Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9

Catholic University of Eastern Africa

Faculty of Commerce
Department of Accounting and Finance
Financial Reporting and Analysis
CBF 321
Assignment: Corporate Governance and Analysis and
Sustainability Reporting
Presented by:
1. Michael Musila 1008807
2. Anthony Makau 1008072
3. Catherine Mokeira 1008421
4. Terrence Chanzu 1008783
5. Kemboi Nicholas 1008836
6. Robert Koech
7. Sang’oro Thodosia 1008798
8. Fidel Odhiambo 1008116
9. Mary Njeri 1008430
Corporate governance

Traditionally defined as the ways in which a firm safeguards the interests of its financiers (investors,
lenders, and creditors). The modern definition calls it the framework of rules and practices by which a
board of directors ensures accountability, fairness, and transparency in the firm's relationship with its
all stakeholders. This framework consists of;

(1) explicit and implicit contracts between the firm and the stakeholders for distribution of
responsibilities, rights, and rewards,

(2) Procedures for reconciling the sometimes conflicting interests of stakeholders in accordance with
their duties, privileges, and roles, and

(3) Procedures for proper supervision, control, and information-flows to serve as a system of checks-

It is a system of structuring, operating and controlling a company with a view to

achieve long term strategic goals to satisfy shareholders, creditors, employees,
customers and suppliers, and complying with the legal and regulatory requirements,
apart from meeting environmental and local community needs. Corporate
governance is the set of processes, customs, policies, laws, and institutions
affecting the way a corporation (or company) is directed, administered or

Corporate governance is a multi-faceted subject. An important theme of corporate

governance is to ensure the accountability of certain individuals in an organization
through mechanisms that try to reduce or eliminate the principal-agent problem. A
related but separate thread of discussions focuses on the impact of a corporate
governance system in economic efficiency, with a strong emphasis on shareholders'

The positive effect of corporate governance on different stakeholders ultimately is a

strengthened economy, and hence good corporate governance is a tool for socio-
economic development.

Role of Institutional Investors

Many years ago, worldwide, buyers and sellers of corporation stocks were individual
investors, such as wealthy businessmen or families, who often had a vested,
personal and emotional interest in the corporations whose shares they owned. Over
time, markets have become largely institutionalized: buyers and sellers are largely
institutions (e.g., pension funds, mutual funds, hedge funds, exchange-traded funds,
other investor groups; insurance companies, banks, brokers, and other financial
The rise of the institutional investor has brought with it some increase of
professional diligence which has tended to improve regulation of the stock market
(but not necessarily in the interest of the small investor or even of the naïve
institutions, of which there are many). Note that this process occurred
simultaneously with the direct growth of individuals investing indirectly in the
market (for example individuals have twice as much money in mutual funds as they
do in bank accounts). However this growth occurred primarily by way of individuals
turning over their funds to 'professionals' to manage, such as in mutual funds. In
this way, the majority of investment now is described as "institutional investment"
even though the vast majority of the funds are for the benefit of individual

Unfortunately, there has been a concurrent lapse in the oversight of large

corporations, which are now almost all owned by large institutions. The Board of
Directors of large corporations used to be chosen by the principal shareholders, who
usually had an emotional as well as monetary investment in the company, and the
Board diligently kept an eye on the company and its principal executives.

The interests of most investors are now increasingly rarely tied to the fortunes of
individual corporations.

Parties to corporate governance

Parties involved in corporate governance include the regulatory body (e.g. the Chief
Executive Officer, the board of directors, management, shareholders and Auditors).
Other stakeholders who take part include suppliers, employees, creditors,
customers and the community at large.

In corporations, the shareholder delegates decision rights to the manager to act in

the principal's best interests. This separation of ownership from control implies a
loss of effective control by shareholders over managerial decisions. Partly as a
result of this separation between the two parties, a system of corporate governance
controls is implemented to assist in aligning the incentives of managers with those
of shareholders. With the significant increase in equity holdings of investors, there
has been an opportunity for a reversal of the separation of ownership and control
problems because ownership is not so diffuse.

A board of directors often plays a key role in corporate governance. It is their

responsibility to endorse the organization’s strategy, develop directional policy,
appoint, supervise and remunerate senior executives and to ensure accountability
of the organization to its owners and authorities.

All parties to corporate governance have an interest, whether direct or indirect, in

the effective performance of the organization. Directors, workers and management
receive salaries, benefits and reputation, while shareholders receive capital return.
Customers receive goods and services; suppliers receive compensation for their
goods or services. In return these individuals provide value in the form of natural,
human, social and other forms of capital.

A key factor is an individual's decision to participate in an organization e.g. through

providing financial capital and trust that they will receive a fair share of the
organizational returns. If some parties are receiving more than their fair return then
participants may choose to not continue participating leading to organizational


Key elements of good corporate governance principles include honesty, trust and
integrity, openness, performance orientation, responsibility and accountability,
mutual respect, and commitment to the organization.

Of importance is how directors and management develop a model of governance

that aligns the values of the corporate participants and then evaluate this model
periodically for its effectiveness. In particular, senior executives should conduct
themselves honestly and ethically, especially concerning actual or apparent
conflicts of interest, and disclosure in financial reports.

Commonly accepted principles of corporate governance include:

• Rights and equitable treatment of shareholders: Organizations should

respect the rights of shareholders and help shareholders to exercise those
rights. They can help shareholders exercise their rights by effectively
communicating information that is understandable and accessible and
encouraging shareholders to participate in general meetings.

• Interests of other stakeholders: Organizations should recognize that they

have legal and other obligations to all legitimate stakeholders.

• Role and responsibilities of the board: The board needs a range of skills
and understanding to be able to deal with various business issues and have
the ability to review and challenge management performance. It needs to be
of sufficient size and have an appropriate level of commitment to fulfill its
responsibilities and duties. There are issues about the appropriate mix of
executive and non-executive directors.

• Integrity and ethical behavior: Ethical and responsible decision making is

not only important for public relations, but it is also a necessary element in
risk management and avoiding lawsuits. Organizations should develop a code
of conduct for their directors and executives that promotes ethical and
responsible decision making. It is important to understand, though, that
reliance by a company on the integrity and ethics of individuals is bound to
eventual failure. Because of this, many organizations establish Compliance
and Ethics Programs to minimize the risk that the firm steps outside of ethical
and legal boundaries.

• Disclosure and transparency: Organizations should clarify and make

publicly known the roles and responsibilities of board and management to
provide shareholders with a level of accountability. They should also
implement procedures to independently verify and safeguard the integrity of
the company's financial reporting. Disclosure of material matters concerning
the organization should be timely and balanced to ensure that all investors
have access to clear, factual information.

Issues involving corporate governance principles include:

• internal controls and internal auditors

• the independence of the entity's external auditors and the quality of their

• oversight and management of risk

• oversight of the preparation of the entity's financial statements

• review of the compensation arrangements for the chief executive officer and
other senior executives

• the resources made available to directors in carrying out their duties

• the way in which individuals are nominated for positions on the board

• dividend policy

Mechanisms and controls

Corporate governance mechanisms and controls are designed to reduce the

inefficiencies that arise from moral hazard and adverse selection. For example, to
monitor managers' behavior, an independent third party (the external auditor)
attests the accuracy of information provided by management to investors. An ideal
control system should regulate both motivation and ability.

1. Internal corporate governance controls

Internal corporate governance controls monitor activities and then take corrective
action to accomplish organizational goals. Examples include:

• Monitoring by the board of directors: The board of directors, with its

legal authority to hire, fire and compensate top management, safeguards
invested capital. Regular board meetings allow potential problems to be
identified, discussed and avoided. Whilst non-executive directors are thought
to be more independent, they may not always result in more effective
corporate governance and may not increase performance. Different board
structures are optimal for different firms.

• Internal control procedures and internal auditors: Internal control

procedures are policies implemented by an entity's board of directors, audit
committee, management, and other personnel to provide reasonable
assurance of the entity achieving its objectives related to reliable financial
reporting, operating efficiency, and compliance with laws and regulations.
Internal auditors are personnel within an organization who test the design
and implementation of the entity's internal control procedures and the
reliability of its financial reporting

• Balance of power: The simplest balance of power is very common; require

that the CEO be a different person from the Treasurer. This application of
separation of power is further developed in companies where separate
divisions check and balance each other's actions. One group may propose
company-wide administrative changes, another group review and can veto
the changes, and a third group check that the interests of people (customers,
shareholders, employees) outside the three groups are being met.

• Remuneration: Performance-based remuneration is designed to relate some

proportion of salary to individual performance. It may be in the form of cash
or non-cash payments such as shares and share options, superannuation or
other benefits. Such incentive schemes, however, are reactive in the sense
that they provide no mechanism for preventing mistakes or opportunistic
behavior, and can elicit myopic behavior.

1. External corporate governance controls

External corporate governance controls encompass the controls external

stakeholders exercise over the organization. Examples include:

• competition

• debt covenants

• demand for and assessment of performance information (especially financial


• government regulations

• managerial labour market

• media pressure

• takeovers
Systemic problems of corporate governance

• Demand for information: A barrier to shareholders using good information is

the cost of processing it, especially to a small shareholder. The traditional
answer to this problem is the efficient market hypothesis (in finance, the
efficient market hypothesis (EMH) asserts that financial markets are
efficient), which suggests that the small shareholder will free ride on the
judgements of larger professional investors.

• Monitoring costs: In order to influence the directors, the shareholders must

combine with others to form a significant voting group which can pose a real
threat of carrying resolutions or appointing directors at a general meeting.

• Supply of accounting information: Financial accounts form a crucial link in

enabling providers of finance to monitor directors. Imperfections in the
financial reporting process will cause imperfections in the effectiveness of
corporate governance. This should, ideally, be corrected by the working of
the external auditing process.

Corporate characteristics

Many recent studies of the impact of corporate characteristics on social reporting

have tended to concentrate on environmental reporting. The results must be
interpreted with caution. Although most studies have looked at large companies,
the samples differed from study to study in terms of both size and industrial
compositions. Differences in country, time period and explanatory variables also
make generalizations difficult. However, some relationships have been identified. In
particular, corporate size appears to be an important variable and there is also
strong evidence that industry membership is related to disclosure. In explaining
differences across countries, Adams (1999) highlights the importance of the ethical
and environmental impacts on the industry and the political issues facing it which
impact on ethical behavior. With regard to the link between social disclosure and
the economic performance of corporations, the literature shows that there is:

• Unclear relationship to profit. Social disclosure is related to strong economic

performance in the previous period as measured by growth in return on
equity. More recent research has found a positive link between
environmental and financial performance and specifically that over two-thirds
of “green” companies perform better than their non-green counterparts in
1,200 direct comparisons of green and non-green companies (Edwards,
• Some relationship to share trading volume and price (see, for example
Patten, 1990) although the nature of impact depends on the nature of

• A negative relationship between the level of social disclosure and systematic

risk (BETA).

• A positive relationship between the level of disclosure and length of

management decision horizon.

• A positive relationship between an active strategic posture (as measured by

corporate sponsorship of a philanthropic organization, the size of a
company’s public affairs department and debt equity ratio) and level of social
disclosure (Roberts, 1992).

Reasons for ethical reporting and its increase

The view that global warming should be tackled before environmental impacts is
puzzling given scientific evidence that the emission of greenhouse gases by
companies is a major contributory factor .For any large multinational corporation
operating in lesser developed countries to disassociate themselves from poverty
and infant mortality is puzzling and particularly so for companies selling
pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceutical companies have been criticised for the way in
which drugs are marketed, packaged and priced in these countries and also for
selling drugs regarded as non-essential. That companies began reporting on these
issues in response to public pressure, that companies are unwilling to report in
countries where there is no public pressure, that the emphasis in reporting across
countries changes with changes in public pressure, highlights the continuing
vulnerability of voluntary ethical reporting. Concerns with image and demonstrating
leadership in reporting practices indicates that reporting in these companies does
not come from a concern to be accountable.

Perceived benefits of ethical reporting

Despite the perceived lack of interest in ethical reporting by many stakeholders, the
interviewees were clearly all very committed to it and saw clear benefits to their
companies in terms of corporate image. They identified the following benefits of
social reporting from a corporate perspective:

• Minimises risks (e.g. of consumer boycotts, unforeseen issues);

• Better understanding of corporate activities reduces criticisms;

• Influence or delay legislation;

• Attract and retain the most talented people;

• Inclusion in ethical investment funds;

• Better internal systems and control leading to better decision making and
cost savings; and

• Communicates the group’s values and targets to all group companies.

The extent to which a company perceives that there are benefits of reporting, and
the nature of those perceived benefits, is likely to influence the extent and nature of
reporting as suggested by this German interviewee when asked what he saw as
being the benefits of reporting:

Influence of the extent of environmental regulation on reporting

There is a very high level of environmental regulation in Germany, particularly with

regard to air treatment, waste-water treatment and waste management. The level
of regulation is clearly not popular with companies which feel they are at a
competitive disadvantage with companies from other parts of Europe.

There is a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which voluntary reporting can
influence the extent or nature of such regulations, but some companies did reveal
that they reported in such a way as to influence politicians, sometimes through
changing public opinion in an attempt to decrease or forestall legislation. In contrast
to the German companies interviewed, no comments were made by UK companies
on the extent of environmental regulations, indicating perhaps that the concerns by
German companies regarding their competitive disadvantage with respect to this
matter are justified.