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EXERCISE18

SpecialSenses:VisualTestsandExperiments
TimeAllotment:1hours.

MultimediaResources:SeeAppendixBforGuidetoMultimediaResourceDistributors.
TheEye:Structure,Function,andControlofMovement(FHS:54minutes,DVD)
EyesandEars(FHS:28minutes,DVD,3yearstreamingwebcast)
MysteryoftheSenses:Vision(IM:60minutes,availableaspartofa5DVDset)
PracticeAnatomyLab3.0(PAL)(PE:DVD,Website)
TheSenses(FHS:20minutes,DVD,3yearstreamingwebcast)

LaboratoryMaterials
Orderinginformationisbasedonalabsizeof24students,workingingroupsof4.Alist
ofsupplyhouseaddressesappearsinAppendixA.
Snelleneyechartandmasking
tapeorchalktoindicate20
ftdistancefromchart
612Ishiharascolorplates

Ophthalmoscopes(ifavailable)
6metricrulers/metersticks
6testtubes

6commonstraightpins
6pencils
Laboratorylampsorpenlights

AdvancePreparation
1. HangupaSnelleneyechartinawelllitpartoftheroom.Measureback20feetfromthechart,
andmarkthedistanceonthefloorwithmaskingtapeorchalk.
2. SetoutIshiharascolorplates.
3. Setoutaboxofcommonstraightpins,testtubes,pencils,metricrulers,andmetersticks(oneeach
pergroup).
4. Setouttheophthalmoscopes(checktobesureophthalmoscopebatteriesareworking).
5. Setoutseverallaboratorylampsorpenlights.

CommentsandPitfalls
1. Somestudentswillhavedifficultywiththeophthalmoscope.Remindthesubjecttolookstraight
aheadatafixedobjectwhiletheexaminerlooksthroughthepupilataslightangle.Cautionthe
examinertolimitilluminatingtheretinatooneminuteorless.Switchtotheothereyeifnecessary.
Donotexaminethemaculaformorethanonesecondatatime.
2. Fordemonstrationoftheblindspot,emphasizethatthedotdisappearswhentherighteyeistested,
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andtheXdisappearswhenthelefteyeistested.Somestudentissuretoclaimthathe/shehasno
blindspotinthelefteye,asthedotneverdisappeared!

AnswerstoPreLabQuiz(p.317)
1. opticdisc
2. True
3. b,presbyopia

4. cones
5. Intrinsic

AnswerstoActivityQuestions
Activity6:TestingforDepthPerception(p.321)
Itismucheasiertoputthepencilinthetesttubewithbotheyesopen.

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REVIEWSHEET
EXERCISE18
Name________________________
LabTime/Date_________________
SpecialSenses:VisualTestsandExperiments
BlindSpot
1. Explainwhyvisionislostwhenlighthitstheblindspot.Thisarealacksphotoreceptors.

Refraction,VisualAcuity,andAstigmatism
2. MatchthetermsincolumnBwiththedescriptionsincolumnA.
ColumnA

ColumnB

g;

refraction 1. lightbending

a; accommodation 2. abilitytofocusforclose(lessthan20feet)vision

d;emmetropia 3. normalvision

a. accommodation

e;hyperopia 4. inabilitytofocuswelloncloseobjects
(farsightedness)

d. emmetropia

b. astigmatism
c. convergence

e. hyperopia
f;

myopia 5. nearsightedness

b;astigmatism 6. blurredvisionduetounequalcurvaturesofthe f. myopia


lensorcornea
c;convergence 7. medialmovementoftheeyesduringfocusing
oncloseobjects

g. refraction

3. Completethefollowingstatements:
In farsightedness, the light is focused 1
theretina.Thelensrequiredtotreatmyopiais
a2lens.Thenearpointincreaseswithage
becausethe3ofthelensdecreasesasweget
older. A convex lens, like that of the eye,
produces animagethatisupside downand
reversedfromlefttoright.Suchanimageis
calleda4image.

1. behind

2. concave

3. elasticity

4.

real

4. Usetermsfromthekeytocompletethestatementsconcerningnearanddistancevision.(Some
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termswillbeusedmorethanonce.)
b. decreased
Key:a. contracted

c. increased

Duringdistancevision,theciliarymuscleisd

ofthelensis b
a

,andlightrefractionis b

,theciliaryzonuleisd

d. relaxed

,theciliaryzonuleise

e. taut
,theconvexity

.Duringclosevision,theciliarymuscleis

,lensconvexityisc

,andlightrefractionisc

5. UsingyourSnelleneyetestresults,answerthefollowingquestions.
Isyourvisualacuitynormal,lessthannormal,orbetterthannormal?(studentdata)

Explainyouranswer.(studentdata)

ExplainwhyeacheyeistestedseparatelywhentheSnelleneyechartisused. Thereisusuallya
slightdifferenceinthevisualacuityofthetwoeyes.

Explainwhat20/40visionmeans.

Poorerthannormalvision.Abletoread#40lettersat20feet.The

normaleyereadstheselettersat40feet

.
Explainwhat20/10visionmeans.

Betterthannormalvision.Canread#10lettersat20feet.Thenormal

eyewouldhavetobe10feetawaytoreadtheseletters.

6. Defineastigmatism. Blurredvisionduetounequalcurvaturesofthelensorcornea

Howcanitbecorrected?Withspeciallyground(circularlyground)lenses

7. Define presbyopia. Old vision.; a hyperopia resulting from decreasing lens elasticity with
advancingage

Whatcausesit?Decreasedfunctionofanincreasinglyinelasticlens

ColorBlindness
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8. Towhichwavelengthsoflightdothethreeconetypesoftheretinarespondmaximally?
Red

,blue

,andgreen

9. Howcanyouexplainthefactthatweseeagreatrangeofcolorseventhoughonlythreeconetypes
exist?
10. Whenmorethanoneconetypeisstimulatedsimultaneously,intermediatecolors(ofthevisible
spectrum)areseen.

BinocularVision
10. Explainthedifferencebetweenbinocularandpanoramicvision. Withbinocularvision,eacheye
looksinapproximatelythe samedirection(visualfieldsoverlapaconsiderableextent)andsees

slightly different views. This provides threedimensional


vision and depth perception. With
panoramicvision,eacheyelooksinadifferentdirection,thusgivingapanoramicview.

Whatistheadvantageofbinocularvision?Allowsfordepthperception

Whatfactor(s)areresponsibleforbinocularvision?Theslightdifferencebetweenthevisualfields
ofthetwoeyesandthepartialcrossoverattheopticchiasm

OphthalmoscopicExamination
11. Why is the ophthalmoscopic examination an important diagnostic tool? Allowsnoninvasive
examinationoftheretinalconditionandvasculature

12. Manycollegestudentsstrugglingthroughmountainousreadingassignmentsaretoldthattheyneed
glassesforeyestrain.Whyisitmoreofastrainontheextrinsicandintrinsiceyemusclestolook
atcloseobjectsthanatfarobjects?
Noaccommodationorconvergenceisrequiredfordistantvision.

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