and the fuel entered the ow domain at 300 K. Both the RNG

k- and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) were applied for turbulence modeling. Air was

introduced at a swirl angle of 45 and the fuel was introduced at the location of the spoke

ring. Internal mass sources tuned for an equivalence ratio of = 0.74 were used to introduce

the fuel into the stream. The fuel nozzle exit mass-fraction proles of CH4 and O2 are shown

in Figure A.2 and Figure A.3 respectively. The axial velocity at the exit of the fuel nozzle is

shown in Figure A.4.

Figure A.2: Mass fraction prole of CH4 at the exit of the fuel nozzle for dierent locations

of the swirler relative to the fuel injection location

As the swirling rings are located farther upstream of the combustion region, the swirl ratio

decreases at the spoke-ring location. As a result, the mixing in Case 4 is less than in Case 1.

The mass-fraction proles for N2 , O2 and CH4 were then applied as an in-ow prole for

the two-dimensional, chemically reacting simulation in the combustor. By running all four

swirler-ring cases, the sensitivity of the mass-fraction proles to the swirler location was

formulated through a Lagrange polynomial.

216

Figure A.3: Mass fraction prole of O2 at the exit of the fuel nozzle for dierent locations

of the swirler relative to the fuel injection location

Figure A.4: Axial velocity prole at the exit of the fuel nozzle. The swirler location progresses

upstream in each of the four cases.

Appendix B

A CFD Study of Blu-body Stabilized

Combustion in a Lean Premixed

Combustor

The overall goal of the ongoing project titled Systematic Investigation of Blu-Body Combustion Instability (STTR AF00-T019 Phase II: Contract No. F49620-00-C-0048 STTR

AF00-T019) is to provide a sensitivity-analysis tool for the control of heat-release rate distribution in aeroengine combustors with emphasis on blu-body type ame-holders. This

control is essential to attenuate the thermoacoustic instabilities of the combustors under lean

operating conditions. Previous studies on blu body stabilized combustors have indicated

that such a conguration is susceptible to ow instabilities due to vortex shedding which

can hinder the study of thermoacoustic instabilities and their control. The importance of

this very internal ow boundary conditions is another issue addressed by the project.

The project includes both CFD investigation of blu-body stabilized combustion and experimental studies. For the experimental studies, a high pressure combustor has been designed

at VACCG. The combustor apparatus includes of a fuel-air impingement mixer section, followed by a ow conditioning section; diuser, plenum, and nozzle. Following the nozzle is

217

218

the entrance to the combustor and the exit nozzle. The blu-body ame stabilizer is placed

in the combustor. To support the combustor, high pressure air and natural gas supply setup

have been installed at the VACCG Laboratory. The goal of the test facility is to yield an

invaluable database that can guide the software computations and gage their limitations.

Since the project is focused on unstable combustion, its prediction, and active design methodology, designing the combustor was critical to the success of the project. Specically, in the

case of blu-body stabilized combustion strong coupling between the acoustics and shear

layer instabilities is expected. This manifests itself in the shedding of large scale structures,

which are typically straddled by the ame/combustion zone. To examine these structures

CFD simulations of cold ows were rst undertaken using FLUENT 6. The geometrical conguration was that of the coaxial blu-body combustor shown schematically in Figure B.1.

Boundary conditions and numerical settings are listed in Table B.1.

LD

d

o

6.35 mm

45

D

10 mm

Figure B.1: Coaxial blu-body combustor geometry used in the CFD simulation. The

dimensions of the blu body are D = 7.62 cm, d = 12 D = 3.81 cm

219

Table B.1: Combustor domain dimensions, Boundary conditions and Numerical settings

Combustor dimensions

Diameter (D) = 7.62 cm

Downstream length (LD ) = 3D = 22.86 cm (shown in Figure B.1)

Blu-body top diameter, (d) = 12 D = 3.81 cm

Reynolds number

39,124 (inlet velocity = 15 m/s)

78,248 (inlet velocity = 30 m/s)

Boundary conditions

Inlet: Uniform inlet velocity, no-free stream turbulence assumption (T KE = 0)

Outlet: Initial calculations performed by keeping the outlet at atmospheric pressure

Numerical settings

2D unsteady solution: second order accurate temporal discretization

RNG k- turbulence model

Second order accurate upwind spatial discretization

Time step: t = 1 105 s (15 m/s), t = 5 106 s (30 m/s)

The CFD investigation showed vortex shedding behind the blu-body. A time series of

vorticity magnitude is shown in Figure B.2. Clearly seen are the alternating vortices shed.

The vorticity magnitude of the turbulent oweld was collected at six locations that are

shown in Figure B.3. The resulting power spectra are shown in Figures B.4 and B.5 with a

magnication of spectra for P t11 shown in Figure B.6. In both cases (15 m/s and 30 m/s) the

fundamental vortex shedding frequency corresponds to a Strouhal number of 0.3. It can be

noted from Figure B.2 that the time taken for one vortex to shed is approximately 8103 s,

which corresponds to a frequency of 125 Hz. The frequency calculated by FFT comes out

to be 120 Hz (for the 15 m/s case) which corresponds to a shedding time of approximately

8.33 103 s.

220

-33 8

38

8

-3 3

-33 8

-3 3 8

-3 3

-338

-3 3

-3

-3 3

25

-338

-338

79

79

579

25

-3 3 8

6

25

-3

54

97

-338

-3 3 8

84

79

25

t = 1 103 s

t = 0s

09

15

927

17

-9

-3 2

-1 4

-3 3

04

54

-6

230

-338

-3256

97

257 9

-3 3

56

257

25

79

-3

38

549 7

-3 38

-3 3

t = 2 103 s

-33 8

-3

38

-33 8

-33 8

8

-3 38

-3 38

-3 3

-3 3 8

-33 8

-3 3 8

38

56

25

79

t = 3 103 s

-338

841

5497

-3 3 8

25

-3 3 8

-3

8

-3256

-3 3

-3 2

25

79

-3256

-3

-3 3

t = 4 103 s

221

-3 3 8

-3 3 8

-3 38

-3 38

8

-3 3

-3 3

-3 3

-3 3 8

-3 3 8

-3 3

-3 3

2579

25

2579

257

-9

t = 5 103 s

t = 6 103 s

-3256

33

1 1 3 5497

2579

-338

2 530 8 4 1 5

1 4-3

8

-6 1 7 4

11333

-3 3

8

4 5 -3 2 5 6

78

09

-1

79

00

25

23

97

257

56

-338 25 79

79

54

-3 2

7 4 -3 2 5 6

-6 1

-3 3

-3 38

-33 8

t = 7 103 s

-338

-3 38

-3

38

-3 3 8

-3 3

-3 3 8

-3 3 8

-3 3 8

25

25

79

-3 3

-3 38

6

4

23

-3 25 6

8

-3 3

-338

-3256

009

-1 2

79

33 25

8

3

-3

6

5

32

113

54 97

-3 2 5 6

257

00

25

6

-3 2 5

2579

-3

79

t = 8 103 s

t = 9 103 s

222

223

60

Point 11

Point 21

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30

600

500

1000

Frequency (Hz)

1500

Point 12

Point 22

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30

600

500

1000

Frequency (Hz)

1500

Point 13

Point 23

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30

500

1000

1500

Frequency (Hz)

224

Point 11

Point 21

60

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

0

10

20

30

40

600

500

1000

1500

Frequency (Hz)

2000

1500

Frequency (Hz)

2000

1500

Frequency (Hz)

2000

2500

3000

Point 12

Point 22

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30

40

600

500

1000

2500

3000

Point 13

Point 23

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30

40

500

1000

2500

3000

225

70

U

= 15 m/s

inlet

Uinlet = 30 m/s

240 Hz

120 Hz

60

50

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

40

30

20

10

10

20

30

500

1000

1500

Frequency (Hz)

Figure B.6: Power spectrum plot of vorticity magnitude (Pt11; Uinlet = 15 m/s and 30 m/s)

Appendix C

Matlab Code for Frequency Response

Function Calculation

This code has been used to calculate the Frequency Response Function (FRF) between

unsteady velocity (u , input) and the resulting unsteady heat release rate from the ame

(q , output). The code has been used to compute the FRF for both laminar and turbulent

ames.

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

% Matlab code for calculating the FRF between u and q

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

% Number of frequencies at which the flame was excited

% is given by the variable freq which needs to be

% modified for every FRF calculation

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

clear all;

226

% sampling rate for the data

sam=10000;

% frequencies specified

freq = [15 20 25 30 35 50 75 100 200 300 500];

% number of frequencies

nfreq = length(freq);

nfreqf = nfreq + 1;

siv = inletv_;

srr = rr_;

shz = Hz.out;

for i = 1:nfreq

% to form final string for reading files

freq(i);

sfr = num2str(freq(i));

% reading velocities

fidv = fopen([siv sfr shz]);

a = fscanf(fidv,%g %g,[2 inf]); a = a;

227

% velocity vector

vel = a(:,2);

fidr = fopen([srr sfr shz]);

b = fscanf(fidr,%g %g,[2 inf]); b = b;

rr = b(:,2);

len = length(vel);

lenr = length(rr);

if (len ~= lenr)

fprintf(lengths of vel and rr not equal)

break

end

% calculating mean

vel_mean = sum(vel)/len;

rr_mean = sum(rr)/len;

vel = (vel - vel_mean)/vel_mean;

rr = (rr - rr_mean)/rr_mean;

% window size

228

win = len;

[P, F] = spectrum(vel,rr,len,0,hanning(win),sam,0.95);

pm=abs(P(:,4));

pp=(180.0/pi)*angle(P(:,4));

res = sam/len;

% since exact match is not always possible, the two

% frequencies closest to the frequency of interest are chosen

ifind = find(F > freq(i) - res & F < freq(i) + res | F == freq(i));

lenifind = length(ifind);

magvalues=pm(ifind);

% by averaging the values obtained for the two frequencies

magn= sum(magvalues)/lenifind;

clear magvalues

229

% finding the phase at the two frequencies

phasevalues=pp(ifind);

% by averaging the values obtained for the two frequencies

phase= sum(phasevalues)/lenifind;

clear phasevalues

clear ifind

mag(i) = 20*log10(magn);

pha(i) = phase;

clear magn phase

fclose(fidv);

fclose(fidr);

clear vel_mean rr_mean

clear vel rr len lenr win P F pm pp

end

% steady state

freq(nfreqf) = 0;

mag(nfreqf) = 0;

pha(nfreqf) = 0;

230

231

h=10.^(mag/20).*exp(j*pha/180*pi);

[num, den]=invfreqs(h(1:nfreqf),freq(1:nfreqf)*2*pi,2,2);

rden=roots(den)/2/pi

rnum=roots(num)/2/pi

hid=freqs(num,den,[1:1000]*2*pi);

figure(1);

semilogx(freq,20*log10(abs(h)),s,1:1000,20*log10(abs(hid)))

axis([1 1000 -140 25]);

xlabel(Frequency (Hz))

ylabel(Magnitude (dB))

legend(Computed Data Points,2nd Order Fit,3);

grid on

figure(2);

semilogx(freq,unwrap(angle(h))*180/pi,s,1:1000,unwrap(angle(hid))*180/pi)

axis([1 1000 -350 50]);

legend(Computed Data Points,2nd Order Fit,3);

xlabel(Frequency (Hz))

ylabel(Phase (deg))

grid on

re_rden=real(rden);

img_rden=imag(rden);

re_rnum=real(rnum);

img_rnum=imag(rnum);

% Pole-Zero plot

figure(3);

plot(re_rden,img_rden,kX,re_rnum,img_rnum,kO);

grid on;

xlabel Re

ylabel Img

legend(Poles,Zeros,2);

232

Vita

Prateep Chatterjee was born in the Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India in 1973. He

spent his childhood at the I.I.T. campus in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. He went to the

Campus School for his primary schooling and subsequently completed his high school education from Central School (Kendriya Vidyalaya), I.I.T. Kanpur in 1991. He pursued his

Bachelors degree in Mechanical engineering at the Zakir Hussain College of Engineering and

Technology, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) and completed his degree in 1996. Between

October 1996 and August 1997, he worked at I.I.T. Kanpur as a Research Associate and

later as an Engineer Trainee at West Bengal Power Development Corp., West Bengal, India.

He started his graduate studies in Aerospace engineering at I.I.T. Kanpur in August 1997.

After completing the rst semester of the Masters program, he wrote a proposal for conducting research in Germany. The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) awarded

him a fellowship to pursue his Masters research at the University of Stuttgart, Germany.

The following ten months were spent at the Institute for Nuclear Technology and Energy

Systems (IKE) working under Prof. Manfred Groll. The thesis research conducted at IKE

involved experimental investigation of two-phase nucleate pool boiling over enhanced industrial evaporative tubes. He defended his Masters thesis at I.I.T. Kanpur in April 1999.

In the spring of 2000, he began his doctoral studies in Mechanical engineering at Viginia

Tech under the guidance of Dr. Uri Vandsburger. While pursuing his degree, he taught the

undergraduate heat transfer course three times. Upon successful completion of his Ph.D.,

he will begin working as a Senior Research Scientist at FM Global in Norwood, MA.

233

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