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Lamar University

Turbomachinery Efficiency

MEEN-4350/5350
Objectives:

Turbomachinery Efficiency

Xianchang Li, Ph.D.


Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Lamar University

To define different efficiencies for compressors and


turbines
To describe the relationship between them.
Assignments/Notice:
Read Chapter 1
Homework: Please check the blackboard

Spring 2015

Efficiency of Turbines

Overall efficiency, ho

Efficiency of Turbines (2)


Isentropic efficiency(ht) or hydraulic efficiency (hh)

Due to flow patterns and friction with solid surface

Mechanical efficiency (hm)

Due to mechanical friction (lubrication system)

Maximum Fluid Work of Steam/Gas Turbines

Total-to-Total Efficiency of Steam/Gas Turbines

Energy conservation equation of steady-flow with one inlet


and one outlet

Adiabatic process with potential energy ignored

Adiabatic + isentropic process

Here it is assumed that the kinetic energy @ outlet can be


employed. Expanding with the same stagnation pressure

Total-to-Static Efficiency of Steam/Gas Turbines

Maximum Fluid Work of Hydraulic Turbines


Energy conservation equation of steady-flow with one
inlet and one outlet

Here it is assumed that the kinetic energy @ outlet is


entirely wasted Ideal expansion: State 2 has a ZERO
velocity

Adiabatic + Isentropic process

h1-h2 = (p1-p2)/r when r=const


In what case,
can hts be 1?
Adiabatic &
isentropic &
c2=0

Efficiency of Hydraulic Turbines

Efficiency of Compressors/Pumps

Total-to-Total or
Total-to-Static ?

Example: Water flows at a rate of 100 m3/s


and the elevation difference between the
reservoir and turbine is 20m. The water left
the turbine has a velocity of 1.0 m/s, and
the turbine has an efficiency of 80%. Ignore
the water velocity in the reservoir. What is
the power output? (hm=90%)

(20*9.8-0.5)*100*1000*.8*.9
=14.076 MW

Efficiency of Compressors/Pumps (2)

Small Stage or Polytropic Efficiency

Compressor

Question: If each stage of a 10-stage compressor has an


isentropic efficiency of 0.85, what will be the compressor efficiency if
p2/p1=10?

Total-to-Total or
Total-to-Static ?

Pumps

Small Stage or Polytropic Efficiency (2)

Small Stage or Polytropic Efficiency (3)

Small Stage or Polytropic Efficiency (4)

Small Stage or Polytropic Efficiency (5)

For ideal gas (or perfect gas)

Small Stage or Polytropic Efficiency (6)

For turbines (with ideal gas)

For steam turbines (steam is not ideal gas)

Small Stage or Polytropic Efficiency (7)

RH, reheat factor, =1.03~1.08

Example

Example (2)
For incompressible fluid

Example: Air @ 15 atm and 1000 oC expands to 1 atm and 350 oC in a gas
turbine. If the inlet velocity is 75 m/s and the outlet velocity is 125 m/s,
find the total-to-total efficiency, total-to-static efficiency, and polytropic
efficiency for this turbine. (Consider air as perfect gas)

Solution: (with Section 1.10)


Find p01 with p1 and c1
Find p02 with p2 and c2
Find T01 with T1 and c1
Find T02 with T2 and c2
Find T02s with p01, p02, and T01
Find the efficiency

For compressible fluid


h0=h+c2/2

The End

Questions and comments ?