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India's Position in the World

India's Position in the World


1st to introduce government supported family planning in the world.
Largest postal network in the world.
Largest livestock population.
Largest producer of milk.
Largest producer of millets in the world
Largest consumer of gold jewellery.
Largest producer of jute.
Largest producer of ginger.
Largest producer of bananas.
Largest producer of castor oil seeds.
Largest producer of mangoes.
Largest producer of safflower oil seeds.
Largest producer of papayas.
Second largest producer of tea, the first position being held by China.
Second largest producer of sugarcane, the first position being held by Brazil.
Second largest producer of wheat, the first position being held by China.
Second largest producer of onions, the first position being held by China.
Second largest producer of potatoes, the first position being held by China.
Second largest producer of garlic, the first position being held by China.
Second largest producer of rice, the first position being held by China.
Second largest producer of cottonseed, the first position being held by China.
Second largest producer of cement., next to China.
India has the second largest arable land in the world. The USA has the largest
arable land in the world.
India is the third largest producer and second largest consumer of fertiliser in the
world.
India has the largest deposits of Thorium in the world most of which is found in
Kerala.
NOTE: The agricultural information is as per latest data available on the website of
Food and Agricultural Organisation.
National Symbols
National Symbols
National Emblem
The National Emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka.
The four smaller animals at the bottom of national emblem are horse and bull (visible) and lion and
elephant (not visible).
The National Emblem was adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950.
'Satyameva Jayate' inscribed below has been taken from the Mundaka Upanishad.

National Anthem
The national anthem 'Jana Gana Mana' was first sung at Calcutta session of Indian National
Congress in 1911, 27 Dec.
It was adopted by the Indian constitution on 24 Jan 1950.
Its English rendering has been given by Tagore himself.
The song was composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, the National Anthem is its
Hindi version.
The complete song consists of five stanzas. The first stanza contains the full version of the National
Anthem.
The playing time for full version of the song is 52 seconds.
National Song
The national song Vande Mataram has been taken from Bankim Chandra Chatterjis Anand Math.
It was first sung at 1896 session of INC.
Its English rendering has been given by Shri Aurobindo.
National Calendar
The national calendar based on the Saka Era was adopted on 22 Mar 1957.
Chaitra is the first month of the year whose 1st day falls on 22 March normally and on 21 March in
a leap year.
The national calendar also has 365/366 days
Chaitra has 30 days normally and 31 days in a leap year.
National Flag
The design of the national flag was adopted on 22 July 1947.
The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three.
The design of the wheel at the centre is taken from the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of
Ashoka.
The 'Dharmachakra' (wheel) at the centre has 24 spokes.
The display of the National Flag is governed by Flag Code of India, 2002, which took effect on 26
Jan 2002.
As per the provisions of the Flag Code of India, 2002, there shall be no restriction on the display of
the National Flag by members of general public, private organisations, educational institutions,
etc.,except to the extent provided in the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act,
1950 and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 and any other law enacted on the
subject.
Other National Symbols
The national bird is Peacock (Pavo cristatus)
The national fruit is Mango (Manigifera indica)
The national flower is Lotus (Nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn)
The national tree is Banyan (Ficus benghalensis)
The national animal is Tiger (Panthera tigris)
The national aquatic animal is River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica)
The national river is the Ganges
Comparison - National Anthem and National Song

National
Anthem
National Song
Name
Jana Gana Mana
Vande Mataram
Author
Rabindranath Tagore Bankim Chandra Chatterji
Originally
written in
Bengali
Sanskrit
1st sung in
1911, Kolkata
1896, Kolkata
English
rendering by
Tagore
Shri Aurobindo
Constituent Assembly
Facts to remember - Constituent Assembly
The constituent assembly was formed on the recommendation of the Cabinet Mission which visited
India in 1946.
The Constituent Assembly met for the first time in New Delhi on 9 December, 1946 in the
Constitution Hall which is now known as the Central Hall of Parliament House.
Mr. Sachchidanand Sinha was elected provisional chairman of the assembly.
Dr Rajendra Prasad later became the permanent chairman of the constituent assembly.
On 13 December, 1946, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru moved the Objectives Resolution which resolved
to proclaim India as an Independent Sovereign Republic and to draw up for her future governance a
Constitution.
The Constituent Assembly took almost three years (two years, eleven months and seventeen days
to be precise) to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India.
The Constituent Assembly held eleven sessions covering a total of 165 days.
India is governed in terms of the Constitution, which was adopted on 26 November, 1949, which
was the last day of the Eleventh session of the Constituent Assembly.
This date finds mention in the Preamble to the Indian Constitution thus IN OUR CONSTITUENT
ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO
OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
The honourable members appended their signatures to the constitution on 24 January, 1950.
The Constitution of India came into force on 26 January, 1950. On that day, the Constituent
Assembly ceased to exist, transforming itself into the Provisional Parliament of India until a new
Parliament was constituted in 1952
Important Dates - Constituent Assembly to Constitution
Signed
Constituent
Objectives
Constituti by
Constitution came into force
Assembly met for Resolution
on
member and Constituent Assembly
the first time
moved
adopted
s
ceased to exist
26-Nov24-Jan9-Dec-46
13-Dec-46
49
50
26-Jan-50
Chairmen of various committees in the Constituent Assembly

Committee
Committee on the Rules of Procedure
Steering Committee
Finance and Staff Committee
Credential Committee
House Committee
Order of Business Committee
Ad hoc Committee on the National Flag
Committee on the Functions of the Constituent Assembly
States Committee
Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and
Excluded Areas
Minorities Sub-Committee
Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee
North-East Frontier Tribal Areas and Assam Exluded & Partially Excluded
Areas Sub-Committee
Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas (Other than those in Assam) SubCommittee
Union Powers Committee
Union Constitution Committee
Drafting Committee

Chairman
Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
Alladi
Krishnaswami
Ayyar
B. Pattabhi
Sitaramayya
K.M. Munsi
Rajendra Prasad
G.V. Mavalankar
Jawaharlal Nehru
Vallabhbhai Patel
H.C. Mookherjee
J.B. Kripalani
Gopinath Bardoloi
A.V. Thakkar
Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
B.R. Ambedkar

Indian Constitution
Indian constitution contains 395 articles in Parts I to XXII and 12 schedules.
Parts of Indian
Constitution
Part
Part I
Part II
Part III
Part IV
Part IVA
Part V
Part VI
Part
Part
Part
Part
Part

VII
VIII
IX
IXA
IXB

Subject
The Union and its territory
Citizenship
Fundamental Rights
Directive Principles
Fundamental Duties
The Union
The States
Repealed by Const. (7th Amendment)
Act, 1956
The Union Territories
The Panchayats
The Muncipalities
The Co-operative Societies

Articles
Art. 1 to 4
Art. 5 to 11
Art. 12 to 35
Art. 36 to 51
Art. 51A
Art. 52 to 151
Art. 152 to 237

Art.
Art.
Art.
Art.

239 to 242
243 to 243O
243P to 243ZG
243ZH to 243ZT

Part X
Part XI
Part XII
Part XIII
Part XIV
Part XIVA
Part XV
Part
Part
Part
Part
Part

XVI
XVII
XVIII
XIX
XX

Part XXI
Part XXII

The Scheduled and Tribal Areas


Relations between the Union and the
States
Finance, Property, Contracts and
Suits
Trade, Commerce and Intercourse
within the Territory of India
Services under the Union and the
States
Tribunals
Elections
Special provisions relating to certain
classes
Official Language
Emergency Provisions
Miscellaneous
Amendment of the Constitution
Temporary, Transitional and Special
Provisions
Short title, commencement,
authoritative text in Hindi and repeals

Art. 244 to 244A


Art. 245 to 263
Art. 264 to 300A
Art. 301 to 307
Art. 308 to 323
Art. 323A to 323B
Art. 324 to 329A
Art.
Art.
Art.
Art.
Art.

330
343
352
361
368

to
to
to
to

342
351
360
367

Art. 369 to 392


Art. 393 to 395

Important Articles of Indian Constitution


Article
Article
Article
Article
Article
Article
Article
Article
Article
Article

12 35
36-50
51A
80
81
343
356
368
370

Article 395

Importance
Specify the Fundamental Rights available
Specify the Directive Principles of state policy
Specifies the Fundamental Duties of every citizen
Specifies the number of seats for the Rajya Sabha
Specifies the number of seats for the Lok Sabha
Hindi as official language
Imposition of Presidents Rule in states
Amendment to the Constitution
Special status to Kashmir
Repeals India Independence Act and Government of
India Act, 1935

Schedules to Indian Constitution


Schedules 1 to 12
First schedule contains the list of states and union territories and their territories
Second schedule contains provisions as to the President, Governors of States, Speaker and
the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman
of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative

Assembly and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council of a State,
the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts and the Comptroller and AuditorGeneral of Indiathe list of states and union territories and their territories
Third Schedule contains the Forms of Oaths or Affirmations.
Fourth Schedule contains provisions as to the allocation of seats in the Council of States.
Fifth Schedule contains provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas
and Scheduled Tribes.
Sixth Schedule contains provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of
Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
Seventh Schedule contains the Union list, State list and the concurrent list.
Eighth Schedule contains the list of recognised languages.
Ninth Schedule contains provisions as to validation of certain Acts and Regulations.
Tenth Schedule contains provisions as to disqualification on ground of defection.
Eleventh Schedule contains the powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.
Twelfth Schedule contains the powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities.
Important Age Limits in Indian Constitution
Description
Minimum age for election to the post of President/Vice-President/Governor
Minimum age for election as MP (Lok Sabha)/MLA
Minimum age for election as MP (Rajya Sabha)/MLC
Upper age limit for appointment as a judge of Supreme Court, Attorney
General, Comptroller General, member of Public Service Commission
Upper age limit for appointment as a judge of High court/ Advocate
General/member of State Commission
Minimum age limit for employment in a factory
Age between which education has been made a fundamental right
Minimum marriageable age for a male
Minimum marriageable age for a female
Important Time Limits in Indian Constitution
Condition
Maximum interval between two sessions of Parliament/State Assembly
Maximum life of Presidential Ordinance
Maximum period within which an election is to be held to fill a vacancy
created by the death, resignation or removal, or otherwise of a President

Maximum duration for which Presidents rule can be imposed in a state

Age Limit
35 years
25 years
30 years
65 years
62 years
14 years
6 to 14
years
21 years
18 years.

Duration
Six months
Six months +
Six weeks*
Six months
Six months
extendable
upto a
maximum of
three years

Time after which money bill passed by Lok Sabha is deemed to have been
passed by Rajya Sabha when no action is taken by it
Maximum duration for which a President/Vice-President/Governor may hold
his office from the date on which he enters his office
Maximum duration for which a Lok Sabha/State Legislature may function
from the date appointed for its first meeting
Maximum period for which the term of a Lok Sabha/State Legislature may
be extended while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation
Where the term of a Lok Sabha/State Legislature has been extended while
a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, the maximum period for
which he Lok Sabha/State Legislature may continue to function after the
Proclamation of Emergency has ceased to operate
Maximum duration for which a Union Minister/State Minister may hold his
office without being a member of either of the houses of the
Parliament/State Legislature
Maximum duration for which a member of either House of Parliament may
be absent without permission, before his seat is declared is vacant
Maximum period within which a person who is arrested and detained in
custody shall be produced before the nearest magistrate
Maximum duration for which a Panchayat/Municipality shall function from
the date appointed for its first meeting
Maximum duration for which a member of a Public Service Commission
may hold his office subject to his not attaining the age of sixty-five years
Maximum duration for which a member of a State Commission may hold
his office subject to his not attaining the age of sixty-two years
* Six months being the maximum interval between two sessions of the
Parliament and six weeks being the time allowed for the Parliament to
approve/disapprove the ordinance after its reassembly.

14 days
5 years
5 years
1 year at a time

Six months
Six months
60 days
24 hours
5 years
6 years
6 years

Oath of Office
S.No.
Appointments
President
Vice President
Judge of Supreme Court
Governor
Minister in Union Council
of Ministers
Comptroller & Auditor
General
Member of Parliament
Member of Legislature of

Administered Oath of Office by


Chief Justice of India or in his absence the seniormost
Judge of Supreme Court.
President or some person appointed in that behalf by
the President.
President or some person appointed in that behalf by
the President.
Chief Justice of High Court or in his absence senior
most Judge of that court.
President
President or some person appointed in that behalf by
the President.
President or some person appointed in that behalf by
the President.
Governor or some person appointed in that behalf by

State
Minister in State Council
of Ministers
Judge of High Court

the Governor.
Governor
Governor or some person appointed by in that behalf
by him.

Submission of Resignations
Appointment
President
Vice President
Judge of Supreme Court
Governor
Judge of High Court
Speaker of Lok Sabha
Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha
Deputy Chairman of Council of States
Member of house of Parliament
Speaker of Assembly
Deputy Speaker of Assembly
Chairman of Legislative Council of States
Deputy Chairman of Legislative Council of
States
A member of Public Service Commission (Union
Commission or Joint Commission)
A member of Public Service Commission (State
Commission)
Important
Amendments
Amendment

Year
7

1956

1960

10

1961

12

1961

13

1963

14
21

1962
1967

Submits Resignation to
Vice President
President
President
President
President
Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha
Speaker of Lok Sabha
Chairman
Chairman of upper house or the
Speaker of Lower House.
Deputy Speaker of Assembly
Speaker of Assembly
Deputy Chairman
Chairman
President
Governor of the State

Importance
Reorganisation of states on linguistic basis and abolition
of Class A, B, C and D states and introduction of Union
Territories.
Adjustments to Indian territory as a result of agreement
with Paksitan.
Dadra, Nagar and Haveli included in Indian Union as a
Union Territory on acquisition from Portugal.
Goa, Daman and Diu included in Indian Union as a Union
Territory on acquisition from Portugal.
The state of Nagaland formed with special protection
under Article 371A.
Pondicherry incorporated into Indian Union after transfer
by France.
Sindhi added as language in the 8th schedule.

Privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states


1971 abolished.
1975 Sikim included as an Indian state.
Fundamental Duties prescribed, India became Socialist
42
1976 Secular Republic.
Right to Property deleted from the list of fundamental
44
1978 rights.
52
1985 Defection to another party after election made illegal.
61
1989 Voting age reduced from 21 to 18.
Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali added as languages in the
71
1992 Eighth Schedule.
Introduction of Panchayati Raj, addition of Part IX to the
73
1993 Constitution.
74
1993 Introduction of Nagarpalikas and Municipalities.
Free and compulsory education to children between 6 and
86
2002 14 years.
Bodo, Dogri, Santhali and Maithli added to the list of
92
2003 recognised languages. Service Tax introduced.
1960, 1970,
1980, 1989,
Extension of reservation of seats for SC/ST and
8,23,45,62, 79 and
2000 and
nomination of Anglo-Indian members in Parliament and
95
2010
State Assemblies.
Substituted Odia for Oriya in the Eighth Schedule to the
96
2011 Constitution
The 42nd amendment was the most comprehensive amendment which had 59 clauses and
carried out so many changes that it has been described as a Mini Constitution.
26
36

The 52nd amendment was the only amendment to be unanimously adopted by the Parliament.
Parliamentary Terms
Basic Definitions
Definition
The draft of a legislative proposal
Bill passed by both the Houses of Parliament and assented to
by the President
A member of the House of the People (Lok Sabha)
A member other than a Minister

Term
Bill
Act
Member
Private Member

Finance Related
Definition
Annual Financial statement of the estimated receipts and expenditure of the
Government of India for a financial year
The estimate of expenditure in respect of a Ministry/Department not charged

Term
Budget
Demand

upon the Consolidated Fund of India, placed for approval before the House on
the recommendations of the President
A Bill ordinarily introduced each year to give effect to the financial proposals of
the Government for the following financial year
A bill containing only provisions dealing with all or any of the matters specified
in sub-clauses (a) to (g) of Clause (1) of Articel 110 of the Constitution. (Such a
bill cannot be introduced without the recommendation of the President and it
also cannot be introduced in the Rajya Sabha
A Bill passed annually (or at various times of the year) providing for the
withdrawal or appropriation from and out of the Consolidated Fund of India of
moneys by Lok Sabha and moneys charged on the Consolidated Fund for the
services of a financial year or a part thereof.
A motion for reduction of a demand for grant by or to a specified amount
Cut motion can be of three types - Disapproval of policy cut, Economy cut and
Token cut
A grant made by Lok Sabha in advance in respect of the estimated expenditure
of the Government of India for a part of a financial year pending the voting of
Demands for Grants for the financial year. A Motion for Vote on Account is dealt
with in the same way as if it were a demand for grant.
Basic Definitions
Definition
Termination of a sitting of a House without any definite date being fixed for the
next sitting
The termination of a session of the House by an order made by the President
under article 85(2) (a) of the Constitution.
The first hour of a sitting of the House normally allotted for asking and
answering of questions
The minimum number of members required to be present at a sitting of the
House or the Committee for valid transaction of its business. The quorum to
constitute a sitting of the House is one-tenth of the total number of members of
the House and in respect of a Committee it is one-third of the total number of
members of the Committee
A self-contained independent proposal submitted for the approval of the House
and drafted in such a way as to be capable of expressing a decision of the
House.
The vote cast by the Speaker or the Chairman in the case of an equality of votes
on a matter
Deletion of words, phrases of expression for the proceedings or records of the
House (for being defamatory or indecent or unparliamentary or undignified)

for Grant
Finance
Bill

Money Bill
Appropriat
ion Bill
Cut
motion

Vote on
Account
Term
Adjournm
ent sine
die
Prorogatio
n
Question
Hour

Quorum
Resolution
Casting
vote
Expunctio
n

Question Related Terms


Definition
A question relating to a matter of public importance of an urgent character
asked with notice shorter than ten clear days

Term
Short
Notice
Question

A question to which a member wishes to have an oral answer on the floor of the
House and which is distinguished by an asterisk.
A question placed on the List of Questions for written answer. The written
answer to such a question is deemed to have been laid on the Table at the end
of the Question Hour.

Starred
Question
Unstarred
Question

Motion Related Terms


Definition
A formal proposal by a member that the House do something, order something
to be done or express an opinion with regard to some matter. When adopted it
expresses the judgement or will of the House.
Motions are of three types - Substantive Motion, Substitutive Motion and
Subsidiary Motion
A self-contained independent proposal submitted for the approval of the House
and drafted in such a way as to be capable of expressing a decision of the
House, e.g., a Resolutions
Motions moved in substitution of the original motion for taking into
consideration a policy or situation or statement or any other matter.
A motion which depends upon or relates to another motion or follows upon some
proceedings in the House. By itself it has no meaning and is not capable of
stating the decision of the House without reference to the original motion or
proceedings of the House.
Subsidiary Motions are of three types - Ancillary Motion, Superseding Motion and
Amendment
Motion for the adjournment of the debate on Bills, motions or resolutions etc. or
motion to retard or to delay the progress of a business under consideration of
the House.
A formal motion moved in the House expressing its gratitude for the Address
delivered by the President under article 87(1) of the Constitution to both Houses
of Parliament assembled together.

Term
Motion

Substantiv
e Motion
Substitute
Motion
Subsidiary
Motion

Dilatory
Motion
Motion of
Thanks

Population facts about India


General Points
As per provisional data of Census 2011, India's population stood at 1,21,01,93,422.
The census moment, the referral time at which the snapshot of the population is taken was 00.00
hours of 1 March 2001. Until the 1991 Census, the sunrise of 1 March was taken to be the census
moment.
Indias population as on 1 March 2001 stood at 1,028 million (532.1 million males and 496.4
million females).
India's population grew by 18,14,55,986 (17.64%) at the rate of 1.64% per annum in the decade
2001-11.
India accounts for a meagre 2.4 per cent of the world surface area of 135.79 million sq km. Yet, it
supports and sustains a whopping 17.5 per cent of the world population.
India in relation to other countries
The growth in India's population during the decade 2001-11 is slightly lower than the population

of Brazil, the fifth most populated country in the world.


China's decadal growth is 0.53% against India's 1.64%. At the present rates India is likely to
overtake China as the most populous country of world by 2030.
Three most populous countries of the world viz. China (1.34 billion), India (1.21 billion) and USA
(308.7 million) account for 40% population of the world.
The population of India is almost equal to the combined population of U.S.A., Indonesia, Brazil,
Pakistan, Bangladesh and Japan.
Population Growth - 1901-2011
The population of India in 1901 was 23,83,96,327. It increased more than four times by 2011.
The population of India in grew by just one and half times in the first half of twentieth century,
while it recorded a three fold growth in the latter half of the century.
The population of India saw a negative growth during 1911-1921 when its population decreased
from 25,20,93,390 to 25,13,21,213.
The population of India in 1951, just four years after independence was 36,10,88,090.
Indian States and Union Territories
Among the Indian states, Uttar Pradesh is the most populated state with a population of
19,95,81,477 and Sikkim is the least populated state with a population of 6,07,688.
The second, third, fourth and fifth ranked states are Maharashtra (11,23,72,972), Bihar
(10,38,04,637), West Bengal (9,13,47,736) and Andhra Pradesh (8,46,65,533) respectively.
Among the Union Territories, Delhi is the most populated UT with a population of 1,67,53,235 and
Lakshdweep is the least populated UT with a population of 64,429.
The population of Delhi is greater than Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand,
Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, Mizoram and Manipur
The second most populated UT is Puducherry with a population of 12,44,464 followed by
Chandigarh with a population of 10,54,686.
Density of Population
The population density of India is 382 persons per square kilometre while it was 325 persons in
2001.
India had a population density of just 77 persons per sq. km in 1901.
The state with highest density of population is Bihar with a population of 1102 persons per square
kilometre.
The state with lowest density of population is Arunachal Pradesh with a population of 17 persons
per square kilometre.
The UT with highest density of population is Delhi with a population of 11,297 persons per square
kilometre.
The UT with lowest density of population is Andaman and Nicobar Islands with a population of 46
persons per square kilometre.
The district with highest density of population is North East Delhi with a population of 37346
persons per square kilometre.
The UT with lowest density of population is Lahaul and Spiti (Himachal Pradesh) with a population
of 2 persons per square kilometre.
Gender Composition
Out of the total population, the number of males in India is 62,37,34,248 and number of females
is 58,64,69,174.
The above figures give a sex ratio of 940 females per 1000 males which is an improvement of 7
points over the 2001 sex ratio of 933.
India had the highest sex ratio in 1901 when it was 972 and worst in 1991 when it was 927.
India has poorer sex ratio when compared to its neighbours - Pakistan (943), Sri Lanka (1034),

Nepal (1014), Myanmar (1048) and Bangladesh (978) while it is better than China (926),
Afghanistan (931) and Bhutan (897).
Among Indian states Kerala has the highest sex ratio of 1084 females to 1000 males while
Haryana has the lowest sex ratio of 877.
Among the Union Territories, Puducherry has the highest sex ratio of 1038 females to 1000 males
while Daman and Diu has the lowest sex ratio of 618.
Literacy
For the purposes of Census, a person aged 7 and above who can both read and write with
understanding in any language is treated as literate. A person who can only read but cannot write
is not literate. In the censues prior to 1991, children below five years of age were necessarily
treated as illiterates.
The overall literacy rate as per 2011 census is 74.04%. The literacy rate in 2001 was 65%.
The literacy rate is 82.14% for males and 65.46% for females.
Kerala ranks first among Indian states with a literacy rate of 93.91% followed by Mizoram with a
literacy rate of 91.58%.
Bihar ranks last among Indian states with a literacy rate of 63.82%. Next is Rajasthan with a
literacy rate of 67.06%.
Four States have achieved literacy rate of above 85% which is the target set by the Planning
Commission to be achieved by 2011-12. They are Kerala, Mizoram, Tripura and Goa.
Six Union Territories have achieved literacy rate of above 85% which is the target set by the
Planning Commission to be achieved by 2011-12. They are Lakshdweep, Daman & Diu,
Puducherry, Chandigarh, Delhi and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
Languages in India
The number of languages recognised by the Indian Constitution is
At the inception of Indian constitution in 1950, the number of
recognised languages was
The languages which were added to the Eighth Schedule are
Number of identifiable mother tongues as per Ministry of Statistics
and Programme Implementation report of 2011
The first language to be conferred the status of a Classical Language
Other languages which have been conferred the status of a Classical
Language
The official language of Nagaland is
The official language of Jammu and Kashmir
The official language of Goa
The official language of the Supreme Court and High Court as
prescribed by the Constitution of India is
The principal languages of Lakshdweep are
Foreign language commonly spoken in Puducherry (formerly
Pondicherry) is
The Indian language known as the 'Italian of the East' is
The principal languages of the Andaman & Nicobar islands are

22
14
Sindhi, Konkani, Nepali,
Manipuri, Maithili, Dogri,
Bodo and Santhali.
234
Tamil
Sanskrit, Kannada,
Malayalam, Telugu and
Odia
English
Urdu
Konkani
English
Jeseri (Dweep Bhasha)
and Mahal
French
Telugu
Hindi, Nicobarese,

Bengali, Tamil,
Malayalam and Telugu.
English is not in the list of recognised languages
List of Languages in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution

Language
1. Assamese
2. Bengali
3. Bodo
4. Dogri
5. Gujarati
6. Hindi
7. Kashmiri
8. Kannada
9. Konkani
10. Malayalam
11. Manipuri
12. Marathi
13. Maithili
14. Nepali
15. Odia
16. Punjabi
17. Sanskrit
18. Sindhi
19.
20.
21.
22.

Santhali
Tamil
Telugu
Urdu

Predominantly spoken in
Assam
West Bengal
Assam, West Bengal
Jammu, Himachal Pradesh
Gujarat
Most parts of Northern States
Jammu and Kashmir
Karnataka
Goa and parts of Karnataka
Kerala
Manipur
Maharashtra
Parts of Bihar
Sikkim and parts of West Bengal
Odisha
Punjab, Chandigarh
Scattered in Gujarat, Rajasthan and
Maharashtra
Spoken by Santhal tribe in Jharkhand,
Bihar, W.B.
Tamilnadu, Puducherry
Andhra Pradesh
Northern India

Recognis
ed
1950
1950
2003
2003
1950
1950
1950
1950
1992
1950
1992
1950
2003
1992
1950
1950
1950
1967
2003
1950
1950
1950

Languages of the World


The total number of languages in the world as recorded by Ethnologue,
the journal that chronicles the languages of the world
The languages having the highest number of speakers in the world
The languages having the second highest number of speakers in the
world
The languages having the third, fourth and fifth highest number of
speakers in the world

7105
Chinese (Mandarin)
Spanish
English, Hindi and
Arabic respectively

The
The
The
The

official language of Pakistan


language having the largest number of native speakers in Pakistan
official language of Bhutan
official language of Israel

The official languages of Switzerland

Urdu
Punjabi
Dzongkha
Hebrew
German, (63.7%),
French (20.4%),
Italian (6.5%) and
Romansch (0.5%)

Institutions for promotion of Languages


Institution
Central Institute of Indian Languages
Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi
Vishwavidyalaya
English and Foreign Languages University
Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan
Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit
Vidyapeeth
Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth
Maulana Azad National Urdu University
Central Institute of Classical Tamil

Location
Mysore, Karnataka
Wardha, Maharashtra
Hyderabad, A.P.
New Delhi
New Delhi
Tirupathi
Hyderabad
Chennai

States and Union Territories


Formation of States
State
Andhra
Gujarat
Maharashtra
Kerala
Nagaland
Haryana

Formation Year
1953
1960
1960
1956
1963
1966

Karnataka
Himachal Pradesh
Manipur, Tripura
Meghalaya

1956
1970
1972
1972

Sikkim

1975

Mizoram
Arunachal Pradesh

1987
1987

Status prior to formation


Part of the state of Madras
Part of the state of Bombay
Part of the state of Bombay
State of Travancore and Cochin
Union territory
Part of Punjab
State of Mysore was formed in 1953, enlarged
Mysore in 1956 which was renamed in 1973.
Union Territory
Union Territories
Autonomous state within state of Assam
Associate state since 1974 and a protectorate of
India before that.
District of Assam till 1972 and Union Territory
from 1972 to 1987.
Union Territory

Goa
1987 Union Territory
Uttarakhand
2000 Part of Uttar Pradesh
Chattishgarh
2000 Part of Madhya Pradesh
Jharkhand
2000 Part of Bihar
NOTE: Goa, Puducherry, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Sikkim were not a part of India at the time of
independence. Goa was liberated from Portuguese occupation in 1961, Puducherry alongwith
Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam, was transferred to India in 1954 by the French, Dadra & Nagar Haveli
were liberated in 1954 from the Portuguese and Sikkim became a part of India in 1974.

Miscellaneous Information on States in India


First Ranked States
Feature
Largest state (in terms of area)
Smallest state
Most populous state
Least populous state
Most populous union territory (not incl Delhi)
Least populous union territory
Most densely populated state
Least densely populated state
First state to be formed on linguistic basis
Most literate state
Least literate state
The state with the longest coastline
The state having boundaries with seven states and two
countries
The state surrounded on three sides by Bangladesh
The states which have neither an international boundary
nor a coastline
The state surrounded by three countries and one state
States and Capitals
North-Eastern States
State
Assam
Arunachal Pradesh
Manipur
Meghalaya
Mizoram
Nagaland

Capital
Dispur
Itanagar
Imphal
Shillong
Aizwal
Kohima

State
Rajasthan
Goa
Uttar Pradesh
Sikkim
Puducherry
Lakshadweep
Bihar
Arunachal Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Kerala
Bihar
Gujarat
Assam
Tripura
M.P., Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand,
Haryana
Sikkim

Tripura
Newly Formed States
Chattisgarh
Jharkhand
Uttarakhand
Union Territories
Andaman & Nicobar
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Lakshadweep
Daman & Diu

Agartala
Raipur
Ranchi
Dehradun
Port Blair
Silvassa
Kavaratti
Daman

Capitals of all the other States


State
Andhra Pradesh
Bihar
Goa
Gujarat
Haryana
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu and Kashmir
Karnataka

Capital
Hyderabad
Patna
Panaji
Gandhinagar
Chandigarh
Shimla
Srinagar and
Jammu
Bengaluru
Thiruvananthapu
ram
Mumbai
Bhopal
Bhubaneshwar
Chandigarh
Jaipur
Gangtok
Chennai
Lucknow
Kolkata

Kerala
Maharashtra
Madhya Pradesh
Odisha
Punjab
Rajasthan
Sikkim
Tamilnadu
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
NOTE:
Jammu and Kashmir has two capitals Jammu for winter and Srinagar for summer.
Guwahati and Ahmedabad are not capital cities.
Capital of Pakistan occupied Kashmir is Muzaffarabad

Constitutional Provisions

Article 80
The maximum strength of Rajya Sabha to be 250
Out of 250, 12 members are nominated by the President and 238 are representatives of the States
and of the two Union Territories.
The members nominated by the President are persons having special knowledge or practical
experience in respect of such matters as literature, science, art and social service.
Article 81
Limits the maximum strength of the House of the People or the Lok Sabha to 552.
Out of 552, 530 members are elected to represent the States.
Upto 20 members are elected to represent the Union Territories and
Not more than 2 members of the Anglo-Indian Community to be nominated by the Hon'ble
President, if, in his/her opinion, that community is not adequately represented in the House.
Article 170
The number of seats in the Legislative Assembly of each State to consist of not more than 500
and.
Not less than 60, members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the State.
Article 171
The total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State shall not exceed one-third of the
total number of members in the Legislative Assembly of that State.
The total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State shall in no case be less than 40.
Article 333
Empowers the Governor to nominate one member of the Anglo-Indian community to the
Legislative Assembly of the State if in his opinion the community is not adequately represented
therein.
Fourth Schedule
The distribution of seats of the Rajya Sabha among the States and Union Territories is detailed in
the Fourth Schedule to the Constitution of India.
Courts in India
High Courts with jurisdiction in more than 1 state/UT
High Court
Guwahati
Bombay
Calcutta

Jurisdiction
Arunachal Pradesh, Assam,
Nagaland, Mizoram
Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra and Nagar
Haveli, Daman and Diu
West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar
Islands

Kerala
Madras
Punjab and Haryana
High Courts and Benches

Kerala, Lakshadweep
Tamil Nadu, Puducherry
Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh

High Court
Allahabad High Court
Bombay High Court
Calcutta High Court
Gauhati High Court
Madhya Pradesh High Court
Madras High Court
Rajasthan High Court

Bench
Lucknow
Nagpur, Panaji, Aurangabad
Port Blair
Kohima, Aizwal, Itanagar
Gwalior, Indore
Madurai
Jaipur

High Courts not in State Capitals


High Court
Chattisgarh
Gujarat
Kerala
Madhya Pradesh
Odisha
Rajasthan
Uttarakhand
Uttar Pradesh
Union Territories - High Courts

Location
Bilaspur
Ahmedabad
Kochi
Jabalpur
Cuttack
Jodhpur
Nainital
Allahabad

Union Territory
Andaman and Nicobar islands
Lakshadweep
Puducherry
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Daman and Diu
Chandigarh
Delhi

High Court
Calcutta High Court
Kerala High Court
Madras High Court
Bombay High Court
Bombay High Court
Punjab and Haryana High Court
Delhi High Court

Points to remember
The Supreme Court of India came into existence on 28 Jan 1950 replacing Federal Court of India
which had functioned from 1937 to 1950.
The number of Judges in the Supreme Court is Chief Justice and 30 other judges.
A judge of the Supreme Court of India can hold office upto the maximum age of sixty-five years.

The total number of High courts in India is 24*.


*Three High Courts were inaugurated in March 2013 - Meghalaya and Manipur High Courts
(March 25) and Tripura High Court (March 26) in their respective state capitals.
The oldest High Court in India is the Calcutta High Court which was set up on 01 Jul 1862. It is
one of the three Chartered High Courts to be set up in India, along with the High Courts of
Bombay, Madras.
The upper age limit for appointment as a judge of High court is sixty-two years.
Tribunals
Central Administrative Tribunal
Purpose: For adjudication of disputes with respect to recruitment and conditions of service of
persons appointed to public services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or
other local authorities within the territory of India or under the control of Government of India
and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. This was done in pursuance of the
amendment of Constitution of India by Articles 323A.
Principal Bench - New Delhi
Benches at: Ahmedabad, Allahabad, Bengaluru, Lucknow, Mumbai, Nagpur, Kolkata,
Chandigarh, Cuttack, Cochin, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jabalpur, Gwalior, Indore, JOdhpur, Jaipur,
Chennai, Patna and Ranchi
Armed Forces Tribunal
Purpose: For adjudication by the tribunal of disputes and complaints about commission,
appointments, enrolment and service conditions in respect of those covered by the Three
Services Act, and hearing of appeals arising out of orders, findings or sentences of court martial.
The tribunal will have original jurisdiction in service matters and appellate jurisdiction in court
martial matters.
Principal Bench - New Delhi
Benches at: Kochi, Jaipur, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Guwahati, Chandigarh
National Green Tribunal
Purpose: For the effective and expeditious disposal cases relating to environmental protection
and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right
relating to environment and giving relief and compensation of damages to persons and property
and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
Principal Bench - New Delhi
Benches at: Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata, Chennai
Railway Claims Tribunal
Purpose: For speedy adjudication, providing relief to rail users by way of expeditious payment of
compensation to the victims of rail accident or untoward incident, refund of fare and freight and
compensation to those whose good are lost while with railways.
Principal Bench - New Delhi
Benches at: Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhubaneswar, Bhopal, Calcutta, Chandigarh, Chennai,
Ernakulam, Gorakhpur, Guwahati, Ghaziabad, Jaipur, Lucknow, Mumbai, Nagpur, Patna and
Secunderabad
Memorials of
Leaders

Leader
Mahatma Gandhi
Jawaharlal Nehru
Lal Bahadur
Shastri
Indira Gandhi
Charan Singh
Rajiv Gandhi
Jagjivan Ram
Giani Zail Singh
P.V. Narsimha Rao
Gulzarilal Nanda
Morarjee Desai
B.R. Ambedkar
Shankar Dayal
Sharma

Memorial
Raj Ghat
Shanti Van
Vijay Ghat
Shakti Sthal
Kisan Ghat
Veer Bhumi
Samta Sthal
Ekta Sthal
P.V. Gyan
Bhoomi
Narayan
Ghat
Abhay Ghat
Chaitya
Bhoomi
Karma
Bhoomi

Important Freedom Fighters


Importance
The leader who formed a provisional government of free India in Singapore
in 1943
The person who unfurled the Indian flag (then, green, yellow and red in
colour) at Stuttgart in Germany at the World Socialist Congress in 1907,
18th August.
The person who assassinated General O'Dyer, the British officer responsible
for Jallianwala Bagh massacre
The revolutionary founder of Hindustan Socialist Republican Army, shot
himself dead at the end of an encounter with the police
The freedom fighter who fasted unto death for 63 days in Lahore jail
demanding equality for Indian prisoners
The author of Sarfaroshi ki Tamanna and mastermind of Kakori Train Dacoity
The revolutionary who made an attempt to assassinate Mr. Scott, an English
officer responsible for inflicting lathi blows on Lala Lajpat Rai, mistakenly
killing one Mr. Saunders in the attempt. He also founded the Nav Jawan
Bharat Sabha and threw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly.
The freedom fighter who started the Indian Home Rule Society in 1905 in
UK. He also founded the Ghadar Party in 1913 in San Francisco.
Great Personalities - Brief details

Leader
Subhash
Chandra Bose
Madame Bhikaji
Cama
Uddham Singh
Chandrashekhar
Azad
Jatin Das
Ram Prasad
Bismil

Bhagat Singh
Lala Hardayal

Personality Brief details


She was an Irish lady who came to India to attend the Annual Convention of the
Theosophical Society at Adyar in Madras in 1893. She became the President of
Indian National Congress in 1917. She is well known for her Home Rule
Annie
movement. She also established the Central Hindu College in 1898, which later
Besant
formed the nucleus of the Benares Hindu University.
Poet, playwright, novelist, short story writer, musician, artist, actor, director
philosopher was born on May 7, 1861. Won the Nobel prize for literature in 1913
Rabindran for his collection of verses Geetanjali. He was awarded the knighthood in 1915
ath Tagore but returned it in 1919 as a protest against the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
Acharya
A true Gandhian, he was arrested for participating in the Dandi march in 1930. He
Vinoba
was one of the moving spirits behind the Nagpur Flag Satyagraha. He is well
Bhave
known for his Bhoodan and Sarvodaya Movement.
Born on August 15, 1872 in Kolkata he embarked himself in the freedom
movement from 1902 1910, later took refuge in Pondicherry devoting his life to
the development of unique philosophy. He was a poet, philosopher and a
Aurobindo politician. His most famous work is Life Divine. He passed away on December 5,
Ghosh
1950.
Sir Syed
He was the pioneer of Muslim education in India. His efforts ensured the laying of
Ahmed
the foundation stone of Mohammaden Anglo Oriental College by Lord Lytton on
Khan
Jan 8, 1877 at Aligarh which in 1920 became Aligarh Muslim University.
Dr.
He was the founder of the Bhartiya Jan Sangh in October 1951. He represented
Shyama
North Calcutta in the first Lok Sabha. As the leader of opposition he earned the
Prasad
title Lion of Parliament. Earlier when he was in the cabinet of Nehru he quit in
Mukherji
protest over according special status to Jammu & Kashmir.
Her original name was Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhin. She was born in Skopje, then in
Albania, now the capital of Macedonia on 26 Aug 1910. She founded the
Mother
Missionaries of Charity and Nirmal Hriday a home for the dying destitutes. Won
Teresa
Padma Shri in 1961, Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 and the Bharat Ratna in 1980.
He joined the Civil disobedience movement of 1930s. He organized the All India
Congress Socialist Party along with Acharya Narendra Dev. On 26 Jun 1975 he
Jai Prakash launched Bhrashtachar Mitao Andolan, a movement against corruption which
Narayan
brought down the congress government in 1977.
Real Names of Important
Personalities
Well Known as
Valmiki
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Guru Angad Dev
Ramakrishna
Paramhansa
Swami Vivekananda
Nana Phadanvis
Tatiya Tope

Real Name
Ratnakar
Visvambhar
Bhai Lehna
Gadadhar Chattopadhyay
Narendra Nath Datta
Balaji Janardan Bhanu
Ramachandra Pandurang
Tope

Rani Lakshmibai
Tansen
Birbal
Mother Teresa
Sister Nivedita
Mirabehn
Munshi Premchand
Swami Agnivesh
Satya Sai Baba
Baba Amte
Mirza Ghalib
Vinoba Bhave
Amir Khusro
Firaq Gorakhpuri
Gulzar
Ravi Shankar
Mauland Abul Kalam
Azad

Manikarnika (Manu)
Ramtanu Pandey
Maheshdas
Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu
Margaret Elizabeth Noble
Madeleine Slade
Dhanpat Rai
Shyam Vepa Rao
Satyanarayana Raju
Murlidhar Devidas Amte
Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan
Vinayak Narahari Bhave
Ab'ul Hasan Yamn ud-Dn
Khusrow
Raghupati Sahay
Sampooran Singh Kalra
Robindro Shaunkor
Chowdhury
Muhiyuddin Ahmed

First in India
First Appointees of India
1st President
1st Vice-President
1st Prime Minister
1st Home Minister
1st Railway Minister
1st Defence Minister
1st Finance Minister
1st External Affairs Minister
1st Governor General (Indian)
1st Governor General (Independent India)
1st Chief Justice of India
1st Chief Election Commissioner
1st Speaker of Lok Sabha
1st Chief of Army Staff
1st Chief of Air Staff
1st Chief of Naval Staff
First in India Quiz
Technological Firsts in India

Dr. Rajendra Prasad


Dr. S Radhakrishnan
Pt Jawaharlal Nehru
Vallabhbhai Patel
John Mathai
Sardar Baldev Singh
RK Shanmugam Chetty
Jawaharlal Nehru
C Rajagopalachari
Lord Mountbatten
Harilal J Kania
Sukumar Sen
G.V. Mavalankar
Gen Rajendra Singhji
Air Marshall Thomas Elmhirst
Vice Admiral RD Katari

Event
Broadcasting started in India
All India Radio established
Television started
Colour Television started
Railways started
1st electric train
First issue of Postal Stamp
First Telegraph line
Newspaper
First Atomic Power Station commissioned at
Tarapur
First nuclear test carried out
First satellite launched
Internet came to India
First air mail in India & World Bumraulli to
Allahabad (6 miles)
First indigenously built submarine of India
Indias first newsprint factory was set up at

Year
1927
1936
1959
1982
1853, April 16
1925, Feb 23
1825 (in Sind)
1851 (Calcutta & Diamond
Harbour)
1781, Jan 29 Hicky Calcutta
Gazette
1969
1974, 18 May
1975, 19 Apr
1995, Aug 15 (provided by BSNL)
1911
Shalki
Nepanagar (MP)

First in India - Women


The first Indian woman to be awarded the Bharat Ratna - Smt Indira Gandhi.
The first lady Governor of an Indian state was Smt Sarojini Naidu.
The first lady Chief Minister of State was Smt Sucheta Kripalani.
The first lady Central minister of the country was Smt Rajkumari Amrit Kaur.
The first woman president of the Indian National Congress was Annie Besant.
The first woman to become the Chief Election Commissioner was Mrs Rama Devi.
The first woman to be appointed Chief Justice of a state High Court was Justice
Leila Seth.
The first woman to be appointed judge of the Supreme Court was Justice M Fatima
Beevi.
The first woman to be appointed the Speaker of Lok Sabha is Mrs Meira Kumar.
The first woman president of UN General Assembly - Mrs Vijayalaxmi Pandit.
The first Indian woman to swim the English Channel was Aarti Saha.
The first Indian woman to win an Olympic medal was Karnam Malleswari.
The first Indian woman to win an Asiad medal - Kamaljit Sandhu.
The first Indian woman to climb Mt Everest - Bachendri Pal.
The first Indian woman to receive a gallantry award in the Indian Army (Sena
Medal for her acts of bravery in Afghanistan) - Major Mitali Madhumita.
The first Indian woman to win the Miss Asia-Pacific title - Zeenat Aman.
The first Indian woman to win the Miss Universe title - Sushmita Sen.

The first Indian woman


The first Indian woman
The first Indian woman
The first Indian woman
Deepak Sandhu.

to
to
to
to

win the Miss World title - Reita Faria.


win the Miss Earth title - Nicol Faria.
join the Territorial Army as a jawan - Shanti Tigga.
be appointed as the Chief Information Commissioner -

First Woman Chief


Ministers of Indian States
State
Assam
Bihar
Delhi
Gujarat
Goa, Daman & Diu
Madhya Pradesh
Odisha
Punjab
Rajasthan
Tamilnadu
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal

Chief Minister
Syeda Anwara Taimur
Rabri Devi
Sushma Swaraj
Anandiben Patel
Shashikala Kakodkar
Uma Bharti
Nandini Satpathy
Rajinder Kaur Bhattal
Vasundhara Raje
Janaki Ramachandran
Sucheta Kriplani
Mamta Banerjee

First Woman Governors of


Indian States
State
Andhra Pradesh
Gujarat
Himachal Pradesh
Kerala
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Rajasthan
Tamil Nadu
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal

Governor
Sharda Mukherjee
Sharda Mukherjee
Sheila Kaul
Jyoti Venkatachalam
Sarla Grewal
Vijayalakshmi Pandit
Pratibha Patil
Fathima Beevi
Sarojini Naidu
Padmaja Naidu

First Recipients of Various Awards


BHARAT RATNA

1st Indian to be awarded the Bharat Ratna


1st Bharat Ratna Awardee to become the President of
India
1st person to be awarded the Bharat Ratna posthumously
1st Scientist to be awarded the Bharat Ratna
1st and only Industrialist to be awarded the Bharat Ratna
1st woman to be awarded the Bharat Ratna
1st sportsperson to be awarded the Bharat Ratna
LITERARY AWARDS
1st Indian to be awarded the Nobel prize in literature
1st recipient of Bhartiya Jnanpith award
1st recipient of Sahitya Akademi Award for English
1st person to receive Nobel prize for English literature
1st Indian to receive the Booker prize (British citizen)
1st Indian woman (and also first Indian citizen) to receive
the Booker prize
1st Indian to receive the Pulitzer prize (Reporting
category)
SPORTS AWARDS
1st recipient of Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award
1st woman recipient of Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award
1st recipient of Dhyanchand Lifetime Achievement
Award
1st cricket player to be awarded the Arjuna Award
AWARDS IN THE FIELD OF SCIENCE
1st Indian scientist to be awarded the Nobel prize
1st person to receive Nobel prize for Physics
1st woman to receive the Nobel prize
GALLANTRY AWARDS
1st winner of Param Vir Chakra
1st and only Air Force person to receive the Param Vir
Chakra
1st and only woman to receive the Ashoka Chakra
FOREIGN AWARDS
1st Indian to be awarded the Nishan-e-Pakistan
1st Indian to be awarded Magsaysay Award

C
Rajagopalacha
ri
Dr. S.
Radhakrishnan
Lal Bahadur
Shastri
CV Raman
JRD Tata
Mrs. Indira
Gandhi
Sachin
Tendulkar
Rabindranath
Tagore
G Sankara
Kurup
RK Narayan
Rudyard
Kipling
Salman
Rushdie
Arundhati Roy
Gobind Behari
Lal

Viswanathan Anand
Karnam Malleshwari
Aparna Ghosh
Salim Durrani
CV Raman
William K Roentgen
Madame Curie (1903)
Major Somnath Sharma
Flying Officer Nirmaljit
Shekhon
Neerja Bhanot (1987)
Morarjee Desai
Vinoba Bhave

FILM AWARDS
1st winner of Dadasaheb Phalke Award
1st winner of Filmfare best actor award
1st winner of Filmfare best actress award
1st Hindi film to win the National film Award
1st film to win the Best Film Academy Award (Oscar)
OTHER AWARDS
1st recipient of Jawaharlal Nehru Award for
International Understanding
1st recipient of Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace,
Disarmament and Development
1st recipient of Outstanding Parliamentarian Award
1st recipient of Gandhi Peace Prize (Govt of India
Award)
1st recipient of World Food Prize instituted By Norman
Borlaug (Father of Green Revolution)
1st recipient of Communal Harmony Award (Individual)
1st recipient of Communal Harmony Award
(Organisation)
1st recipient of Tagore Award for Cultural Harmony
1st Asian recipient of Hoover Medal (America's
prestigious award for outstanding extra-career services
by engineers to humanity)
1st recipient of VK Krishna Menon Award (instituted by
London based VK Krishna Menon Foundation)
First Heads of State
First Prime Minister of Pakistan
First Prime Minister of England
First President of United States
of America
First Prime Minister of
Bangladesh
First President of Chinese
Republic
First Prime Minister of Australia
First Prime Minister of Israel
First in the World - Men

Liaqat Ali
Robert Walpole
George
Washington
Sheikh Mujibar
Rehman
Sun Yat Sen
Sir Edmunton
Barton
David BenGurion

Devika Rani
Dilip Kumar
Meena Kumari
Mirza Ghalib (1954)
Wings (1927-28)

U Thant (1965)
Parliamentarians for
Global Action(1986)
Shri Chandrashekhar
(1995)
Julius Nyerere (1995)
MS Swaminathan (Father
of Green Revolution in
India ), 1987
Asghar Ali Engineer,
1997
Quami Ekta Trust, 1997
Pt. Ravi Shankar, 2012
APJ Abdul Kalam, 2008
Former CJI KG
Balakrishnan

First
First
First
First
First

man in space
person of African descent in space
man to reach the North Pole
man to scale Mt Everest
man to reach the South Pole

First man to circumnavigate the world


First man to land on the moon
First Secretary General of the United Nations

Yuri Gagarin
Arnaldo Tamayo Mndez
Robert Peary
Edmund Hillary
Roald Amundsen
Enrique, Magellan's
slave
Neil Armstrong
Trygve Lie

First in the World - Women

First woman in space


First woman to cross the Atlantic in a solo
flight
First woman to scale Mt Everest
First woman to win an Olympic gold
First woman Prime Minister in the world
First American woman in space

Valentina
Tereshkova
Amelia Earhart
Junko Tabei
Charlotte
Cooper
Sirimavo
Bandaranaike
Sally Ride

First Woman
Prime
Ministers/Preside
nts in the World
Name
Srimavo
Bandaranaike
Golda Meir
Indira Gandhi
Margaret
Thatcher
Benazir Bhutto
Khaleda Zia
Edith Cresson
Kim Campbell

Country

Post

Sri Lanka
Israel
India
United
Kingdom
Pakistan
Banglades
h
France
Canada

Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Prime Minister

USSR
USA
Japan
England
Sri Lanka
USA

USSR
Cuba
USA
New Zealand
Norway
Malay
USA
Norway

Julia Gillard
Yingluck
Shinawatra
Angela Merkel
Corazon Aquino
Chandrika
Kumaratunga
Megawati
Sukarnoputri
Ellen Johnson
Sirleaf
Pratibha Patil
Dilma Rousseff
Park Geun-hye

Australia

Prime Minister

Thailand
Germany
Philippines

Prime Minister
Chancellor
President

Sri Lanka

President

Indonesia

President

Liberia
India
Brazil
South
Korea

President
President
President
President

First in Space - Human


Beings/Animals
Event
First animal in space
First man in space
First woman in space
First person to walk in space
First woman to walk in space

Name of the Person


Laika, the dog
Maj Yuri Gagarin
Valentina Tereshkova
Alexei Leonov
Svetlana Savitskaya

First American in space


First man on moon
First Indian in space

Allan Shepard
Neil Armstrong
Sqn Ldr Rakesh Sharma

First US woman in space

Sally Ride

First space tourist


First woman space tourist
First Indian (American)
Woman in space
First Chinese in space
First Chinese woman in space

Dennis Tito
Anousheh Ansari
Kalpana Chawla
Lt Col Yang Liwei
Liu Yang

Vehicle
Sputnik-2
Vostok 1
Vostok 6
Voskhod 2
Salyut 7
MR-3 (Freedom
7)
Apollo 11
Soyuz T-11
STS-7
(Challenger)
Soyuz
TM32/31
Soyuz TMA9
Spaceship
Columbia
Shenzou V
Shenzou 9

Date

First Satellites - Countrywise

Event
First Satellite

Name of the
Satellite
Sputnik by

Date
4-Oct-57

3-Nov-57
12-Apr-61
16-Jun-63
18-Mar-65
25-Jul-84
5-May-61
20-Jul-69
2-Apr-84
18-Jun-83
28-Apr-01
18-Sep-06
19-Nov-97
15-Oct-03
16-Jun-12

First
First
First
First
First
First

American Satellite
British Satellite
Canadian Satellite
Italian Satellite
French Satellite
Japanese Satellite

First Chinese Satellite


First Indian satellite
First Israeli satellite
First Iranian satellite
*Ariel 1 was made and launched by the USA.
#Alouette 1 was constructed by Canada but
launched by the USA.
@San Marco 1 was built by Italy but launched by
the USA.
**Aryabhatta was made by India (ISRO) and
launched by the USSR.
## Sina 1 was made by Iran and launched by
Russia.

USSR
Explorer 1
Ariel 1*
Alouette 1#
San Marco 1@
Asterix
Oshumi
Dong Fang
Hong I
Aryabhatta**
Ofeq 1
Sina 1##

1-Feb-58
26-Apr-62
1-Sep-62
15-Dec-64
26-Nov-65
11-Feb-70
24-Apr-70
19-Apr-75
19-Sep-88
28-Oct-05

First Spacecraft in Space

Name of the
Spacecraft
Luna 2
Luna 3
Apollo 11
Mariner 4
Mariner 9
Mars 3

Pioneer 10
Galileo

Mission
Luna 2 was first spacecraft to make a landing on the moon. Launched by the
USSR on 12 Sep 1959 it impacted the surface of the moon on 14.09.1959
Luna 3 was first space probe to photograph the far side or the dark side of the
moon. It was launched by the USSR on 04 Oct 1959
Apollo 11 was first spacecraft which landed the first humans, Neil Armstrong and
Buzz Aldrin on the moon.
Mariner 4 was the first spacecraft to flyby Mars and also the first to return images
of another planet. It was launched by the USA on 28.11.1964
It was the first spacecraft to orbit another planet - Mars. It was launched by the
USA on 30.05.1971
It was the first spacecraft to land successfully on Mars. It was launched by the
USSR on 28.05.1971
Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to reach the planet Jupiter. It was launched by
the USA on 02.03.1972 and reached closest to Jupiter on 04.12.1973. In 1983,
Pioneer 10 became the first spacecraft to travel past the orbit of the most distant
planet, Neptune.
Galileo launched by the USA on 18.10.1989 was the first spacecraft to flyby an
asteroid, 951 Gaspra. It also discovered Dactyl, a moon of the asteroid Ida. The
spacecraft was the first to orbit Jupiter in December 1995.

Gardens and their


locations
Garden
Location
Pinjore Gardens
Chandigarh
Mariner
Launched
on 03.11.1973, Mariner 10 was the first spacecraft to flyby Mercury.
Lal
Bagh 10
Bengaluru
Messenger
was the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury. It was launched by the USA
Shalimar
Bagh Messenger
Srinagar
on
03.08.2004,
it entered the orbit of Mercury on 18.03.2011
Buddha Jayanti Park
New Delhi
Helios
2
Helios
2
launched
Brindavan Gardens
Mysore on 15.01.1976 was a joint venture of the United States and
West Germany. It set the record for being closest spacecraft to the Sun, at a
Mughal Gardens
New Delhi
distance of 43.432 million kilometers on 17 April 1976.
Rock
Garden
Voyager
1
Voyager Chandigarh
1 launched on 05.09.1977 by NASA, to study solar system and
Nishat Bagh
Srinagar
interstellar
medium, became the first man-made object to enter the interstellar
space onMumbai
25 August 2012. (This was confirmed by NASA in Sep 2013).
Hanging Gardens
Khusro Bagh
Allahabad
Sikandar Bagh
Lucknow
Coronation Park
New Delhi
Alfred
Park
Museums and Locations
(Chandershekhar
Azad Park)
Allahabad
Museum
Location
Freedom Park
Bengaluru
Birla Industrial
Kolkata
Indira
Gandhi and Technological Museum
Visveswaraya
Ind
&
Tech.
Museum
Bangalore
Memorial Tulip
Garden
Rail Transport Museum Srinagar
New Delhi
Naval Museum (also known as Swarna Jyoti Museum)
Visakhapatnam
Vasco da Gama,
Naval Aviation Museum
Goa
Air Force Museum
New Delhi
National Handicrafts & Handlooms Museum
New Delhi
Dr. Ambedkar National Memorial and Museum
New Delhi
Rocket Launching
Stations
Salarjung Museum
Hyderabad
Indian Museum (Largest in India)
Kolkata
National Museum
New Delhi
Launch
Station
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya formerly
Mumbai Country
French Guiana,
Prince of Wales Museum
Bombay Natural History Museum
Mumbai (Territory of France
Kourou
in S America)
Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya
Bhopal
Kazhakastan
Calico Museum of Textiles
Ahmedabad
Baikonur
(Formerly in USSR)
Napier Museum
Thiruvananthap
Andhra Pradesh,
uram
Sriharikota
India
Woomera
Australia
Jiquan Space Launch
Centre
China
Al Anbar
Iraq
World Heritage Sites in India
Palmachim Air Base
Israel
Uchinoura Space
Monument(s)
Location
Center
Kagoshima, Japan
1. Agra Fort
Agra, Uttar Pradesh.
Emamshahr
Iran
2. Ajanta Caves
Aurangabad, Maharashtra.
Kapustin Yar
Russia
3. Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi
Raisen, Madhya Pradesh.
Plesetsk
4. Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park
Gujarat.
CosmodromePanchmahal,
Russia
Cape Canaveral
Kennedy Space
Center
Edwards Air Force
Base

Florida, USA
Merrit Island,
Florida, USA
California, USA

5. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus


6. Churches and Convents of Goa
7. Elephanta Caves
8. Ellora Caves
9. Fatehpur Sikri
10. Great Living Chola Temples
11. Group of Monuments at Hampi
12. Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram
13. Group of Monuments at Pattadakal
14. Humayun's Tomb
15. Khajuraho Group of Monuments
16. Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya
17. Mountain Railways of India
18. Qutb Minar and its Monuments
19. Red Fort Complex
20. Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka
21. Sun Temple, Konarak
22. Taj Mahal
23. The Jantar Mantar
24. Hill Forts of Rajasthan
Besides the above there are 6 natural World Heritage Sites in
India. 1. Kaziranga National Park 2. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary
3. Keoladeo National Park, 4. Sundarbans National Park, 5.
Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers and 6. Western ghats.

Archeological
Sites and their
locations
Place
Harappa
Mohenjodaro
Lothal
Kalibangan
Dholavira

Location
Montgomery (Sahiwal)
district of Punjab in
Pakistan.
Larkana district of Sind
in Pakistan.
Ahmedabad in Gujarat.
Hanumangarh district
of Rajasthan.
Kachchh district in

Mumbai, Maharashtra.
Goa.
Mumbai, Maharashtra.
Aurangabad, Maharashtra.
Agra, Uttar Pradesh.
Many temples in Tamilnadu.
Karnataka.
Tamilnadu.
Karnataka.
New Delhi
Madhya Pradesh
Bihar
Darjeeling, Shimla, Ooty.
New Delhi
New Delhi
Raisen, MP
Konarak, Orissa.
Agra, Uttar Pradesh.
Jaipur, Rajasthan.
Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh,
Sawai Madhopur, Jhalawar,
Jaipur and Jaisalmer

Bhiranna
Adichchanallur
Jorwe
Daimabad
Shortugai

Gujarat.
Fatehabad district in
Haryana.
Thoothukudi district in
Tamilnadu.
Ahmednagar district in
Maharashtra.
Ahmednagar district in
Maharashtra.
Northern Afghanistan.

Rocks and Caves


Caves and Rocks
Ajanta Caves
(WHS)
Amarnath Cave
Elephanta Caves
Ellora Caves
(WHS)
Bhimbhetka Rock
Shelters (WHS)
Borra Caves
Udayagiri and
Khandagiri Caves
Udaygiri Caves

Location
Aurangabad,
Maharashtra
Anantnag, Kashmir
(WHS)
Aurangabad,
Maharashtra
Raisen, M.P.
Visakhapatnam, A.P.
Bhubaneshwar, Odisha
Vidisha, M.P.

Temples
Temples
Cheena Kesava
Temple
Black Pagoda or Sun
Temple
Brihadiswara Temple
(WHS)
Brihadiswara Temple
(WHS)
Airavatesvara
Temple (WHS)
Hazara Rama Temple
(WHS)

Location
Belur, Karnataka
Konark (Orissa)
Thanjuvur, Tamilnadu
Gangaikondacholisvaram, TN
Darasuram, Tamilnadu
Hampi, Karnataka

Virupaksha Temple
(WHS)
Golden Temple
Jagannath Temple
Kailasa Temple
Mahabaleshwar
Temple
Minakshi Temple
Shore Temple
Somnath Temple
Tirupati Temple
Sabarimala
Dilwara Temple
Kamakhya Temple
Zeishta Devi Temple

Towers/Minars
Towers/Minars
Charminar
Kirti Stambha (Tower of
Fame)
Jai Stambha (Tower of
Victory)
Tower of Silence
Qutab Minar
Shaking Minarets

Pattadakal, Karnataka
Amritsar, Punjab
Puri, Orissa
Ellora, Maharashtra
Ujjain (M.P.)
Madurai, Tamilnadu
Mahabalipuram, Tamilnadu
Junagarh, Gujarat
Chittor, Andhra Pradesh
Gates
Pathanamthitta,
Kerala
Mt.Abu
Gate
Location
Guwahati,
Assam
Gateway of
Srinagar, J & K
India
Mumbai
New
India Gate
Delhi
Buland
Fatehpur
Darwaza
Sikri
Location
Hyderabad
Chittorgarh
Chittorgarh
Mumbai
Delhi
Sidi Bashir
Mosque,
Ahmedabad

Palaces/Buildings
Palaces/Buildings
Amber Palace
Hawa Mahal
Sheesh Mahal
Maharaja Palace or
Mysore Palace
Falaknuma Palace
Island Palace

Location
Jaipur (Rajasthan)
Jaipur
Patiala, Punjab
Mysore
Hyderabad
Udaipur

Lakshmi Vilas Palace


Lalgarh Palace
Jahaz Mahal
Anand Bhawan
Rashtrapati Bhawan
Victoria Memorial
Chowmohalla Palace
Neermahal Palace

Baroda
Bikaner
Mandu, M.P.(City
of Joy)
Allahabad
New Delhi
Kolkata
Hyderabad
West Tripura

Bridges

Bridges
Howrah Bridge
Pamban Bridge
Mahatma Gandhi Setu
Nehru Setu
Lakshmana Jhula
Vembanad Railway Bridge
Vivekananda Setu
Vidyasagar Setu

River/La
ke
Hoogly
Palk
Strait
Ganges
Son
Ganges
Vemban
ad Lake
Hoogly
Hoogly

Location
Kolkata
Rameshwaram,
Tamilnadu
Patna, Bihar
Dehri on Sone, Bihar
Rishikesh,
Uttarakhand
Kochi, Kerala
Kolkata
Kolkata

Statues
Statues
Statue of Gomateswara
Statue of Ugra Narasimha
Statue of Trimurti
Statue of Thiruvalluvar
Statue of Kannagi
Tallest Statue of Mahatma
Gandhi

Location
Shravanabelagola, Karnataka
Hampi, Karnataka
Elephanta Caves, Mumbai
Kanya Kumari, Tamilnadu
Marina Beach, Chennai
Gandhi Maidan, Patna

Stupas
Stupa
Sanchi
Stupa
Damekh
Stupa

Location
Sanchi, Raisen,
MP
Sarnath, Uttar
Pradesh

Beache
s
Beach
Calunga
te
Baga
Marina
Covelon
g
Juhu
Gorai
Kovala
m
Gahirm
atha
Rushiko
nda

Location
Goa
Goa
Chennai
Chennai
Mumbai
Mumbai
Thiruvanantha
puram
Kendrapara,
Odisha
Visakhapatna
m, A.P.

Forts,
Mosques,
Zoos, Jails &
Libraries etc.
Forts
Forts
Red Fort
Meharangar
h Fort
Ranthambor
e Fort
Kumbhalgar
h Fort
Meharangar
h Fort

Location
Delhi
Jodhpur, Rajasthan
Sawai Madhopur,
Rajasthan
Rajsamand,
Rajasthan
Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Amer Fort
Golconda
Fort
Gingee Fort
Fort William
Fort St.
George

Jaipur, Rajasthan
Hyderabad
Villupuram,
Tamilnadu
Kolkata, West
Bengal
Chennai, Tamilnadu

Mosques
Mosques
Jama Masjid
Sidi Sayyid
Mosque
Quwwat-ul-Islam
Masjid
Mecca Masjid
Moti Masjid
Sidi Bashir
Mosque

Location
Delhi
Ahmeda
bad
Delhi
Hyderab
ad
Delhi
Ahmeda
bad

Zoos
Zoo
Allen Forest Zoo
Alipore Zoological
Gardens
Arighar Anna Zoological
Park
Indira Gandhi Zoological
Park
Kamla Nehru Zoological
Garden
Chhatbir Zoo
Nandankanan Zoological
Park
National Zoological Park
Nehru Zoological Park
Sri Chamrajendra
Zoological Garden

Location
Kanpur
Kolkata
Chennai
Visakhapat
nam
Ahmedabad
Zirakpur,
Punjab
Bhubanesw
ar
Delhi
Hyderabad
Mysore

Jails
Jail
Tihar Jail
Arthur Road Jail
Yeravada Jail
Cellular Jail
Naini Jail
Kot Balwal Jail
Kot Lakhpat Jail

Location
New Delhi
Mumbai
Pune
Port Blair
Allahabad
Jammu
Lahore (Pakistan)

Libraries
Library
Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Library
National Library of India
Asafia State Library (State
Central Library)
Muhammadan Public Library

Location
Patna
Kolkata
Hyderab
ad
Chennai

Other Places of Interest


Monument
Bada Imambara
Jantar Mantar
Jog (Gersoppa) Falls
Basilica of Bom Jesus
Se Cathedral
Kye Monastery

Location
Lucknow
New Delhi
Shimoga, Karnataka
Goa
Goa
Lahaul & Spiti, H.P.

New Delhi
Location
Founder/Designer
Airport
Sports Stadia
Bank Headquarters
Museums
Laboratories and
Research Institutes

28 36' N and 77 12' E


Edward Lutyens
Indira Gandhi International Airport
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Ferozshah Kotla Grounds
Punjab National Bank, Punjab and Sind Bank, Oriental Bank of
Commerce
National Museum, Rail Transport Museum, Air Force Museum
National Physical Laboratory, National Institute of Communicable
Diseases, National Institute of Disaster Management, Central Road
Research Institute

Indian Railways
Zonal HQs
Places of Interest

Northern Railways
Humayun's Tomb, Moti Masjid, Jama Masjid, Mughal Gardens

Cities - Founders/Designers

#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

City
Bhopal
Chandigarh
Hyderabad
New Delhi
Jaipur
Bhubhaneswar
Fatehpur Sikri
Agra
Nagpur

10 Jaunpur

Founder/Designer
Raja Bhoj
Le Corbusier - Designer
Quli Qutub Shah
Edward Lutyens - Designer
Sawai Jai Singh
Dr. Otto Kolenigs Berger - Designer
Akbar
Badal Singh
Bhakt Buland
Feroz Shah Tughlaq (named after his father Mohd
bin Tughlaq or Jauna Khan)

Nicknames of Indian Cities

City
Jaisalmer
Jaipur
Jodhpur
Bengaluru
Lucknow
Kutch
Udaipur
Kolkata
Sanctuaries/National Parks

Specific to
Wild Ass
One horned
Rhinoceros
Elephants
Lions

Nickname
Golden City
Pink City
Sun City
Garden City
City of Nawabs
Flamingo City
Lake City
City of Palaces
Specific to Animals

Sanctuary/Reserve
Rann of Kutch Wild Ass Sanctuary

State
Gujarat

Kaziranga National Park


Periyar National Park
Gir National Park

Assam
Kerala
Gujarat

The Great Indian


Bustard
The Royal Bengal
Tiger
Olive Ridley Turtle
Dolphins
Vulture
Bear
Sangai
Jerdon's Courser
Gharial
Grizzled Giant
Squirrel

Ghatigaon Sanctuary

Madhya Pradesh

Sunderbans National Park


Gahirmatha Turtle Sanctuary
Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin
Sanctuary
Ramdevarabetta Vulture
Sanctuary
Daroji Bear Sanctuary

West Bengal
Orissa

Keibul Lamjao National Park


Sri Lankamaleswara Wildlife
Sanctuary
National Chambal Sanctuary
Srivilliputhur Wildlife Sanctuary

Bhagalpur, Bihar
Karnataka
Hampi, Karnataka
Loktak Lake (Bishnupur),
Manipur
Andhra Pradesh
U.P., Rajasthan and M.P.
Virudhinagar & Madurai,
Tamil Nadu

Location of Wild Life Sanctuaries/National Parks

Name of the Sanctuary/National Park


Kaziranga National Park*
Manas Tiger Sanctuary*
Keoladeo National Park*
Sundarbans Tiger Sanctuary*
Bandhavgarh National Park
Kanha National Park
Dudwa National Park
Chandraprabha Sanctuary
Corbett National Park
Rajaji National Park
Dachigam National Park
Ranthambore Tiger Sanctuary
Ghatprabha Bird Sanctuary
Bandipur National Park
Gir National Park
Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary
Hazaribagh National Park
Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary
Mudumalai Sanctuary
Periyar Sanctuary
Simlipal Tiger Sanctuary

Location
Jorhat (Assam)
Barpeta (Assam)
Bharatpur (Rajasthan)
24 Paraganas (West Bengal)
Shahdol (Madhya Pradesh)
Mandla ( Madhya Pradesh)
Lakhimpur, Kheri (Uttar Pradesh)
Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh)
Nainital (Uttarakhand)
Dehradun, Haridwar, Pauri Garhwal
(Uttarakhand)
Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir)
Sawai Madhopur (Rajasthan)
Belgaum (Karnataka)
Mysore (Karnataka)
Junagarh (Gujarat)
Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
Hazaribagh (Jharkhand)
Nellore (Andhra Pradesh)
Nilgiris (Tamilnadu)
Idduki (Kerala)
Mayurbhanj (Odisha)

Gahirmatha Turtle Sanctuary


Kendrapara (Odisha)
Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary
Bhagalpur (Bihar)
Silent Valley National Park
Palakkad, (Kerala)
Rani Jhansi Marine National Park
Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Campbell National Park
Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Galathea National Park
Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park
Andaman & Nicobar Islands
* These are listed in the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO

Biosphere Reserves in India - Part of World Network of Biosphere Reserves

Name of
the
Reserve
Gulf of
1 Mannar
Sunderba
2 ns
Nanda
3 Devi
4 Nilgiri
Panchmar
5 hi
6 Similipal
7 Nokrek
Achanakm
arAmarkant
8 ak
Nicobar
9 Islands

Area

Location
Indian part of Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri
10,500 Lanka (Tamil Nadu) - Coasts
9,630
Part of delta of Ganges and Brahmaputra river system
sq.km.
(West Bengal) - Gigantic Delta
5,860.69
Part of Chamoli, Pithoragarh & Almora Districts
sq.km.
(Uttaranchal) - West Himalayas
Part of Wynad, Nagarhole, Bandipur and Mudumalai,
5,520 sq
Nilambur, Silent Valley and Siruvani Hills (Tamil Nadu,
km
Kerala and Karnataka) - Western Ghats
4,926.28
Part of Betul, Hoshangabad and Chindwara districts of
sq.km.
Madhya Pradesh - Semi-Arid-Gujarat Rajputana
4,374
sq.km.
Part of Mayurbhanj district (Orissa) - Deccan Peninsula
820 sq.km. Part of Garo Hills (Meghalaya)- East Himalayas
3835.1
sq.km.

Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh (A large part of the


reserve is in Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh)

Indian Ocean

Forest Cover in India


Points to remember
The percentage of forest cover in India in terms of its
total geographical area is
The state with highest percentage of its geographical
area under forests
The Union Territory with highest percentage of its
geographical area under forests

23.81%*
Mizoram - 90.68%*
Lakshadweep - 84.56%*

The state with largest area under forests


The Union Territory with largest area under forests
The state with lowest percentage of its geographical
area under forests
The state with least area under forests
The type of forest which constitutes the largest area
of forests in India

Madhya Pradesh - 77,700


sq.km.*
Andaman & Nicobar
Islands - 6724 sq.km*
Punjab - 3.30%
Haryana - 1,608 sq.km.*
Tropical Dry Deciduous
Forest - 41.87%

Leopard and Cheetah


Leopard
(Panthera pardus)
(Acinonyx jubatus)
Large and muscular
Larger head
Rosette shaped spots covering whole body and
face

Cheetah
Tall and slender
Head is small in relation to its body

Single large spots like thumb prints.


It has tear lines which run from the
eyes down to the sides of the
It has white eye-linings at the bottom of the eyes
mouth
Except the dew claw, none of its
All the claws are fully retractable
claws are retractable
In addition, Cheetah's tail is flat towards its end to help it while running, its nostrils are
large in size to allow maximum oxygen in-take for their muscles, while running at high
speeds. The non-retractable claws give the Cheetah a firm grip on the ground.

African and Asian elephant


African elephant
(Loxodonta africana)
(Elephas maximus)
Weight :4000 - 7000 kg
Highest point: Shoulder
Bigger ears reach upto the neck
Both sexes have tusks with males
having bigger
African and Asiatic Lion
African Lion

Asian elephant
Weight: 3000 - 6000 kg
Highest point: Back
Smaller ears
Females have rudimentary
or no tusks

(Panthera leo)
(Panthera leo persica)
Weight :330 - 500 pounds

Asiatic Lion

Mane: Thicker mane


Tail: shorter than Asiatic lion
Almost all African lions lack the
longitudinal fold of skin that runs along
the belly of Asiatic lions.
Habitat: Sub-saharan Africa

Weight: 350 - 420 pounds


Mane: lesser than African lion, hence
ears are visible always
Tail: longer tail with longer tail tuft
The most distinguishing feature of Asiatic
lion is the longitudinal fold of skin that
runs along the belly
Gir forest of Gujarat

Raven and Crow


Raven
Raven is larger about the size
of a hawk
Wedge-shaped tail
Call is hoarse and croaking
Prefers wild areas for habitat

Crow
Smaller about the size of
a pigeon
Fan-shaped tail
Call is nasal and high
pitched
Lives closer to human
habitats

Crocodile and Alligator


Crocodile
Long, narrow V shaped snouts
Upper and Lower jaws are of same width
Teeth of both the jaws are exposed in interlocking
pattern
Crocodile is nearly olive brown in colour
Both crocodiles and alligators found around the
world. The gharial, which has a much narrower
snout than other species in this order is found only
in India.
Dances of
India:
States
Classical
Dances
Bharat
Natyam

Alligator
Wide U-shaped snouts
Upper jaw is wider than lower
jaw
Teeth of only upper jaw are
exposed
Alligator is almost black in
colour

Folk Dances
Tamilnadu

Jhumar

Rajasthan

Kathakali
Mohini
Attam
Odissi
Kuchipudi

Kerala

Garba

Gujarat

Kerala
Orissa
Andhra Pradesh

Punjab
Punjab
Karnataka

Manipuri
Kathak

Manipur
North India
mainly U.P.

Giddha
Bhangra
Yakshagana
Mayurbhanj
Chau

Sattriya

Assam

Purulia Chau
Tamasha

Dances and Persons Associated


Dance

Kathak

Bharat
Natyam
Manipuri
Mohini
Attam
Chhau
Odissi
Kathakal
i
Kuchipu
di

Persons Associated
Birju Maharaj, Gopi Krishan,
Shambu Maharaj, Sitara Devi,
Prerna Shrimali, Ms. Sunayana
Hazarilal
Rukmini Devi Arundale, Yamini
Krishnamurti, Vaijayantimala,
Ananda Shankar Jayant, C.V.
Chandrasekhar, Guru (Ms.) M.K.
Saroja
Amubi Singh, Bino Devi
Smt. Kalamandalam Kshemavathy
Pavithran
Makar Dhwaja Darogha
Kelucharan Mahapatra, Sonal
Mansingh, Geeta Mahalik
PK Kunju Kurup, Kalamandalam
Rajan, Madavur Vasudevan Nair
Raja Reddy, Radha Reddy,
Vyjayanti Kashi

Musical Instruments and Persons Associated

Musical
Instrument
Santoor

Person
Pt Shiv Kumar Sharma, Bhajan
Sopori

Orissa
West
Bengal
Maharash
tra

Flute
Tabla
Sarod
Shehnai

Hari Prasad Chaurasia, Pannalal


Ghosh
Zakir Hussain, Allah Rakha, Sabir
Khan
Ali Akbar Khan, Amjad Ali Khan
Bismillah Khan, Krishna Ram
Chaudhary Regional Offices of RBI

Pt Ravi Shankar,
Shahid Parvez
1. Srinagar,
2. Jammu, 3. Shimla, 4.
Khan,Budhaditya
Mukherjee
Chandigarh, 5. Dehradun 6. New Delhi,
Shakoor Khan,
Ram 8.
Narayan
7.Pt
Jaipur,
Lucknow, 9. Kanpur, 10.
Patna,
11.
Gangtok,
Zia Mohiuddin Dagar, Ayyagari 12. Guwahati, 13.
Agartala, 14. Ranchi, 15. Kolkata, 16.
Veena
Syamasundaram
Important 17.
information
on Bhopal,
RBI
Bhubaneswar,
Raipur, 18.
U Srinivas
Mandolin
19. Nagpur, 20. Hyderabad, 21. Chennai,
Totaram Sharma
Pakhawaj
22. Kochi,
23. Bangalore,
24. Panaji, 25.
RBI and
related
M.S. Gopalakrishnan,
Smt Currency
M.
Belapur,
26. Mumbai, 27. Ahmedabad,
information
Violin
Rajam,Lalgudi Jayaraman
28. Thiruvananthapuram
Reserve Bank of India started
1-Apr-35
its operations on
Reserve was nationalised in
1949
The maximum number of
Deputy Governors RBI can
have
4
Number of regional offices of
RBI
28
Functions of the RBI
RBI can issue notes upto the
value of
Rs. 10,000/Primary Functions of the Reserve As per Indian Coinage Act 1 Re
coins can be used to pay/settle Any amount
Bank of India
As per Indian Coinage Act 0.50
1. Monetary Authority of India
ps coins can be used to
Amount not
2. Issuer of Currency
pay/settle
exceeding Rs. 10.
3. Banker and Debt Manager to the
As per Indian Coinage Act coins Amount not
Government
worth less than 0.50 ps can be exceeding Re. 1.(no
4. Banker to the banks
used to pay/settle
longer applicable)
5. Regulator of the Banking System
A palm tree and a
6. Manager of Foreign Exchange The logo of RBI has
tiger
7. Regulator and Supervisor of theThe H.O. of the RBI is in
Mumbai
payment and settlement system The maximum amount for
8. Developmental role
which customer's deposit is
insured in a bank
Rs. 1,00,000
Sitar
Saarangi

Currency Printing Presses


in India

Place
Dewas
Nasik
Mysore
Salboni

State
Madhya
Pradesh
Maharashtr
a
Karnataka
West
Bengal

Banking related training centres


and research institutes
Institute
College of Agricultural Banking
National Institute of Bank
Management
Indira Gandhi Institute of
Developmental Research
Institute for Development and
Research in Banking Technology

Location
Pune
Pune
Mumbai
Hyderabad

Important information on
Nationalised Banks
Nationalised Banks of India
The oldest Joint Stock Bank of
India
The bank founded by Freedom
Fighter Dr. Bhogaraju Pattabhi
Sitaramayya
First bank to open a branch
outside India
The first bank to be given an
ISO 9002 certificate for one of
its branches
The Postal Dept has issued a
commemorative stamp in the
name of this bank celebrating
100 years in 2011
First Indian Bank to be wholly
owned by Indians
The bank formed on the efforts
of Lala Lajpat Rai
The only merger of nationalised
banks took place between

Allahab
ad Bank
Andhra
Bank
Bank of
India,
London,
1946
Canara
Bank
Central
Bank of
India
Central
Bank of
India
Punjab
National
Bank
Punjab
National
Bank
and
New
Bank of

Institutions
established by RBI
Institution
Deposit Insurance and Credit
Guarantee Corporation
National Housing Bank
National Bank for Agricultural
and Rural Development
Industrial and Development
Bank of India
Securities Trading Corporation
of India
Discount and Finance House of
India
Bharatiya Reserve Bank Note
Mudran Private Limited

Head Office
Mumbai
New Delhi
Mumbai

Mumbai

Bangalore

The bank whose brand equity is "Pygmy Deposit Scheme"


The bank which was conceived by Shri GD Birla
The bank which was inaugrated by Mahatma Gandhi in
1919
The largest among nationalised banks
The bank established in the year 1913 as Bank of Mysore
Ltd. at the instance of the banking committee headed by
the great Engineer-Statesman, Late Dr. Sir M.Visvesvaraya.

India in 1993
Syndicate Bank
UCO Bank
Union Bank of
India
Punjab National
Bank
State Bank of
Mysore

Top Banks in
India
Name of the
Bank
Public Sector
Banks
State Bank of
India
Bank of Baroda
Punjab National
Bank
Bank of India
Canara Bank

Deposits (in
Rs. crs)

12,02,739
4,73,883

No. of
Offices

15,564
4,377

3,91,560
3,81,839
3,55,856

5,977
4,373
3,837

Private Sector
Banks
HDFC Bank
ICICI Bank
Axis Bank
Yes Bank
Jammu and
Kashmir Bank
Federal Bank

2,96,2
47
2,92,6
13
2,52,6
13
66,955
64,220
57,615

3,046
3,134
2,019
428
704
1128

Foreign Banks
Citi Bank
Standard Chartered Bank
HSBC

66,5
59
62,0
01
56,8

43
100
50

Deutsche Bank
DBS Bank
The above information has been updated on 01 April 2014 as per
data available on the website of RBI for the year 2012-13
Nationalised Banks,
Head Offices and
Slogans

Name of the Bank


Allahabad Bank
Andhra Bank
Bank of Baroda
Bank of India
Bank of
Maharashtra
Canara Bank
Central Bank of
India
Corporation Bank
Prosperity to All
Dena Bank
Indian Bank
Indian Overseas
Bank
Oriental Bank of
Commerce
Punjab and Sindh
Bank
Punjab National
Bank
Syndicate Bank
Union Bank of India
UCO Bank
Vijaya Bank

Head
Office
Kolkata
Hyderab
ad
Baroda
Mumbai

Slogan
A Tradition of Trust
Friendly, Intelligent, Responsive
India's International Bank
Relationship beyond banking

Pune
Bengalu
ru

One Family, One Bank

Mumbai
Mangalo
re

Central to you since 1911

Mumbai

Trusted Family Bank


Taking Banking Technology to the
Common Man

Chennai
Chennai
New
Delhi
New
Delhi
New
Delhi
Manipal
Mumbai
Kolkata
Bangalo
re

We are changing for you

Sarve Janah Sukhino Bhavantu

Where Every Individual is


Committed
Where service is a way of Life
The name you can bank upon
Faithful, Friendly
Good people to bank with
Honours yours trust
A friend you can bank upon

Maharatna Public Sector Enterprises

66
20,7
94
15,4
87

17
12

#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Maharatna PSEs
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.
National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd.
Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.
Steel Authority of India Ltd.
Coal India Ltd. (conferred on April 11, 2011)
Gas Authority of India Ltd. (conferred on
February 1, 2013)
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (conferred on
February 1, 2013)

Navratna
Public
Sector
Enterprise
s
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Navratna PSEs
Bharat Electronics Ltd.
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd.
Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd.
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd.
Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd.
National Aluminium Company Ltd.
Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd. (conferred on
11 Apr 2011)
NMDC Ltd.
Oil India Ltd.
Power Finance Corporation Limited
Power Grid Corporation of India Limited
Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited
Rural Electrification Corporation Limited
Shipping Corporation of India Limited

Public Sector Undertakings


under various Ministries
Prime Minister of India
Department of Space

Antrix Corporation Ltd


Department of Space
Electronics Corporation of
India Ltd
Indian Rare Earths Ltd
Nuclear Power Corporation of
India Ltd
Uranium Corporation of India
Ltd
Ministry of Defence
Bharat Dynamics Ltd
Bharat Electronics Ltd
Garden Reach Shipbuilders and
Engineers Ltd
Goa Shipyard Ltd
Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd
Mazagaon Dock Ltd
Mishra Dhatu Nigam
Ministry of Railways
Bharat Wagon & Engg. Co. Ltd
Container Corporation of India Ltd
Indian Railway Catering and Tourism
Corporation
Ircon International Ltd
Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd
Rail Vikas Nigam Ltd
Railtel Corporation India Ltd
Rites Ltd
Nuclear Power Stations
Nuclear Power Station
1 Tarapur
2 Kalpakkam
3 Rawatbhata
4 Narora
5 Kaiga
6 Kakrapar

Location
Maharashtra
Tamil Nadu
Kota, Rajasthan
Uttar Pradesh
Karnataka
Gujarat

Units
4
2
6
2
3
2

Capacity
1400 MWe
440 MWe
1180 MWe
440 MWe
660 MWe
440 MWe

Under
construction with
the assistance of
7 Kudankulam
Tamil Nadu
Russia
Of the 7 Atomic Power Stations Tarapur is the oldest and the biggest. Only
Tarapur has 2 Boiling Water Reactors, all others have Pressurised Heavy Water
Reactors

A new proposed 9900 MW nuclear power project is coming up at Jaitapur at


Madban village of Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. The power project will be
the largest in the world in terms of net electrical power once completed. For
details see Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project in GK Topics Environment section.

Heavy
Water
Plants in
India
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Institutio
ns under
the
Departme
nt of
Atomic
Energy

Heavy Water
Heavy Water
Baroda
Heavy Water
Hazira
Heavy Water
Kota
Heavy Water
Manuguru
Heavy Water
Talcher
Heavy Water
Thal
Heavy Water
Tuticorin

Plant
Plant,

State
Gujarat

Plant,
Gujarat
Plant,
Plant,

Rajashtan
Andhra
Pradesh

Plant,
Plant,

Odisha
Maharasht
ra

Plant,
Tamilnadu

Institution
1 Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR)
2 Tata Memorial Centre (TMC)
3 Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP)
4 Institute of Physics (IoP)
5 Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc)
6 Harish Chandra Research Institute (HRI)
7 Institute for Plasma Research (IPR)
National Institute of Science, Education and
8 Research (NISER)
9 Atomic Energy Education Society (AEES)

Location of Important
Laboratories/Research Institutes
Laboratory
National Physical Laboratory
National Chemical Laboratory
National Aerospace Laboratory
National Metallurgical Laboratory
National Institute of Oceanography
National Institute of Nutrition
National Institute of Communicable
Diseases
National Institute of Mentally
Handicapped
National Institute of Hydrology
National Institute of Rural Development
National Institute of Disaster
Management
Central Institute of Mining and Fuel
Research
Central Road Research Institute
Central Rice Research Institute
Central Drug Research Institute
Central Building Research Institute
Central Leather Research Institute
Central Power Research Institute
Central Salt and Marine Chemicals
Research Institute
Central Arid Zone Research Institute

Location
New Delhi
Pune
Bangalore
Jamshedpu
r
Goa
(Panaji)
Hyderabad
New Delhi
Secundera
bad
Roorkee
Hyderabad
New Delhi
Dhanbad
Delhi
Cuttack
Lucknow
Roorkee
Chennai
Bangalore
Bhavnagar
Jodhpur

Location
Mumbai
Mumbai
Kolkata
Bhubanes
war
Chennai
Allahabad
Gandhina
gar
Bhubanes
war
Mumbai

Central Food Technological Research


Institute
Central Glass and Ceramic Research
Institute
Central Marine Fisheries Research
Institute

Mysore
Kolkata
Kochi

Indian Scientists
The scientist who studied plants and invented the crescograph - Jagdish Chandra
Bose.
The scientist known as the Father of Green Revolution - MS Swaminathan.
The scientist awarded with both the Bharat Ratna and the Nobel Prize - CV Raman.
The scientist who founded the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research - Homi J
Bhabha.
The scientist known as the Father of Indian Space Research - Vikram Sarabhai.
The engineer who constructed Indias 1st Hydro-electric Project Krishnarajasagar
Dam - M Visveswarayya.
The scientist known as Father of Indias Missile Program - APJ Abdul Kalam.
Indian Railways
First in Indian Railways
The first train was run in 1853(16 April) 21 miles from Bombay (Boribandar)
to Thane.
The first passenger train steamed out of Howrah station destined for Hooghly,
a distance of 24 miles, on 15th August, 1854.
The first electric train in 1925 was run by Great Indian Peninsular Railway at
Bombay.
First Rajdhani Express (between Howrah and Delhi ) started on 01 Mar 1969.
The first under ground railway in India started in Kolkata in 1984.
Computerised Passenger Reservation system was introduced in Indian
Railways in 1986.
The computerised passenger reservation system (PRS) of Indian Railways is
the largest passenger reservation network in the world,available at 2,222
locations with more than 8074 terminals.
The First Duronto Express train (point-to-point train) started in September
2009 from Sealdah to New Delhi.
Longest in Indian Railways
The longest platform in the world now is in Gorakhpur (4482 ft) overtaking
Kharagpur (2733 ft).
The longest rail journey is between Dibrugarh and Kanniya Kumari (4286 km)
performed by Vivek Express, introduced in 2011. Prior to this, Himsagar Express
covered the longest distance from Jammu Tawi to Kanniya Kumari (3751 km).

The longest rail journey by Rajdhani Express is between Hazrat Nizamuddin and
Thiruvananthapuram covering 3149 km.
Vembanad Railway Bridge connecting Edappally and Vallarpadam with a length of
4.62 km is the longest rly bridge in India.
The longest railway tunnel, the Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel (between Qazigund and
Banihal) has a length of 10.96 km. The work on the tunnel was completed in
October 2011. Prior to this the longest railway tunnel was the Karbude Tunnel of
length 6.5 km in Maharashtra and a part of the Konkan railways.
Miscellaneous Information
Konkan railway passes through Sahyadari mountains in the western ghats. It
connects Mumbai and Mangalore.
India with railroad network of 63,974 km (as on 31.03.2010) ranks fourth in the
world after the US, Russia and China.
The total electrified route of Indian Railways is 18,927 kms (as on 31.03.2010).
The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, the Nilgiri Mountain Railway, The Kalka Shimla
Railway collectively known as Mountain Railways of India are classified as a world
heritage site by UNESCO.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as Victoria Terminus Station, in
Mumbai is also a World Heritage Site.
Bholu, an elephant is the mascot of Indian Railways.
Fairy Queen is the worlds oldest working steam locomotive plying from New Delhi
to Alwar.
World's first railway timetables were designed by George Bradshaw.
The Nilgiri Mountain Railway has a rack section of the line, from Kallar to Coonoor
(elevation 1,712 m). This is the only place where rack system is used in Indian
Railways.
The station which has all the three gauges viz narrow, metre and broad is Siliguri
station.
The scheme of the Indian Railways to issue travel passes priced at Rs. 25 to the
poor whose monthly income is below Rs 1,500 and which enables them to travel
upto 150 kms (as proposed in Railway Budget 2012-13) in general class and
second class trains is called Izzat.
Railways Zones

Zone
1. Central
2. Western
3. Northern
4. Eastern
5. Southern
6. East Central
7. East Coast

Headquart
ers
Mumbai
Mumbai
Delhi
Kolkata
Chennai
Hajipur
Bhubanesh
war

8. North
Central
9. North
Eastern
10. North East
Frontier
11. North
Western
12. South
Central
13. South East
Central
14. South
Eastern
15. South
Western
16. West
Central
17. Kolkata
Metro

Allahabad
Gorakhpur
Guwahati
Jaipur
Secundera
bad
Bilaspur
Kolkata
Hubli
Jabalpur
Kolkata

Some Important Highways


Highwa
y No.

Route

1 Delhi-Ambala-Jalandhar-Amritsar-Indo-Pak Border
2 Delhi-Mathura-Agra-Allahabad-Varanasi-Barhi-Palsit-Bara-Calcutta
6 Hajira-Dhule-Nagpur-Raipur-Sambalpur-Baharagora-Calcutta
7
(longest
highwa
y)

Varanasi-Mangawan-Rewa-Jabalpur-Lakhnadon-Nagpur-HyderabadKurnool-Bangalore-Krishnagiri-Salem-Dindigul-MaduraiKanyakumari

8 Delhi-Jaipur-Ajmer-Udaipur-Ahmedabad-Vadodara-Mumbai
10 Delhi-Fazilka-Indo Pak Border
Important Facts on Indian Roads
The total length of National Highways is 71,772 km.
The total length of expressways is 200 km.
The total length of road network in India is 3.34 million
km.
The road network in India is the third largest in the

Leng
th
456
km
1465
km
1949
km
2369
km
1375
km
403
km

world.
The maximum length of National Highways is in Uttar
Pradesh - 7,818 km
About 65% of freight and 80% passenger traffic is
carried by the roads.
Grand Trunk Road
The Grand Trunk road connects Sonargaon in Bangladesh with Kabul in
Afghanistan.
It was initiated by Mauryan Emperor Chandragupta Maurya and later renovated
and extended by Sher Shah Suri.
National Highway No. 2 from Kolkata to Kanpur, National Highway No. 91 from
Kanpur to Delhi and National Highway No. 1 from Delhi to Pakistan border form the
part of Grand Trunk Road in India.
Golden Quadrilateral
The Golden Quadrilateral connects the four metro cities, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai
and Mumbai.
The total length of the road is 5,846 km out of which 5,828 km has already been
completed by 31 Jan 2012.
The maximum distance between two metros is between Kolkata and Chennai 1649 km.
The maximum length of the Golden Quadrilateral passes through Andhra Pradesh 1014 km.
North South Corridor
Srinagar to Kochi (Total length - 4000
km)
Srinagar to Jalandhar
Jalandhar to Delhi
Delhi to Agra
Agra to Gwalior
Gwalior to Jhansi
Jhansi to Lakhnadon
Lakhnadon to Kanyakumari (via
Nagpur, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Salem
and Madurai)
Spur Highway of North-South Corridor
Salem to Kochi
East West Corridor

National
National
National
National
National
National

Highway
Highway
Highway
Highway
Highway
Highway

1A
1
2
3
75
26

National Highway 7
National Highway 47

Porbandar to Silchar (Total length 3300 km)


Porbandar to Rajkot
Rajkot to Samakhiali
Samiakhiali to Radhanpur
Radhanpur to Pindwara
Pindwara to Shivpuri
Shivpuri to Lucknow
Lucknow to Muzaffarpur
Muzaffarpur to Purnia
Purnia to Galgalia
Galgalia to Bijni
Bijni to Guwahati
Guwahati to Nagaon
Nagaon to Dabaka
Dabaka to Silchar
Jhansi is the junction of North
South and EastWest Corridors.

National
National
National
National
National
National
National
National
National
National
National
National
National
National

Highway
Highway
Highway
Highway
Highway
Highway
Highway
Highway
Highway
Highway
Highway
Highway
Highway
Highway

8B
8A
15
14
76
25
28
57
31
31C
31
37
36
54

Major
Ports in
India
Sl.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Port
Kolkata Dock System
Haldia Dock Complex
Paradip
Visakhapatnam
Ennore
Chennai
Thoothukodi
Cochin
New Mangalore
Mormugao
Jawaharlal Nehru Port
(Nhava Sheva)
Mumbai
Kandla

13 Port Blair
First Ranked States in Mineral Wealth

State
West Bengal
West Bengal
Odisha
Andhra Pradesh
Tamilnadu
Tamilnadu
Tamilnadu
Kerala
Karnataka
Goa
Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Gujarat
Andaman and Nicobar
Islands

Mineral/Metal
Coal
Bauxite (Aluminium Ore)
Chromite (Chromium ore)
Iron Ore
Manganese
Lead & Zinc
Calcite (source of marble)
Gypsum (used in fertiliser, plaster of paris
etc.)
Quartz
Asbestos
Limestone
Mica
Barytes (used as weighting agent for
drilling fluids in oil & gas exploration,
barium is used in CT Scan)
Diamond
Copper Ore
Gold
Corundum (source of ruby, sapphire)
Rock Salt
Crude Oil
Natural Gas

State
Jharkhand
Orissa
Orissa
Orissa
Orissa
Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Karnataka
Maharashtra
Himachal Pradesh
Gujarat
Assam/Nagaland

India's Global Position in Mineral Wealth


Mineral/Metal
Chromite
Barytes
Talc/Steatite/Pyrophllite
Coal and Lignite
Bauxite
Iron Ore
Steel
Zinc
Copper
Mica

Rank
Secon
d
Secon
d
Secon
d
Third
Third
Fourth
Fourth
*
Sevent
h
Eighth
Eleven
th

*Amended as per Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation


Report of 2011

Oil
Refineries
in India
Place
Guwahati
Barauni
Koyali
Haldia
Mathura
Digboi
Panipat
Mumbai
Mumbai
Vishakapat
nam
Kochi
Manali
Narimanam
Bongaigaon
Numaligarh
Tatipaka
Mangalore
Jamnagar
Vadinar
Bina
Bhatinda

State
Assam
Bihar
Gujarat
West
Bengal
Uttar
Pradesh
Assam
Haryana
Maharashtr
a
Maharashtr
a
Andhra
Pradesh
Kerala
Tamilnadu
Tamilnadu
Assam
Assam
Andhra
Pradesh
Karnataka
Gujarat
Gujarat
Madhya
Pradesh
Punjab

Owned by
Indian Oil Corporation
Indian Oil Corporation
Indian Oil Corporation
Indian Oil Corporation
Indian Oil Corporation
Indian Oil Corporation
Indian Oil Corporation
Bharat Petroleum Corporation
Ltd
Hindustan Petroleum
Corporation Ltd
Hindustan Petroleum
Corporation Ltd
Kochi Refineries Ltd
Chennai Petroleum Corp Ltd
Chennai Petroleum Corp Ltd
Bongaigaon Refineries &
Petrochemicals Ltd
Numaligarh Refineries Ltd.
Oil & Natural Gas Corporation
Ltd
Mangalore Refineries &
Petrochemicals Ltd
Reliance Petroleum Ltd
Essar Oil Ltd
Bharat Petroleum & Oman Oil
Company
Hindustan Mittal Energy Limited

Oil Fields of India


and World
Oil Field
Digboi

Country
Assam,

Bombay High
Mangala Area
Ghawar
Burgan
Cantarell
Bolivar Coastal
Complex
Rumaila
Tengiz
Kirkuk
Dukhan
Boscan Field
Toot Oil Field
Sarir Oil Field

India
India
Rajasthan,
India
Saudi
Arabia
Kuwait
Mexico
Venezuala
Iraq
Kazhakast
an
Iraq
Qatar
Venezuala
Pakistan
Libya

Steel Plants under Steel


Authority of India Ltd
Place
Bhilai Steel Plant
Rourkela Steel Plant
Bokaro Steel Plant
Durgapur Steel Plant
IISCO Steel Plant, Burnpur
Salem Steel Plant
Visvesvaraya Steel Plant

Steel Plant under Rashtriya Ispat


Nigam Ltd
Visakhapatn
Andhra Pradesh
am
World's Largest Steel Producers

State
Chattisgar
h
Orissa
Jharkhand
West
Bengal
West
Bengal
Tamilnadu
Karnataka

Rank

Company
Arcelor
1 Mittal
2 Baosteel
3 Posco
Nippon
4 Steel
5 JFE
Jiangsu
6 Shagang
7 Tata Steel
21 SAIL

Country
Luxembo
urg
China
South
Korea
Japan
Japan
China
India
India

Firsts in Indian Films


Point to remember
First Indian indigenous
film
First Indian talkie (film
with sound)
First Indian colour film
First Indian Sanskrit film
First Indian 3D film

Name of the Film


Raja Harishchandra
(1913)
Alam Ara (1931)
Kisan Kanya (1937)
Adi Shankarcharya
(1983)
Kutti Chetan (1984)

Directors of
Famous
Indian Films
Name of the
Film
Raja
Harishchandr
a
Alam Ara
Mughal-eazam
Mother India
Pather
Panchali
Shatranj ke
Khiladi
Do beegha
zameen

Director
Dada Saheb
Phalke
Ardeshar Irani
K Asif
Mehboob
Khan
Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
Bimal Roy

Monsoon
Wedding
Bandit Queen
Elizabeth
Mr and Mrs
Iyer
Salaam
Bombay
Lagaan

Mira Nair
Shekhar
Kapoor
Shekhar
Kapoor
Aparna Sen
Mira Nair
Ashutosh
Gowarikar

Directors of
Latest Indian
Films
Name of the
Film
Paa
Taare
Zameen Par
Three Idiots
Peepli Live
Dhobi Ghat
Gangor
Stanley ka
Dabba
Dam 999
Barfi
Vishwaroopa
m
Midnight's
Children

Director
R Balakrishnan
Aamir Khan
Rajkumar Hirani
Anusha Rizvi & Mahmood
Farooqui
Kiran Rao
Italo Spinelli
Amol Gupte
Sohan Roy
Anurag Basu
Kamal Haasan
Deepa Mehta

Directors of Well Known


Foreign Films
Name of the Film
Jurassic Park, Schindlers
List, Jaws
Gandhi
The Godfather, Dracula

Director
Steven Spielberg
Richard
Attenburrough
Francis Ford
Coppola

Titanic, Avatar

James Cameron
Roland
2012 Emmerich
Slumdog Millionaire
Danny Boyle
The Hurt Locker
Kathryn Bigelow
127 Days
Danny Boyle
Indian Academy Award Winners
Points to remember
First Indian film to be nominated for Academy Award
(Oscar) in Best Foreign Language Film category
First Indian to win an Academy Award (Oscar) in the
Competitive category
Indian director who won the Lifetime Achievement
Academy Award
Indian music director to win the Academy Award for
best original score
Indian music director and lyricist to win the
Academy Award for best original song
First Indian to win the Academy Award for best
sound mixing
Three Indian films have been nominated in the Best
Foreign Language Film category so far

Mother India
Bhanu Athaiya in 1982 for
Custume Design in Gandhi
Satyajit Ray in 1992
AR Rahman in 2009 for
Slumdog Millionaire
AR Rahman and Gulzar in
2009 for Slumdog
Millionaire
Resul Pookutty in 2009 for
Slumdog Millionaire
Mother India, Salaam
Bombay and Lagaan

Facts to remember on Ancient Indian Books

Book and its


Author
Mudra
Rakshasa by
Vishakha
Datta.
Padmavat by
Malik Mohd
Jayasi
Malavikagnim
itra by
Kalidasa
Arthashastra
by Kautilya
Panchatantra

Facts to remember
The book which gives an account of how Chandragupta Maurya
overthrew the power of the Nandas with the help of Kautilya.
The book based on the life of Padmini, Queen of Chittor. Allauddin
Khilji, the ruler of Delhi, laid siege to the fort of Chittor in order to
take Padmini as his wife. When the soldiers died fighting, Queen
Padmini committed Jauhar alongwith other women of the fort.
The book which is based on the life of Agnimitra son of Pushyamitra
Sunga. The latter founded the Sunga dynasty after killing the last
Mauryan King Brihadratha.
The ancient Indian treatise on Economics as well as politics written
by Kautilya (Chanakya) who had helped Chandragupta overthrow the
power of the Nandas.
A collection of Sanskrit fables which seeks to illustrate the principles

by Vishnu
Sharma
Geet Govinda
by Jaidev
Kalidasas
Abhigyan
Shakuntalam
Kalhanas
Rajtarangini
Ashtadhyayi
by Panini
Mahabhasya
by Patanjali
Prashnottar
Ratna Malika
by Adi
Sankarachary
a
Kathasaritsag
ar by
Somadeva
Charaka
Samhita by
Charaka
Sushruta
Samhita by
Sushruta
Aryabhatiya
by
Aryabhatta
Bhrigu
Samhita by
Maharishi
Bhrigu
Buddhacharitam by
Ashwaghosha

of Politics (Rajneeti) through animal stories. It is considered a


Nitishastra or a book on conduct of life.
The book which deals with the love plays of the Dark Lord Krishna
and his fair beloved Radha.
The play based on the story of King Dushyant and Shakuntala as it
appears in the beginning of the Mahabharata. King Dushyant and
Shakuntala had a son name Bharat after whose name the country is
named.
The book which deals with the history of Kashmir from the earliest
times to 1150 A.D.
It is highly systemised and complete book of Sanskrit grammar
divided into eight chapters consisting of 3,995 sutras or rules.
The book is a commentary on Panini's Ashtadhyayi in an effort to
make Ashtadhyayi easily accessible to the average reader.

The book is in the form of questions and answers of eternal values as


preached by Sanatana Dharma.
The book is a collection of folk tales written for the entertainment of
Queen Suryamati, wife of King Anantadeva of Kashmir. The famous
Betal Pachisi is a part of this book.
The book was authored by Charaka, known as the "Father of Indian
Medicine". The book contains the fundamentals of Ayurveda
including between its covers root causes of diseases, their treatment
and also guidelines for a clean and healthy life.
The book was authored by Sushruta, known as the "Father of Indian
Surgery". In the books he explains various types of surgeries and
surgical instruments.
The book authored by famed Indian astronomer and mathematician
is one of the most important ancient Indian books. The book explains
the causes of eclipses and also the value of pi equivalent to 3.1416.
The book in dialogue form is an ancient treatise on astrology (jyotish
shastra).
The first complete biography of the Buddha written by Ashwaghosha
who was patronised by Emperor Kanishka. It is considered a
masterpiece of Sanskrit literature.

Soils and Crops


Soils: Facts to remember

Fact to remember
The soil most common in Indo-gangetic plains
The soil which swells when wet and develops cracks when

Type of
Soil
Alluvial
Black

dry
The soil which owes its colour to oxides of iron
The soil which requires least use of fertilisers
The soil which requires least tilling
The kind of soil which is treated with gypsum to make it
suitable for cropping
The soil which is poor in soluble salts
The soil which is rich in surface accumulation of organic
matter
The soil which is most suitable for cultivation of cotton

Laterite
Alluvial
Black
Alkaline
soil
Laterite
Peaty
soil
Black

Crops : Points to remember


Point to remember
The crop which requires water-logging for its cultivation
The crop best suited in areas where rain falls only for
two months
The ideal crop for areas with rainfall above 200 cm and
sloping hills
The crop which requires a large amount of rainfall and
no standing water

Crop
Rice
Pulses
Tea
Tea

Crops : Largest Producers


Feature
The largest producer of paddy in India
The lagest producer of wheat in India
The
The
The
The

lagest producer of sugarcane in India


lagest producer of groundnut in India
largest producer of tea in India
largest producer of coffee in India

The largest producer of jute in India


The largest producer of tobacco in India
The largest producer of bananas in India
The largest producer of saffron in India
The largest producer of onion in India
The largest producer of black pepper in India

State
West
Bengal
Uttar
Pradesh
Uttar
Pradesh
Gujarat
Assam
Karnataka
West
Bengal
Andhra
Pradesh
Tamilnadu
Jammu &
Kashmir
Maharash
tra
Kerala

The largest producer of cotton in India


The largest producer of bamboos in India
The largest producer of litchis in India
*Maharashtra has the largest area under cotton cultivation but Gujarat
is the largest producer as per GoI release dt 25 Jul 2011

Gujarat*
Assam
Bihar

Crops : India's Rank in the World


Feature
Millets, Lemon & limes, Bananas, Ginger, Mangoes, Papayas, Jute, Castor
Oil seed, Safflower oil seed
Sugarcane, Wheat, Onion, Potatoes, Garlic, Rice, Tea, Cottonseed

Rank
First
Secon
d

Mountains and Hills


Mountains and Hills of
India
Feature
Highest mountain in India
Highest mountain in India
(incl POK)
Oldest mountain range in
India
Mountain range in POK
Other mountain ranges in
India

Mountain
Kanchenjunga
Mt K2 also known as Godwin Austin
Aravallis
Karkoram
Vindhyas, Nilgiris, Palanis, Sahyadris, Satpuras and
Western Ghats

Hill Stations of
India
Hill Station
Anantnag

Hills
-

Dalhousie
Darjeeling
Gulmarg

Dhauladhar range
Lesser Himalayas or
Mahabharat Range
-

Kasauli
Kodaikanal
Lonavla
Mahabaleshwar

Palani Hills
Sahyadri Hills
Sahyadri Hills

State
J&K
Himachal
Pradesh
West Bengal
J&K
Himachal
Pradesh
Tamilnadu
Maharashtra
Maharashtra

Manali
Mt Abu
Mussoorie
Nainital
Ooty or
Udhamandalam
Coonoor
Saputara

Kullu Valley
Aravalli Hills
Garhwal Hills
Kumaon Hills

Horsley Hills

Nilgiri Hills
Nilgiri Hills
Sayhadri Hills

Himachal
Pradesh
Rajasthan
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Tamilnadu
Tamilnadu
Gujarat
Andhra
Pradesh

Miscellaneous Information on Mountains and Hills


Feature
The name of the hill on which the famous Vaishno Devi
temple is located
Mt Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva of Hindu mythology is
located in
The Hindu God known as the Lord of Seven Hills is
The highest peak in the Western Ghats and also South India
is
The highest peak in the Aravallis is
Mt Ararat which finds mentions in the Old Testament as
being the place where Noah's Ark came to rest is located in
Mountains of the World
Feature
Highest mountain
Highest mountain
Highest mountain
Australia
Highest mountain
Europe
Highest mountain
America
Highest mountain
America
Highest mountain

in Africa
in
in
in North
in South
in

Name
Mt Everest (Nepal) 8,848
m
Mt Kilimanjaro (Tanzania)
5895m
Mt Kosciuszko 2234 m
Mt Elbrus (Russia) 5642
m
Mt Mckinley (Alaska,
USA) 6187m
Mt Aconcagua
(Argentina) 7021m
Mt Vinson Massif

Name
Trikuta
Tibet
Lord
Venkateshwara of
Tirupati
Anamudi in Kerala
Guru Shikhar, near
Mt. Abu in
Rajasthan
Turkey

Antarctica
Mountain Ranges of the
World

Feature
Mountain range in
Europe
Mountain range in North
America
Mountain range in South
America

Name

Mountain range in Africa


Mountain range in
Australia

Drakensburg
The Great Dividing
Range

Mountain ranges in Asia

Himalayas

Mountain ranges in Asia

Karkoram

The Alps
The Rockies
The Andies

Lengt
h
1,200
km
4,800
km
7,000
km
1,000
km
3,000
km
2,400
km
500
km

Highest Point
Mont Blanc, 4811 m
Mount Elbert, 4 401
m
Mt Aconcagua
Thabana Ntlenyana,
3 482 m
Mt Kosciuszko
Mt Everest
Mt K2, 8611 m

Eight Thousanders Mountains above


8000m in height

Name
Mt Everest
Mt K2 or Godwin
Austin
Kanchenjunga
Lhotse
Makalu
Cho Oyu
Dhaulagiri
Manaslu

First
Scale
d
1953

Location
Height
Nepal
8,848 m
Karkoram,
POK
8,611 m
1954
Sikkim, India 8,586 m
1955
Nepal/China
8,516 m
1956
Nepal/China
8,485 m
1955
Nepal/China
8,201 m
1954
Nepal
8,167 m
1960
Nepal
8,163 m
1956
Karkoram,
Nanga Parbat
POK
8,126 m
1953
Annapurna
Nepal
8,091 m
1950
Note: There are 14 eight-thousanders in the world and all of
them are located in the Himalayan and Karkoram ranges of
Asia

Dams and Rivers and


Cities and Rivers
Dams and Rivers
Dam
Nagarjunasagar
Pochampad
Srisailam
Sardar Sarovar
Ukai
Hirakud
Bhakra Nangal
Pong (Maharana
Pratap Sagar)
Thein (Ranjit Sagar)

River
Krishna
Godava
ri
Krishna
Narmad
a
Tapti
Mahana
di
Sutlej
Beas
Ravi

Baglihar

Chenab

Chutak

Suru
Damod
ar
Barakar
Bhagira
thi

Panchet
Maithon
Tehri
Koyna
Mettur
Krishnaraja Sagar
Alamatti
Mullaperiyar
Gandhisagar

Koyna
Kaveri
Kaveri
Krishna
Periyar
Chamb
al

Nimoo Bazgo

Indus

Cities and
Rivers
City (India)
Delhi

River
Yamuna

State
A.P
A.P.
A.P.
Gujarat
Gujarat
Orissa
Punjab
Himachal
Pradesh
Punjab
Jammu &
Kashmir
Jammu &
Kashmir
Jharkhand
Jharkhand
Uttarakhand
Maharashtr
a
Tamilnadu
Karnataka
Karnataka
Kerala
Madhya
Pradesh
Jammu &
Kashmir

Agra
Patna
Haridwar
Allahabad
Varanasi
Guwahati
Kanpur
Jabalpur
Bharuch
Lucknow
Hyderabad
Nasik
Srinagar
Vijayawad
a
Kolkata
Ahmedaba
d
Surat
Thiruchira
palli
Cuttack
Ayodhya
Ludhiana

Yamuna
Ganga
Ganga
confluence of Ganga
and Yamuna
Ganga
Brahmaputra
Ganga
Narmada
Narmada
Gomti
Musi
Godavari
Jhelum
Krishna
Hooghly
Sabarmati
Tapti
Cauveri
Mahanadi
Saryu
Sutlej

Facts to Remember on Rivers


Facts to Remember - Indian Rivers
The river system of India can be classified into four groups - 1. Himalayan
rivers 2. Deccan (Peninsular) rivers 3. Coastal rivers and 4. Rivers of inland
water drainage.
Most of the Indian rivers flow into the Bay of Bengal but some like Narmada,
Tapti and Periyar flow into the Arabian Sea.
Luni, Machhu, Rupen, Saraswati, Banas and Ghagghar are examples of
rivers with inland water drainage, i.e. they do not empty into the ocean but
get lost into the sand.
Five rivers of erstwhile Punjab are Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Jhelum and Chenab
The river also known as Dakshin Ganga is Godavari
The Brahmaputra is known as Yarlung Tsangpo in Tibet and as Dihang in
Arunachal Pradesh. The Brahmaputra river is known as Jomuna in
Bangladesh.
The river known as Singi Khamban (Lion's mouth) in Tibet River Indus
The river known as Bengals sorrow is River Damodar
Prayag or Allahabad is believed to be the confluence (sangam) of these

rivers Ganga, Yamuna and the mythical Saraswati


The Ganges is also known as the Bhagirathi since King Bhagirath was
responsible for bringing it from the heavens to the earth. The Bhagirathi
and the Alaknanda join at Devprayag to form the Ganga. The part of the
River Ganga which flows into Bangladesh is known as Padma.
The number of Indian rivers which have been classified as major rivers by
the Government is Twelve.
There are three Trans-Himalayan rivers which originate in the high Tibetan
Plateau and cut across the mighty Himalayan ranges. Indus, Brahmaputra,
and Sutlej.
Rivers - Origin, Tributaries,
Disputes
Alternate/Ancient/Greek Names
of Rivers
Present Day Name
Indus
Jhelum
Chenab
Ravi
Beas
Sutlej
Brahmaputra
Luni
Betwa

Alternate Name
Sindhu (Ancient name)
Vitasta (Ancient name);
Hydaspes(Greek name)
Asikini (Ancient name);
Chandrabhagha
Parusni (Ancient name); Airavati
Vipasa (Ancient name);
Hyphasis(Greek name)
Sutudri (Ancient name); Zarodros
(Greek name)
Dihang; Tsangpo(Tibetan)
Sagarmati
Vetravati

Rivers and
their
tributaries
River
Ganga
Yamuna
Godavari
Krishna
Cauvery
Narmada

Tributaries
1. Gomti 2. Ghaghra 3. Gandak 4. Kosi 5. Yamuna 6. Son 7.
Hoogly
1. Chambal 2. Sindh 3. Betwa 4. Ken 5. Tons 6. Hindon
1. Indravati 2. Manjira 3. Bindusara 4. Sarbari 5. Penganga
6.Pranahita
1. Tungabhadra 2. Ghataprabha 3. Malaprabha 4. Bhima 5.
Vedavati 6. Koyna
1. Kabini 2. Hemavathi 3. Simsha 4. Arkavati 5. Bhavani
1. Amaravati 2. Bhukhi 3. Tawa 4. Banger

Indus
Brahmapu
tra
Damodar
Ravi
Mahanadi

1. Sutlej 2. Dras 3. Zanskar 4. Shyok 5.Gilgit 6. Suru


1. Dibang 2. Lohit 3. Jia Bhoreli (Kameng) 4. Dikhow 5.
Subansiri 6. Manas
1. Barakar 2. Konar
1. Budhil 2. Nai or Dhona 3. Seul 4. Ujh
1. Seonath 2. Hasdeo 3. Jonk 4. Mand 5. Ib 6. Ong 7. Tel

River and
their
places of
origin
River
Ganga
Indus
Narmada
Tapi/Tapti
Mahanadi
Brahmapu
tra
Sutlej
Beas
Godavari
Krishna
Cauvery
Sabarmati
Ravi
Penner

Place of origin
Gangotri (Uttarakhand)
Mansarovar (Tibet)
Maikal Hills, Amarkantak
(MP)
Satpura Range, Betul (MP)
Nagri Town (Chhattisgarh)
Chemayungdung (Tibet)
Mt Kailash (Tibet)
Rohtang Pass (Himachal
Pradesh)
Nasik (Maharashtra)
Mahabaleshwar
(Maharashtra)
Brahmagiri Hills, Coorg
(Karnataka)
Udaipur, Aravalli Hills
(Rajasthan)
Chamba (Himachal
Pradesh)
Nandi Hills, Chickballapur
(Karnataka)

River water disputes and State involved

Dispute
Krishna Water dispute
Mahadayi/Mandovi Water
dispute
Vansadhara Water

States Involved
Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and
Maharashtra
Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra
Andhra Pradesh and Odisha

dispute
Cauvery Water dispute
Babhali Barrage issue
Mulla Periyar Dam issue

Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Kerala and


Puducherry
Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra
Tamilnadu and Kerala

Waterfalls in India

Waterfall
Kunchikal Falls (Tiered waterfalls)
Barehipani Falls
Langshiang Falls
Dudhsagar Falls
Nohkalikai Falls
Jog Falls or Gersoppa falls (Plunge waterfalls)
Magod Falls
Lushington Falls or Unchalli Falls or Keppa Jog falls
Sivasamudram Falls
Hundru Falls

Kapildhara Falls
Tiered waterfalls touch land surfaces at one or more
places before they reach the bottom, while plunge
waterfalls directly descend to the bottom. Nohkalikai
Falls are rainfed, meaning there is no river preceding
the waterfall.
Note: This list is not exhaustive and covers only
important falls from competitive exam point of view

Hei
ght
149
3 ft
130
9 ft
110
7 ft
101
7 ft
110
0 ft
829
ft
650
ft
380
ft
320
ft
320
ft
100
ft

River
Varahi
Budhaba
langa
Kynshi
Mandovi
Sharavat
i
Bedthi
Aghanas
hini
Cauvery
Subernar
ekha

Narmada

Facts to remember on Lakes


Related Fact
Deepest lake in the world

Name of the Lake


Baikal (fresh water) in Russia

State
Karnat
aka
Odisha
Megha
laya
Goa
Megha
laya
Karnat
aka
Karnat
aka
Karnat
aka
Karnat
aka
Jharkh
and
Madhy
a
Prades
h

Largest fresh water lake


Largest lake in the world
Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan
Saltiest lake in the world
Lowest lake in the world
Largest lake in India
Largest fresh-water lake in India
Largest coastal lagoon in India
Sriharikota island is located in
Country known as land of thousand
lakes - Finland

Lake Superior, between Canada and


the USA
Caspean Sea, bounded by Iran, Russia,
Kazhakistan,
Dead Sea bounded by Israel, Jordan
and West Bank
Dead Sea between Israel and Jordan
Sambhar lake in Rajasthan
Kolleru lake in Andhra Pradesh
Chilka lake in Orissa
Pulicat lake in Andhra Pradesh

Lakes in India
Name of the Lake
Kolleru lake
Pulicat lake
Hussain Sagar
Ulsoor lake
Sambhar lake
Pichola lake
Dal lake
Wular lake
Pangong lake
Surajkund
Rudrasagar lake
Udaipur is known as the Lake City.
Pangong Lake is a transboundary lake. A major portion of
the lake lies in Tibet.

Location
Andhra Pradesh
Tamilnadu and Andhra
Pradesh
Hyderabad, Andhra
Pradesh
Bangalore, Karnataka
Rajasthan
Udaipur in Rajasthan
Srinagar in Jammu and
Kashmir
Bandipore in Jammu
and Kashmir
Ladakh in Jammu and
Kashmir
Faridabad in Haryana
West Tripura, Tripura

Straits and
Canals
Strait/Canal
Suez Canal
Kiel Canal

Land masses divided


Runs through Egypt
Runs through Germany

Water Bodies joined


Mediterranean and Red Sea
North Sea and Baltic Sea

Bering Strait

Alaska and Siberia

Palk Strait
Strait of
Gibraltar
Strait of
Malacca
Panama Canal
English
Channel
St. George's
Channel

India and Sri Lanka

Cook Strait
Ten Degree
Channel
Bosphorus
Strait

Africa and Europe


Indonesia (Sumatra) and Malaysia
(Malay)
Runs through Republic of Panama
England and France
Ireland and Wales
North and South Islands of New
Zealand
Andaman Islands and Nicobar
Islands
Runs through Istanbul (Turkey)
separating Asian part of Turkey
from its European part

Pacific and Arctic


Bay of Bengal and Gulf of
Mannar
Atlantic Ocean and
Mediterranean Sea
Pacific Ocean and Indian
Ocean
Pacific and Atlantic Oceans
North Sea and Atlantic
Oceans
Irish Sea and Atlantic Ocean
(Celtic Sea)
Tasman Sea and South
Pacific Ocean
Black Sea and Sea of
Marmara

Important info on Indian Chiefs of


Defence Services
Importance
1st chief of Army Staff
1st Commander in chief of Indian
Army
The chief of Army during 1971
war
First Army Chief to become Field
Marshall
First Sikh to become the Chief of
Army Staff
First Army Chief to die in harness
First Chief of Naval Staff
First Naval Chief to be removed
from office
1st Chief of Air Staff
1st Indian Chief of Air Staff
1st Chief in the rank of Air Chief
Marshall
1st Marshall of the Indian Air
Force
The Chief of Air Staff during 1971
war
First Chief of Integrated Service
Command

Name
General Rajendrasinhji
General KM Cariappa (later Field
Marshall)
Field Marshall SHFJ Maneckshaw
Field Marshall SHFJ Maneckshaw
General JJ Singh
General BC Joshi
Vice Admiral RD Katari
Admiral Vishnu Bhagwat
Air Marshall Thomas Elmhirst
Air Marshall Subroto Mukherji
Air Chief Marshall Arjan Singh
Air Chief Marshall Arjan Singh
Air Chief Marshall PC Lal
Lt Gen Pankaj S Joshi

Current Chiefs of Staff


Military/Para-military
Organisations Formation Days
Organisation
Indian Air Force
Coast Guard
Central Reserve Police
Force
Border Security Force
Territorial Army
Indo-Tibetan Border
Police
Central Industrial
Secuirty Force
National Cadet Corps
National Security
Guards
Military Nursing
Services

Formation Day
8-Oct-32
1-Feb-77
27 Jul 1939
(Raising Day)
1-Dec-65
9-Oct-49

Peace Keeper to the Nation


Duty unto Death
Valour, Determination and
24-Oct-62 Devotion to Duty

10-Mar-69 Protection and Security


15-Jul-48 Unity and Discipline
30-Mar-84 Sarvatra Sarvottam Suraksha
1-Oct-26 Service with a Smile

Ancient Indian Books


Books written by Kings
Ratnavali
Priyadarsika
Nagananda
Amuktamalayada
Tuzk-I-Jahangir
Babar Namah or Tuzke-Babari
Biographie
s of Kings
Harsha
Charita
Akbar-Nama
Prithviraj

Harshavardhan
a
Harshavardhan
a
Harshavardhan
a
Sri Krishna
Deva Raya
Jahangir
Babar

Bana Bhatt
Abul Fazl
Chand

Motto
Touching the Sky with Glory
We Protect

Raso
Humayun
Namah
Shah
Namah

Other books
Buddha
Charitam
Geet Govinda
Kumar
Sambhava
Meghdoot
Malavikagnim
itra
Raghuvansha
Mudra
Rakshasa
Panchatantra
Rajtarangini
Arthashastra
Padmavat
Kamasutra
Mudra
Rakshasa
Mrichchakatik
am

Bardai
Gulbadan
Begum
Firdausi

Ashwaghosha
Jaya Deva
Kalidasa
Kalidasa
Kalidasa
Kalidasa
Vishakha Datta
Vishnu Sharma
Kalhana
Kautilya
Malik Mohd
Jayasi
Vatsyayana
Vishakha Datta
Shudraka

Important points to remember on Vedas


There are four Vedas, Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva
Veda.
The Rig Veda is the oldest of all the Vedas.
Gayatri Mantra is contained in the Rig Veda. It is an invocation to
the Sun God.
Ayurveda has its origins in Atharva Veda.
Sacrificial hymns are contained in Yajurveda.
The chief God of the Rig Veda is Lord Indra
The Vedas are believed to have been complied by Krishna
Dwipayana also known as Ved Vyasa.
The Vedas have been written in Vedic Sanskrit.
The four Upvedas are Ayurveda, Dhanurveda, Gandharvaveda
(music), and Shilpaveda (art and architecture).

Schools of Vedic Philosophy

Philosophy
Sankhya or the Cosmic principle school
Yoga
Nyaya or the Logical school
Vaisheshak or the Atomic school
Purva Mimansa or the Ritualistic school
Uttara Mimansa or the Theological school
NOTE: Kanad who founded the Atomic School, is believed to have
propounded the theory of matter being indestructible and consisting of
tiny indivisible particles called parmanus. Each parmanu consists of many
'anus' (atoms) which are the smallest particles of a substance.
Four
venues of
Kumbh
Mela
Place

On the banks of

Nasik

Godavari

Ujjain
Prayag

Narmada
Confluence of the Ganga, Yamuna
and Saraswati

Haridwar

Ganga

State
Maharashtr
a
Madhya
Pradesh
Uttar
Pradesh
Uttarakhan
d

Four Dhams of Hinduism


Dham (Pilgrimage Place)
Puri

Devoted to
State
Lord Jagannath
Orissa
Sri
Badrinath
Badrinarayana
Uttarakhand
Dwaraka
Sri Krishna
Gujarat
Rameswaram
Lord Shiva
Tamilnadu
NOTE:The four dhams were defined by Adi Sankaracharya.
The Char Dham are often considered the most revered sites
for Hindus that have to be visited in one's lifetime.

Found
ed by
Kapila
Patanj
ali
Gauta
ma
Kanad
Jamini
Vyasa

The 12
Jyotirlingas
Name of the
Jyotirlinga
Somnath

Place
Saurashtra

Mallikarjun

Srisailam

Mahakaleshwar
Omkareshwar
Parli Vaijnath

Ujjain
Mammaleshwar
am
Deogarh

Bhima Shankar
Rameshwaram

Dakini
Setubandha

Nageshwar

Darukavana

Vishweshwar

Varanasi

Trimbakeshwar
Kedareshwar

Nasik
Kedarnath

Ghurmeshwar

Visalakam

State
Gujarat
Andhra
Pradesh
Madhya
Pradesh
Madhya
Pradesh
Jharkhand
Maharashtr
a
Tamilnadu
Maharashtr
a
Uttar
Pradesh
Maharashtr
a
Uttarkhand
Maharashtr
a

Important points to remember on Islam


The Islamic calendar is known as the Hijri. It starts from 622 A.D. the year
in which Prophet Mohammed from Mecca to Madina.
The Hijri has 12 lunar months and the year consists of 354 or 355 days.
The month of Ramadan (9th month) is the holiest of the 12 months in
which eating and drinking during daylight hours is prohibited. It is believed
that in this month the first verses of the Quran were revealed to the
Prophet.
Ramzan-Id or Id-ul-Fitr is celebrated on the first day of Shawwal, the 10th
month of Islamic calendar.
Id-e-Milad is the festival which celebrates the birth of Prophet Mohammed.
Moharrum is the mourning day for the Shias who mourn the death of Ali,
4th Caliph of Islam.
Moharrum is also the first month of the Islamic calendar. The day of
mourning, Moharrum falls on the 10th day of the month.
Id-u-zuha or Bakr-I-d, the story behind the celebration of the festival is that
Abraham on being ordered by God to sacrifice his son Ismael blindfolded
himself before killing. When he removed the blindfold he found his son safe
and ram slain on the altar.
Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca is performed during the month of Dhu al-

Hijja, the last month of the Islamic Calender. Bakr-I-d is celebrated on the
10th day of the same month.
The five important tenets of Islam which every devout Muslim is bound to
follow are
Offer Namaz five times a day
Believe that there is no God but Allah
Visit Mecca at least once in his life time i.e. perform Haz
Give alms to the poor
Fast in the month of
Ramadan.
Famous Dargahs of India
Dargah
Dargah of Sheikh Salim
Chisti
Dargah of Haji Ali
Dargah of Moinuddin Chisti
Dargah of Khwaja
Nizamuddin Awliya

Location
Fatehpur Sikri, near Agra in
Uttar Pradesh
Worli, Mumbai
Ajmer in Rajasthan
Delhi

Important points to remember on Christianity


The birth place of Jesus Christ is Bethlehum. Its present day location is
in West Bank.
The forty days period of fasting before Good Friday is called Lent.
Good Friday is the day of Jesus Christ death while Easter, the Sunday
which follows Good Friday is the day of his resurrection.
Judas Iscariot was, according to the New Testament, one of the twelve
original apostles of Jesus, and the one who betrayed him.
The first Christian saint to visit India was St Thomas in 52 A.D.
The country with the highest number of Christians in the world is the
United States of America.
The first authorized version of the Bible also known as King James
version was published in 1611.
The Ten Commandments were brought to the people from God by
Moses
Gregorian Calendar (Christian Era) came into being from 1582.
Introduced by Pope Gregory XIII to provide corrections in the Julian
Calendar.
Pope, the head of Roman Catholic Church resides in Vatican City, a
landlocked country in Italy, also the smallest country in the world.
All Saints Day is the day for all saints who have no special day of their
own. It is celebrated on 1 Nov every year. It is immediately followed by
All Souls Day on 2 Nov.

Important points to remember on Sikhism


Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism was born at Talwandi in Lahore district
of Pakistan, He is credited with starting the Langar (the system of
providing food to all visitors in Gurudwaras).
Guru Angad invented the Gurumukhi script
Guru Ramdas is credited with the establishment of the city of Amritsar.
Guru Arjun Dev is considered the author of the sacred text Guru Granth
Sahib He is also credited with the construction of the Golden Temple at
Amritsar. Guru Arjun Dev was tortured to death by the then Mughal
Emperor Jahangir.
Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed by Aurangzeb and Gurudwara Shish Ganj
in Delhi stands at the place where he was executed.
Guru Gobind Singh, the last guru founded the Khalsa Sect making it
mandatory for all Sikhs to possess five Ks
Kripan (a sword),
Kachcha (shorts),
Kesh (long hair),
Kada (bangle)
Kangha (Comb).
Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna in Bihar.
The ten Sikh Gurus in the order of succession are Nanak, Angad, Amardas,
Ramdas, Arjun, Hargovind, Har Rai, Har Kishan, Teg bahadur and Gobind
Singh.
Other religions and faiths
Baha'I Faith
Baha'I Faith originated in Iran
The founder of the faith was Baha-u-llah.
The Lotus temple at New Delhi belongs to
the Baha'I faith.
Judaism
The religion followed by Jews is known
as Judaism.
Judaism was founded by Moses.
The sacred text of the Jews is the
Torah.
The Jews place of worship is called the
Synagogue.

Zoroastrianism
The founder of Zoroastrianims is Zoroaster or Zarusthar.
It was formed around 6 BC in Iran.
Zoroastrians are also called Parsees.
The sacred book of the Parsees is Zend Avesta and their place of
worship is the Fire Temple
Parsee new year is called the Navroze.
The Tower of Silence or Dakhma is the place where Parsees
dispose off their dead.
Confucianism
The founder of Confucianism is Confucius, a Chinese teacher who
lived during 599 - 479 BC.
The Analects are the sacred texts of Confucianism.
Import
ant
Days
Date

Day
National
Youth
12-Jan Day

15-Jan Army Day


Internatio
nal
Holocaust
27-Jan Day
Martyr's
30-Jan Day
St.
Valentine'
14-Feb s Day
National
Science
28-Feb Day
Internatio
nal
Women's
8-Mar Day
World
Consume
15-Mar r Day
7-Apr World
Health

Remarks
Birthday of Swami Vivekananda
Field Marshall K.M. Cariappa took over the command of Army
on this day in 1949 from the British.
The largest Nazi death camp, Auschwitz-Birkenau, was
liberated by Soviet troops on Jan 27, 1945.
Martyrdom day of Mahatma Gandhi
-

President John F Kennedy formally addressed the issue of


consumer rights on this day in 1963.
WHO was formed on this day in 1948, but the first World
Health Day was observed in 1950.

1-May

8-May
11-May
21-May
5-Jun
11-Jul
12-Jul
6-Aug
9-Aug
20-Aug
29-Aug
5-Sep

8-Sep
14-Sep
27-Sep

2-Oct
8-Oct

Day
Internatio
nal
Worker's
Day
Internatio
nal Red
Cross
Day
National
Technolo
gy Day
Antiterrorism
Day
World
Environm
ent Day
World
Populatio
n Day
Malala
Day
Hiroshim
a Day
August
Kranti
Diwas
Sadbhaw
na Diwas
National
Sports
Day
Teacher's
Day
Internatio
nal
Literacy
Day
Hindi
Diwas
World
Tourism
Day
Internatio
nal Nonviolence
Day
Indian Air

JH Dunant, the man behind Red Cross was on this day in


1828.
Nuclear tests at Pokhran carried out in 1998 on this day.
Former PM Shri Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated on this day in
1991.
Inspired by 5 Billion Day in 1987
Birthday of Malala Yousafzai
Bombing of Hiroshima on 6 Aug, 1945
Launch of Quit India Movement in 1942
Birthday of Shri Rajiv Gandhi (1944)
Birthday of Shri Dhyanchand (1905)
Birthday of Dr. Radhakrishanan (1888)

Hindi accorded the Official language status by the


Constituent Assembly on this day in 1949.
Statutes of United Nations World Tourism Organisation
adopted on this day in 1980.

Birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (1869)


IAF was officially established on this day in 1932.

24-Oct
31-Oct
11-Nov
14-Nov
1-Dec
4-Dec
7-Dec
10-Dec
16-Dec
18-Dec
24-Dec
25-Jan

Force
Day
United
Nations
Day
National
Integratio
n Day
National
Education
Day
Children's
Day
World
AIDS Day
Navy Day
Armed
Forces
Flag Day
Human
Rights'
Day
Vijay
Diwas
Minorities
Rights
Day
National
Consume
rs' Day
National
Voters'
Day

Charter of the United Nations came into force on this day in


1945.
Martyrdom day of Smt Indira Gandhi (1984)
Birthday of Shri Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888), the first
Education Minister of India.
Birthday of Shri Jawaharlal Nehru (1889)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights was proclaimed and
adopted on this day in 1948.
Marks India's victory over Pakistan in the Indo-Pak war in
1971.
United Nations adopted and promulgated the Declaration on
the Rights of Persons belonging to National or Ethnic,
Religious and Linguistic Minorities on this day in 1992.
With effect from 2011

Importa
nt Years
in
Indian
History
1851 to
2000
Year

Event
First telegraph line in India is operational between Calcutta and
1851 Diamond Harbour.
1853 First train in India runs from Bombay to Thane.
First war of Indian independence also called the Sepoy Mutiny by the
1857 British.

The first complete census of population conducted on a uniform basis


1881 throughout India.
Formation of Indian National Congress by A.O. Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji,
1885 Dinshaw Wacha, W.C. Bonnerjee and others.
1905 Partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon. Swadeshi Movement launched.
Indian Council Act popularly known as Minto Morley reforms allowing a
1909 limited increase in the involvement of Indians in governance passed.
Visit of King George V to India, Shifting of capital from Calcutta to Delhi.
Jana Gana Mana first sung at Calcutta session of INC. Launch of first air
1911 mail in India & World from Bumraulli to Allahabad.
Government of India Act, 1919 introducing dyarchy, Rowlatt Act,
1919 Jallianwala Bagh tragedy.
1920 Khilafat movement, Launch of Non-cooperation movement.
Chauri Chaura outrage in UP, Suspension of Non-cooperation
1922 movement.
1928 Visit of Simon Commission to India, Death of Lala Lajpat Rai
Resolution of complete independence at Lahore session of Indian
1929 National Congress.
1930 Dandi March, Launch of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
1931 Gandhi Irwin pact, execution of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru.
1935 Government of India Act.
1942 Quit India movement, Formation of Azad Hind Fauz.
1943 Visit of Cripps Commission to India.
1946 British Cabinet mission visited India.
1947 Independence and partition of India.
1948 Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, 1st Pak aggression
1950 India became republic
1951 1st Five year plan and 1st Asian Games in Delhi
1952 1st General elections
1954 Panchasheel signed by India and China
1956 Reorganisation of Indian states on linguistic basis
1957 Introduction of decimal system in currency
1959 First television service started in India in New Delhi.
1961 Liberation of Goa from the Portuguese
1962 Chinese aggression
1964 Death of Jawaharlal Nehru
1965 Indo-Pak war
1966 Death of Lal Bahadur Shastri
Split in Indian National Congress and nationalisation of 14 banks. India's
1969 first Atomic Power Station Tarapur commences commercial operation.
1971 Indo-Pak war
1972 Simla agreement signed between India and Pakistan
First nuclear test codenamed Smiling Buddha carried out at Pokhran
1974 (Rajasthan)(May 18).
1975 First Indian satellite Aryabhatta launched, Imposition of Emergency in

1977
1980
1982
1984
1991
1992
1995
1998
1999

the country.
Congress loses power for the first time at the centre
Return of Congress to power, nationalisation of six more banks.
Colour television comes to India. IX Asian Games held in Delhi.
Death of Indira Gandhi.
Death of Rajiv Gandhi. Commencement of economic liberalisation in
India.
Demolition of Babri Masjid.
Internet comes to India.
Indias second nuclear test codenamed Operation Shakti.
Kargil invasion by Pakistani troops.

Important Years in World History


Event
Birth of Jesus Christ
Death of Jesus Christ
Birth of Prophet Mohammed
Emigration of Mohammed to Madina, Beginning of Hijri era
Death of Prophet Mohammed
Magna Carta, first document limiting the powers of KIng of
Enland was signed
Black Death, most devastating pandemic in Europe killed over
100 million people
100 years war between England and France
Christopher Columbus discovers the New World
Vasco da Gama discovers the sea route from Europe to India
Defeat of Spanish Armada also known as Invincible Fleet by
England
Great Plague of London which killed about 1 million people in
the city
Great fire of London which destroyed about 70000 homes in
the city
7 years war involving the great powers of the time
Declaration of independence of United States of America
Beginning of the French Revolution
Battle of Waterloo in which Napolean was defeated
The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
published
On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin published
Slavery is abolished by the 13th Amendment in the United
States of America
First modern Olympic Games held at Athens
Robert Peary reached the North Pole

Year
4 B.C.
29 A.D.
570
622
632
1215
1348-50
1337-1453
1492
1497-98
1588
1665-66
1666 (2 - 5
Sep)
1757-1763
1776
1789
1815
1848
1859
1865
1896
1909

Roald Amundsen reached the South Pole


Republic of China is established, Titanic sinks
1st World War
Russian Revolution ending the Tsarist autocracy
USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) came into existence
Beginning of the Great Depression
2nd World War
Dropping of Atom Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Launch of Sputnik 1, marking the beginning of space age
Chernobyl disaster
World Wide Web invented
End of apartheid in South Africa
9/11 attack on World Trade Center
Tsunami in Indian Ocean

1911
1912
1914-1918
1917
1922
1929
1939-1945
1945
1957
1986
1990
1994
2001
2004

Human Anatomy - Facts to remember


Longest bone in human body
Smallest bone
Hardest material in the human body
Strongest muscle
Largest external organ
Largest internal organ
Smallest gland
Largest artery
Smallest blood vessel
Element most common in human body
Mineral most common in human body
Compound most common in human body
Pigment which gives a dark colour to the skin
Nails are modification of
Muscles are attached to bones by connective
tissues called
Bones are attached to bones by
Sebaceous glands in human body secrete
Lachrymal glands in human body secrete
The volume of blood in an adult is
The total number of bones in human body is
The most common type of blood group is
Scientific

Femur (thigh bone)


Stapes in the middle ear
Tooth enamel
Jaw muscle
Skin
Liver
Pituitary
Aorta
Capillary
Oxygen (65%)
Calcium
Water
Melanin
Epidermis (external
layer of skin)
Tendons
Ligaments
Sebum or oil
Tears
4.7 to 5 litres
206
Type O+

Names of
Body Parts
Common
Name
Collar bone
Thigh bone
Knee cap
Shoulder
blade
White blood
cells
Red blood
cells
Oil glands
Windpipe
Foodpipe

Scientific Name
Clavicle
Femur
Patella
Scapula
Leukocytes
Erythrocytes
Sebaceous
glands
Larynx
Esophagus

Glands
and
Secretions
Gland
Pituitary
Gland
Pancreas
Liver
Adrenal
Glands
Ovaries
Testis
Thyroid
Pineal
Gland
Stomach
Small
Intestine

Secretion
Corticotropin, Thyrotropin, Lutropin, Somatotropin,
Prolactin, Oxytocin
Insulin, Glucagon, Somatostatin, Pancreatic juice
Thrombopoietin, Bile
Aldosterone, Cortisol, Epinephrine (or adrenaline),
Norepinephrine
Progesterone, Estrogen
Testosterone
Thyroxine, Calcitonin.
Melatonin
Gastrin
Cholecystokinin, Secretin

Nobel Prize Winners from India

Person
1 Rabindranath
Tagore

Field
Literature

Year
Contribution
1913 Because of his profoundly sensitive,
fresh and beautiful verse, by which,

2 C.V. Raman

Physics

1930

Har Gobind
3 Khorana*
4 Mother Teresa

Medicine
Peace

1968
1979

Physics
Economic
Sciences

1983

Chemistry

2009

Subrahmanyam
5 Chandrasekhar
6 Amartya Sen
Venkatraman
7 Ramakrishnan**

1998

with consummate skill, he has made


his poetic thought, expressed in his
own English words, a part of the
literature of the West.
For his work on the scattering of light
and for the discovery of the effect
named after him.
For their interpretation of the genetic
code and its function in protein
synthesis.
Humanitarian work.
For his theoretical studies of the
physical processes of importance to
the structure and evolution of the
stars.
For his contributions to welfare
economics.
For studies of the structure and
function of the ribosome.

*Jointly with Robert W. Holley and Marshall W. Nirenberg


**Jointly with Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath
In addition to the above, Ronald Ross who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1902 and
Rudyard Kipling who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907 were born in India. Sir
Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul, who was
awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2001 is a British citizen of Indian origin born in Trinidad.

Nobel Prize Winners from China


#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
*Jointly with Robert B. Laughlin, Horst
L. Strmer

Person
Tsung Dao Lee
Chen Ning Yang
Tenzin Gyatso (14th
Dalai Lama)
Daniel C. Tsui*
Gao Xingjian
Charles K Kao
Liu Xiaobo
Mo Yan

Nobel Prize Winners from Pakistan


#

Person

Field

Yea

Contribution

r
Abdus
1 Salam

Physi
cs

Contributions to the theory of the unified weak and


197 electromagnetic interaction between elementary
9 particles.

Nobel Prize Winners from Myanmar


#

Person
Aung Saan Suu
1 Kyi

Field
Peac
e

Year

Contribution
For her non-violent struggle for
1991 democracy and human rights.

Nobel Prize Winners from Bangladesh


#

Person
Muhammud Yunus
1 and Grameen Bank

Field
Peac
e

Year Contribution
200 For their efforts to create economic and
6 social development from below.

Points to remember on Olympic Games


First ancient Olympic Games were held in 776 B.C. in honour of Greek God
Zeus.
First modern Olympic Games were held in 1896 in Athens, Greece.
Olympic Games are so called because they were held in the city of
Olympia.
The person known as the father of modern Olympic Games is Pierre de
Coubertin.
The International Olympic Committee which was formed by Pierre de
Coubertin in 1894 has its headquarters at Lausanne, Switzerland.
Olympic Motto is "Citius-Altius-Fortius"(swifter, higher, stronger).
The colours of the five rings on the Olympic symbol representing five
continents (The Americas are treated as one continent) are Red, blue,
green, yellow, and black.
The Olympic flag was first flown during the 1920 Olympic Games at
Antwerp, Belgium. The Olympic symbol appears on the Olympic flag which
has a white background.
The Olympic oath was written by Pierre de Coubertin. One athlete recites
the oath on behalf of all the athletes at the opening ceremony. The
Olympic oath was first taken during the 1920 Olympic Games by Belgian
fencer Victor Boin.
The first opening ceremonies were held during the 1908 Olympic Games in
London.
The Greek team always leads the procession of athletes in the opening
ceremony followed by all the other teams in alphabetical order in the
language of the hosting country. The last team is always the team of the
hosting country.

Olympic games were not held in the following years due to the two world
wars 1916, 1940 and 1944.
Women participated for the first time at the Paris Olympic Games of 1900.
The country which won the most medals at the first Olympic Summer
Games in 1896 - Greece (47)
The Olympic flame made its first appearance at the 1928 Amsterdam
Olympic Games.
The cities which have the held the summer Olympics twice are Athens
(1896 & 2004), Paris (1900 & 1924), London (1908 & 1948) and Los
Angeles (1932 & 1984)
The city which has the hosted the summer Olympics thrice is London
(1908, 1948 and 2012)
The country which has hosted the summer Olympics the maximum
number of times is the United States - Los Angeles (1932 & 1984), St.
Louis (1904) and Atlanta (1996)
To qualify as an Olympic sport, that sport must be widely played by men in
at least 75 countries and on four continents, and by women in at least 40
countries and on three continents.
Indian Medal
Winners at the
Olympic Games
Person

Medal

Norman Pitchard

Silver

Norman Pitchard

Silver
Bronz
e
Bronz
e
Bronz
e

KD Jadhav
Leander Paes
Karnam Malleswari
Rajyavardhan Singh
Rathore

Event
200 m
dash
200 m
hurdles
Wrestling
Tennis
Weightlifti
ng

Silver

Shooting
Shooting

Vijender Kumar

Gold
Bronz
e
Bronz
e

Vijay Kumar

Silver

Shooting

Sushil Kumar

Silver
Bronz
e

Wrestling

Abhinav Bindra
Sushil Kumar

Yogeshwar Dutt

Wrestling
Boxing

Wrestling

Year

Venue

1900 Paris
1900 Paris
Helsin
1952 ki
Atlant
1996 a
Sydne
2000 y
Athen
2004 s
Beijin
2008 g
Beijin
2008 g
Beijin
2008 g
Londo
2012 n
Londo
2012 n
Londo
2012 n

Bronz
e
Bronz
e
Bronz
e

Mary Kom
Saina Nehwal
Gagan Narang

Boxing
Badminto
n
Shooting

Londo
2012 n
Londo
2012 n
Londo
2012 n

Indian
Hocke
y
Medal
s at
the
Olym
pic
Game
s
Year

Venue
Amsterd
1928 am
Los
1932 Angeles

Medal

Captain

Gold

Jaipal Singh

Gold

Lal Bokhari

1936 Berlin

Gold

Dhyanchand

1948 London

Gold

Kishan Lal

1952 Helsinki
Melbour
1956 ne
1960 Rome

Gold

K.D. Singh

Gold
Silver

Balbir Singh Sr
Leslie Claudius

1964 Tokyo
Mexico
1968 City

Charanjit Singh

1972 Munich

Gold
Bronz
e
Bronz
e

1980 Moscow

Gold

Gurbux Singh
Harmeek Singh
Vasudevan
Bhaskaran

Remarks
Netherlands Silver
United States Silver
Germany Silver
Great Britain Silver
Netherlands Silver
Pakistan Silver
Pakistan - Gold
Pakistan Silver
Pakistan - Gold
West Germany
- Gold
Spain - Silver

First in Sports - Indians


Achievement
The first Indian to win an individual medal at the Olympic
Games

Sportsperson
KD Jadhav

The first Indian to win a gold medal at the Olympic Games


The first Indian woman to win an individual medal at the
Olympic Games
The first Indian (also the first Asian) to win the Wimbledon
junior Singles title
The first Indian to win a Grand Slam title (French Open mixed
doubles title in 1997)
The first Indian to achieve a career Grand Slam in mixed
doubles
The first Indian to achieve a career Grand Slam in doubles
The first Indian to become a world champion in billiards
India's first Grandmaster and also the first Indian to win the
FIDE World Chess Championship
The first Indian to win the under 10 World Chess
Championship
The first Indian to win the All England Badminton
Championship
The first Indian gymnast to win a medal at the
Commonwealth Games
The first Indian woman to receive the Grandmaster's title
The youngest Indian to win the Grandmaster title
The youngest Indian to captain its test cricket team
The first Indian to swim across the English Channel
The first Indian woman (also Asian woman) to swim across
the English Channel
The first woman in the world to swim the seven seas
The first Indian woman to win a gold medal at the Asian
Games
The first Indian women athlete to win a medal at a world
event (Bronze at World Athletics Championship, 2003)
The first Indian woman to win a Grand Slam title
The first Indian to win the World Junior Badminton
Championships and also to win a Super Series tournament,
(by clinching the Indonesia Open)
1st recipient of Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award
1st woman recipient of Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award
1st recipient of Dhyanchand Lifetime Achievement Award
1st cricket player to be awarded the Arjuna Award
1st Indian to win Olympic medals at two consecutive
Olympic Games
Stadiu

Abhinav Bindra
Karnam Malleswari
Ramanathan
Krishnan (in 1954)
Mahesh Bhupathi
Mahesh Bhupathi
(2006)
Leander Paes
(2012)
Wilson Jones
Vishwanathan
Anand
P. Harikrishna
Prakash Padukone
Ashish Kumar
Koneru Humpy
Parimarjan Negi
(13 years 3 months
and 22 days)
Mansoor Ali Khan
Pataudi
Mihir Sen (1958)
Aarti Saha (1959)
Bula Chaudhary
Kamaljit Sandhu
Anju Bobby George
Sania Mirza
Saina Nehwal
Viswanathan
Anand
Karnam Malleswari
Aparna Ghosh
Salim Durrani
Sushil Kumar

ms in
India

Name of the
Stadium
1 Salt Lake Stadium
Jawaharlal Nehru
2 Stadium
Sardar Patel
3 Stadium
4 Feroz Shah Kotla
Wankhede
5 Stadium
Green Park
6 Stadium
Chinnaswamy
7 Stadium
Balayogi Athletic
8 Stadium
Lal Bahadur
9 Stadium
Sawai Man Singh
10 Stadium
11 Fatorda Stadium
Brabourne
12 Stadium
Eden Gardens
13 Stadium
Chidambaram
14 Stadium
15 Keenan Stadium
16 Barabati Stadium
Maulana Azad
17 Stadium
18 Mithilesh Stadium

Location
Kolkata
New
Delhi
Ahmeda
bad
New
Delhi
Mumbai
Kanpur
Bengalur
u
Hyderab
ad
Hyderab
ad
Jaipur
Margao
Mumbai
Kolkata
Chennai
Jamshed
pur
Cuttack
Jammu
Patna

Most Men's/Women's Grand Slam Singles Titles


Most Australian Open Singles Titles

Category
1 Men
2 Men

Player
Roger Federer
Andre Agassi

Country
Switzerland
United States

No. of
titles
4
4

1 Women
Most French Open Singles Titles

Category
1 Men
2 Men
1 Women
2 Women
Most Wimbledon Singles Titles

#
1
2
1
2
Most US Open

Category
Men
Men
Women
Women
Singles Titles

Serena Williams

Player
Rafael Nadal
Bjorn Borg
Chris Evert
Steffi Graf

Player
Roger Federer
Pete Sampras
Martina Navratilova
Steffi Graf

Player
Nationality
1 Men
Roger Federer
2 Men
Pete Sampras
3 Men
Jimmy Connors
1 Women
Chris Evert
2 Women
Steffi Graf
Most total singles/doubles titles in the Open era

#
1
2
3
4
5
6

Player
Maximum number of Grand Slam
Singles titles
Maximum number of Grand Slam
Womens' Singles titles
Maximum number of Grand Slam
Doubles titles
Maximum number of Grand Slam
Womens' Doubles titles
Maximum number of Grand Slam
Doubles titles among women
Maximum number of Grand Slam
Doubles titles among men

Human Anatomy - Facts to remember

United States

No. of
titles

Country
Spain
Sweden
United States
Germany

8
6
7
6

No. of
titles

Country
Switzerland
United States
United States
Germany

7
7
9
7

No. of
titles

Country
Switzerland
United States
United States
United States
Germany

Record

5
5
5
7
6

No.
of
titles

Mens'

Mens'

Mixed
Mixed

Roger Federer

17

Steffi Graf
Todd
Woodbridge
Martina
Navratilova
Martina
Navratilova
Mahesh
Bhupathi

22
16
31
10
8

Longest bone in human body


Smallest bone
Hardest material in the human body
Strongest muscle
Largest external organ
Largest internal organ
Smallest gland
Largest artery
Smallest blood vessel
Element most common in human body
Mineral most common in human body
Compound most common in human body
Pigment which gives a dark colour to the skin
Nails are modification of
Muscles are attached to bones by connective
tissues called
Bones are attached to bones by
Sebaceous glands in human body secrete
Lachrymal glands in human body secrete
The volume of blood in an adult is
The total number of bones in human body is
The most common type of blood group is

Femur (thigh bone)


Stapes in the middle ear
Tooth enamel
Jaw muscle
Skin
Liver
Pituitary
Aorta
Capillary
Oxygen (65%)
Calcium
Water
Melanin
Epidermis (external
layer of skin)
Tendons
Ligaments
Sebum or oil
Tears
4.7 to 5 litres
206
Type O+

Scientific Names of Body Parts


Common
Name
Collar bone
Thigh bone
Knee cap
Shoulder blade
White blood
cells
Red blood cells
Oil glands
Windpipe
Foodpipe

Scientific
Name
Clavicle
Glands and
Femur
Patella
Gland
Scapula
Leukocytes
Pituitary
Gland
Erythrocytes
Sebaceous
Pancreas
glands
Liver
Larynx
Esophagus
Adrenal
Glands
Ovaries
Testis
Thyroid
Pineal
Gland
Stomach
Small
Intestine

Secretions
Secretion
Corticotropin, Thyrotropin,
Lutropin, Somatotropin,
Prolactin, Oxytocin
Insulin, Glucagon, Somatostatin,
Pancreatic juice
Thrombopoietin, Bile
Aldosterone, Cortisol,
Epinephrine (or adrenaline),
Norepinephrine
Progesterone, Estrogen
Testosterone
Thyroxine, Calcitonin.
Melatonin
Gastrin
Cholecystokinin, Secretin

Body Cavities and Organs


Main Cavity
Dorsal
Cavity
Spinal
Cavity
Ventral
Cavity
Pleural
Cavity
Pericardial
Cavity
Abdominop
elvic Cavity
Pelvic
Cavity

Sub Cavity

Sub Cavity

Cranial Cavity
Spinal Cord
Thoracic Cavity
Lungs
Heart
Abdominal
Cavity
Colon, rectum,
urinary
bladder, uterus
(in females)

Stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen,


intestines, kidneys and ovaries (in female). [Note:
The peritoneal cavity surrounds the abdominal
organs.]

Gases - Facts to remember


Fact to remember
Gas used in LPG
Tear Gas
Gas with foul smell
Laughing gas
Gas used in refrigeration
Freon, the gas used in refrigeration is
chemically
Gobar gas is a mixture of
Gas mixed with oxygen and given to patients
with restricted breathing
A major air pollutant, the percentage presence
of which is checked in vehicle pollution test
The gas which is responsible for the formation
of brown air in traffic congested cities
Major gaseous pollutant of areas located near
thermal power station
Natural gas
Strong smelling substance added to LPG
Gases responsible for depletion of ozone layer
Gas used in gas welding and also artificial

Name of the gas


Butane, Propane and Ethane
Ammonia (NH3)
Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)
Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
Freon
Diflouro Dichloro Methane
Methane, CO2 and hydrogen
Helium
Carbon monoxide
Nitrogen oxide
Suphur dioxide
Mainly methane with small
quantities of ethane and propane
Ethyl Mercaptan or Ethanethiol
Chloroflouro carbons
Acetylene

ripening of fruits
Gas used in electric bulbs
Gas used in flourescent lamps
Gas known as marsh gas
Gas responsible for acid rain
Gas most abundant in earth's atmosphere
Percentage of oxygen in earth's atmosphere

Argon
Mercury vapour
Methane
Sulphur dioxide
Nitrogen (78%)
21% (appx)

Atmospheric Layers

Layer
Troposphere
Extends from the Earth's surface to about 20 km of height.
The height of the troposphere varies from the equator to the poles
increasing towards the equator.
The temperature in the troposphere decreases with height.
All weather phenomenon occurs in this region.
The transition boundary between the troposphere and the layer above
is called the tropopause.
Stratosphere
Extends from the top of Troposphere to about 50 km above Earth's
surface.
The temperature increases with height.
The ozone layer is found in the lower portion of the stratosphere.
The transition boundary between the stratosphere and the mesophere
is called the stratopause.
Mesosphere
Extends from the top of Stratosphere to about 85 km above Earth's
surface.
The temperature decreases with height.
Most of the meteors burn up in this layer.
The transition boundary between the mesophere and the thermosphere
is called the mesopause.
Thermosphere
Extends from the top of Mesosphere to about 600 km above Earth's
surface.
The temperature increases greatly with height reaching upto 2000 at
the top of the layer.
The ionosphere is a layer within the thermosphere.
Auroras are formed in this layer.
Exosphere
Extends from the top of Thermosphere to about 10000 km above
Earth's surface.
Satellites orbit the earth in this layer.

Featur
es

Metals - Some facts


Fact to remember
Metal most abundant in earths crust
Metal which forms amalgam with other elements
Metal used in a fuse wire and also in solder
Metal used in the filament of a bulb
Metal which pollutes the air of cities having large
number of vehicles
Metal used in the filaments of electric heaters
Metal used as radiation shield
Metal into which Uranium turns when it loses all
its radioactivity
Metal used for making boats because it does not
corrode by seawater
Important Alloys
Alloy
Duralumi
n
Brass
Bronze
Invar
Stainless
steel
German
Silver
Gunmet
al
Solder
Electrum

Combination of
Aluminium and
Copper
Copper and Zinc
Copper and Tin
Iron and Nickel
Iron, Chromium
and Nickel
Copper, Nickel and
Zinc
Copper, Tin and
Zinc
Lead and Tin
Gold and Silver

Ores of Metals
Metal
Alumini
um
Berylliu
m
Chromiu
m

Ore
Bauxite
Beryl
Chromite

Name of the metal


Aluminium
Mercury
Lead-tin alloy
Tungsten
Lead (reason for using
unleaded petrol)
Nichrome
Lead
Lead
Titanium

Cobalt
Copper
Gold
Iron
Lead
Mangan
ese
Mercury
Nickel
Tin
Tungste
n
Silver
Uranium
Zinc

Cobaltite
Bornite,
Chalcocite
Quartz
Magnetite
Galena
Pyrolusite
Cinnabar
Pentlandite
Casseterite
Wolframite,
Scheelite
Argentite
Uraninite
Sphalerite
Units of Measurement

Physical Quantity
Pressure
Force
Heat
Relative loudness
of sound
Current
Potential
difference
Power

Unit of
Measurement
Pascal
Newton and
Dyne
Calorie
Decibel
Ampere
Volts
Watt, Erg, Horse
Power

Scientific Principle: Applications/Visible effects


Application/Visible Effect
Hydraulic Brakes
Sky appears blue
Global warming
Theory of flight
Rainbow appears
Mirages are formed
Recoil of a gun

Scientific Principle
Pascals law
Refraction
Greenhouse effect
Bernoullis theorem
Dispersion of light
(Refraction) Total Internal Reflection
Newtons third law of motion

Ship stays afloat


Food cooks faster in a
pressure cooker

Archimedes principle
Boiling point of a liquid increases with
increase in pressure

Instruments and their uses.


Instrumen
t
Bolometer
Hydromet
er
Hygromet
er
Lactomete
r
Anemome
ter
Salinomet
er
Altimeter
Galvanom
eter

Telescope
Microsco
pe
Stethosc
ope
Kaleidosc
ope
Endoscop
e
Oscillosc
ope
Periscope

Use
Instrument for measuring radiation by means of the
rise in temperature.
Instrument for measuring the density of liquids.
Instrument for measuring the humidity of the air or a
gas
Instrument for measuring the amount of water in milk
Instrument for measuring wind force.
Instrument for measuring the salinity of a solution
Instrument for measuring the altitude of an aircraft
etc.
Instrument for detecting and measuring electric
currents
Scopes
Optical instrument using lenses or mirrors to magnify distant
objects.
Instrument with lenses for magnifying objects or details invisible
to the naked eye.
Instrument used in listening to the heart, lungs, etc. [Greek
stethos breast]
Tube containing mirrors and pieces of coloured glass etc.
producing changing reflected patterns when shaken.
Instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or
cavity of the body
Device for viewing oscillations by a display on the screen of a
cathode-ray tube.
Apparatus with a tube and mirrors, by which an observer in a
trench, submerged submarine, or at the back of a crowd etc., can
see things otherwise out of sight
Graphs

Crescogra
ph

Instrument for measuring growth in plants

Seismogr
aph
Cardiogra
ph
Heliograp
h
Radiograp
h

Instrument that records the force, direction, etc.,


of earthquakes.
Instrument recording heart movements.
Signalling apparatus reflecting sunlight in flashes.
Instrument recording the intensity of radiation
Phenomenon of Light - Visible Effects

Phenomenon
Refraction of light
Day is lengthened
Stars appear to twinkle
Mirages are formed
Sun or moon appears larger in size
when at horizon
Stick immersed in water appears bent
at the point of separation
A person standing inside water
appears shorter
Dispersion of light
Interference of light
Scattering of light rays of small
wavelengths
Sun appears red during sunrise and
sunset

Visible Effect

Rainbows are formed


Beautiful colours are seen in soap
bubbles and oil films on water
Sky appears blue

Light - Facts to Remember


Facts to Remember
The speed of light
Colour of light with smallest wavelength
Colour of light with longest wavelength
Three dimensional imaging using interference
of light is known as
System of light excitation used in surgeries,
printers etc
The colour of light which is most conducive to
photosynthesis
The study of properties and behaviour of light
is known as

186,000 miles per second or


300,000,000 m/s
Violet
Red
Holography
LASER
Blue
Optics

Sound - Facts to Remember


Facts to Remember
The speed of sound is
The audible range of sound in human beings is
The level of sound prolonged exposure beyond which may
cause permanent hearing loss
A womans voice is shriller than a mans voice because of
higher
The animals which produce sounds of high pitch and
frequency to communicate and locate each other
The loudness of sound is measured in
Stringed instruments have boxes attached to increase the
The minimum distance which is required to hear an echo
The system of sound reflection used to find the depth of
oceans
The phenomenon which makes the sound of an
approaching train shriller
Sounds cannot travel in vacuum
Sounds travel faster in metals than in air
Sonic boom occurs when a super sonic aircraft crosses the
sound barrier

343 m/s
20 Hz to 20,000
Hz
85 dB
Pitch
Dolphins and
elephants
Decibels
Loudness of the
sound produced
17 metres
SONAR (Sound
navigation
ranging)
Doppler effect

Differences between Sound and Light Waves


Light Waves
Light waves do not require a
medium to travel.
The speed of light waves is 3 x
108 metres per second
Light waves are
electromagnetic waves.
Variation in frequency of wave
gives different colours.
Light waves can travel very
long distances
Basic Information on Plants
Largest, tallest

Sound Waves
Sound waves require a medium to travel.
Sound waves travel at a speed of 332 m/sec
Sound waves are mechanical waves.
Variation in frequency of sound waves gives
sound with different pitch.
Sound waves cannot travel long distances as
their energy is dissipated easily.

etc.
Largest flower
Smallest
flowering plant
Largest treegrown fruit
Tallest grass
Tallest tree

Rafflesia
Wolffia
Jackfruit
Bamboo
Coast
Redwood

Plant products
The plant from which opium (rich source of morphine) is
obtained
The plant from which Marijuana is obtained
The plant from which the drug cocaine is obtained
The plant from which anti-malarial drug quinine is
obtained
The plant from which anti-hypertensive drug reserpine
is obtained
The plant from which chicory commonly used as a
substitute for coffee, is obtained
The tree from which turpentine is obtained
The tree that yields an aromatic medicinal oil also
known as Niligiri tel
The plant from which a blue dye for use in textile
industry is obtained
The plant from which bio-diesel is being produced
The aquatic plant which is known as Terror of Bengal

Poppy (Papaver
Somniferum)
Cannabis
Coca plant
Cinchona
Rauwolfia serpentina or
Sarpaghanda
Cichorium intybus
Pine tree
Eucalyptus
Indigo
Jatropha
Water Hyacinth

Plant parts
The part of the plant that is clove
The part of the plant that is used as a condiment from cinnamon
tree
The part of the plant that is potato/ginger
The part of the plant that is eaten in coconut
The part of the plant from which coffee is obtained
The part of the plant that yields sugar in sugarcane
The part of the plant that yields saffron spice
The part of the plant through which the plants respire
The small pores through which plants respire and also eliminate
water are known as
The part of the flower which receives pollen grains during
pollination
The pigment found in plants which make them appear green

Flower
bud
bark
Stem
Seed
Seed
Stem
Stigma
Leaf
Stomata
Stigma
Chloroph

yll
Plant processes
The process by which plants manufacture food
The process by which roots absorb water and minerals from the soil
The process by which plants lose water especially through leaves
(but also stem, flowers etc.) is known as
The phenomenon by which plants' growth is directed towards light is
known as
The phenomenon by which plants grow or respond to touch is known
as

Photosysth
esis
Osmosis
Transpiratio
n
Phototropis
m
Thigmotrop
ism

Types of plants
Name
Epiphyte
Hydroph
yte
Thalloph
yte
Xerophyt
e

Type
A plant that grows upon another plant.
A plant adapted for growth in water or wet
soil.
A plant that has simple body without root,
stem or leaves.
A plant adapted to live in dry places

Studies related to plants


Name
Horticultur
e
Floricultur
e
Viticulture
Olericultur
e
Arboricult
ure
Pomology
Phycology
Mycology
Paleobota
ny

Description
The cultivation of flowers, fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants.
The cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants.
Viticulture is the science, production and study of grapes.
Olericulture is the science of vegetable growing, dealing with the culture
of non-woody (herbaceous) plants for food.
Arborculture is the cultivation, management, and study of individual
trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants.
Science that deals with fruits and fruit growing.
Science that deals with the study of algae or seaweeds.
Science that deals with the study of fungi.
Science that deals with the study of fossil plants.

Plants Propagated by
Vegetative Methods
Plant
Apple
Lemon
Orange
Grapefr
uit
Date
Grapes
Pineapp
le
Sugar
cane
Tea
Banana
Rose
Jasmine

Method
grafting
grafting
grafting
grafting
sucker removal
stem cuttings,
grafting
stem cuttings
stem cuttings
stem cuttings
sucker removal
stem cuttings
stem cuttings

Pollination by different agents


Name of
Pollination
Anemophily
Hydrophily
Melittophily
Psychophily
Phalaenophily
Myophily
Ornithophily
Chiropterophil
y
Cantharophily

Agent of
Pollination
Wind
Water
Bees
Butterfly
Moth
Fly
Bird
Bat
Beetle

Plant Nutrients
Mineral
Nutrients
Macronutrie
nts
Primary
Nutrients

Non-mineral
Nutrients
Micronutrients
Secondary
Nutrients

Hydrog
en
Oxyge
n
Carbon
-

Nitrogen

Calcium

Boron

Potassium
Phosphorus
-

Magnesium
Sulphur
-

Copper
Iron
Chloride
Manganes
e
Molybden
um
Zinc
-

Scientific Names - Vegetables

Scientific Name
Allium cepa
Solanum
tubersum
Cucumis sativas
Lactuca sativa
Daucas carota
Lycopersican
esculentum
Solanum
melongena
Raphanus sativus
Capsicum
fruitscence

Common
Name
Onion
Potato
Cucumber
Spinach
Carrot
Tomato
Brinjal
Radish
Capsicum

Scientific Names Cereal, Pulses, Millets

Scientific Name
Zea Mays
Oryza Sativa, Oryza
Glaberrima
Triticum Aestivum
Sorghum Vulgare
Dolichos biffoeus
Cojonus Cgjan
Phaseolies auicus

Common
Name
Maize
Rice
Wheat
Jowar
Horse
Gram
Red Gram
Green
Gram

Black
Gram

Plasoes Mungo

Common and Scientific


Names of fruits
Scientific
Name
Mangifera
indica
Pyrus malus
Citrullus
vulgaris
Citrus
Limonium
Citrus
aurantium
Musa
paradisicum
Psidium
guava
Ananus
sativus

Common
Name
Mango
Apple
Watermelo
n
Lemon
Orange
Banana
Guava
Pineapple

Common and Scientific Names - Spices

Scientific Name
Zingiber officinale
Allium Sativum
Piper nigrum
Syzygium aromaticum
Curcuma longa
Common and Scientific Names - Other
Plants and Trees
Scientific Name
Azadhirachta
Indica
Neem
Ficus
Benghalensis
Banyan
Nicotina
Tobaccum
Tobacco
Bamboosa
Bamboo

Common
Name
Ginger
Garlic
Black
Pepper
Clove
Turmeric

Aridinarifolia
Ocimum Sanctum Tulsi
Sandalwo
Santalum Album
od
Gossypium
Herbaceum
Cotton
Useful Chemicals
Use
Chemical with which flourescent lamps are coated for
providing illumination
Chemical used to remove rust stains from clothes
Chemical with which photographic films are coated
Chemical in which gold dissolves
Chemical with which non-stick cookware is coated
Chemical used in the manufacture of matches
Chemical used to purify water (as a disinfectant)
Chemical used as an antiseptic in mouth freshner,
toothpastes etc.
Chemicals used in the breath test to check drunken driving
Chemical used as a purgative
Chemical used as in cloud seeding
Chemical used as a fixing agent in photography and also for
washing as a germicide
Chemical commonly used in explosive devices as well as
fertilisers
The substance which is used to make capsule shells in
pharmaceutical industry. The substance is also used as gelling
agent in cooking.
The sugarcane industry product being blended with petrol to
reduce pollution and also to reduce the import burden of
petrol in India
The organic compound widely used as a cleaning agent in dry
cleaning
The chemical commonly used in baby diapers for its super
absorbent properties
Common Names of Chemicals

Chemical
Phosphor
Oxalic acid
Silver Bromide
Aqua Regia
Teflon
Phosphorus
Chlorine
Hydrogen
Peroxide
Potassium
dichromate and
Sulphuric acid
Magnesium
Sulphide
Silver Iodide
Sodium
thiosulphate
Ammonium
Nitrate
Gelatin
Ethanol
Tetrachloroethyle
ne
(perchloroethylen
e)
Sodium
polyacrylate

Common Name
Washing soda
Baking soda
Borax
Brine
Caustic soda
Hypo
Bleaching powder
Quick Lime
Marble
Plaster of paris
Chalk
Gypsum

Alum

Chemical Name
Sodium Compounds
Sodium carbonate
Sodium bicarbonate
Sodium tetraborate
decahydrate
Aqueous sodium chloride
solution
Sodium hydroxide
Sodium thiosulfate
Calcium Compounds
Calcium hypochlorite
Calcium oxide
Calcium carbonate
Calcium sulfate
Calcium carbonate
natural Calcium sulfate
Other Compounds
Aluminium potassium
sulfate

Aqua regia
Aspirin
Corundum (ruby,
sapphire)
Dry ice
Epsom salts
Heavy Water
Plumbago
Prussic acid
Jeweller's rouge
Saltpeter
Table sugar

Nitrohydrochloric acid
Acetylsalicylic acid

Talc or talcum
Vinegar

Magnesium silicate
Acetic acid

Aluminium oxide
Solid Carbondioxide
Magnesium sulfate
Deutrium oxide
Graphite
Hydrogen cyanide
Ferric oxide
Potassium nitrate
Sucrose

Inventions - Aviation
Invention
Aeroplane
Airship (nonrigid)

Year
190
3
185
2

Inventor
Orville and Wilbur
Wright
Henri Giffard

Formula
Na2CO3
NaHCO3
Na2B4O710
H2O
NaCl
NaOH
Na2S2O3
Ca(ClO)2
CaO
CaCO3
CaSO4
CaCO3
CaSO42H2O
KAl(SO4)2.12
H2O
HNO3 + 3
HCl
C9H8O4
Al2O3
CO2
MgSO47H2O
2H2O or D2O
C
HCN
Fe2O3
KNO3
C12H22O11
Mg3Si4O10(O
H)2
CH3CO2H

Airship
(rigid)
Hot air
balloon
Gliders
Helicopter
Hovercraft
Jet Engine
Parachute
Rocket

190
0 G.F. vonZeppelin
178 Jacques and Joseph
3 Montgolfier
185
3 Sir George Cayley
192
4 Etienne Oehmichen
195
5 Christopher Cockerrell
193
7 Sir Frank Whittle
179
7 AJ Garnerier
192
6 Robert Goddard
Inventions - Vehicles

Invention

Year Inventor
183
Bicycle
9-40 Kirkpatrick Kacmillan
188
Bicycle tyres
8 John Boyd Dunlop
188
Petrol Car
8 Karl Benz
187
Carburettor
6 Gottlieb Daimler
Diesel
189
Engine
5 Rudolf Diesel
177
Ship (steam)
5 JC Perier
Ship
189
(turbine)
4 Sir C. Parsons
177
Submarine
6 David Bushnell
188
Motorcycle
5 G Daimler of Cannstatt
Inventions - Weapons
Invention
Atom Bomb
Automatic
Rifle
Ballistic
Missile
Bolt action
rifle

Year
194
5
191
8
194
4
188
9

Inventor
J Rober Oppenheimer
John Browning
Wernher vonBraun
P von Mauser

Guided
Missile
Hydrogen
Bomb
Neutron
Bomb
Tank
Machine gun
Revolver

194
2
195
2
195
8
191
4
171
8
183
6

Wernher vonBraun
Edward Teller
Samel Cohen
Sir Ernest D Swington
James Puckle
Samuel Colt

Inventions - Domestic Appliances


Yea
r
Inventor
188
Ball-point Pen
8 John J Loud
172 I. Hsing and Liang Ting
Mechanical Clock
5 Tsan
165
Pendulum Clock
6 Christian Huyges
187
Electric Lamp
9 Thomas Alva Edison
188
Fountain Pen
4 Lewis E Waterman
187
Gramophone
8 Thomas Alva Edison
182
Safety Match
6 John Walker
185 James Hansen and
Refrigerator
0 Alexander Catlin
Sewing Machine
184
(Chain stitch)
1 Barthelemy Thimmonier
Sewing Machine
184
(Lock stitch)
6 Elias Howe
192
TV (Mechanical)
6 JL Baird
192
TV (Electronic)
7 PT Farnsworth
186
Typewriter
7 Christopher L Sholes
Inventions - Industrial Revolution
Invention

Invention

Yea
r

Inventor

Powerloom
Spinning Frame
Spinning Jenny
Spinning Mule

178
5
176
9
176
4
177
9

E Cartwright
Sir Richard Arkwright
James Hargreaves
Samuel Crompton

Creators/Founders on the Net

Creation
World Wide
Web
Wikipedia
Orkut
Facebook
Twitter
Wikileaks
Hotmail
Google
Kosmix
Paypal

Yea
r
198
9
200
1
200
4
200
4
200
6
200
6
199
6
199
8
200
5
199
8

Creator/Founder
Tim Berners Lee
Jimmy Wales
Orkut Bykkkten
Mark Zuckerberg, Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz
and Chris Hughes.
Jack Dorsey
Julian Assange
Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith
Larry Page and Sergey Brin
Venky Harinarayan and Anand Rajaraman
Ken Howery, Max Levchin, Elon Musk, Luke Nosek,
Peter Thiel

Discovery of Elements - Inert Gases


Eleme
nt
Argon
Neon
Krypto
n
Xenon
Radon

Discoverer
Sir William Ramsay
Rayleigh
Sir William Ramsay
Tavers
Sir William Ramsay
Tavers
Sir William Ramsay
Tavers
Sir William Ramsay

and Lord
and M.W.
and M.W.
and M.W.
and R.

Heliu
m

Whytlaw-Gray
Sir William Ramsay, P.T.Cleve and
N.Langlet

Discovery of Elements - Chemical


Elements
Chemical Element
Barium
Calcium
Potassium
Magnesium
Boron
Sodium

Discoverer
Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy

International Organisations and their Headquarters


Organisation
United Nations Organisation
United Nations Childrens' Fund (UNICEF)
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD)
World Health Organisation
International Labour Organisation
International Committee of the Red Cross
World Trade Organisation
World Meteorological Organisation
World Intellectual Property Organization
International Standards Organisation
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural
Organisation (UNESCO)
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD)
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
(UNIDO)
International Atomic Energy Agency
Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
(OPEC)
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
World Bank
Amnesty International
International Maritime Organisation

Headquarters
New York
New York
New York
Geneva
Geneva
Geneva
Geneva
Geneva
Geneva
Geneva
Geneva
Paris
Paris
Vienna
Vienna
Vienna
Washington DC
Washington DC
London
London

Commonwealth of Nations
International Court Of Justice
Universal Postal Union
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
Transparency International
International Renewable Energy Agency
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional
Cooperation
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
International Olympic Committee
Worldwide Fund for Nature
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
World Economic Forum
International Hydrographic Organization
International Association of Athletics Federations
(IAAF)
International Institute for Species Exploration
International Institute for Sustainable Development
Member Countries of South Asian
Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC)
Headquarters Kathmandu
#

Country
Afghanis
1 tan
Banglad
2 esh
3 Bhutan
4 India
5 Maldives
6 Nepal

Capital
Kabul
Dhaka
Thimph
u
New
Delhi
Male
Kathma

London
The Hague
Berne
Rome
Brussels
Berlin
Abu Dhabi (UAE)
Kathmandu
Jakarta
Singapore
Jeddah
Ebene, Mauritius
The Hague, The
Netherlands
Lausanne,
Switzerland
Gland, Switzerland
Zurich, Switzerland
Geneva,
Switzerland
Monaco
Monaco
New York, USA
Winnipeg, Canada

7 Pakistan
Sri
8 Lanka

ndu
Islamab
ad
Colomb
o

Member Countries of ASEAN (Association of


South East Asian Nations)
Headquarters Jakarta
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Country
Brunei
Darussalam
Cambodia
Indonesia
Lao PDR
Malayasia
Myanmar
Phillipines
Singapore
Thailand
Vietnam

Capital
Bandar Seri
Begawan
Phnom Penh
Jakarta
Vientiane
Kuala Lumpur
Naypyitaw
Manila
Singapore
Bangkok
Hanoi

Organisation of Petroleum Exporting


Countries (OPEC)
Headquarters - Vienna

Country

Capital

1 Algeria

Algiers

2 Angola

Luanda

3 Ecuador

Quito
Tehera
n
Baghda
d
Kuwait
City
Tripoli

4 Iran
5 Iraq
6 Kuwait
7 Libya

Crude Oil
Reserves
12.20 billion
barrels
9.50 billion
barrels
6.51 billion
barrels
137.01 billion
barrels
115.00 billion
barrels
101.50 billion
barrels
46.42 billion

8 Nigeria

Abuja

9
1
0
1
1
1
2

Doha

Qatar
Saudi
Arabia
U.A.E
Venezua
la

Riyadh
Abu
Dhabi
Caraca
s

barrels
37.20 billion
barrels
25.38 billion
barrels
264.59 billion
barrels
97.80 billion
barrels
211.17 billion
barrels

The reserves are as per OPEC Annual


Statistical Bulletin 2009.
European Union, G-20 and G-8
member countries
European
Union

# Country
1 Austria
2 Belgium
3 Bulgaria
4 Cyprus
Czech
5 Republic
6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5

Capital
Vienna
City of
Brussels
Sofia
Nicosia

Curren
cy
Euro

Date of
Joining
1995

Euro
Lev
Euro

1952
2007
2004

Koruna

2004

Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France

Prague
Copenhag
en
Talinn
Helsinki
Paris

Krone
Euro
Euro
Euro

1973
2004
1995
1952

Germany

Berlin

Euro

1952

Greece

Athens

Euro

1981

Hungary

Budapest

Forint

2004

Ireland

Dublin

Euro

1973

Italy

Rome

Euro

1952

Latvia

Riga

Euro

2004

1
6
1
7
1
8
1
9
2
0
2
1
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
2
6
2
7
2
8

Lithuania
Luxembour
g

Vilnius
Luxembou
rg

Litas

2004

Euro

1952

Malta
Netherland
s

Valletta
Amsterda
m

Euro

2004

Euro

1952

Poland

Warsaw

zloty

2004

Portugal

Lisbon

Euro

1986

Romania

Bucharest

Leu

2007

Slovakia

Bratislava

Euro

2004

Slovenia

Ljubljana

Euro

2004

Spain

Madrin

Euro

1986

Sweden
United
Kingdom

Stockholm

Krona

1995

London

Pound

1973

Croatia
Zagreb
Kuna
2013
The 18 countries which have Euro as their
currency form the Eurozone.
G - 20 Countries

Countr
# y
Argent
1 ina
Austral
2 ia

Capital
Buenos
Aires
Canberr
a

3 Brazil
Canad
4 a

Brasilia

5 China

Beijing

6 France
Germa
7 ny
8 India

Paris

Ottawa

Berlin
New

#
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1

Country

Capital

Japan

Tokyo
Mexico
City

Mexico
Russia
Saudi
Arabia
South
Africa
South
Korea

Moscow

Turkey
United

Ankara
London

Riyadh
*
Seoul

Delhi
Indone
9 sia
1
0 Italy

Jakarta
Rome

8
1
9
2
0

Kingdom
U.S.A
European
Union

Washingto
n D.C.
-

G - 8 Countries
Does not have a permanent
secretariat, or office

# Country
1 USA
United
2 Kingdom
3 France
4 Japan
5 Germany
6 Italy
7 Canada
8 Russia

Capital
Washingt
on DC
London
Paris
Tokyo
Berlin
Rome
Ottawa
Moscow

Date of
Joining
1975
1975
1975
1975
1975
1975
1976
1997

Social Movements/Organisations and their founders


Movement/Organisation
Vanmahotsav
Saryodaya, Bhoodan
Chipko
Servants of India Society
Servants of People Society
Servants of God or Khudai
Khidmatgar
Gyan Prasarak Mandali
Shuddhi Movement
Theosophical Society
Missionaries of Charity
Home Rule Movement
Narmada Bachao
Prarthana Samaj

Founder
KM Munshi
Acharya Vinobha Bhave
Sunderlal Bahaguna
GK Gokhale
Lala Lajpat Rai
Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan
Dadabhai Naoroji
Swami Dayanand
Saraswati
Madame H. P. Blavatsky
Mother Teresa
Annie Besant and Bal
Gangadhar
Medha Patkar
RG Bhandarkar & MG
Ranade

Arya Samaj
Brahmo Samaj
Self-respect Movement
Tattvabodhini Sabha
Sadbhavna ke Sipahi
Satyasodhak Samaj
Shree Narayana Dharma
Paripalana Yogam
Bahiskrit Hitkarni Sabha
Dev Samaj (an atheistic
movement)
Aligarh movement
Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh
Abhinav Bharat
Sulabh International
Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan
Red Cross
Scouts
Guides
Amnesty International
Transparency International
Lions Club
Vanarai
Super 30

Dayanand Saraswati
(Guj)
Raja Ram Mohan Roy
EV Ramaswamy Naicker
Debendranath Tagore
Sunil Datt
Jyotiba Phule (Mah)
Shri Narayaana Guru
Dr BR Ambedkar
Swami Satyanand
Agnihotri
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
Dr Baliram Hedgewar
Vir Savarkar
Dr Bindeshwar Pathak
Kanhaiyalal Maneklal
Munshi
JH Dunant
Baden Powell
Lady Agnes Baden
Powell
Peter Benenson
Peter Eigen
Melvin Jones
Dr. Mohan Dharia
Anand Kumar

Famous Slogans and their originators


Slogan
Given by
Inquilab Zindabad*
Bhagat Singh
Vande Mataram
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
Quit India
Mahatma Gandhi
Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it
Balgangadhar Tilak
Give me blood and I shall give you freedom
Subhas Chandra Bose
Jai Hind
Subhas Chandra Bose
Do or die
Mahatma Gandhi
Aaram haram hai
Jawaharlal Nehru
Jai Jawan Jai Kisan
Lal Bahadur Shastri
Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan, Jai Vigyan
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Back to the Vedas
Swami Dayanand Saraswati
*The slogan Inquilab Zindabad was undoubtedly popularised by Bhagat Singh, but
to what extent its origin can be absolutely credited to him is a matter of

discussion. My research has led me to the following facts


Lion M.G. Agarwal's book Freedom Fighters of India attributes the slogan directly
to Bhagat Singh.(P. 106).
Secondly IBNLive at this link also attributes it to Bhagat Singh Click here to see
the link.
Thirdly, the book The Indian Encyclopaedia: India (Central Provinces)-Indology
edited by Subodh Kapoor also says that the slogan was coined by Bhagat Singh.(P.
3417).
I have come across some websites attributing the slogan to Mohammad Iqbal, but
I remain skeptical. I leave it to the readers to do their own research and if possible
bring any new finding in this regard to my notice. I would whole-heartedly make
the necessary correction giving full credit to the person.
Famous Quotes
Quote
A Thing Of Beauty Is Joy For Ever
Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few
to be chewed and digested
The child is the father of man
I came, I saw, I conquered (veni, vedi, veci)
The government of the people, by the people, for the people shall
not perish from the earth
But be not agraid of greatness; some are born great, some achieve
greatness and some have greatness thrust upon them
Peace hath her victories no less renowned than war
Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an
exact man
I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat
A single step for man a giant leap for mankind
Brevity is the soul of wit
Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains
Famous Songs
Patriotic/Motivational Song

Author

Author
John Keats
Francis
Bacon
William
Wordswort
h
Julius
Caesar
Abraham
Lincoln
William
Shakespear
e
John Milton
Francis
bacon
Sir Winston
Churchill
Neil
Armstrong
William
Shakespear
e
JeanJacques
Rousseau

Vande Mataram
Sarfaroshi ki Tamanna ab hamare
dil mein hain
Ekla chalo re
Sare jahan se achcha Hindustan
hamara
Aye mere watan ke logon

Bankim chandra
Chatterjee
Ram Prasad Bismil
Rabindranath
Tagore
Mohammad Iqbal
Kavi Pradeep

Newspapers and their founders


Newspaper
Bengal Gazette (1780) (Indias first
newspaper)
Maharatta, Kesari
Hitavada
Voice of India
Amrita Bazar Patrika
Vande Mataram
Statesman
The Hindu
Yugantar
Mooknayak
Independent
Punjabi
The Leader
New India and Commonweal
Esays in Indian Economics
Mirat-ul-Akbar (1st Persian
Newspaper)
Navjeevan, Young India, Harijan
Prabudha Bharat
Hindustan Times

Started by
J.A.Hickey
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Dadabhai Naoroji
Sisir Kumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh
Bipin Chandra Pal
Robert Knight
Kasturi Ranga Iyengar
Bhupendranath Datta and Barinder
Kumar Ghosh
BR Ambedkar
Motilal Nehru
Lala Lajpat Rai
Madan Mohan Malviya
Annie Besant
MG Ranade
Ram Mohan Roy
MK Gandhi
Swami Vivekanand
K.M.Pannikar

Current Information on Newspapers


Feature
Total number of newspapers registered in India as on
31.03.2012
The largest number of newspapers/periodicals registered in
any Indian language
The largest circulated daily

Newspaper
86,754
Hindi
The Hindu (English)

Anand Bazar Patrika


(Bengali)
The Hindu Weekly
The Times of India
(English)
Dainik Bhaskar
(Hindi)

The second largest circulated daily


The largest circulated periodical
The largest circulated multi-edition daily
The second largest circulated multi-edition daily
The state with the largest number of registered
newspapers

Uttar Pradesh

Government Publications and Publishers


Publication
India (Annual publication suffixed with the year)
Employment News/Rozgaar Samachar (English,
Hindi and Urdu)
Yojana (monthly on economic development
published in 13 languages)
Bal Bharati (Hindi)
Aajkal (An international literary and cultural Urdu
journal)
Kurukshetra (English and Hindi with rural uplift and
development as its focus)
Energy Statistics
National Accounts Statistics
Compendium of Environment Statistics India
Rail Bandhu
Indian Pharmacopoeia
Newspapers/Magazines and
their Editors
Newspaper/Maga
zine
The Hindu
The Times of
India
Indian Express
The New Indian

Editor-inChief
N. Ravi
Jaideep
Bose
Shekhar
Gupta
Prabhu

Published by
Ministry of Information
Broadcasting
Ministry of Information
Broadcasting
Ministry of Information
Broadcasting
Ministry of Information
Broadcasting
Ministry of Information
Broadcasting
Ministry of Information
Broadcasting
Central Statistical
Organisation
Central Statistical
Organisation
Central Statistical
Organisation
Indian Railways
Ministry of Health and
Family Welfare

and
and
and
and
and
and

Express
Hindustan Times
India Today
Outlook
Tughlaq

Chawla
Sanjoy
Narayan
Aroon Purie
Krishna
Prasad
Cho
Ramaswam
y
Information on Solar System

Feature
The brightest planet as seen from Earth
The planet also known as Earths twin
The planet, which rotates in a direction opposite to that
of others
The planet, which has prominent rings around it
Planets which have no satellites
The planet with the longest day
The planet with the shortest day
The planet also known as Evening/Morning star
The Jovian planets
The star nearest to the earth
The hottest planet in the solar system
The largest satellite in the solar system
The planet also known as the Red Planet
The highest known mountain in the solar system
The asteriod belt lies between
The largest asteriod also known as a dwarf planet
Pluto earlier considered a planet is now considered a
dwarf planet and a part of
Halley's comet last appeared in 1986 and is expected to
appear next in
The galaxy nearest to the milky way
The planet whose density is less than that of water
The planet with highest surface gravity (meter per
square second) is
The planet with lowest surface gravity (meter per
square second) is
Planets - Rotation & Revolution

Name
Venus
Venus
Venus
Saturn
Mercury & Venus
Venus (244 hrs)
Jupiter (9 hrs 55 mts)
Venus
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,
Neptune
Proxima Centauri
Venus
Ganymede Satellite of
the Jupiter
Mars
Olympus Mons on Mars
Mars and Jupiter
Ceres
Kuiper belt
2061
Andromeda
Saturn
Jupiter (24.92)
Mercury (3.7)

Periods

Planet
Mercu
ry
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranu
s
Neptu
ne

Rotation
Period
58.65 Earth
Days
243 Earth
Days
23.93 Earth
Hours
24.62 Earth
Hours
9.8 Earth
Hours
10.2 Earth
Hours
17.9 Earth
Hours
19.1 Earth
hours

Revolution
Period
87.97 Earth
Days
224.7 Earth
Days
365.26
Earth Days
686.93
Earth Days
11.86 Earth
Years
29.46 Earth
Years
83.75 Earth
Years
163.72
Earth Years
Features on Lunar Surface

Name
Mare Tranquillitatis or
Sea of Tranquility
Oceanus Procellarum or
Ocean of Storms
Mare Fecunditatis or
Sea of Fertility
Fra Mauro - crater
Hadley Rile - Apennine Mountains
Apollonius Highlands - Mountainous
region
Descartes - crater
Taurus-Littrow - valley
Note : 1. Mare or Maria refers to a
large circular plain on the moon.
2. Oceanus refers to a very large
dark area on moon.
3. Crater is a circular depression.

Remarks
Landing site for Apollo 11, the first manned
landing on the moon.
Apollo 12 landed with Pete Conrad and Alan
Bean onboard.
Landing site for Luna 16 of USSR.
Apollo 14 landed with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,
Edgar D. Mitchell and Stuart A. Roosa.
Landing site for Apollo 15.
Landing site for Luna 20
Landing site for Apollo 16.
Apollo 17 landing site.

Basic facts about the Earth


Facts to remember
Equatorial circumference of the earth is 40,067 km
and equatorial diameter is 12,757 km
Polar circumference
The total surface area of the earth is 510,100,500
sq km
The Hydrosphere (sea) comprises 70.8% of the
surface area and Lithosphere (land) is 29.2%
The period of rotation of the earth is 23 hrs 56 mts
4.091 secs
The speed of rotation at the equator is 1674 kmph
The escape velocity on earth 11.186 km/sec
The highest point on earth is Mt Everest at 8,848
meters
The deepest point on earth is Challenger Deep in
the Pacific Ocean at 11,034 meters
Important Latitudes and Longitudes
Latitude/Longitude
Prime Meridian
0o longitude
International
180o E/W
Date Line
longitude
Tropic of Cancer 23o 26' N
Tropic of
Capricon
23o 26' S
Arctic Circle
66o 33' N
Antartic Circle
66o 33' S
Indian Standard
82.5o
Time
longitude
Important International Lines
Line
Radcliffe
Line
Macmahan
Line
Durand
Line
Maginot
Line
38th

Countries divided
India and Pakistan
India and China
Pakistan and
Afghanistan
France and
Germany
North and South

of the earth is 40,000 km


polar diameter is 12,714 km

Parallel
17th
Parallel
49th
Parallel

Korea
North and South
Vietnam
USA and Canada
Abbreviations - Govt. Bodies/Programmes

Abbreviati
on
APEDA
CII
CSIR
FASAL
FICCI
ICAR
ICRISAT
IFFCO
ISOPOM
KRIBHCO
MPLADS
NABARD
NAFED
NeGP
NDDB
NREGS
SGSY
TRIFED
GANDHI
REDD
JNNURM
CAPART
RNTCP
PYKKA
INSPIRE

Expanded Form
Agricultural and Processed Food Products Exports Development
Authority
Confederation of Indian Industry
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
Forecasting Agricultural output using Space, Agro meteorological and
Land based observations
Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry
Indian Council of Agricultural Research
International Crops Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics
Indian Farmers Fertiliser Co-operative Limited
Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize
Krishak Bharti Co-operative Limited
Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme
National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development
National Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federation
National e-Governance Plan
National Dairy Development Board
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana
Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India Limited
Green Action for National Dandi Heritage Initiative
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
Council for Advancement of People's Action and Rural Technology
Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme
Panchayat Yuva Krida aur Khel Abhiyan
Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research

Abbreviations - Commerce
Abbreviati
on

Expanded Form

IMF
GATT
NYSE

UNCTAD
TIN
NSDL
PAN
TDS
STT
OLTAS
BSR
BIS
VAT

International Monetary Fund


General Agreement for Trade and Tariff
New York Stock Exchange
National Association of Securities Dealers
Automated Quotation
Global Depositary Receipt
Special Drawing Rights
Initial Public Offering
Net Asset Value
Non Performing Assets
Confederation of Indian Industries
Consumer Price Index
Cash Reserve Ratio
Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee
Corporation of India
External Commercial Borrowing
Electronic Clearing Scheme
United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development.
Tax Information Network
National Securities Depository Limited
Permanent Account Number
Tax Deduction at Source
Securities Transaction Tax
On Line Tax Accounting System
Basic Statistical Return
Bureau of Indian Standards
Value Added Tax

NEFT

National Electronic Fund Transfer

NASDAQ
GDR
SDR
IPO
NAV
NPA
CII
CPI
CRR
DICGC
ECB
ECS

Abbreviations - Technology
Abbreviati
on
UEFI
ASCII
HTML
HTTP
URL
CGI
FTP
RSS

Expanded Form
Unified Extensible Firmware Interface
American Standard Code for Information
Interchange
Hypertext Mark-up Language
Hypertext Transport (or Transfer) Protocol
Uniform Resource Locater
Common Gateway Interface
File Transfer Protocol
Really Single Syndicate

BLOG
WYSIWYG
XML
BIOS
SQL
CDMA

Web Log
What You See Is What You Get
Extensible Mark-up Language
Basic Input Output System
Structured Query Language
Code Division Multiple Access
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol
MOdulation DEModulation
Active Server Pages
Subscriber Identity Module

TCP/IP
MODEM
ASP
SIM

Abbreviations - Medical
Abbreviatio
n
ADD
BMI
COPD
CT (as in CT
Scan)
CABG
CAT
DNA
D&C
DPT
ECG
ELISA
FDA
Hb
ICU
LDL
MMR
MRI
NAD
PUFA
q.d
q.i.d.
t.i.d.
b.i.d
h.s.

Expanded Form
Attention Deficit Disorder
Body Mass Index
Chronic Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease
Computerised Tomography
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
Computerized Axial
Tomography
Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid
Dilation and Curettage
Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus
Electrocardiogram
Enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay
Food and Drug Administration
Haemoglobin
Intensive Care Unit
Low Density Lipoproteins
Measles, Mumps, Rubella
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
No Apparent Distress
Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid
Every day
Four times a day
Three times a day
Twice a day
At bedtime (Latin - hora

Rx
RBC
WBC

somni)
Prescription
Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells

Ancient Indian Books


Books written by Kings
Ratnavali
Priyadarsika
Nagananda
Amuktamalayada
Tuzk-I-Jahangir
Babar Namah or Tuzke-Babari
Biographies of Kings
Harsha Charita
Akbar-Nama
Prithviraj Raso
Humayun Namah
Shah Namah
Other books
Buddha
Charitam
Geet
Govinda
Kumar
Sambhava
Meghdoot
Malavikagni
mitra
Raghuvansh
a
Mudra
Rakshasa
Panchatantr
a
Rajtarangini
Arthashastra

Harshavardhan
a
Harshavardhan
a
Harshavardhan
a
Sri Krishna
Deva Raya
Jahangir
Babar
Bana Bhatt
Abul Fazl
Chand Bardai
Gulbadan
Begum
Firdausi

Ashwaghos
ha
Jaya Deva
Kalidasa
Kalidasa
Kalidasa
Kalidasa
Vishakha
Datta
Vishnu
Sharma
Kalhana
Kautilya

Padmavat
Kamasutra
Mudra
Rakshasa
Mrichchakati
kam

Malik Mohd
Jayasi
Vatsyayana
Vishakha
Datta
Shudraka

Facts to
remember on
Ancient
Indian Books
Book and its
Author
Mudra
Rakshasa by
Vishakha
Datta.
Padmavat by
Malik Mohd
Jayasi
Malavikagni
mitra by
Kalidasa
Arthashastra
by Kautilya
Panchatantra
by Vishnu
Sharma
Geet
Govinda by
Jaidev
Kalidasas
Abhigyan
Shakuntalam
Kalhanas
Rajtarangini
Ashtadhyayi
by Panini
Mahabhasya
by Patanjali
Prashnottar
Ratna Malika
by Adi

Facts to remember
The book which gives an account of how Chandragupta Maurya
overthrew the power of the Nandas with the help of Kautilya.
The book based on the life of Padmini, Queen of Chittor. Allauddin
Khilji, the ruler of Delhi, laid siege to the fort of Chittor in order to
take Padmini as his wife. When the soldiers died fighting, Queen
Padmini committed Jauhar alongwith other women of the fort.
The book which is based on the life of Agnimitra son of
Pushyamitra Sunga. The latter founded the Sunga dynasty after
killing the last Mauryan King Brihadratha.
The ancient Indian treatise on Economics as well as politics written
by Kautilya (Chanakya) who had helped Chandragupta overthrow
the power of the Nandas.
A collection of Sanskrit fables which seeks to illustrate the
principles of Politics (Rajneeti) through animal stories. It is
considered a Nitishastra or a book on conduct of life.
The book which deals with the love plays of the Dark Lord Krishna
and his fair beloved Radha.
The play based on the story of King Dushyant and Shakuntala as it
appears in the beginning of the Mahabharata. King Dushyant and
Shakuntala had a son name Bharat after whose name the country
is named.
The book which deals with the history of Kashmir from the earliest
times to 1150 A.D.
It is highly systemised and complete book of Sanskrit grammar
divided into eight chapters consisting of 3,995 sutras or rules.
The book is a commentary on Panini's Ashtadhyayi in an effort to
make Ashtadhyayi easily accessible to the average reader.
The book is in the form of questions and answers of eternal values
as preached by Sanatana Dharma.

Sankarachar
ya
Kathasaritsa
gar by
Somadeva
Charaka
Samhita by
Charaka
Sushruta
Samhita by
Sushruta
Aryabhatiya
by
Aryabhatta
Bhrigu
Samhita by
Maharishi
Bhrigu
Buddhacharitam by
Ashwaghosh
a

The book is a collection of folk tales written for the entertainment


of Queen Suryamati, wife of King Anantadeva of Kashmir. The
famous Betal Pachisi is a part of this book.
The book was authored by Charaka, known as the "Father of Indian
Medicine". The book contains the fundamentals of Ayurveda
including between its covers root causes of diseases, their
treatment and also guidelines for a clean and healthy life.
The book was authored by Sushruta, known as the "Father of
Indian Surgery". In the books he explains various types of surgeries
and surgical instruments.
The book authored by famed Indian astronomer and
mathematician is one of the most important ancient Indian books.
The book explains the causes of eclipses and also the value of pi
equivalent to 3.1416.
The book in dialogue form is an ancient treatise on astrology
(jyotish shastra).
The first complete biography of the Buddha written by
Ashwaghosha who was patronised by Emperor Kanishka. It is
considered a masterpiece of Sanskrit literature.

Famous
Indian
battles
Name of
the
Yea
Battle
r
1st
battle of
11
Tarain
91
2nd
battle of
11
Tarain
92
1st
battle of
15
Panipat
26
Battle of 15
Khanwa
27
Battle of
Ghaghr
15
a
29
2nd
15
battle of
56

Importance
Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Mohammed Ghori
Mohammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan
Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodi
Babur defeated Rana Sunga further strengthening his foothold in
India.
Babur defeated Mahmud Lodi and Sultan Nusrat Shah thus
establishing Mughal rule in India.
Akbar defeated Hemu

Panipat
3rd
battle of
Panipat
Battle of
Talikota
Battle of
Haldigh
ati
Battle of
Plassey
Battle of
Wandiw
ash
Battle of
Buxar
Battle of
Samuga
rh
Battle of
Karnal

17
61 Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas
15
65 Deccan Sultanates defeated the glorious Vijayanagar empire
15
76
17
57

17
60
17
64

Undecisive battle between Raja Man Singh of Mughal Army and


Rana Pratap of Mewar.
British defeated Siraj-ud-duala with the help of Mir Zafar. This
battle laid the foundation of British empire in India.
British decisively defeated the French in India. The Seven years
war (1756 - 1763) between the British and the French in Europe
ran parallel to this war. 3 Carnatic wars were fought between the
British and the French and this battle was a part of the 3rd
Carnatic War.
British defeated the combined forces of Mir Qasim, Shuja-ud-duala
(Nawab of Oudh) and Shah Alam II(Mughal emperor). This
completed the work began by the battle of Plassey.

16
58 Aurangzeb defeated Dara Shikoh.
17
39 Nadir Shah defeated Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.

Foreign
Invaders
and
points to
rememb
er.
Invader

Alexand
er
Chengiz
Khan
Moham
med Bin
Qasim
Timur
Nadir

Points to remember
He was the first to invade India in 326 B.C. He defeated King Porus on
the banks of River Jhelum. The battle is known as the Battle of
Hydaspes. Dhana Nanda of the Nanda dynasty was in power in
northern and eastern India at the time of his invasion. Alexander's
army mutinied, possibly at the prospect of facing a strong army of the
Nandas and Alexander decided to return to Macedonia.
He was a Mongolian who conquered some kingdoms on the banks of
River Indus in 1221 A.D. The ruler of Delhi at that time was Iltutmish.
He was first muslim to invade India in 712 A.D. He conquered Sindh
and Punjab regions along the Indus river but did not advance further.
Timur Lang or Timur the Lame, was a muslim conqueror who invaded
India in 1398. The ruler of Delhi at the time was Nasiruddin Mahmud
Shah.
He was the ruler of Iran who invaded India in 1738. He defeated the

Shah
Ahmed
Shah
Abdali

Mughal Emperor Muhammed Shah and carried with him the Peacock
throne and the Kohinoor diamond.
He was the ruler of Afghanistan who invaded India several times
between 1747 & 1767, the most famous being the invasion of 1761
when he defeated the Marathas in the 3rd battle of Panipat.
Foreign Visitors and points to remember.

Visitor

Points to remember
He was the ambassador of Seleucus in the court of Chandragupta
Megasthe Maurya known to the Greek as Sandrocottus. He was also the author of
nes
a book 'Indica'.
He was a Chinese Buddhist monk who visited India during the reign of
Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II). He is known for his visit to Lumbini,
the birthplace of the Buddha. His journey is described in his travelogue
Fahien
"Record of Buddhist Kingdoms ...".
He was a Chinese traveller who visited India during the time of Harsha
Huien
Vardhana. His book is called Si-yu-ki or 'The Records of the Western
Tsang
World'.
A persian scholar, he accompanied Mohammed of Ghazni and wrote a
book titled 'Tahqiq-i-hind'. He was the first mulsim scholar to study
Alberuni
India. He is regarded as the father of Indology.
He was a well known European traveller who visited many Eastern
Marco
countries, including India. He visited Southern India where Rudramma
Polo
Devi of the Kakatiyas was in power.
Ibn Batuta was a Moroccon traveller who visited India during the time
Ibn
of Mohammed Bin Tughlaq. His account of travels is known as the
Batuta
Rihla.
Sir Thomas Roe was an English diplomat who visited the court of
Jahangir in 1615 to seek protection for an English factory at Surat. His
Thomas
Journal of the mission to the Mogul Empire is a valuable contribution to
Roe
the history of India of the time.
Captain William Hawkins led the first voyage of the English East India
Company to India in 1609 when Jahangir was in power. He had a
William
personal letter from King James I of England 1609, but did not succeed
Hawkins
in seeking Jahangir's permission to establish a factory.
Nicolo
Italian merchant who visited India during the period of Deva Raya I of
Conti
Vijayanagar (1420)
He was a Persian cholar and ambassador of the ruler of Persia to
Abdul
Calicut who visited India during the rule of Deva Raya II of Vijayanagar
Razak
during 1442 to 1445.
St
Thomas
He is believed to be the first Christian saint to visit India in 52 A.D..
He was a French physician and traveller who visited India during 1658
and 1671. He was the personal physician of the Mughal emperor
Aurangzeb for around 12 years during his stay in India. He wrote
Francois
Travels in the Mughal Empire, which is mainly about the reigns of Dara
Bernier
Shikoh and Aurangzeb.

Famous
Court Poets
Court Poet
Kalidasa
Bana Bhatt
or Bana
Chand
Bardai

In the Court of
Vikramaditya

Well-known works
Shakuntalam, Meghdoot

Harshavardhana

Harsha Charita, Kadambari

Prithviraj Chauhan

Bhavabhuti

King Yashovarman of Kannauj


mainly Allauddin Khilji but
associated with 7 rulers of Delhi
Sultannate

Prithviraj Raso
Mahaviracharita,
Malatimadhava,
Uttararamacharita

Amir
Khusro
Sri Ponna
Parmanand
Pandit
Gangadhar
Mishra
Hema
Saraswati
Rajashekha
ra
Vedanayag
am Sastriar
Raghavank
a
Adikavi
Pampa
Tirumalary
a
Allasani
Peddana
Nandi
Thimmana
Hari Hara
Magha
Agha
Hasan
Amanat
Ramprasad
Sen
Magha
Jayamkond

Rashtrakuta King Krishna III


Shivaji

Tuhfatus-Sighr, Qiranus-Sa'dain
Shantipurana, BhuvanaikaRamabhyudaya
Shivbharat

Sambalpur King Baliar Singh

Kosalananda Mahakavya

Kamtapur King Duraffairh Narayan

Prahalad Charita
Baaffairharata, Karpuramanjari,
Balaramayana, Kavyamimamsa
Bethlehem Kuravanji,
Gnanakummi

Gurjara Pratiharas
King Serfoji II of Tanjore
Hoysala kings
Chalukya King Arikesari II
King Wodeyar

Harishchandra Kayva
Vikramrjuna Vijaya or Pampa
Bharata

Sri Krishna Deva Raya


Sri Krishan Deva Raya
King Varmalata of Srimala

Karna Vrittanta Kathe


Swaarochisha Manu
Sambhavam
Parijathapaharanam,
Vanivilasam
Irusamaya vilakkam
Shishupala Vadha

Wajid Ali Shah

Inder Sabha

Krishna Chandra of Nadia


King Varmalata of Srimala
Kulottunga Chola I

Vclassyasundar, Shaktigiti.
Shishupala Vadha
Kalingattuparani

Sri Krishna Deva Raya

kar
Dynasties/Ki
ngs and
their
Capitals
Dynasty/Kin
g
Cholas
Mauryan
Pallavas
Pandyas
Chalukyas
Later
Chalukyas
Kakatiyas

Capital
Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Patliputra
Kanchi
Madurai
Vatapi or Badami

Satvahanas
Bahmani
Shivaji
Tipu Sultan
Ranjit Singh
Harshavardh
ana

Kalyani
Warangal
Pratisthana (modern day Paithan in
Maharashtra)
Gulbarga (Ahsanabad) and later Bidar
(Muhammadabad)
Raigarh
Srirengapatnam
Lahore
Thanesar and later Kanauj

Dynasties - Founders and Last Kings

Dynasty

Last King/Last Great


Ruler

Maurya

Founder
Mahapadma or
Ugrasena
Chandragupta
Maurya

Gupta

Chandragupta I

Sunga

Pushyamitra

Satvahana
Chalukya (of
Vatapi)
Chola
Rashtrakuta

Simuka

Brihadratha
Skandagupta (last
great ruler)
Devbhumi (last great
ruler)
Yajna Satkarni (last
great ruler)

Pulakesin I
Vijayalaya
Danti Durga

Kirtivarman Chalukya
Athirajendra
Indra IV

Nanda

Dhana Nanda

Slave
Khilji
Tughlak
Lodhi
Moghul

Qutubuddin Aibak
Jalal-ud-din
Ghias-ud-din
Bahlol
Babur

Muizuddin Qaiqabad
Khusro Khan
Feroz Shah
Ibrahim
Bahadur Shah II

Temples Associated
Dynasties and
Locations

Temples
Khajuraho
Kailash temples
Thousand Pillared
Temple
Ramappa Temple
Brihadeswara
Temple
Seven Ratha
temple

Associated
Dynasty
Bundelas or
Chandelas
Rashtrakutas

Location
Chattarpur, M.P.
Ellora, Maharashtra

Kakatiyas
Kakatiyas

Warangal (AP)
Warangal (AP)

Cholas

Tanjavur, Tamilnadu
Mahabalipuram,
Tamilnadu
Kanchipuram,
Tamilnadu
Mahabalipuram,
Tamilnadu
Mt Abu, Rajasthan
Hampi, Karnataka

Pallavas

Kailashnath temple

Pallavas

Shore temple
Dilwara temple
Hazara temple

Pallavas
Solankies
Vijayanagar

Women Rulers in the History of India


Woman
Rani Rudramma
1259 - 1289 A.D.
Rani Rudrama Devi belonged to the Kakatiya dynasty on the Deccan Plateau.
She was the daughter of King Ganapathideva who formally designated her as a
son through the ancient Putrika ceremony and named her Rudradeva.
She succeeded her father when she was only fourteen years old.
She was married to Veerabhadra, Eastern Chalukyan prince of Nidadavolu.
She completed the Warangal Fort, begun by her father.
Marcopolo, the Venetian traveller who paid a visit during her rule writes that she
was a lover of justice, of equity and peace.

Rani Durgawati
1524 - 1564 A.D.
Rani Durgawati ruled over Gondwana from 1548 to 1564 on behalf of her son Bir
Narayan after the death of Dalpat Shah the ruler of Gondwana.
Mughal Emperor Akbar attacked Gondwana in 1564.
Rani Durgawati led the battle against the invading army but ultimately when her
defeat became imminent she killed herself choosing death to dishonour.
Chand Bibi
1550 - 1599 A.D.
Also known as Chand Khatun or Chand Sultana.
She was the daughter of Hussain Nizam Shah I of Ahmednagar.
She was married to Sultan Adil Shah of Bijapur, who was murdered by his own
men.
She acted as the Regent of Bijapur (158090) and Regent of Ahmednagar (1596
99).
When Ahmednagar was invaded by the Mughals in 1595, she defended it
successfully.
In 1599, the forces of Akbar once again laid siege to the Ahmednagar fort. But
when she tried to negotiate terms with the Mughals, Chand Bibi was killed by her
own troops who misunderstood her.
Devi Ahilya Bai Holkar
1725 - 1795 A.D.
Devi Ahilya Bai Holkar ruled over Ahmednagar from 1766 to 1795.
She was the daughter of Manakoji Shinde.
In 1733 she was married to Khande Rao, who died in the battle of Kumbher in
1754.
Her father-in-law Malhar Rao Holkar guided her in ruling the state till his death in
1766.
Kittur Rani Chennamma
1778 - 1829 A.D.
Rani Chennamma was married to Raja Mullasarja of Kittur, a princely state of
Belgaum in Karnataka.
Her husband died in 1816 leaving behind a son.
When Rani Chennamma adopted Shivalingappa as her son and made him heir to
the throne, the British did not accept it.
Following a battle to defend her kingdom, she was taken captive and lodged in
Bailhongal Fort where she breathed her last in 1829.
Rani Lakshmi Bai
1835 - 1858 A.D.
Rani Laxmibai was born in Varanasi and named Manu.
She was married to Gangadhar, the ruler of Jhansi in 1842.
When both her husband and her son died she adopted a child to make him the
heir to the throne.
The then British Governor General Lord Dalhousie refused to recognise the
adoption and ordered annexation of Jhansi.
Rani Laxmibai joined other rulers who were rebelling against British rule.

She was mortally wounded at Gwalior and died in June 1858.


Rani Avantibai
- 1858 A.D.
She was married to Vikramaditya Singh, the ruler of Ramgarh State.
Vikramaditya Singh died leaving behind his wife Avantibai and no heir to the
throne.
When the British annexed her kingdom, Avantibai vowed to win back her land from
the British.
She raised an army of four thousand men and led it herself against the British in
1857.
She killed herself at the end of a fierce battle when she could no longer hold out
against the British.
Dynasties of Delhi
Sultanate.

Dynasty
Mamluk or Slave
dynasty
Khilji dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
Sayyid dynasty
Lodhi dynasty

Period of
Rule
1206 1290
1290 1320
1321 1413
1414 1450
1451 1526

Prominent rulers
Qutubuddin Aibak, Iltutmish, Razia Sultan,
Ghiyasuddin Balban
Alauddin Khilji
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, Firoz Shah Tughlaq
Khizr Khan
Ibrahim Lodhi

Important Rulers and Points to Remember


Ruler
Qutubuddin Aibak
He was a slave of Mohammad Ghori.
He was the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Ghulam dynasty (Mamluk
Sultanate) of India.
He ruled for only four years, from 1206 to 1210 AD. He died while playing polo in
Lahore.
He built the Quwwat Al Islam mosque in Delhi and the Adhai-din-ka-Jhonpra
mosque in Ajmer.
He started the construction of Qutb Minar in Delhi, which is dedicated to a famous
Sufi Saint of the time, Qutubuddin Bakhtiar Kaki.
He is also remembered as lakhbaksh or giver of lakhs, because of his generosity.
Iltutmish
He introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital - the two basic coins of the

Sultanate period, with a standard weight of 175 grains.


He introduced Iqtadari system: division of empire into Iqtas, which were assigned
to the nobles and officers in lieu of salary.
He built the Hauz-i-Shamsi reservoir in Mehrauli in 1230.
He completed the Qutub Minar started by Qutubuddin Aibak.
Sultan Ghari which is considered the first Islamic Mausoleum in Delhi, was
constructed by him in memory of his eldest son, Prince Nasiru'd-Din Mahmud.
Genghis Khan, the Mongolian invader appeared for the first time on the banks of
river Indus, during his reign.
He was the longest serving Slave ruler who ruled for 25 years.
Razia Sultan
Razia was the first lady to sit on the throne of Delhi.
She succeeded her father Shams-ud-din Iltutmish to the Sultanate of Delhi in
1236.
Balban
His original name was Baharuddin.
He is considered the greatest Sultan of slave dynasty.
He was a slave bought by Sultan Iltutmish.
He introduced the Persian culture of Zaminbos that is lying flat on one's face
before the emperor.
He adopted a policy of blood and iron against rebels, traitors and robbers.
He got the title of Ulagh Khan for defeating the Mongols.
He suppressed the rebellious tribe Meo, the people of Mewat who used to plunder
the people of Delhi even in the day light.
Balban ruled with an iron fist. He broke up the Chahalgani, a group of the forty
most important nobles in the court.
Ala-ud-din Khilji
He was the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty in India and is considered the most
powerful ruler of the dynasty.
He became the Sultan after murdering his uncle Jalaluddin Khilji.
He established an effective espionage system to curb any revolt from his
followers.
He was the first Sultan to maintain a standing army.
He was the first Sultan to conquer the Deccan.
He created the third city of Delhi known as Siri.
He is known for his economic reforms and price control system.
Alauddin Khilji seized the famous Koh-i-Noor diamond from the ruler of Malwa.
Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq
His original name was Ghazi Malik.
He founded the city of Tughluqabad.
He died when a pavilion built for him collapsed.
Muhammad bin Tughluq
His original name was Jauna Khan.
He was a scholar versed in logic, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and
physical sciences. He had knowledge of medicine and was skillful in dialectics. He

was also a calligrapher. He was well versed with several languages like Persian,
Arabic, Turkish and even Sanskrit.
He introduced token currency using brass or copper coins backed by silver or gold
in treasury. However, the measure lead to heavy losses to the treasury.
He shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri, which he renamed as Daulatabad, but
as the plan failed he shifted back to Delhi.
Ibn Batuta, the famous Moroccan traveler, visited him during his reign.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq
He was the son of a Hindu princess of Dipalpur.
He is best known for the construction of a network of canals.
He founded several cities, including Jaunpur, Firozpur, Firoz Shah Kotla and HissarFiroza.
He rebuilt the top two floors of the Qutub Minar which were damaged by lightning
in 1368 AD.
One of his hunting lodges, Shikargah, also known as Kushak Mahal, is situated
within the Teen Murti Bhavan complex, Delhi.
Tughlaq Road in Delhi is named after him.
Sikandar Lodhi
He founded the modern city of Agra.
Ibrahim Lodhi
The last of Delhi Sultans, he was defeated and killed in the 1st Battle of Panipat
against Babur in 1526.
Prominent
Mughal
Emperors.
Better
known as
Babur
Humayun
1555 to
1556
Akbar
Jahangir
Shahjahan
Aurangzeb

Original name
Zaheeruddin Mohammed
Naseeruddin Mohammed

Rule
1526 to 1530
1530 to 1540

Jalaluddin Mohammed
Nooruddin Salim
Shahbuddin Muhammed
Khurram
Muhiuddin Mohammed

1556 to 1605
1605 to 1627

Women
of the
Mughal
Family.
Name

Other

Remarks

1627 to 1658
1658 to 1707

Name(s)
Gulbad
an
Begum
Maraia
m-uzZamani
Noor
Jahan

Harkha Bai,
Hira Kunwari
Meher-unnisa
Anjumand
Banu
Begum

Mumtaj
Mahal
Jahan
Ara
RabiaulDilras Banu
Daurani Begum

She was the sister of Humayun. She is best known as the


author of Humayun Namah.
She was the third wife of Akbar and the mother of Jahangir.
She was the daughter of Raja Bharmal of Amber. Raja
Bhagwan Das, Akbar's companion was her brother.
Wife of Jahangir, daughter of Ghiyas Beg (Idmat-ud-daula),
she enjoyed power which no other Mughal lady ever
enjoyed.
Wife of Shah Jahan, mother of 14 children including
Aurangzeb, Dara Shikoh and Jahanara Begum. Shah Jahan
built the Taj Mahal in her memory.
Daughter of Shah Jahan, she is well-known for looking after
her father during his confinement by Aurangzeb.
She was the first wife of Aurangzeb. The famous Bibi ka
Maqbara at Aurangabad was constructed by her son Prince
Azam Shah in her memory

Monuments built
during Mughal
rule.
Monument
Humayun's Tomb
Buland Darwaza
Shalimar Bagh

Location
Delhi
Fatehpur Sikri
Srinagar

Akbar's Tomb
Tomb of Itmadud-daula

Sikandara, Agra

Tomb of Jahangir
Taj Mahal
Red Fort
Shalimar Gardens
Bibi ka Maqbara
Salim Chisti's
Tomb

Built by
Akbar
Akbar
Jahangir
Began by Akbar and finished
by Jahangir

Agra
Shahdara Bagh,
Lahore
Agra
Delhi
Lahore
Aurangabad

Nur Jahan

Fatehpur Sikri

Akbar

Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Azam Shah

Books written during


Mughal rule.
Name of the Book

Author

Tuzk-i-Babari

Babar

Language
Chagatai (Turki), later translated to Persian
by Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana

Humayun-Namah
Akbarnama, Ain-iAkbari
Tuzk-i-Jahangiri
Shah Jahan-Namah
Padshah-Namah
(about Shah Jahan)
Alamgirnama (about
Aurangzeb)

Gulbadan
Begum
Abul Fazl
Jahangir
Inayat Khan
Abdul Hamid
Lahori
Mirza
Muhammad
Kazim

Persian
Persian
Persian
Persian
Persian
Persian

Battles
during
Mughal
rule.
Yea
Battle
r
Remarks
1st
Battle of 152 Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi establishing the Mughal Empire in
Panipat
6 India.
Battle of 152
Khanwa
7 Babur defeated Rana Sunga of Mewar and his allies.
Battle of
Ghaghr
152 Babur defeated the joint forces of the Afghans and Sultan of
a
9 Bengal
Battle of 153
Chausa
9 Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun
2nd
Battle of 155
Panipat
6 Akbar defeated Hindu king Hemu
Battle of
Thanesa 156
r
7 Akbar defeated two rival groups of Sanyasis
Battle of 157
Tukaroi
5 Akbar defeated Sultanatte of Bangala and Bihar
Battle of
Haldigh
157 Undecisive battle between Raja Man Singh of the Mughal army
ati
6 and Rana Pratap of Mewar
Battle of
Samuga 165
rh
8 Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh defeated Dara Shikoh
Battle of 165
Khajwa
9 Aurangzeb defeated his brother Shah Shuja
Nadir Shah defeated Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah and
Battle of 173 looted the Mughal treasury including Peacock throne and the
Karnal
9 Kohinoor diamond

Nine
Gems
(Navrat
na) of
Akbar's
Court
Name
Abul
Fazl
Faizi
Todar
Mal
Abdul
Rahim
Khan-iKhanan
Tansen
Raja
Man
Singh
Faqir
Aziao
Din
Mullah
Do
Piaza
Birbal

Points to remember
He was the chronicler of Akbar's rule. He authored Akbar's biography Akbarnama. Abul Fazl documented the history meticulously over a
period of seven years.
Faizi translated the Panchatantra, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata
into Persian.
Todar Mal was the revenue minister of Sher Shah Suri who continued in
the position in the court of Akbar. He introduced standard weights and
measurements, revenue districts and officers.
Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khanan was the son of Akbars general Bairam
Khan, the person who looked after him after the death of Humayun.
Rahim is known for his couplets or Dohe.
Tansen (original name Ramtanu Pandey) was a great musician who is
credited with innovation of Raagas such as Mian ki Malhar, Mian ki Todi
and Darbari Kanada.
Raja Man Singh, a trusted lieutenant of Akbar was the grandson of
Akbars father-in-law. Raja Man Singh assisted Akbar in many fronts
including holding off advancing Hakim (Akbars half-brother) in Lahore.
He also led campaigns in Orissa.
He was mystic and advisor whose advice Akbar regarded respectfully.
He was also an advisor in the court of Akbar known for his intelligence.
His original name was Maheshdas. He was a well known court jester.

Famous
Treaties
Name of
the Treaty

Yea
r

Treaty of
Asurar Ali
Treaty of
Purandar

16
39
16
65

Importance
The treaty established the boundary between the Mughal empire
and the Ahom kingdom ending the Mughal's efforts to conquer
Ahom.
Signed between Rajput ruler and commander of Mughal Empire
Jai Singh I, and Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Shivaji was
forced to sign the agreement after Jai Singh besieged Purandar

Treaty of
Alinagar

17
57

Treaty of
Allahabad
Treaty of
Purandar
Treaty of
Wadgaon
Treaty of
Salbai

17
65
17
76
17
79
17
82

Treaty of
Seringap
atam

17
92

Treaty of
Lahore

18
46

Treaty of
Amritsar

18
46

fort.
Signed between Siraj-ud-dwala and Robert Clive allowing the
British to fortify Calcutta and also allow British goods to pass
through Bengal without duties.
Signed between Robert Clive and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II
allowing the British Diwani Rights or the right to collect taxes on
behalf of the Emperor from the eastern province of Bengal-BiharOrissa.
Signed between the British and the Marathas bringing the first
phase of the First Anglo-Maratha War to an end.
Signed between the British and the Marathas bringing the
second phase of the First Anglo-Maratha War to an end.
Signed between the British and the Marathas bringing the First
Anglo-Maratha War to an end.
Signed between the British (Lord Cornwallis), the Marathas,
Hyderabad and Tipu Sultan. This ended the Third Anglo-Mysore
War allowing the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad and the
British to annex almost half of Tipu Sultan's territories.
Signed between Governor General Air Henry Hardinge for the
British and members of Lahore darbar representing the young
Maharaja Duleep Singh Bahadur. The treaty marked the end of
the First Anglo-Sikh War.
The Treaty of Amritsar followed the Treaty of Lahore. By this
treaty the British East India Company sold Kashmir to Maharaja
Gulab Singh, whose dynasty ruled till 1947, when Maharaja Hari
Singh acceded Kashmir to India.

British
Governor
Generals/Vi
ceroys
Governor
General/Vic
eroy

Warren
Hastings
Lord
Cornwallis
Lord
Wellesley

Peri
od
177
4178
5
178
6179
3
179
8182

Points to remember
First Governor General in India. (He was the appointed as the
Governor General of Fort William, but he exercised control
over East India Company officials all over India.) He was
impeached in England for his wrong-doings, namely The
Rohilla War, Trial and execution of Nand Kumar, Case of Raja
Chait Singh and Begums of Oudh.
Permanent Settlement, an agreement between the East India
Company and Bengali landlords to fix revenues to be raised
from land was introduced during his period.
He introduced the Subsidiary Alliance, under which the Indian
ruler agreed to keep British forces in his territory. The first
state to accept the Subsidiary Alliance was the State of

Lord William
Bentick
Lord
Dalhousie
Lord
Canning

Lord Mayo

Lord Lytton

Lord Rippon
Lord
Dufferin

Lord Curzon
Lord
Hardinge
Lord
Chelmsford
Lord
Reading

Lord Irwin

5
182
8183
5
184
8185
6
185
6186
2
186
9187
2
187
6188
0
188
0188
4
188
4188
8
189
9190
5
191
0191
6
191
6192
1
192
1192
6
192
6193
1

Hyderabad.
First to be designated as the Governor General of India in
1828. He outlawed the practice of Sati and also introduced
English education in India.
He introduced the infamous 'Doctrine of Lapse'. He also
brought Railways and Telegraph to India. He is also known as
the maker of modern India.
He was the Governor General during the mutiny of 1857. He
was appointed the first Viceroy after the war.
He was the Viceroy of India, who was killed by a convict in the
Andaman Islands.
The Delhi durbar or the Imperial Durbar in which Queen
Victoria was proclaimed Kaisar-i-Hind was held during his
period on 01 Jan 1877.
He introduced the dual system of governance. The first
census in India was conducted in 1881 during his period. He
was also associated with Ilbert Bill which sought to allow
Indian judges to try British offenders.

The Indian National Congress was formed during his period.

Partition of Bengal and launch of Swadeshi Movement.


The Capital of India was shifted from Calcutta to India during
his tenure in 1911. George V, the King of England visited India
to attend the Delhi durbar in 1911. An assassination attempt
was made on his life by Rash Bihari Bose and others.
The Jallianwala Bagh tragedy of 1919 occured during his
period. Montague Chelmsford reforms, Rowlatt Act, Khilafat
movement are other events associated with his period.
Chauri Chaura incident occurred during his period. Mahatma
Gandhi was imprisoned for the first time in India.
His period is associated with First Round Table Conference,
Simon Commission, Gandhi Irwin pact and the famous Dandi
March.

Lord
Willingdon
Lord
Linlithgow

Lord Wavell

193
1193
6
193
6194
3
194
3194
7

Second and Third Round Table Conferences were held during


his period. Communal award was given by British PM Ramsay
Macdonald and the Poona Pact between Mahatma Gandhi and
Dr. Ambedkar was signed during his period.
Cripps Mission visited India and the Quit India resolution was
passed during his tenure.
Simla conference and Cabinet mission are associated with his
period.

Importa
nt
dates
during
British
rule in
India
Year
1857
1885
1905
1909
1911
1919
1920
1922
1928
1929
1930
1931
1935
1942
1943
1946

Importance
First war of Indian independence also called the Sepoy Mutiny by
the British.
Formation of Indian National Congress.
Partition of Bengal, Swadeshi Movement
Minto Morley reforms
Shifting of capital from Calcutta to Delhi.
Government of India Act, 1919, Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh
tragedy.
Khilafat movement.
Chauri Chaura outrage in UP.
Visit of Simon Commission to India, Death of Lala Lajpat Rai
Resolution of complete independence at Lahore session of Indian
National Congress.
Dandi March, Launch of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Gandhi Irwin pact, execution of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and
Rajguru
Government of India Act
Quit India movement, Formation of Azad Hind Fauz.
Visit of Cripps Commission to India.
British Cabinet mission visited India.

Indian National Congress - Points to remember

The first president of Indian National Congress was Womesh


Chandra Banerji
The first session of the INC was held in Dec 1885 in Mumbai.
Mahatma Gandhi presided over the Belgaum session of INC in
1924.
The first woman president of INC was Mrs Annie Besant.
The first Indian woman president of the INC was Mrs Sarojini
Naidu
The first Englishman to become the president of INC was
George Yule
The first Muslim president of the INC was Badruddin Tayabji.
The president of INC at the time of India's independence was
Acharya JB Kriplani.
Import
ant
sessio
ns of
Indian
Nation
al
Congr
ess

Year

Place

Madra
1887 s
Allaha
1888 bad
Kolkat
1896 a
1907 Surat
Kolkat
1911 a
Luckn
1916 ow
Kolkat
1917 a

Preside
nt
Badrud
din
Tayabji
George
Yule
Rahimt
ulla M
Sayani
Rashbih
ari
Ghosh
Pandit
Bishan
Naraya
n Dar
Ambica
Charan
Mazum
dar
Mrs
Annie
Besant

Importance
First session to be presided by a Muslim.
First session to be presided by an Englishman.
The National Song, Vande Mataram was sung for the
first time.
The INC split into two, one consisting of Moderates, led
by Gokhale and the other consisting of Extremists, led
by Tilak.
The National Anthem, Jana Gana Mana was sung for
the first time.
Joint session with Muslim league in which the historic
Lucknow pact was signed.
First session to be presided by a Lady.

Kanpu
1925 r
Lahor
1929 e
Meeru
1946 t

1948 Jaipur

Mrs
Sarojini
Naidu
Pt
Jawahar
lal
Nehru
Acharya
JB
Kriplani
Dr
Pattabh
i
Sitaram
ayya

First session to be presided by an Indian lady.


The decision to launch a civil disobedience movement
to achieve complete independence and to observe 26
Jan as Independence Day was taken. Nehru became
the president for the first time.
Last pre-independence session of the INC.

First session after Independence.

Important Places during India's Freedom Struggle


1. Chauri Chaura
Importance
The place in Uttar Pradesh, near Gorakhpur which came into news when a frenzied
mob set fire to a police station killing 23 people inside. Gandhiji had given a call
for non-cooperation movement in 1920. Since the movement was to be nonviolent, Gandhiji was deeply hurt by the violence of the people and hastily called
off the non-cooperation movement. The incident occurred on 04 Feb 1922.
2. Kakori
Importance
The place in Lucknow district of Uttar Pradesh. The famous Kakori Train Dacoity
took place on 09 Aug 1925. Revolutionaries led by Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla
Khan, Chandrasekhar Azad and others stopped a train carrying British government
money. The train was looted of the treasury by the revolutionaries who needed the
money to run the freedom struggle.
3. Chittagong
Importance
The place is well-known for Chittagong Armoury Raid. The raid was led by
revolutionary Surya Sen. Surya Sen had organised a group of young
revolutionaries and together they planned to lay a siege to police armouries in
Chittagong. On 18 April 1930, Surya Sen alongwith his troop captured the police
armoury, cut off telegraph lines and hoisted the National Flag.

4. Champaran

Importance
In the year 1917, Gandhiji began his active involvement in India's politics from this
place in Bihar. At Champaran, the farmers were being forced to grow
unremunerative indigo plant which yielded blue dye. Gandhiji was called upon by
some activists to solve the problem of the cultivators. Gandhiji for the first time
used the tool of non-violence. He toured the villages and compelled the
government to pass the Champaran Agraria Law in 1918.

5. Dandi
Important Points to Remember
A small village on the coast of Gulf of Khambhat, Arabian Sea. The place shot to
world fame when Gandhiji led the famous Dandi March from Sabarmati Ashram
near Ahmedabad on 12 March 1930. On the 24th day, i.e. 06 April 1930, Gandhiji
reached Dandi and made salt as a protest against the tax imposed on salt by the
British. The incident also marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience
Movement. Recently Time magazine listed the Salt Satyagraha in its list of Top 10
Most Influential Protests of all time.

6. Port Blair
Important Points to Remember
The present capital of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair played an
important role during the freedom struggle. Firstly, the British had constructed the
huge Cellular Jail on the island. Indian prisoners, especially political ones, were
sent to the jail, the punishment being popularly known as Kala Pani.
Sachindranath Sanyal, the author of Bandi Jeevan, and Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
were such freedom fighters who were sent to the Cellular Jail. Secondly, Netaji
Subhash Chandra Bose hoisted the National Flag on 30 Dec 1943 and declared it
to be the headquarters of the Provisional Government of India. The
7. Bardoli
Important Points to Remember
In 1925, the taluka of Bardoli in Gujarat suffered from floods and famine, causing
crop production to suffer and leaving farmers facing great financial troubles.
However, the Government had raised the tax rate by 30% that year. The farmers
protested in vain. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in consultation organised the Bardoli
Satyagraha in which the farmers refused to pay the taxes despite the threat of
confiscation of property. In the end the Government relented and enhanced taxes
were withdrawn. Vallabhbhai Patel earned the title of Sardar from this Satyagraha.
8. Amritsar
Important Points to Remember
Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, well known for the massacre of innocent and

peaceful gathering of people who had gathered in the park for a public meeting.
On 13 April 1919 (Baisakhi Day), a crowd of about 20,000 people had gathered in
the small park, when troops surrounding the park were ordered by Brig Gen REH
Dyer to open fire. The official figures put the casualty at 379, but unofficial figures
have been much higher. Michael O'Dyer the Lt. Governor of Punjab was shot dead
by Udham Singh 21 years later. In protest against the incident Rabindranath
Tagore renounced his knighthood bestowed upon him by the British in 1915.
9. Stuttgart
Important Points to Remember
Located in Germany, the place is well-known in India's Freedom Struggle for
unfurling of the National Flag by Madame Bhikaji Cama. The ocassion was the
meeting of International Socialist Congress on August 22, 1907. The flag was
known as Saptarishi Flag. This flag had green at the top, saffron in the centre and
red at the bottom. The flag had eight lotuses in a line on the green band and the
words Vande Mataram, in the Devanagari script, were inscribed on the central
band.
10. Kheda
Important Points to Remember
Kheda is a district in Gujarat. It is known for Kheda Satyagraha of 1918 which
Gandhiji launched to help the cultivators of the district who were going through a
year of near famine. The farmers were asking for waiver of revenue collection for
the year as the production had been very low. The Government however refused
to accept the demand and hence Gandhiji advised the farmers to launch
Satyagraha. In the end the Government relented by suspending tax collection for
the year.
11. Vedaranyam
Important Points to Remember
Vedaranyam in Nagipattinam district of Tamilnadu is known in the history of India's
independence for being the place at which Chakravarty Rajagopalachari
accomplished the Salt Satyagraha on 30 April 1930, the same month and year in
which Gandhiji broke the salt laws at Dandi, Gujarat.
12. Moirang
Importance
Located in Manipur, the place was in news during freedom struggle when the
Indian National Army took over the place from British with Japanese support.
Colonel Shaukat Malik of the Azad Hind Fauz hoisted the Indian Tricolour on 14
April 1944.
13. Lahore
Importance
The Lahore Session of Indian National Congress holds special significance in the
history of India's Freedom Struggle. Jawaharlal Nehru unfurled the Indian National
Flag on the midnight of Dec 31, 1929. A pledge was taken by all those present

that January 26 would be celebrated as Independence Day every year. A resolution


demanding Poorna Swaraj meaning complete independence from the British was
passed. Lahore was also the place where freedom fighter Jatin Das fasted to death
in jail demanding better conditions for prisoners. It was also in Lahore's Kot
Lakhpat Jail that Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged by the British
on 23 March 1931.
14. Bombay
Importance
The famous Quit India Movement also known as August Kranti was launched from
this city in 1942. At the historic Bombay session of Indian National Congress which
began on the 7th August 1942 at Gowalia Tank Maidan, Mahatma Gandhi gave a
call of Quit India and also called upon Indians to do or die. All the leaders Gandhi,
Nehru, Sardar Patel and Maulana Azad were immediately arrested and on 09
August 1942, in absence of prominent leaders Aruna Asaf Ali hoisted the National
Flag.
15. Pune
Importance
Gandhi was imprisoned at Yerawada Jail in Pune. The famous Poona Pact was
signed between Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi at Yerawada jail on 24
September 1932. The pact was a settlement arrived at as a result of Gandhiji's
protest at Ramsay Macdonald's Communal Award.
Again, in 1942, when Gandhiji launched the Quit India Movement, he was arrested
and imprisoned at Aga Khan Palace in Pune. It was at this place that his wife,
Kasturba Gandhi breathed her last.
16. Nagpur
Importance
Nagpur is well known for the Flag Satyagraha whose success is credited to the
leadership of Sardar Patel. The Tricolour had not been allowed to be flown beside
the Union Jack on the Town Hall. It was also prohibited to take the flag out in
procession. The Satyagraha started on 01 May 1923. Sardar Patel ensured a
steady flow of satyagrahis from different parts of the country who courted arrest
and filled the Nagpur jail. Finally government relented and no more prohibitory
orders were issued. All prisoners were released and they carried out a Flag March
at the end of which Sardar Patel announced the closure of Flag Satyagraha.
17. Vaikom
Importance
Vaikom, a town in Kerala is famous for Vaikom Satyagraha launched against
untouchability among Hindus. The satyagraha was led by T.K. Madhavan in the
year 1924. The Satyagraha established the rights of lower castes to walk through
the temple road in Vaikom and also paved the way for Temple Entry Act.

Important Freedom Fighters of India


Dadabhai Naoroji
Brief biography
Well-known as the Grand Old Man of India.
He was the first Asian to be elected to the British House of Commons in 1892.
Author of book Poverty and Un-British Rule in India.
He prepared the first estimates of National income in 1876.
He was also the first Indian to be appointed as a Professor at the Elphinstone
College, Bombay.
He was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress thrice in 1886,
1893 and 1906.
He started the newspaper Voice of India in 1883.
He was also the founder of Gyan Prasarak Mandali, an organistaion dedicated to
spreading education among the adult.
C Rajagopalachari
Brief biography
Also known as Rajaji and CR, he was a laywer and a freedom fighter.
Rajagopalachari was the first and last Indian Governor-General of India.
In 1930 he led the salt march to Vedaranyam in Madras State.
He was one of first recipients of the Bharat Ratna in 1954 alongwith Dr. S
Radhakrishnan and C.V. Raman.
He was the Home Minister from 1951 to 1952, Chief Minister of Madras from 1952
to 1954.
Rajaji founded the Swatantra Party in 1959 after breaking away from the
Congress.
Rajaji was one of the favourites of Gandhi who described him as the "keeper of my
conscience".
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Brief biography
Also known as Lokmanya Tilak, he was a scholar of Indian History, astronomy and
Sanskrit.
He is well-known for his quote Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it.
He was considered by the British to be the Father of Indian Unrest.
Tilak along with Vishnushastry founded the Deccan Education Society to impart
teachings about India culture to India's youth.
Tilak was also the founder of two weeklies, Kesari (in Marathi) and Maratha (in
English) to highlight plight of Indians.
He also started the celebrations of Ganapati Festival and Shivaji Jayanti to bring
people close together and join the nationalist movement against British.

He was one of the chief architects of the Swadeshi Movement alongwith Bipin
Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai, launched with the partition of Bengal. The three
were fondly called Lal-Bal-Pal.
With the goal of Swaraj, he also built Home Rule League.
He was the author of the book Gita Rahasya and The Arctic Home in the Vedas.
He breathed his last on August 1, 1920, the day on which Non-cooperation
Movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Brief biography
Also known as Lokmanya Tilak, he was a scholar of Indian History, astronomy and
Sanskrit.
He is well-known for his quote Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it.
He was considered by the British to be the Father of Indian Unrest.
Tilak along with Vishnushastry founded the Deccan Education Society to impart
teachings about India culture to India's youth.
Tilak was also the founder of two weeklies, Kesari (in Marathi) and Maratha (in
English) to highlight plight of Indians.
He also started the celebrations of Ganapati Festival and Shivaji Jayanti to bring
people close together and join the nationalist movement against British.
He was one of the chief architects of the Swadeshi Movement alongwith Bipin
Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai, launched with the partition of Bengal. The three
were fondly called Lal-Bal-Pal.
With the goal of Swaraj, he also built Home Rule League.
He was the author of the book Gita Rahasya and The Arctic Home in the Vedas.
He breathed his last on August 1, 1920, the day on which Non-cooperation
Movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Brief biography
He is widely known as the political guru of Mahatma Gandhi.
He was the founder of Servants of India Society, in 1905, an organisation which
worked for promoting education, sanitation, health care and fighting the social
evils of untouchability and discrimination, alcoholism, poverty etc.
He started his career as an Assistant Master in a school in Pune.
He was the leader of Soft Faction of the Congress party (Naram Dal), while Tilak
led the Garam Dal (Hot Faction) of the party, when it split in 1907.
He was also the founder of leading daily from Nagpur, The Hitavada in 1911
(completing 100 years this year).
In 1885, Gokhale founded the Fergusson College in Pune.
Lala Lajpat Rai

Brief biography
Popularly known as Punjab Kesari or Lion of Punjab, he was a lawyer and a
freedom fighter.
At the Bombay session of INC in 1889, he was linked with other two leading
freedom fighters Bipin Chandra Pal and Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The trio was
popularly known as Lal-Bal-Pal.
He was one of the pioneers of the Swadeshi Movement alongwith Bipin Chandra
Pal and Lokmanya Tilak.
He went to USA for promoting the cause of Indias freedom struggle, where he
founded the India Home League Society of America, which published a monthly
journal titled Young India. Click here to see the link
In 1920 he formed the Congress Independence Party in protest against the
Jalianwala Bagh Massacre and Non Cooperation Movement.
His efforts saw the formation of Punjab National Bank in 1895.
He was the first President of the All India Trade Union Congress formed in 1920.
He founded the Servants of People Society which worked for the freedom
movement as well as for social reform movement in the country.
His famous words Every blow aimed at me is a nail in the coffin of British
imperialism were spoked when he received lathis blows during the protest against
the visit of Simon Commission.
Lala Lajpat Rai died in 1928 as a result of lathi blows.

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad


Brief biography
He was a renowned scholar well versed in Arabic, English, Urdu, Hindi, Persian and
Bengali.
He adopted the pen name 'Azad' as a mark of his mental emancipation from a
narrow view of religion and life.
Started a weekly journal Al Hilal to increase the revolutionary recruits amongst the
Muslims.
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was posthumously awarded India's highest civilian
honour, Bharat Ratna in 1992.
He was elected as Congress President in 1923, becoming the youngest person to
hold the office. He was again elected the president in 1940.
He became independent India's first education minister.
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was born on November 11, 1888 in Mecca.
Azad met two leading revolutionaries of Bengal, Aurobindo Ghosh and Sri Shyam
Shundar Chakravarty, and joined the revolutionary movement against British rule.
He helped setup secret revolutionary centers all over north India and Bombay.
He was one of the main organisers of the Dharasana Satyagraha in 1931, which
was a non-violent raid on Dharasana Salt Works.
He was a member of the Foundation Committee of the Jamia Milia Islamia which
met in 1920.
He is the author of the book India Wins Freedom.

Motilal Nehru
Brief biography
Father of Jawaharlal Nehru, he was one of the best lawyers of the country.
He was elected to the Presidentship of Congress President twice.
He formed the Swaraj Party alongwith Chittaranjan Das.
In 1923, Nehru was elected to the new Central Legislative Assembly of British
India in New Delhi and became leader of the Opposition.
He was chairman of the All Parties Conference which put up the Nehru Report, a
draft constitution which recommended full dominion status for India.
He launched the daily paper Independent in 1919.

Madan Mohan Malaviya


Brief biography
Often addressed as Mahamana, he was an educationist, lawyer and freedom
fighter.
He founded the Banaras Hindu University in 1916.
He represented India at the First Round Table Conference.
He founded the newspaper The Leader published from Allahabad.
He also edited the weekly Hindustan and the daily The Indian Union at different
times.
He was elected the President of Indian National Congress on four ocassions - 1909,
1918, 1932 and 1933.
Bhagat Singh
Important Points to Remember
He helped organise Punjab Naujawan Bharat Sabha in 1926 and became its
founding secretary.
He was the involved in the murder of Mr. Saunders in order to avenge the death of
Lala Lajpat Rai.
He re-organised Hindustan Republic Association under the leadership of
Chandershekhar Azad and renamed it Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.
He was the author of the famous pamphlet Why I am Atheist.
He once declared before the Lahore High Court "The sword of revolution is
sharpened on the whetting stone of ideas."
He alongwith Batukeshwar Dutt threw two bombs in the Legislative Assembly
chamber in Delhi against the passage of Public Safety Bill and Trade Disputes Bill.
He was hanged alongwith Rajguru and Sukhdev on Mar 23, 1931 in Lahore Jail.

Chandershekhar Azad

Important Points to Remember


Born Chandershekhar Tiwari, he adopted the surname Azad which means free.
He had vowed never to be caught alive by the British.
He was the chief re-organiser of the Hindustan Republican Socialist Association
after the death of its founder Ram Prasad Bismil.
He was involved in the Kakori Train Dacoity but managed to evade arrest.
He shot himself dead at the end of an encounter in Alfred Park, Allahabad on 27
Feb 1931.

Ram Prasad Bismil


Important Points to Remember
Author of the famous poem Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna.
He masterminded the Kakori Train Dacoity alongwith Ashfaqullah Khan.
He was a co-founder of Hindustan Republican Association alongwith Sachindranath
Sanyal.
He was hanged by the British on 19 Dec 1927 in Gorakhpur Jail.

Sachindranath Sanyal
Important Points to Remember
He was the founder of Hindustan Republican Association alongwith Ram Prasad
Bismil.
Author of the famous book Bandi Jeevan.
He was sentenced to life in the Kakori Train Dacoity and sent to Cellular Jail in the
Andamans.
He was also involved in the Ghadar Conspiracy case.

Ashfaqulla Khan
Important Points to Remember
One of the members of the Hindustan Republican Association.
He was actively involved in the Kakori Train Dacoity, alongwith Ramprasad Bismail.
He was sentenced to death and hanged by the British on 19 Dec 1927 at Faizabad
Jail.
At his gallows he said My hands are not soiled with the murder of man, God will
give me justice.

Khudiram Bose

Important Points to Remember


He was one of the youngest of the revolutionaries of the Indian Independence
Movement who died at the age of 18 years.
He was drawn into the nationalist movement during the protest against the
partition of Bengal by the British.
He joined Jugantar a party of revolutionary activists.
He and Praful Chaki were selected by the party to assassinate the Chief
Presidency Magistrate Kingsford who was known to make brutal and blatant
judgments against freedom fighters.
However, they were not successful and killed the family of barrister Kennedy
instead.
Khudiram was arrested on the charges of bomb attack and was sentenced to
death on August 11, 1908.
Surya Sen
Important Points to Remember
He was well-known for the Chittagong Armoury Raid in 1930.
He hoisted the Indian National Flag at the Chittagong armoury and proclaimed a
Provisional Revolutionary Government.
He was arrested and hanged by the British in 02 Jan 1934.
Lala Hardayal
Important Points to Remember
Most well-known for forming the Ghadar Party in America in 1913.
The Ghadar Party is well-known for the Ghadar Conspiracy under which Indian
soldiers were to be instigated to start rebellion against the British during World
War I. The plan was however foiled by the British.
He had spurned a career in ICS to joing the freedom movement.
He was associated with Madame Bhikaji Cama and Veer Savarkar.
Madame Bhikaji Cama
Important Points to Remember
Well known for unfurling the first Indian National Flag in the International Socialist
Conference in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1907.
After Stuttgart, Madame Cama went to the United States and was known as
"Mother India's first cultural representative to the United States".
She published revolutionary magazines Vande Mataram and Madan's Talwar which
were banned by the British.
She urged people to "March forward! We are for India. India is for Indians!"
She also co-founded the Paris Indian Society in Paris in 1905.
She also served as a private secretary to Dadabhai Naoroji.
Madan Lal Dhingra

Important Points to Remember


Well-known for the assassination of Sir William Hutt Curzon Wyllie in London on 01
Jul 1909.
He was a keen follower of Vinayak Savarkar.
He was tried and hanged in London on 17 August 1909.
Udham Singh
Important Points to Remember
Well-known for the assassination of Michael O'Dwyer in March 1940 to avenge the
Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre.
Udham Singh changed his name to Ram Mohammad Singh Azad, symbolising the
unity of three religions in India.
Udham Singh was an active member of the Ghadar Party in America.
He was hanged in Pentonville Prison, London on 31 July 1940.
Rash Behari Bose
Important Points to Remember
Well-known for the assassination bid on the life of Lord Hardinge in Delhi in 1912.
He formed the Indian National Army with the help of Captain Mohan Singh and
Sardar Pritam Singh on September 1, 1942.
Rash Behari was an active member of the Ghadar Conspiracy in America.
Jatin Das
Important Points to Remember
Jatindranath Das is well-known for his fast unto death which lasted for 63 days.
His fast was a protest against deplorable condition of the prisoners and undertrials. He died on 13 Sep 1929.
He was a member of Anushilan Samiti, a revolutionary outfit in Bengal.
He had agreed to make bombs for Bhagat Singh and was arrested for
revolutionary activities in 1929.
Important events in the Life of Mahatma Gandhi
Event
Birth
Left for England to become a barrister
Left England to return to India after becoming a barrister
Sailed for South Africa
Established Phoenix Farm in S. Africa
Arrived in India from S Africa

Year
1869
1888
1891
1893
1904
1915

Established Sabarmati Ashram


Fought for Champaran indigo workers (also marked Gandhijis
entry in to politics)
Started the Non co-operation movement
Non co-operation movement withdrawn due to Chauri Chaura
incident
Organised the Dandi March to protest against the salt tax laws
Attended the II round table conference
Settles down at Sevagram, a village near Wardha
Appeals to the British to quit India
Assassinated by Nathuram Godse

1915
1917
1920
1922
1930
1931
1936
1942
1948

Important Fasts undertaken by Mahatma Gandhi


Date

1918, March 15-17

1919, April 13-15


1922, Feb. 12-16
1932, Sep 20-25

1943, Feb. 10-28


1948, Jan. 13-17
Important Quotes by Mahatma Gandhi
I will give you a talisman. Whenever you are in doubt or
when the self becomes too much with you, apply the
following test: Recall the face of the poorest and the
weakest man whom you may have seen and ask yourself

Reason for fasting


Fasted in protest
against the low wages
of the Ahmedabad mill
workers
Fasted as atonement
for Jalianwala Baugh
Massacre and also to
atone for riots at
Bombay, Ahmedabad
and other places as a
result of that massacre
Fasted to atone for
Chaurichaura
Massacre
Against communal
award of Ramsay
Macdonald
Fasted in protest
against governments
attempt to blame
Congress Party for
disturbances after Quit
India resolution
To protest against and
atone the communal
riots in Calcutta

if the step you contemplate is going to be of any use to


him. Will he gain anything by it? Will it restore him to a
control over his own life and destiny? In other words, will
it lead to swaraj for the hungry and spiritually starving
millions? Then you will find your doubts and your self
melting away.
I do not want my house to be walled in on all sides and
my windows to be stuffed. I want the cultures of all lands
to be blow about my house as freely as possible. But I
refuse to be blown off my feet by any.
Western nations are groaning today under the heel of the
monster god materialism. Their moral growth has
become stunted. They measure growth in
dollars.American wealth has become a standard, rather
than truth, kindness, generosity, love, sensitivity, and
sharing the experiences of life freely and fully.
I shall work for an India, in which the poorest shall feel
that it is their country in whose making they have an
effective voice; an India in which there shall be no high
class and low class of people; an India in which all
communities shall live in perfect harmony.
I claim to be no more than an average man with less
than average abilities. I have not the shadow of a doubt
that any man or woman can achieve what I have, if he or
she would make the same effort and cultivate the same
hope and faith.
Seven social sins - 1. Politics without principle 2. Pleasure
without conscience 3. Wealth without work 4. Knowledge
without character 5. Commerce without morality 6.
Science without humanity 7. Worship without sacrifice.
There is nothing to prevent us from profiting by the light
that may come from the West. Only we must take care
that we are not overpowered by the glamour of the West.
We must not mistake the glamour for true light.
First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they
fight you, then you win
What others said about Mahatma Gandhi
It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr. Gandhi, a
seditious middle temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of
a type well known in the east, striding half-naked up the
steps of the viceregal palace, while he is still organizing
and conducting a defiant campaign of civil disobedience,
to parley on equal terms with the representative of the
king-emperor. Winston Churchill, 1930
Friends and Comrades, the light has gone out of our lives
and there is darkness everywhere. Jawaharlal Nehru,
1948 on the death of Gandhiji

The light has gone out, I said, and yet I was wrong. For
the light that shone in this country was no ordinary light.
The light that has illumined this country for these many
years will illumine this country for many more years, and
a thousand years later, that light will be seen in this
country and the world will see it and it will give solace to
innumerable hearts. Jawaharlal Nehru, 1948 on the death
of Gandhiji in continuation of the above sentence.
Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one
as this walked the earth in flesh and blood. Albert
Einstein, 1948
If humanity is to progress, Gandhi is inescapable. He
lived, thought, and acted, inspired by the vision of
humanity evolving toward a world of peace and harmony.
We may ignore him at our own risk. Dr. Martin Luther
King, Jr
Mahatama Gandhi will go down in history on par with
Buddha and Jesus Christ. Lord Mountbatten
He is a man among men, a hero among heroes, a patriot
among patriots and we may well say that in him Indian
humanity at the present time has really reached its high
water-mark. Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Books by Nobel Laureates


Rabindranath Tagore
Gitanjali
Gora
Gardner
The Post Office
Hungry Stones
The King of Dark Chamber
The Home and the World
Chandalika

VS Naipaul
In a Free State
A Bend in the River
An Area of Darkness
The Mystic Masseur
India: A Million
Mutinies Now
Half a Life
A House for Mr. Biswas
Magic Seeds

Books by Indian
Booker Prize Winning
Authors
Salman Rushdie
Midnight's Children
Satanic Verses

Arundhati Roy
God of Small Things
Broken Republic

Shame

The End of Imagination

Arvind Adiga
The White Tiger
Last Man in Tower
Between the
Assassinations

The Moor's Last Sigh


Fury
The Enchantress of
Florence
Grimus
The Ground Beneath
Her Feet

Power Politics
The Algebra of Infinite
Justice
The Cost of Living
Listening to Grasshoppers
An Ordinary Person's Guide
to Empire

Important English Titles by


Indian Authors
Name of the Book
Train to Pakistan
Autobiography of an
unknown Indian
Coolie
The Guide
Swami and his friends
Kanthapura
Serpent and the rope
Cry, the peacock
The Artist of Disappearance
The Village by the Sea
Continent of Circe
Midnights Children
Satanic Verses
A Suitable Boy
The Glass Palace
The God of Small Things
Walking with the Comrades
Interpreter of Maladies
The Inheritance of Loss
The Mammaries of a
Welfare State
White Tiger
Last Man in Tower
Witness by Night

Author
Khuswant
Singh
Nirad C
Chaudhary
Mulk Raj
Anand
RK Narayan
RK Narayan
Raja Rao
Raja Rao
Anita Desai
Anita Desai
Anita Desai
Nirad C
Chaudhari
Salman
Rushdie
Salman
Rushdie
Vikram Seth
Amitav Ghosh
Arundhati Roy
Arundhati Roy
Jhumpa Lahiri
Kiran Desai
Upmanyu
Chatterjee
Arvind Adiga
Arvind Adiga
Kishwar Desai

The Sultan's Battery


The Elephant
Last Christmas in
Bandra

Books by Presidents, PMs, Leaders etc.


Name of the Book
My Experiments with Truth
Hind Swaraj
Key to Health
Discovery of India
Glimpses of World History
My Truth
Golden Threshold
The Broken Wing, Songs of Life, Death
& the Spring
The Birds of Time, Songs of Life, Death
& the Spring
The Sceptred Flute: Songs of India
The Feather of the Dawn
India Wins Freedom
Unhappy India
Poverty and Un-British Rule in India
Geeta Rahashya
The Arctic Home in the Vedas
The Insider
Wings of Fire
Ignited Minds
You Are Unique
India 2020
Indomitable Spirit
Turning Points - A Journey through
Challenges
Target 3 Billion
My Journey - Transforming Dreams into
Actions
Jobs for Millions
Mein Kampf
My Presidential Years
My Own Boswell
Prison Diary
Without Fear or Favour
Midnight Diaries
The Audacity of Hope
Dreams From My Father
Indian Philosophy
Hindu View of Life

Author
Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
Indira Gandhi
Sarojini Naidu
Sarojini Naidu
Sarojini Naidu
Sarojini Naidu
Sarojini Naidu
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
Lala Lajpat Rai
Dadabhai Naoroji
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
PV Narasimha Rao
APJ Abdul Kalam
APJ Abdul Kalam
APJ Abdul Kalam
APJ Abdul Kalam
APJ Abdul Kalam
APJ Abdul Kalam
APJ Abdul Kalam and Srijan
Pal Singh
APJ Abdul Kalam
VV Giri
Adolf Hitler
R Venkataraman
M Hidyatullah
Jayaprakash Narayan
Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy
Boris Yelstin
Barrack Obama
Barrack Obama
Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
Dr. S. Radhakrishnan

Matters of Discretion: An Autography


Back to Work

I K Gujral
Bill Clinton

World
Classics
and their
Authors

Ved Vyas

Langua
ge
Sanskri
t
Sanskri
t

Tulsidas
Homer
Homer
Virgil

Hindi
Greek
Greek
Latin

Dante

Italian
Spanis
h

Classic

Author

Ramayana
Mahabharat
a
Ramcharit
Manas
Illiad
Odyssey
Aeneid
Divine
Comedy
Don
Quixote

Valmiki

Utopia
Paradise
Lost
The
Rubaiyat

Servantes
Thomas
More
John
Milton
Omar
Khayyam

Latin
English
Persian

Famous
Books in
Indian
Languages
Name of the
Book
Godan
Shatranj ke
Khiladi
Devdas
Chandalika
Ghare Bhaire

Author
Premchand
Premchand
Sharat Chandra
Chatterjee
Rabindranath
Tagore
Rabindranath
Tagore

Langua
ge
Urdu
Urdu
Bengali
Bengali
Bengali

Chemeen
Pratham
Pratisurti
Kagaz te
Kanvas
Chitttrappav
ai
Hajar
Churashir Ma

Thakazi
Sivasankara Pillai

Malayal
am

Ashapurna Devi

Bengali

Amrita Pritam

Punjabi

P.V.Akilandam

Tamil

Mahasweta Devi

Bengali

Fictional Characters
and their Creators
Character
Mowgli
Miss Marple, Hercule
Poirot
Don Quixote, Sancho
Panza
Jeeves, Bertie Wooster
Swami
David Copperfield,
Oliver Twist
Sherlock Holmes
James Bond
Phileas Fogg,
Passeportout
Robinson Crusoe
Tom Sawyer,
Huckleberry Finn

Creator
Rudyard
Kipling
Agatha
Christie
Cervantes
PG
Wodehouse
RK Narayan
Charles
Dickens
Arthur Conan
Doyle
Ian Fleming
Jules Verne
Daniel Defoe
Mark Twain

Comical
Characters/Series
and their Creators
Character/Series
Amar Chitra Katha
Common man
Bundledass,
Nimbupani
Mickey Mouse,
Donald Duck

Creator
Anant Pai
RK Laxman
Mario
Walt Disney

Calvin
Winnie the Pooh
Denis the Menace
Garfield
Popeye
Archie
Tarzan
Spiderman
Phantom
Tom and Jerry
Flintstones
Superman
Batman

Bill Watterson
A. A. Milne
Hank Ketcham
Jim Davis
E.C. Segar
Bob Montana
Edgar Rice Burroughs
Stan Lee
Lee Falk
William Hanna and Joseph
Barbara
William Hanna and Joseph
Barbara
Joe Shuster and Jerry
Siegel
Bob Kane

Famous books of the


last century (20th
Century)
Name of the Book
Animal Farm
Catch-22
The Catcher in the
Rye

Author
George Orwell
Joseph Heller

JD Salinger
Margaret
Gone with the Wind
Mitchell
Vladimir
Lolita
Nobokov
1984 George Orwell
A Passage to India
EM Forester
To Kill a Mocking Bird
Harper Lee
The Old Man and the
Ernest
Sea
Hemingway
Ernest
A Farewell to Arms
Hemingway
Waiting for Godot
Samuel Beckett
Ulysses
James Joyce
The Hound of
Arthur Conan
Baskerville's
Doyle
The War of the Worlds HG Wells
The Lord of the Rings
J.R.R. Tolkien
Midnight's Children
Salman Rushdie
Lady Chatterley's
D.H. Lawrence

Lover
Murder on the Orient
Express
Dr. Zhivago
Brave New World
The Blind Assassin
All Quiet on Western
Front

Agatha Christie
Boris Pasternak
Aldous Huxley
Margaret
Atwood
Erich Maria
Remarque