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Appendix A
A CFD Study of Air-fuel Mixing in a
Lean Premixed Combustor
The overall goal of the project titled Analysis and Design Tools for Combustion Instabilities (STTR AF00-T019 Phase I: Contract No. F49620-00-C-0056) was to develop an accurate design tool for predicting and controlling oscillations in high-performance, gas-turbine
combustors. The sensitivity equation method (SEM) was developed by Aerosoft, Inc. (a
stand-alone commercial package called SENSE) to investigate turbulent ow sensitivities for
chemically reacting ows. The focus during Phase I was to develop a tool using the GASP
(Aerosofts CFD solver) and SENSE CFD software to study thermoacoustic instabilities
observed in a National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) lean premixed combustor.
The Phase I goal was to simulate a forced instability in a simplied geometry of the NETL
combustor. The inlet boundary condition for the combustor comprised of a planar jet prole
and the species mass fraction of air and fuel were specied as a function of the radial distance.
This prole was determined by solving the steady-state, axisymmetric ow equations for the
fuel nozzle alone. To determine the sensitivity prole, it was assumed that the mass-fraction
proles can be approximated using a cubic Lagrange polynomial. Turbulent mixing of air
and methane in the nozzle was simulated using a two-equation model and a second moment
213

Appendix A: CFD Study of Air-fuel Mixing

214

closure Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The baseline prole was made unsteady by imposing
a time-dependent sinusoidal uctuation in velocity, where the amplitude and frequency were
obtained from experimental data.
Four dierent swirler congurations were attainable in the fuel-nozzle section of the NETL
combustor. In particular, the swirl vanes could be placed at dierent locations upstream
of the fuel-spoke injector in increments as shown in Figure A.1. The rst case corresponds
to locating the swirl vanes 3.25 inches upstream of the combustor. Each successive case
corresponded to the vanes being located one inch farther upstream (i.e., to the left). One
of the design variables in the study was the swirler location relative to the fuel injection
location.

Figure A.1: The DOE NETL Combustor air-fuel mixing nozzle. The range of positions for
the swirling vanes are shown.

To determine the inlet to the combustor boundary proles of velocity and species mass
fractions, three-dimensional mixing of air and fuel that takes place in the fuel nozzle was
simulated. The Fluent segregated CFD solver was used for the calculations and the grid was
generated using the Gambit preprocessor. Axisymmetric modeling of the air-fuel mixing
process was simulated by selecting the axisymmetric-swirl model in Fluent. The inlet air

Appendix A: CFD Study of Air-fuel Mixing

215

was preheated to 578 K and the fuel entered the ow domain at 300 K. Both the RNG
k- and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) were applied for turbulence modeling. Air was
introduced at a swirl angle of 45 and the fuel was introduced at the location of the spoke
ring. Internal mass sources tuned for an equivalence ratio of = 0.74 were used to introduce
the fuel into the stream. The fuel nozzle exit mass-fraction proles of CH4 and O2 are shown
in Figure A.2 and Figure A.3 respectively. The axial velocity at the exit of the fuel nozzle is
shown in Figure A.4.

Figure A.2: Mass fraction prole of CH4 at the exit of the fuel nozzle for dierent locations
of the swirler relative to the fuel injection location

As the swirling rings are located farther upstream of the combustion region, the swirl ratio
decreases at the spoke-ring location. As a result, the mixing in Case 4 is less than in Case 1.
The mass-fraction proles for N2 , O2 and CH4 were then applied as an in-ow prole for
the two-dimensional, chemically reacting simulation in the combustor. By running all four
swirler-ring cases, the sensitivity of the mass-fraction proles to the swirler location was
formulated through a Lagrange polynomial.

Appendix A: CFD Study of Air-fuel Mixing

216

Figure A.3: Mass fraction prole of O2 at the exit of the fuel nozzle for dierent locations
of the swirler relative to the fuel injection location

Figure A.4: Axial velocity prole at the exit of the fuel nozzle. The swirler location progresses
upstream in each of the four cases.

Appendix B
A CFD Study of Blu-body Stabilized
Combustion in a Lean Premixed
Combustor
The overall goal of the ongoing project titled Systematic Investigation of Blu-Body Combustion Instability (STTR AF00-T019 Phase II: Contract No. F49620-00-C-0048 STTR
AF00-T019) is to provide a sensitivity-analysis tool for the control of heat-release rate distribution in aeroengine combustors with emphasis on blu-body type ame-holders. This
control is essential to attenuate the thermoacoustic instabilities of the combustors under lean
operating conditions. Previous studies on blu body stabilized combustors have indicated
that such a conguration is susceptible to ow instabilities due to vortex shedding which
can hinder the study of thermoacoustic instabilities and their control. The importance of
this very internal ow boundary conditions is another issue addressed by the project.
The project includes both CFD investigation of blu-body stabilized combustion and experimental studies. For the experimental studies, a high pressure combustor has been designed
at VACCG. The combustor apparatus includes of a fuel-air impingement mixer section, followed by a ow conditioning section; diuser, plenum, and nozzle. Following the nozzle is
217

Appendix B: A CFD Study of Blu-body Stabilized Combustion

218

the entrance to the combustor and the exit nozzle. The blu-body ame stabilizer is placed
in the combustor. To support the combustor, high pressure air and natural gas supply setup
have been installed at the VACCG Laboratory. The goal of the test facility is to yield an
invaluable database that can guide the software computations and gage their limitations.
Since the project is focused on unstable combustion, its prediction, and active design methodology, designing the combustor was critical to the success of the project. Specically, in the
case of blu-body stabilized combustion strong coupling between the acoustics and shear
layer instabilities is expected. This manifests itself in the shedding of large scale structures,
which are typically straddled by the ame/combustion zone. To examine these structures
CFD simulations of cold ows were rst undertaken using FLUENT 6. The geometrical conguration was that of the coaxial blu-body combustor shown schematically in Figure B.1.
Boundary conditions and numerical settings are listed in Table B.1.

LD

d
o

6.35 mm

45

D
10 mm

Figure B.1: Coaxial blu-body combustor geometry used in the CFD simulation. The
dimensions of the blu body are D = 7.62 cm, d = 12 D = 3.81 cm

Appendix B: A CFD Study of Blu-body Stabilized Combustion

219

Table B.1: Combustor domain dimensions, Boundary conditions and Numerical settings
Combustor dimensions
Diameter (D) = 7.62 cm
Downstream length (LD ) = 3D = 22.86 cm (shown in Figure B.1)
Blu-body top diameter, (d) = 12 D = 3.81 cm
Reynolds number
39,124 (inlet velocity = 15 m/s)
78,248 (inlet velocity = 30 m/s)
Boundary conditions
Inlet: Uniform inlet velocity, no-free stream turbulence assumption (T KE = 0)
Outlet: Initial calculations performed by keeping the outlet at atmospheric pressure
Numerical settings
2D unsteady solution: second order accurate temporal discretization
RNG k- turbulence model
Second order accurate upwind spatial discretization
Time step: t = 1 105 s (15 m/s), t = 5 106 s (30 m/s)

The CFD investigation showed vortex shedding behind the blu-body. A time series of
vorticity magnitude is shown in Figure B.2. Clearly seen are the alternating vortices shed.
The vorticity magnitude of the turbulent oweld was collected at six locations that are
shown in Figure B.3. The resulting power spectra are shown in Figures B.4 and B.5 with a
magnication of spectra for P t11 shown in Figure B.6. In both cases (15 m/s and 30 m/s) the
fundamental vortex shedding frequency corresponds to a Strouhal number of 0.3. It can be
noted from Figure B.2 that the time taken for one vortex to shed is approximately 8103 s,
which corresponds to a frequency of 125 Hz. The frequency calculated by FFT comes out
to be 120 Hz (for the 15 m/s case) which corresponds to a shedding time of approximately
8.33 103 s.

Appendix B: A CFD Study of Blu-body Stabilized Combustion

220

-33 8

38

8
-3 3

-33 8

-3 3 8

-3 3

-338

-3 3

-3

-3 3

25

-338

-338

79

79

579

25

-3 3 8

6
25
-3

54

97

-338

-3 3 8

84

79
25

t = 1 103 s

t = 0s

09

15

927

17

-9

-3 2

-1 4

-3 3

04

54

-6
230

-338
-3256

97

257 9

-3 3

56

257

25

79

-3

38

549 7

-3 38

-3 3

t = 2 103 s

-33 8

-3

38

-33 8

-33 8
8

-3 38

-3 38

-3 3

-3 3 8
-33 8

-3 3 8

38

56

25

79

t = 3 103 s

-338

841

5497

-3 3 8
25

-3 3 8

-3

8
-3256
-3 3

-3 2

25

79

-3256

-3

-3 3

t = 4 103 s

Vorticity magnitude contours (Uinlet = 15 m/s)

Appendix B: A CFD Study of Blu-body Stabilized Combustion

221

-3 3 8
-3 3 8

-3 38

-3 38
8

-3 3

-3 3

-3 3

-3 3 8

-3 3 8

-3 3

-3 3

2579

25

2579
257

-9

t = 5 103 s

t = 6 103 s

-3256

33
1 1 3 5497

2579

-338

2 530 8 4 1 5
1 4-3
8

-6 1 7 4

11333
-3 3
8

4 5 -3 2 5 6
78

09

-1

79

00

25

23

97

257

56

-338 25 79

79

54

-3 2

7 4 -3 2 5 6
-6 1

-3 3

-3 38
-33 8

t = 7 103 s

-338
-3 38

-3

38

-3 3 8

-3 3

-3 3 8
-3 3 8

-3 3 8
25

25

79

-3 3

-3 38
6

4
23

-3 25 6
8
-3 3

-338

-3256
009
-1 2

79
33 25

8
3
-3
6
5
32

113

54 97
-3 2 5 6

257

00

25

6
-3 2 5

2579

-3

79

t = 8 103 s

t = 9 103 s

Figure B.2: Vorticity magnitude contours (Uinlet = 15 m/s)

Appendix B: A CFD Study of Blu-body Stabilized Combustion

Figure B.3: Locations where vorticity magnitudes were recorded

222

Appendix B: A CFD Study of Blu-body Stabilized Combustion

223

60
Point 11
Point 21
50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30
600

500

1000
Frequency (Hz)

1500
Point 12
Point 22

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30
600

500

1000
Frequency (Hz)

1500
Point 13
Point 23

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30

500

1000

1500

Frequency (Hz)

Figure B.4: Power spectrum plots of vorticity magnitude (Uinlet = 15 m/s)

Appendix B: A CFD Study of Blu-body Stabilized Combustion

224

Point 11
Point 21

60
50
40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30
20
10
0

10
20
30
40
600

500

1000

1500
Frequency (Hz)

2000

1500
Frequency (Hz)

2000

1500
Frequency (Hz)

2000

2500

3000
Point 12
Point 22

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30

40
600

500

1000

2500

3000
Point 13
Point 23

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30

40

500

1000

2500

3000

Figure B.5: Power spectrum plots of vorticity magnitude (Uinlet = 30 m/s)

Appendix B: A CFD Study of Blu-body Stabilized Combustion

225

70
U
= 15 m/s
inlet
Uinlet = 30 m/s

240 Hz
120 Hz

60

50

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

40

30

20

10

10

20

30

500

1000

1500

Frequency (Hz)

Figure B.6: Power spectrum plot of vorticity magnitude (Pt11; Uinlet = 15 m/s and 30 m/s)

Appendix C
Matlab Code for Frequency Response
Function Calculation
This code has been used to calculate the Frequency Response Function (FRF) between
unsteady velocity (u , input) and the resulting unsteady heat release rate from the ame
(q  , output). The code has been used to compute the FRF for both laminar and turbulent
ames.

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Matlab code for calculating the FRF between u and q
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Number of frequencies at which the flame was excited
% is given by the variable freq which needs to be
% modified for every FRF calculation
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

clear all;

226

Appendix C: Matlab Code


% sampling rate for the data
sam=10000;

% frequencies specified
freq = [15 20 25 30 35 50 75 100 200 300 500];

% number of frequencies
nfreq = length(freq);

% plus steady state value


nfreqf = nfreq + 1;

% creating strings for file name creation


siv = inletv_;
srr = rr_;
shz = Hz.out;

% starting the for loop for FRF calculation


for i = 1:nfreq

% creating string from frequency vector


% to form final string for reading files
freq(i);
sfr = num2str(freq(i));

% reading velocities
fidv = fopen([siv sfr shz]);
a = fscanf(fidv,%g %g,[2 inf]); a = a;

227

Appendix C: Matlab Code

% velocity vector
vel = a(:,2);

% reading reaction rates


fidr = fopen([srr sfr shz]);
b = fscanf(fidr,%g %g,[2 inf]); b = b;

% reaction rate vector


rr = b(:,2);

% comparing lengths of vel and rr vectors


len = length(vel);
lenr = length(rr);
if (len ~= lenr)
fprintf(lengths of vel and rr not equal)
break
end

% calculating mean
vel_mean = sum(vel)/len;
rr_mean = sum(rr)/len;

% calculating non-dimensionalized fluctuating components


vel = (vel - vel_mean)/vel_mean;
rr = (rr - rr_mean)/rr_mean;

% window size

228

Appendix C: Matlab Code


win = len;

% cross spectrum between vel and rr


[P, F] = spectrum(vel,rr,len,0,hanning(win),sam,0.95);

% finding the magnitude of the transfer function


pm=abs(P(:,4));

% finding the phase of the transfer function


pp=(180.0/pi)*angle(P(:,4));

% calculating the resolution


res = sam/len;

% probing the frequency of interest from the cross spectrum


% since exact match is not always possible, the two
% frequencies closest to the frequency of interest are chosen
ifind = find(F > freq(i) - res & F < freq(i) + res | F == freq(i));
lenifind = length(ifind);

% finding the magnitude at the two frequencies


magvalues=pm(ifind);

% calculating magnitude for the frequency of interest


% by averaging the values obtained for the two frequencies
magn= sum(magvalues)/lenifind;
clear magvalues

229

Appendix C: Matlab Code


% finding the phase at the two frequencies
phasevalues=pp(ifind);

% calculating phase for the frequency of interest


% by averaging the values obtained for the two frequencies
phase= sum(phasevalues)/lenifind;
clear phasevalues
clear ifind

mag(i) = 20*log10(magn);
pha(i) = phase;
clear magn phase

% closing the data files


fclose(fidv);
fclose(fidr);

% clearing variables no longer needed


clear vel_mean rr_mean
clear vel rr len lenr win P F pm pp
end

% steady state
freq(nfreqf) = 0;
mag(nfreqf) = 0;
pha(nfreqf) = 0;

% Computing the FRF

230

Appendix C: Matlab Code

231

h=10.^(mag/20).*exp(j*pha/180*pi);
[num, den]=invfreqs(h(1:nfreqf),freq(1:nfreqf)*2*pi,2,2);
rden=roots(den)/2/pi
rnum=roots(num)/2/pi
hid=freqs(num,den,[1:1000]*2*pi);

% FRF magnitude plot


figure(1);
semilogx(freq,20*log10(abs(h)),s,1:1000,20*log10(abs(hid)))
axis([1 1000 -140 25]);
xlabel(Frequency (Hz))
ylabel(Magnitude (dB))
legend(Computed Data Points,2nd Order Fit,3);
grid on

% FRF phase plot


figure(2);
semilogx(freq,unwrap(angle(h))*180/pi,s,1:1000,unwrap(angle(hid))*180/pi)
axis([1 1000 -350 50]);
legend(Computed Data Points,2nd Order Fit,3);
xlabel(Frequency (Hz))
ylabel(Phase (deg))
grid on

% Calculating poles and zeros


re_rden=real(rden);
img_rden=imag(rden);
re_rnum=real(rnum);

Appendix C: Matlab Code


img_rnum=imag(rnum);

% Pole-Zero plot
figure(3);
plot(re_rden,img_rden,kX,re_rnum,img_rnum,kO);
grid on;
xlabel Re
ylabel Img
legend(Poles,Zeros,2);

232

Vita
Prateep Chatterjee was born in the Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India in 1973. He
spent his childhood at the I.I.T. campus in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. He went to the
Campus School for his primary schooling and subsequently completed his high school education from Central School (Kendriya Vidyalaya), I.I.T. Kanpur in 1991. He pursued his
Bachelors degree in Mechanical engineering at the Zakir Hussain College of Engineering and
Technology, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) and completed his degree in 1996. Between
October 1996 and August 1997, he worked at I.I.T. Kanpur as a Research Associate and
later as an Engineer Trainee at West Bengal Power Development Corp., West Bengal, India.
He started his graduate studies in Aerospace engineering at I.I.T. Kanpur in August 1997.
After completing the rst semester of the Masters program, he wrote a proposal for conducting research in Germany. The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) awarded
him a fellowship to pursue his Masters research at the University of Stuttgart, Germany.
The following ten months were spent at the Institute for Nuclear Technology and Energy
Systems (IKE) working under Prof. Manfred Groll. The thesis research conducted at IKE
involved experimental investigation of two-phase nucleate pool boiling over enhanced industrial evaporative tubes. He defended his Masters thesis at I.I.T. Kanpur in April 1999.
In the spring of 2000, he began his doctoral studies in Mechanical engineering at Viginia
Tech under the guidance of Dr. Uri Vandsburger. While pursuing his degree, he taught the
undergraduate heat transfer course three times. Upon successful completion of his Ph.D.,
he will begin working as a Senior Research Scientist at FM Global in Norwood, MA.

233