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EXERCISE4

TheCell:AnatomyandDivision
TheAnatomyoftheCompositeCellsectioncanbegivenasanoutofclassassignmentto
savetime.Thismightbenecessaryifaudiovisualmaterialisused.
TimeAllotment:2hours.
MultimediaResources:SeeAppendixBforGuidetoMultimediaResourceDistributors.
InsidetheLivingCell(WNS:50minutes,DVD)
AnIntroductiontotheLivingCell(CBS:30minutes,DVD)
AJourneyThroughtheCell(FHS:DVD)
PartOne:Cells:AnIntroduction(20minutes)
PartTwo:CellFunctions:ACloserLook(20minutes)
MitosisandMeiosis(DE:23minutes,DVD)
PracticeAnatomyLabTM3.0(PAL)(PE:DVD,Website)

LaboratoryMaterials
Orderinginformationisbasedonalabsizeof24students,workingingroupsof4.Alist
ofsupplyhouseaddressesappearsinAppendixA.
3Dmodelofcompositecell
and/orchartofcellanatomy
24slidesofsimplesquamous
epithelium(AgNO3stain)
24slidesofteasedsmooth
muscle(l.s.)

24slidesofhumanbloodcell
smear
24slidesofsperm
24slidesofwhitefishblastulas
24compoundmicroscopes,lens
paper,lenscleaning
solution,immersionoil

3Dmodelsofmitoticstages
DVD,video,oranimationof
mitosis
Chenillesticks(pipecleaners),
twodifferentcolors,cutinto
3"pieces,8piecesper
group

AdvancePreparation
1. Setoutslides(oneperstudent)ofsimplesquamousepithelium,teasedsmoothmuscle,
humanbloodcellsmear,sperm,andwhitefishblastulas.Studentswillalsoneedlens
paper,lenscleaningsolution,immersionoil,andcompoundmicroscopes.
2. Setoutamodeloralabchartofacompositecell,andmodelsofmitoticstages.
3. Ifavailable,arrangeaviewingareaforthemitosisvideo.
4. Obtainthechenillesticks(pipecleaners)intwodifferentcolors,andcuteachinto3"
pieces.Setout8piecespergroup,4ofeachcolor.
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CommentsandPitfalls
1. Observingdifferencesandsimilaritiesincellstructureoftengivesstudentstrouble,as
manyofthemhaveneverseenanycellsotherthanepithelialcells.Slidesorpicturesof
thesecelltypesmighthelp.

AnswerstoPreLabQuiz(p.39)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Thestructuralandfunctionalunitofalllivingthings.
a,chromatin
d,selectivepermeability
Ribosomes
c,mitochondria
interphase
False
Four
b,interphase
False

AnswerstoActivityQuestions
Activity5:ObservingVariousCellStructures(pp.4445)
4. Simplesquamousepithelialcellsarerelativelylargeandirregularly(friedegg)shaped.Smooth
musclecellsarealsorelativelylarge,butarelongandspindleshaped.Redbloodcellsandsperm
arebothexamplesofsmallcells.Redbloodcellsappearround,whilespermcellsarestreamlined
withlongflagella.
Cellshapeisoftendirectlyrelatedtofunction.Epithelialcellsfittightlytogetherandcoverlarge
areas.Elongatedmusclecellsarecapableofshorteningduringcontraction.Theredbloodcellsare
smallenoughtofitthroughcapillaries,andareactuallybiconcaveinshape,whichmakesthem
flexibleandincreasessurfacearea(notobvioustothestudentsatthispoint).Spermcells
streamlinedshapeandflagellaaredirectlyrelatedtoefficientlocomotion.
Thespermcellshavevisibleprojections(flagella),whicharenecessaryforspermmotility.
Thefunctionofspermistotravelthroughthefemalereproductivesystemtoreachtheovuminthe
uterinetubes.Thisrequiresmotility.
Noneofthecellslackaplasmamembrane.Matureredbloodcellshavenonucleus.Nucleoliwill
probablybeclearlyvisibleintheepithelialcells,andpossiblyvisibleintheothernuclei.
No.Identifiableorganellesarenotvisibleinmostofthesecells.Filamentsmaybevisibleinthe
smoothmusclepreparations.Thedetailsoforganellestructureareusuallybelowthelimitof
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resolutionofthelightmicroscope.Unlessspecialstainsareused,thereisnowaytoseeor
distinguishtheorganellesatthislevel.

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Activity6:IdentifyingtheMitoticStages(p.48)
ChenilleStickMitosis
2. Thecentromere
3. Themitoticspindle
4. Kinetochores
Thenuclearenvelope
5. Themetaphaseplate
6. Pullingapartofthesisterchromatids
Eachsisterchromatidhasnowbecomeachromosome.
7. Theeventsoftelophasecausethechromosomesandcellstructurestoreverttotheirinterphase
appearance:Thechromosomesuncoil,anuclearenvelopeformsaroundeachchromatinmass,
nucleoliappearinthenucleus,andthespindlebreaksdownanddisappears.

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REVIEWSHEET
EXERCISE4
TheCell:AnatomyandDivision
Name________________________
LabTime/Date_________________
AnatomyoftheCompositeCell
1. Definethefollowingterms:
organelle:Ahighlyorganizedintracellularstructurethatperformsaspecific(metabolic)function
forthecell_
cell:Thebasicstructuralandfunctionalunitoflivingorganisms

2. Althoughcellshavedifferencesthatreflecttheirspecificfunctionsinthebody,whatfunctionsdo
theyhaveincommon?
Abilitytometabolize,toreproduce,andtogrow(increaseinmass),torespondtoastimulus,to
move,tomaintaintheirboundaries,todigestnutrients,andtodisposeofwaste
3. Identifythefollowingcellparts:
plasmamembrane

1.

externalboundaryofcell;regulatesflowofmaterialsintoandout
ofthecell;siteofcellsignaling

lysosome

2.

containsdigestiveenzymesofmanyvarieties;suicidesac
ofthecell

mitochondria

3.

scatteredthroughoutthecell;majorsiteofATPsynthesis

microvilli

4.

slenderextensionsoftheplasmamembranethatincreaseits
surfacearea

inclusions

5.

storedglycogengranules,crystals,pigments,andsoon

Golgiapparatus

6.

membranoussystemconsistingofflattenedsacsandvesicles;
packagesproteinsforexport

nucleus

7.

controlcenterofthecell;necessaryforcelldivisionandcelllife

centrioles

8.

tworodshapedbodiesnearthenucleus;associatedwiththe
formationofthemitoticspindle

nucleolus

9.

dense,darklystainingnuclearbody;packagingsiteforribosomes

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microfilaments

10.

roughERorendoplasmic
reticulum 11.

contractileelementsofthecytoskeleton
membranoussystem;involvedinintracellulartransportofproteins
andsynthesisofmembranelipids

ribosomes

12.

attachedtomembranesystemsorscatteredinthecytoplasm;
siteofproteinsynthesis

chromatinorchromatin
threads

13.

threadlikestructuresinthenucleus;containgeneticmaterial
(DNA)

peroxisome

14.

siteoffreeradicaldetoxification

4. Inthefollowingdiagram,labelallpartsprovidedwithaleaderline.

DifferencesandSimilaritiesinCellStructure
5. Foreachofthefollowingcelltypes,list(a)oneimportantstructuralcharacteristicobservedinthe
laboratory,and(b)thefunctionthatthestructurecomplementsorensures.
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squamousepithelium

a. cellsfitcloselytogetherlikefloortiles
b. oftenaliningorcoveringtissue

sperm

a. hasatailorflagellum
b. allowsspermtopropelitselftoanegg

smoothmuscle

a. cellshaveanelongatedshape
b. alongaxisallowsagreaterdegreeofshortening

redbloodcells

a. anucleate(nonucleus);discshaped
b. largesurfacearea;moreroomtocarryhemoglobinoroxygen

6. Whatisthesignificanceoftheredbloodcellbeinganucleate(withoutanucleus)?Limitedlifespan.
Doesnotreproduce.

Thenucleusisgone;therefore,thecellcannotmanufacturenewproteins,etc.
Diditeverhaveanucleus?Yes Ifso,when?Beforeitsreleaseintothebloodstream

(Useanappropriatereference.)
7. Ofthefourcellsobservedmicroscopically(squamousepithelialcells,redbloodcells,smooth
musclecells,andsperm),whichhasthesmallestdiameter?Sperm

Whichisthelongest?
Smoothmuscleorsperm(variable)
CellDivision:MitosisandCytokinesis
8. Identifythethreephasesofmitosisinthefollowingphotomicrographs.

9. Whatistheimportanceofmitoticcelldivision?Providescellsforbodygrowthandforrepairof
damagedtissueorprovides
additionalcellswiththesamegeneticmakeup
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10. Completethefollowingstatements:
Divisionofthe1isreferredtoasmitosis.
Cytokinesisisdivisionofthe2.Themajor
structuraldifferencebetweenchromatinand
chromosomesisthatthelatteris3.Chromosomes
attachtothespindlefibersbyundividedstructures
called4.Ifacellundergoesmitosisbutnot
cytokinesis,theproductis5.Thestructure
thatactsasascaffoldingforchromosomal
attachmentandmovementiscalledthe6.7isthe
periodofcelllifewhenthecellisnotinvolvedindivision.
Twocellpopulationsinthebodythatdonotroutinelyundergo
celldivisionare8and9.

1. nucleus
2. cytoplasm
3. coiled/condensed/shortened
4. kinetochores
5. abinucleatecellor
multinucleatedcell
6. mitoticspindle
7. Interphase
8. neurons
9. skeletalandcardiacmusclecells

11. Drawthephasesofmitosisforacellwithachromosomenumberof4.
RefertoFigure4.4

12. Usingthekey,categorizeeachoftheeventsdescribedbelowaccordingtothephaseinwhichit
occurs.
Key: a.anaphaseb.interphasec.metaphased.prophasee.telophase

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1. Chromatincoilsandcondenses,formingchromosomes.

2. ThechromosomesareVshaped.

3. Thenuclearmembranereforms.

4. Chromosomesstopmovingtowardthepoles.

5. Chromosomeslineupinthecenterofthecell.

6. Thenuclearmembranefragments.
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7. Themitoticspindleforms.

8. DNAsynthesisoccurs.

9. Centriolesreplicate.

10. Chromosomesfirstappeartobeduplexstructures.

d(ora,c,andd)

11. Chromosomalcentromeresareattachedtothekinetochorefibers.

12. Cleavagefurrowforms.

a
and
c(possiblyd)

13. Thenuclearmembrane(s)isabsent.

13. Whatisthephysicaladvantageofthechromatincoilingandcondensingtoformshortchromosomes
attheonsetofmitosis?
Short,compactbodiesaremechanicallymucheasiertomanipulateduringmitosisthanarelong,
thinchromatinthreads.

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