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Chapter 7 American Revolution

Victory at Valley

After suffering a series of shattering defeats at the

hands of a British force nearly twice their number, the
soldiers of the continental Army straggled into winter
headquarters in this valley, some twenty miles
northwest of Philadelphia only to find themselves at the
mercy of indifferent local suppliers. Congress effused
to pay the exorbitant rates demanded by contractors for
foot and coting. Local farmers preferred to deal with the
British who paid in pound sterling rather than
depreciated Continental currency. The 11,000 men of
the Continental Army were divided into sixteen brigades
composed of regiments fro the individual state. 2,500
Continental Soldiers died at Valley Forge. However,
Friedrich Wilhelm Augustus von Steuben, a Prussian
officer cam to America to hel American cause was able
to help the Colonist defeat the British at Valley Forge,
Trenton, Princeton and take over Philadelphia.

5, 14aA

5, 14bE

From a population of 350,000 eligible men

more than 200,000 saw action no more than
25,000 fought at one time. Congress promised
free land, bounties and payment for soldiers.

Friederick Von Steuben

Effects of American
Declaration of Independence
Treaty of Paris
Articles of Confederation
Constitutional Convention
Federalist Papers
Bill of Rights
Trials and Tribulations of the New Nation

War for

Toll of War

The estimate is that 25,434 men died in American Revolution.

The American Revolution was the highest percentage of death
in American History with the exception of the Civil War

Of the free white male

population aged sixteen to 45,
one in twenty died in the War
of Independence. The
equivalent of nearly 3 million
deaths in today's population


A large proportion of the Loyalists were relatively recent

migrants to the colonies born in England, Scotland or Ireland.
Many Loyalists were men of conservative temperament fearful
of political or social upheaval. The Loyalists included ethnic
minorites who had ben persecuted by the dominant majority
such as the Highland Scots of the Carolinas and western New
York or southern tenant farmers who had Patriot landlords.
Loyalists were particularly strong in some colonies

and the

Daughters of liberty

Women and the War

Abigail Adams writer

her best known letter to
her husband. She
begins on telling him
on the evils of slavery.
She went on to urge
Congress to draw up a
code of laws for the
new republic. There is
an importance of
representation of the

Abigail Adams use to sign her letters with

Portia after Brutuss devote wife
(Shakespeare). Abigail was well read and her
legacy is seen with a statue of her outside the
Abigail Womens Memorial in Boston


Abigail Adams

Abigail Adams writer her

best known letter to her
husband. She begins on
telling him on the evils of
slavery. She went on to
urge Congress to draw up a
code of laws for the new
republic. There is an
importance of
representation of the

Lucy Knox told

her husband
that he may be
and chief of
his army but
he will not be
in this
household. We
are equal

The 1781 cipher

book for
exercise of Martha
Ryan a North
Carolina girl,
contains images
of ships and a
port town and the
patriotic slogan
Liberty or Death.

The Campaign
for New York and
New Jersey

The Battle of Long Island, also known as the Battle of Brooklyn or the Battle of Brooklyn Heights,
fought on August 27, 1776, was a defeat for the Continental Army under General George
Washington and the beginning of a successful campaign that gave the British control of the
strategically important city of New York. In the American Revolutionary War it was the first major
battle to take place after the United States declared independence on July 4, 1776. In terms of
troop size, it was the largest battle of the entire war.
After defeating the British in the Siege of Boston on March 17, 1776, General George Washington,
Commander-in-Chief, brought the Continental Army to defend the port city of New York, then limited
to the southern end of Manhattan Island. Washington understood that the city's harbor would
provide an excellent base for the British Navy during the campaign. There he established defenses
and waited for the British to attack. In July, the British, under the command of General William
Howe, landed a few miles across the harbor from Manhattan on the sparsely-populated Staten
Island, where during the next month and a half they were slowly reinforced by ships in Lower New
York Bay, bringing their total force to 32,000 troops. With the British fleet in control of the entrance
to the harbor at The Narrows, Washington knew the difficulty in holding the city. Believing
Manhattan would be the first target, he moved there the bulk of his forces.
On August 22, the British landed on the shores of Gravesend Bay in southwest Kings County,
across The Narrows from Staten Island, more than a dozen miles south from the East River
crossings to Manhattan. After five days of waiting, the British attacked American defenses on the
Guan Heights. Unknown to the Americans, however, Howe had brought his main army around their
rear and attacked their flank soon after. The Americans panicked, although a stand by 400 Maryland
troops prevented most of the army from being captured. The remainder of the army retreated to the
main defenses on Brooklyn Heights. The British dug in for a siege but, on the night of August 29
30, Washington evacuated the entire army to Manhattan without the loss of supplies or a single life.
Washington and the Continental Army were driven out of New York entirely after several more
defeats and forced to retreat through New Jersey and into Pennsylvania.

Though several locations were proposed, Washington

selected Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, 18 miles (29 km)
northwest of Philadelphia. Named for an iron forge on Valley
Creek, the area was close enough to the British to keep their
raiding and foraging parties out of the interior of Pennsylvania,
yet far enough away to halt the threat of British surprise
attacks. The densely forested plateau of Mount Joy and the
adjoining two-mile long plateau of Mount Misery combined
with the Schuylkill River to the north, made the area easily
defensible, along with providing abundant forests of timber
that would later be used to construct the thousands of log
huts. 78 of the huts in the camp would home the soldiers, but
over 2,500 of those soldiers died


5, 14bC

5.14 ad

The Northern
Campaigns of

The fighting with American forces

prevented Howe from moving north up the
Hudson River and the British advance
southward from Canada was stalled by
American resistance at Lake Champlain.
In 1777, however the British decided to
replay their strategy. From Canada John
Burgoyne with nearly 8,000 British and
German Troops. Ft. Ticonderoga fell to
Burgoyne on July 6.
After several defeats in September a the
hands of American army commanded by
General Gates Burgoyne retreated to
Saratoga. On October 18 Burgoyne
retreated to Saratoga and he surrendered.
It was the biggest victory for the Americans
outside of Yorktown.

5, 14bD

5, 15A

French ally with Colonist

after Colonist victory
over Britain at Saratoga

5, 15C

French aid Colonist After Battle of Saratoga. French want to get

back at the British and Seven Years War

Marquis de Lafayette was able to block British escape by land at Yorktown.(picture

Washington and Lafayette)

Second Long
Island Battle

After the defeat of Long Island, General Howe met with Ben Franklin,
John Adams and Ben Rush to negotiate a supposed peace treaty.
General Howe was actually a friend of Ben Franklin (Ben Franklins son
worked for General Howe. Ben Franklins son was a loyal Tory. Ben
Franklin said so no peace and that you may win battles but you will not
win the war. Americas culture is too strong to quite during this time of
war. Howe was disappointed since he did admire the colonists.

5, 16A

5, 14bB

George Washington made a major mistake during the

start of the American Revolution. General Howe and
his brother showed his troops on Long Island
indicating the honorable action is to fight your
opponents directly. George Washington was a man of
honor and he like in a duel indicated he would do the
honorable thing fight at Long Island. This turned out to
be a major mistake. George Washington lost the battle
and 1,500 soldiers. George Washington was stuck on
Long Island and the English troops were about to
come in to see if they could capture the Patriot leaders
including George Washington.
If not for a semi-miracle; there was tremendous fog on
Long Island and George Washington was able to
escape on the river at night.
George Washington was in a state of depression and
asked any of the founding fathers if they wanted the
job. No one said they wanted the job. John Adams
was the strongest supporter of George Washington.
Adams gave the needed support to Washington in the
time of need.

Reaction to Loyalists

Colonial Loyalist. There

were between 20 to 25%
of free Americans
remained loyal to the
British and nearly 20,000
fought for the British.
Loyalist were numerous
in New York,
Pennsylvania, Carolina
and Georgia

arrest and seized
property of
Mennonites and
Moravians, pacifist
who refused to
bear armies
because of
religious beliefs

Some wealthy Loyalist saw their lands confiscated

an sold at auction. 28 estates belonging to New
Hampshire governor John Wentworth and his
family were seized as wert he holding of New York
loyalist De Lancey and Philipse Families.

When the war ended as

many as 100,000 Loyalist
including 20,000 slaves were
banished from the United
States or emigrated
voluntarily mostly to Britain,
Canada or the West Indians .
But for thos43 who remained
hostility proved to be short
lived. In the Treaty of Paris of
1783 state and local
governments had to restore
property seized during he

A Global

John Paul Jones (July 6, 1747 July 18, 1792) was a

Scottish sailor and the United States' first well-known naval
fighter in the American Revolutionary War. Although he
made enemies among America's political elites, his actions
in British waters during the Revolution earned him an
international reputation which persists to this day. As such
he is sometimes referred to as the "Father of the United
States Navy" (an epithet he shares with John Barry). He
later served in the Imperial Russian Navy.
During his engagement with HMS Serapis, Jones uttered,
according to the later recollection of his first lieutenant, the
legendary reply to a taunt about surrender from the British
captain: "I have not yet begun to fight!"

John Paul Jones was in command of Bonhomme Richard

honor Franklin he was famous for saying I have not yet
begun to fight.

Indians Role
in American

Joseph Brant the brilliant chief of the Mohawks sided with

Great Britain during the evolution. The British told the colonist
would take their land. Brant succeeded in bringing most
Iroquois warriors into the British camp, although he was
opposed by the chiefs of the Oneidas and Tuscaroras. The
Iroquois and Loyalist forces raided the northern frontiers of
New York and Pennsylvania.

Thayendanegea or Joseph Brant (March 1743 24 November 1807) was a

Mohawk military and political leader, based in present-day New York, who was
closely associated with Great Britain during and after the American Revolution.
Perhaps the American Indian of his generation best known to the Americans
and British, he met many of the most significant Anglo-American people of the
age, including both George Washington and King George III.
While not born into a hereditary leadership role within the Iroquois League,
Brant rose to prominence due to his education, abilities and his connections to
British officials. Through his sister, Molly Brant, and his later leadership, he was
associated with Sir William Johnson, the influential British Superintendent of
Indian Affairs in the province of New York. During the American Revolutionary
War, Brant led Mohawk and colonial Loyalists against the rebels in a bitter
partisan war on the New York frontier. He was accused by the Americans of
committing atrocities and given the name "Monster Brant", but the charges
were later found to be false. After the war, he relocated with most of his people
to Canada to the Six Nations Reserve, where he remained a prominent leader.

Indians divided in allegiance during the war of

Independence. Stockbridge tribe in Massachusetts
suffered heavy losses fighting the British. Most of the
Iroquois fought for the British. The Oneida joined the
Americans. In the south younger Cherokee leaders
joined the British while older chiefs tend to favor the

General John Sullivan

wanted to destroy all the
Iroquois for their disloyalty
to us.

Many patriots wanted the western land of

Pennsylvania. Washington had purchased 60,000
acres himself. Get rid of the Indians get out as Ohio
River Valley and place them in Indiana. For most of
the 200,000 Indians in America life was a struggle.
The loyal Indians should have received more.

Tecumseh (/tkms/; March 1768 October 5, 1813) was a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a
large tribal confederacy (known as Tecumseh's Confederacy) which opposed the United States during
Tecumseh's War and became an ally of Britain in the War of 1812.
Tecumseh grew up in the Ohio Country during the American Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian
War, where he was constantly exposed to warfare.[1] With Americans continuing to move west after the
British ceded the Ohio Valley to the new United States in 1783, the Shawnee moved farther northwest. In
1808, they settled Prophetstown in present-day Indiana. With a vision of establishing an independent Native
American nation east of the Mississippi under British protection, Tecumseh worked to recruit additional tribes
to the confederacy from the southern United States.[1]
During the War of 1812, Tecumseh's confederacy allied with the British and helped in the capture of Fort
Detroit. After the U.S. Navy took control of Lake Erie in 1813, the Indians and British retreated. American
forces caught them at the Battle of the Thames, and killed Tecumseh in October 1813. With his death, his
confederation disintegrated, and the Indians had to move west again. Yet Tecumseh became an iconic folk
hero in American, Aboriginal and Canadian history

Congress took the position that by aiding the British, Indians

had forfeited the right to their lands. At. Peace conferences at
Ft. Stanwix 1784 and Ft. McIntosh American representatives
demanded and received large surrenders of Indian land north
of the Ohio River. Similar treaties were made with Cherokee,
Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes. Indians lost land and went to

In a follow up to the 1784 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, where the Seneca nation had given up claims to the Ohio
Country, the American government sought a treaty with the remaining tribes having claims in the Ohio
Country. The United States sent a team of diplomats including George Rogers Clark, Richard Butler, and
Arthur Lee to negotiate a new treaty.
In January 1785, the representatives of the two sides met at Fort McIntosh at the confluence of the Ohio
and Beaver Rivers. The tribes ceded all claims to land in the Ohio Country east of the Cuyahoga and
Muskingum rivers. The tribes also ceded the areas surrounding Fort Detroit and Fort Michilimackinac to the
American government and gave back captives taken in raids along the frontier.
Problems with the new treaty soon arose. Connecticut's Western Reserve extended west of the Cuyahoga
River into the reservation lands. Connecticut had already granted large tracts of land, later to be nicknamed
the "Firelands", in the region to Revolutionary War veterans and Patriots who had lost their homes in the
Conflict between the tribes and the new settlers soon broke out. Further complicating the matter was that
Great Britain also continued to claim part of the region and would do so until the Jay Treaty was signed in
1794. Some British agents in the region, still stinging from their defeat in the Revolution, encouraged tribes
to attack American settlements.
The American government sent General Arthur St. Clair into the Ohio Country to reestablish peace. He had
been instructed to offer back to the tribes some lands north of the Ohio River and east of the Muskingum
River in exchange for the disputed territory. St. Clair however defied orders and instead threatened and
bribed several pliable chiefs into a one sided agreement. St. Clair and the chiefs of several tribes signed the
Treaty of Fort Harmar on January 9, 1789.
Several nations, most notably the Shawnee who had been excluded from the negotiations, refused to abide
by the new treaty and conflict continued. The raids continued until the tribal alliance was defeated at the
Battle of Fallen Timbers and the 1795 signing of the Treaty of Greenville

American Freedom may have been the worst

blow for the Indian culture in American. Indians
were displaced.

Indian culture did not possess land

nor did it have the word lie. These
supposed barbarians had a
vocabulary of close to 20,000 words
higher than most cultures

William Henry Drayton a

leader of the patriot cause in
South Carolina and the
states chief justice in 1776
advised officer marching
against the Cherokees to cut
up every Indian cornfield
burn every Indian town and
enslave all Indian captives

War in the

Nathanial Green inflicted heavy losses on Lord Charles Cornwallis the British
commander in the South. Cornwallis moved into Virginia and encamped at York
town located on a peninsula that juts into Chesapeake Bay.

The Battle of Cowpens (January 17, 1781) was a

decisive victory by the Continental Army forces under
Brigadier General Daniel Morgan in the Southern
campaign of the American Revolutionary War over the
British Army led by Colonel Banastre Tarleton. It was a
turning point in the reconquest of South Carolina from
the British. It took place in northwestern Cherokee
County, South Carolina, north of the town of Cowpens.

5, 16B


A 1781 French engraving showing the surrender of

Lord Charles Cornwallis

Give Me Liberty!: An American history, 3rd Edition

Copyright 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

1)Acknowledging the United States (viz. the Colonies) to be free, sovereign and
independent states, and that the British Crown and all heirs and successors relinquish
claims to the Government, property, and territorial rights of the same, and every part
2)Establishing the boundaries between the United States and British North America;
3)Granting fishing rights to United States fishermen in the Grand Banks, off the coast of
Newfoundland and in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence;
4)Recognizing the lawful contracted debts to be paid to creditors on either side;
5)The Congress of the Confederation will "earnestly recommend" to state legislatures to
recognize the rightful owners of all confiscated lands "provide for the restitution of all
estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British
subjects [Loyalists]";
6)United States will prevent future confiscations of the property of Loyalists;
7)Prisoners of war on both sides are to be released and all property left by the British
army in the United States unmolested (including slaves);
8)Great Britain and the United States were each to be given perpetual access to the
Mississippi River;
9)Territories captured by Americans subsequent to treaty will be returned without
10)Ratification of the treaty was to occur within six months from the signing by the
contracting parties.

During the eight year s of war

from 1775 to 1783 some 200,000
men bore arms in the American
Army . Land less sons of farmers,
indentured servants laborers all
entered being a Patriot

Map 5.3 The North America, 1783

Give Me Liberty!: An American history, 3rd Edition

Copyright 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

5, 16C

5, 16D

5, 17A

Treaty of Paris

Treaty of Paris and its implications of Confederacy versus

5, 15B

5, 17C

5, 17D


Post American

The United
States in

Thoughts on Government, or in full Thoughts on Government,

Applicable to the Present State of the American Colonies, was
written by John Adams during the spring of 1776 in response to a
resolution of the North Carolina Provincial Congress which
requested Adams's suggestions on the establishment of a new
government and the drafting of a constitution. Adams says that
"Politics is the Science of human Happiness -and the Felicity of
Societies depends on the Constitutions of Government under
which they live." Many of the ideas put forth in Adams's essay
were adopted in December 1776 by the framers of North
Carolina's first constitution.
The document is notable in that Adams sketches out the three
branches of American government: the executive, judicial, and
legislative branches, all with a system of checks and balances.
Furthermore, in response to Common Sense by Thomas Paine,
Adams rejects the idea of a single legislative body, fearing it may
become tyrannical or self-serving (as in the case of Holland at the
time). Thus, Adams also conceives the idea of two legislative
bodies that will serve as checks on each other's power

Problem with the American Revolution War debt was

the issue of unpaid loans and inflation. (Government
printed more money to pay off its loans). Problem
was there was 13 different currencies and bartering
was a part of the economy. Between 1776 and 1779
more than thirty incidents took place in which crowds
confronted merchant accusing them of holding scare
goods of the market.

John Cartwright
published an
appeal for the
annual election of
Parliament as
essential to
liberty in Britain.
Reform on the left
with despotism
on the right

Equality Noah
Webster stated is
the whole basis of
national freed. The
very soul of
America is to
accept the
responsibilities of
freedom with
religion, politics,
economics and
social orders.

Jeffersons Quest for

the Virtuous Citizen
and Government

Patriot leaders about the character of future citizen to

encourage the quality of virtue. Jefferson, Adams and
Rush put forward plans for the establishment of free
state supporting public schools. These would instruct
future citizens to learn what Adams called the
principles of freedom

Newscaster Katie
Kouric lived on the
lawn at the
University of

Jefferson wanted to give land to

as many people as he could. His
proudest achievements include
laws passed by Virginia
abolishing entail (keep estate
within the family and
primogeniture which the practice
of passing a familys land entirely
to the eldest son. He wanted to
stop future aristocracies

Common school in the colonies 1790;

Education writing, reading, math and virtue

America under the

The Articles of Confederation

America under the


Congress and the West

Settlers and the West

Congress had no real financial resources. I could coin

money but lacked the power to levy taxes or regulate
commerce. Its revenue came mainly from contribution by
the individual states. To amend the Articles required the
unanimous consent of the states. During its seven year
rule (1781-1788). The Articles of Confederation were not

13 Main Ideas of the Articles of Confederation

1) Establishes the name of the confederation with these words: "The Style of this confederacy shall be 'The
United States of America.'"
2) Asserts the sovereignty of each state, except for the specific powers delegated to the confederation
government, i.e. "Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction,
and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated."
3) Not being sovereign, it does not call the United States of America a "nation" or "government," but instead
says, "The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common
defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each
other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion,
sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever."
4) But to instill a national feeling, "[t]he better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse
among the people of the different States in this union," it establishes equal treatment and freedom of movement
for the free inhabitants of each state to pass unhindered between the states, excluding "paupers, vagabonds,
and fugitives from justice." All these people are entitled to equal rights established by the state into which he
travels. If a crime is committed in one state and the perpetrator flees to another state, he will be extradited to
and tried in the state in which the crime was committed.
5) Allocates one vote in the Congress of the Confederation (the "United States in Congress Assembled") to
each state, which is entitled to a delegation of between two and seven members. Members of Congress are
appointed by state legislatures. Also, individuals may not serve more than three out of any six years.
6) Only the central government is allowed to conduct foreign political or commercial relations and to declare
war. No state or official may accept foreign gifts or titles, and granting any title of nobility is forbidden to all.
States are restrained from forming sub-national groups. No state may tax or interfere with treaty stipulations
already proposed. No state may engage in war, without permission of Congress, unless invaded or that is
imminent on the frontier; no state may maintain a peace-time standing army or navy, unless infested by pirates,
but every State is required to keep ready, a well-regulated (meaning well trained), disciplined, and equipped
militia, with sufficient public stores of a due number of field pieces, tents, a proper quantity of arms, ammunition
and camp equipage.
7) Whenever an army is raised for common defense, colonels and military ranks below colonel will be named
by the state legislatures.

8) Expenditures by the United States of America will be paid by funds raised by state legislatures,
and apportioned to the states based on the real property values of each.
9)Defines the sole and exclusive right and power of the United States in Congress assembled to
determine peace and war; to exchange ambassadors; to enter into treaties and alliances, with
some provisos; to establish rules for deciding all cases of captures or prizes on land or water; to
grant letters of marque and reprisal (documents authorizing privateers) in times of peace; to
appoint courts for the trial of pirates and crimes committed on the high seas; to establish courts for
appeals in all cases of captures, but no member of Congress may be appointed a judge; to set
weights and measures (including coins), and for Congress to serve as a final court for disputes
between states.
10) "The Committee of the States, or any nine of them, shall be authorized to execute, in the
recess of Congress, such of the powers of Congress as the United States in Congress assembled,
by the consent of the nine States, shall from time to time think expedient to vest them with;
provided that no power be delegated to the said Committee, for the exercise of which, by the
Articles of Confederation, the voice of nine States in the Congress of the United States assembled
be requisite."
11) If "Canada" (as the British-held Province of Quebec was also known) accedes to this
confederation, it will be admitted.[15]
12) Reaffirms that the Confederation accepts war debt incurred by Congress before the
existence of the Articles.
13) Declares that the Articles are perpetual, and can only be altered by approval of Congress
with ratification by all the state legislatures.

The Problem
of the West

Western Lands, 17821802

By the 1790s Kentucky courts were filled with lawsuits over

land claims and many settlers lost land they thought they
owned. Eventually disputes over land forced many early
settlers (Abe Lincolns parent ) to leave Kentucky.


America under the

The Land Ordinances

Formation of the Ohio Company

In 1747 a number of influential men organized the Ohio Company of Virginia in order to capitalize on these
opportunities. The Ohio Company was composed of Virginians, including Thomas Lee as president, Nathaniel
Chapman as treasurer (17091760),[1] John Mercer as the company's secretary and general counsel, John's
son George Mercer as the company's agent to England, two of George Washington's brothers, Lawrence
Washington (who succeeded to the management upon the death of Lee) and Augustine Washington, Jr., as
well as Englishmen, including the Duke of Bedford, Virginia Governor Robert Dinwiddie, and John
Hanbury[disambiguation needed], a wealthy London merchant. A rival group of land speculators from Virginia,
the Loyal Company of Virginia, was organized about the same time, and included influential Virginians such
as Thomas Walker and Peter Jefferson (father of Thomas Jefferson).
In 1748, the British Crown approved the Ohio Company's petition for a grant of 200,000 acres (800 km) near
the "forks" of the Ohio River (present Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). In July 1749, the governor and council of
Virginia made the grant on the condition that the company would, within seven years, settle 100 families in
the area and erect a fort to protect both them and the British claim on the land. A secondary purpose of this
settlement was to establish a regular trade with the local Native Americans, necessary in order to maintain
friendly relations. The organizers in 1752 signed a treaty of friendship and permission at Logstown with the
main tribes in the region.

In 1785 a second ordinance regulated land sales in

the region north of the Ohio River which cam to be
known as the Old Northwest. Land would be
surveyed by the government then sold in sections
of a square mile 640 acres for $1 . In each
township on section would be set aside to provide
funds for public education.

In 1787 Congress decide sell off large traced to private

groups. Including 1.5 million acres to the Ohio Company
organized by New England land speculators and army
officers. This is different from the organization from the
Ohio Company of the 1750s .

Western Ordinances, 17851787

Politics in the

A New Democratic Ideology

Centralization Federalist/ Tories versus Anti-Federalist Whigs

First State Constitution

The people the best
government ; a New England
pamphlet of 1776 stated that
the ideal form of government
was a democratic community
with town meetings. The people
set their own tax rates, created
a militia control their own

Spirit of Reform

Thomas Jefferson
on his grave states
there should be
religious freedom
as on of his
greatest writings
and contributions.

America under the

The Confederations Weaknesses
Shayss Rebellion

Shays and

Shays' Rebellion was an armed uprising that took place in central and western
Massachusetts in 1786 and 1787. The rebellion was named after Daniel Shays, a veteran
of the American Revolutionary War and one of the rebel leaders.
The rebellion started on August 29, 1786. It was precipitated by several factors: financial
difficulties brought about by a post-war economic depression, a credit squeeze caused by a
lack of hard currency, and fiscally harsh government policies instituted in 1785 to solve the
state's debt problems. Protesters, including many war veterans, shut down county courts in
the later months of 1786 to stop the judicial hearings for tax and debt collection. The
protesters became radicalized against the state government following the arrests of some
of their leaders, and began to organize an armed force. A militia raised as a private army
defeated a Shaysite (rebel) attempt to seize the federal Springfield Armory in late January
1787, killing four and wounding 20. The main Shaysite force was scattered on February 4,
1787, after a surprise attack on their camp in Petersham, Massachusetts. Scattered
resistance continued until June 1787, with the single most significant action being an
incident in Sheffield in late February, where 30 rebels were wounded (one mortally) in a
skirmish with government troops.
The rebellion took place in a political climate where reform of the country's governing
document, the Articles of Confederation, was widely seen as necessary. The events of the
rebellion, most of which occurred after the Philadelphia Convention had been called but
before it began in May 1787, are widely seen to have affected the debates on the shape of
the new government. The exact nature and consequence of the rebellion's influence on the
content of the Constitution and the ratification debates continues to be a subject of
historical discussion and debate

Four thousand people signed confessions acknowledging participation in the events of the rebellion (in
exchange for amnesty); several hundred participants were eventually indicted on charges relating to the
rebellion. Most of these were pardoned under a general amnesty that only excluded a few ringleaders.
Eighteen men were convicted and sentenced to death, but most of these were either overturned on appeal,
pardoned, or had their sentences commuted. Two of the condemned men, John Bly and Charles Rose, were
hanged on December 6, 1787. Shays himself was pardoned in 1788 and he returned to Massachusetts from
hiding in the Vermont woods. He was, however, vilified by the Boston press, who painted him as an archetypal
anarchist opposed to the government. He later moved to the Conesus, New York, area, where he lived until he
died poor and obscure in 1825.
The crushing of the rebellion and the harsh terms of reconciliation imposed by the Disqualification Act all
worked against Governor Bowdoin politically. In the gubernatorial election held in April 1787, Bowdoin received
few votes from the rural parts of the state, and was trounced by John Hancock.[54] The military victory was
tempered by tax changes in subsequent years. The legislature elected in 1787 cut taxes and placed a
moratorium on debts. It also refocused state spending away from interest payments, resulting in a 30% decline
in the value of Massachusetts securities as those payments fell in arrears.[55]
Vermont, then an unrecognized independent republic that had been seeking statehood independent from New
York's claims to the territory, became an unexpected beneficiary of the rebellion due to its sheltering of the
rebel ringleaders. Alexander Hamilton broke from other New Yorkers, including major landowners with claims
on Vermont territory, calling for the state to recognize and support Vermont's bid for admission to the union. He
cited Vermont's de facto independence and its ability to cause trouble by providing support to the discontented
from neighboring states as reasons, and introduced legislation that broke the impasse between New York and
Vermont. Vermonters responded favorably to the overture, publically pushing Eli Parsons and Luke Day out of
the state (but quietly continuing to support others). After negotiations with New York and the passage of the
new constitution, Vermont became the fourteenth stat


America under the

Nationalists of the 1780s

Points of Previous Picture

1) America on the right holds an olive
branch of peace and invites all nations
to trade with her
2) News of Americas triumph is
broadcast around the world
3) Britain seated next to the devil
laments the lost of trade with America
4) British flag falls from fortress
5) European ships in American waters
6) Benedict Arnold the traitor hang
himself in NYC ( not true though)

Effects of American

Declaration of Independence
Treaty of Paris
Articles of Confederation
Constitutional Convention
Federalist Papers
Bill of Rights
Trials and Tribulations of the New

Slavery and the

ability to get
more rights for

In 1776 500,000 about one-fifth of

the new nations inhabitants were
slaves. Slave owning and slave
grading were accepted routines of
colonial life. Advertisement of
announcing the sale of slaves and
seeking return was seen

In The Selling of Joseph (1700), for instance, he came out strongly against slavery,
making him one of the earliest colonial abolitionists. There he argued, "Liberty is in real
value next unto Life: None ought to part with it themselves, or deprive others of it, but
upon the most mature Consideration." He regarded "man-stealing as an atrocious crime
which would introduce among the English settlers people who would remain forever
restive and alien," but he also believed that "There is such a disparity in their Conditions,
Colour, Hair, that they can never embody with us, and grow up into orderly Families, to
the Peopling of the Land." Although holding such segregationist views, he maintained
that "These Ethiopians, as black as they are; seeing they are the Sons and Daughters of
the First Adam, the Brethren and Sisters of the Last ADAM, and the Offspring of God;
They ought to be treated with a Respect agreeable."
His essay "Talitha Cumi", first published in 1725, refers to the "right of women."[11]
When the periwig became fashionable in New England, Sewall condemned the fashion
vehemently, in contrast to Cotton Mather, who saw no reason why a Puritan should not
wear a wig.
His Journal, kept from 1673 to 1729, describes his life as a Puritan against the changing
tide of colonial life, as the devoutly religious community of Massachusetts gradually
adopted more secular attitudes and emerged as a liberal, cosmopolitan-minded
community. As such, the diary is an important work for understanding the transformation
of the colony in the decades before the American Revolution.

In 1766 when Rush set out for his studies in Edinburgh, he was outraged by the sight of 100 slave
ships in Liverpool harbor. As a prominent Presbyterian doctor and professor of chemistry in
Philadelphia, he provided a bold and respected voice against the slave trade that could not be
The highlight of his involvement was the pamphlet he wrote in 1773 entitled "An Address to the
Inhabitants of the British Settlements in America, upon Slave-Keeping." In this first of his many
attacks on the social evils of his day, he not only assailed the slave trade, but the entire institution of
slavery. Dr. Rush argued scientifically that Negroes were not by nature intellectually or morally
inferior. Any apparent evidence to the contrary was only the perverted expression of slavery, which
"is so foreign to the human mind, that the moral faculties, as well as those of the understanding are
debased, and rendered torpid by it."[18]
In 1792 Rush read a paper before the American Philosophical Society which argued that the "color"
and "figure" of blacks were derived from a form of leprosy. He argued that with proper treatment,
blacks could be cured and become white.[19]
Despite his public condemnations of slavery, Dr. Rush purchased a slave named William Grubber in
1776. To the consternation of many, Dr. Rush still owned Grubber when he joined the Pennsylvania
Abolition Society in 1784.

Freedom petitions
were arguments for
liberty presented to
New England's
courts and
legislatures in the
early 1770s by
enslaved African
Americans. Some
slaves sued in court
for being illegally
detaining slaves.

Lord Dunmores Proclamation of 1775

and the Phillipsburgh Proclamation of
General Henry Clinton issued four
years later offered sanctuary to slaves
who escaped to British lines. 100,000
slaves including one-quarter of all the
slaves in South Carolina and one third
of those in Georgia, deserted their
owners and fled to British lines. This
was by far the larges exodus from the
plantations until the out break of the
Civil War

to American

Carter hoped a gradual emancipation plan would pass Virginia's legislature.[57] His neighbor Ferdinando
Fairfax published one such plan in a Philadelphia-based journal, and Quaker Warner Mifflin presented
petitions to Congress to do the same, but James Madison buried the proposals in committee.[58] In early
1791, Carter refused to rent a plantation to Charles Mynn Thruston a Revolutionary veteran and Anglican
minister with whose racial views he disagreed.[59] His Baptist friend John Leland also left Virginia after a
final anti-slavery sermon, which Carter copied in full into his journal.[60]
Carter nonetheless began a personal program of gradual manumission of slaves on his many estates. He
announced his plan on August 1, 1791, and began a new legal process by recording a Deed of Gift in
Northumberland County on September 5, 1791.[61][62] Since the manumission law required a five
shilling fee, and Carter had plantations and slaves in several Virginia counties, he corresponded with the
Westmoreland County clerk (where he resided) and followed up by filing manumission papers at the
Westmoreland County court sessions the following February, May, July and August, despite resistance of
his son-in-law John Peck, various overseers and tenants.[63] Carter designed the gradual program to
reduce the opposition of slave-owning white neighbors, but failed. He refused tenants' requests to
relocate slave breeding women to circumvent the Deed of Gift. That winter Carter was shunned, although
he sought help from fellow slavery opponents including George Mason (who declined to help and cited
his own age and infirmity).[64] By the filings of February 27, 1793, Carter was ahead of his own planned
schedule. Moreover, he refused to relocate freed blacks, and began offering them wages, as well as
grants and tenancies, sometimes dispossessing obstreperous white tenants.[65] Carter began
investigating relocating to the District of Columbia, and leased Nomony plantation and its servants to his
son J.T. on April 26, 1793 (expressly conditional to the Deed of Gift).
Then, before the next Westmoreland court session, perhaps victimized by mob action such as tar-andfeathers, Carter and his daughters fled by ship with Negro George and Negro Betty to Baltimore (on May
8, 1793).[66] He never returned, despite numerous entreaties. The meetinghouse used for the
Yeocomico Baptist Church burned down six months after Carter left; Carter saved an unsigned
complaining letter (which he believed from Thruston) that compared the Deed of Gift to fire destroying
neighbors' houses

Children born to slave mothers in Pennsylvania had to

serve the owner for 28 years far longer than had been
customary for white indenture servants. These laws gave
indentured servitude rapidly declining among whites, a
new lease on life in the case of northern blacks.

In 1776 fewer than 10,000 free blacks resided in the United

States. By 1810 their numbers had grown to nearly 200,000
most of them living in Maryland and Virginia. In all states
except Virginian , South Carolina and Georgia free black
men who met taxpaying or property qualification could vote
under new state constitutions

Samuel Jennings of Philadelphia Liberty Displaying the Arts and


Many white colonists found it difficult to believe that an African slave

was writing excellent poetry. Wheatley had to defend her authorship
of her poetry in court in 1772.[9][10] She was examined by a group
of Boston luminaries, including John Erving, Reverend Charles
Chauncey, John Hancock, Thomas Hutchinson, the governor of
Massachusetts, and his lieutenant governor Andrew Oliver. They
concluded she had written the poems ascribed to her and signed an
attestation, which was included in the preface of her book of
collected works: Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral,
published in London in 1773. Publishers in Boston had declined to
publish it, but her work was of great interest in London. There Selina,
Countess of Huntingdon and the Earl of Dartmouth acted as patrons
to help Wheatley gain publication.
In 1778, the African-American poet Jupiter Hammon wrote an ode to
Wheatley. He does not refer to himself in the poem, but by choosing
Wheatley as a subject, he may have been acknowledging their
common ethnicity

Phillis Wheatley

Points of Previous Picture

1) America on the right holds an olive branch
of peace and invites all nations to trade with
2) News of Americas triumph is broadcast
around the world
3) Britain seated next to the devil laments
the lost of trade with America
4) British flag falls from fortress
5) European ships in American waters
6) Benedict Arnold the traitor hang himself in
NYC ( not true though)

Ben Franklin = most imaginative and problem solver; well travelled

Alexander Hamilton = the most intelligent
John Adams = most widely read
Henry Knox = business man was a book seller before the American revolution
Thomas Jefferson = best writer well traveled
John Hancock =wealthiest
George Washington was flawed and the above had specific traits that were better
than Washington. Yet, Washington possessed a strong independence and a
committed leader ship quality. Although, he wanted to quit, the founding fathers
supported him into staying.

Influence of
the American

The French
Revolution was
influenced by the
American Revolution
with the new ideas of
liberty, equality and

The War of Independence weakened the deep

tradition of American anti-Catholicism/ In the
Second Continental Congress decided invited the
inhabitants of Quebec (Catholics ) to fight against
England. In 1778 the United States formed an
alliance with France a Catholic nation.

Bishop John Carroll of Maryland visited

Boston in 1791 he received a cordial
welcome. Carrolls statue at Georgetown
University in Washington.

Colonies of Rhode Island and Pennsylvania long made a

practice of toleration. Apart from Rhode Island and
Pennsylvania New England had little experience with
religious pluralism.

With freedom in america

religions now had to
address this issue. The
Moravians who came to
America before the
revolution; could not control
their youth since freedoms
on choosing your own wife
and husband were not
involved with church
teachings. Youth went back
to the essence of teaching
of Jesus and constitution of
colonies with religious