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BSc.EE.

January2014.




PROPERTIES OF TRANSFORMER OIL
THAT AFFECT EFFICIENCY.

DERICKNJOMBOGTANTEH.
SHAFIQYOUSEFALLIDDAWI.
DANIELSSEKASIKO.

School of Engineering,
Department of Electrical Engineering,
Blekinge Institute of Technology, S-371 79 Karlskrona
Phone: +46 - 455 - 38 50 00
Fax: +46 - 455 - 38 50 57

ThisthesisissubmittedtotheSchoolofEngineeringatBlekingeInstituteofTechnologyin
partialfulfillmentoftherequirementsforthedegreeofBachelorofScienceinElectrical
Engineering.Thethesisisequivalentto15ECTSpoints.

Contact:
DerickNjombogTanteh:
Email:derickntanteh@gmail.com
ShafiqYousefAlLiddawi:
Email:shafiq.liddawi@gmail.com
DanielSsekasiko:
Email:danielug@msn.com

Supervisor:
Dr.MattiasEriksson.
SeniorLecturer,
SchoolofEngineering,
BlekingeInstituteofTechnology,
Email:mattias.eriksson@bth.se

ToourParents:
DominicandBeatriceTanteh,
YousefandTamamAlLiddawi,
LivingstoneandRuthKiwanuka.

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter1:Introduction1
1.1ProblemStatement1
1.2Scope1
1.3Outline.2
Chapter2:Background.3
2.1Corona..3
2.2Pyrolysis(Overheating)3
2.3Arcing4
2.4Transformers..4
2.5TransformerOils6
2.5.1Mineraloil7
2.5.2Vegetableoil.9
2.6OilTestingandanalysis..9
Chapter3:TransformerOilInsulatingProperties11
3.1Totalacidity.11
3.2Breakdownvoltage..12
3.3Viscosity...12
3.4Dielectricdissipationfactor(tandelta).13
3.5Specificresistance14
3.6Flashpoint..15
3.7Moisturecontent15
3.8Dielectricconstant(relativepermittivityr)..16
iii

3.9InterfacialTension..17
3.10DielectricStrength17
3.11Transformerinsulation(Paperinsulation)..18
Chapter4:TransformerOilAnalysis.19
4.1Partialdischarge(PD).19
4.2DissolvedgasAnalysis(DGA)...20
4.2.1DissolvedMoistureinTransformerOil..20
Chapter5:ExperimentalSetup...22
5.1Requirementsforexperiment..22
5.2ConditionsoftheoilSamples.25
5.3Breakdownvoltagemeasurementinoil.25
Chapter6:ExperimentalResultsanddiscussions....26
6.1VegetableOilexperiment..26
6.2MineralOilexperiments..31
6.3ComparisonbetweenVegetableandMineralOilCharacteristics..36
6.4Discussion.37
Chapter7:Conclusionandrecommendations...39
References..41

iv


Abstract.

Transformerexplosionscausedbydielectricfailureaccountforover50%ofthedisasters.Theaimof
thisthesisistoexamine,compareandoutlinethedifferences,infunction,asdielectricinsulators,
vegetablesoilhas,withrespecttothemineraloilusedinhighpowertransformers.Wewillfirst
considerthevegetableoilwhichhaslessdielectriccapabilitiesthanthemineraloilusedinpower
transformers.Laterintheexperiments,wewillfocusmainlytoexaminethebreakdownvoltage
property,aswetrytoaltersomepropertiesoftherespectiveoilsused.
Consideringthefactthatvegetableoilhaslowviscosity,withitschemicalcompoundsconstituting
lessmolecularmassescomparedtomineraloil,weendorse,fromourexperimentalfindings,that
mineraloilisindeedworthyandreasonabletobeusedasadielectricinhighpowertransformers.
Inthiswriteup,wehaveconsideredeleventransformeroilproperties.Intheexperimentproper,we
consideredonlytheacidity,whoseconcentrationinthetransformeroilincreaseswithagingifthe
transformer,moisture,andasuitableimpuritylikeNaOH(aq).Atfirstglance,onewouldbetempted
tothink,aswewere,thatsincetheincreaseinacidcontentoftheoildeterioratesitsdielectric
performance,anincreaseinalkalinecontentofthetransformeroil,wouldincreaseitsdielectric
ability;reversingtheacideffect.Butasweseeintheresultsfromourexperiments,thisisfalse.We
thinkthatthevisibledegradationoftheinsulatingpropertyoftheoil,withtheintroductionof
NaOH(aq),isbecauseitactsasanimpuritytosuitabledielectricfunction.
Fromtheexperiments,theheatingproceduresresultedintheproductionoftoxicgases.This
indicatedtheactuallossofchemicalstructureandsignificantbreakageofchemicalbonds.The
resultingchemicalcompositionoftheoildoesnotproducethesamedielectricpropertiesasthe
initialoilsample.

Also,herehasbeenconsiderableinconsistencyintheadditionofNaOH(aq)orHCl(aq)tobothoils.We
onlyaddedHCl(aq),beforeeverymeasurement,intwooftheexperiments.Theotherexperiments
wereeitherwithmoisture,orasingleadditionofsmallamountsofeitherHCl(aq)orNaOH(aq)before
heating;afterwhichseveralmeasurementsweretaken,atspecificintervals,asthemixturecools.
Wedidso,inthelatter,inwhichwehadonlyoneadditionofeitherchemical;becauseinreallife,
giventheshorttimeframeoftheexperiment,thetotalamountofacidintheoilhasanegligible
change.So,inafunctioningheatedtransformer,withinashorttimeframe,thereisactuallyavisible
tinydeteriorationinoilinsulationproperties.

Chapter 1: Introduction.
1.1

Problem statement.

Electricalfaultsthatoccurinpowertransformersaccountforoverfiftypercentoftransformer
failuresexpendituresintheUnitedStates,withinafiveyearperiod[1].Thenumbersare
probablymoreinthedevelopingworldduetolowtechnicalabilitiestomaintainandrecyclethe
oil.

Fig 1.1.1. Number of transformer failures, causes of failure, and


expenditure.
FromFig1.1.1,weseethatfiftypercentoftransformerfailuresexpendituresarecausedby
insulation,dielectric,andoilrelatedfaults.Theneedforbetterdielectricsandtransformeroils
forinsulationisunequivocal.

1.2

Scope.

Thereareseveralpropertiesoftransformeroils.Wehaveconsideredtheelevenmostcommon
ones.Agoodnumberofthesepropertiesareexperimenteduponbyusingthebreakdown
voltagetodeterminethevalueoftheparameterintheconsideredproperty.Acidity,moisture
1

content,aswellasgeneralimpuritycontentaresomeofthepropertiesthatincreasewithageof
theoil,whileviscosity,flashpoint,specificresistance,transformerinsulation,interfacialtension
decreasewithage.Therespectiveincreaseordecreasearedetrimentaltothetransformer
functioning.Intheexperiments,theonlyparameterformeasurementweusedwasbreakdown
voltage(BDV);afteralteringacidcontent,impuritycontent,andmoisturecontent,whichareall
processingintheartificialagingprocess.

1.3

Outline.

Chapteroneintroducesthemaincauseforconcernfortransformerfailuresspecificallyinthe
UnitedStatesdielectricbreakdown.Themaincauseisasurgeinvoltage,followedbyalarge
currentsflowthroughadielectricgap.
TheSecondchapterexplainsstandardfindingsonphenomenaandprocessesrelatedtothe
studyoftransformeroilproperties.Theseincludethechemicalandcausesofthespecific
physicalpropertiesofthetestoils.
Inchapterthreeandfour,anextendeddiscussiononthetransformeroilpropertiesismade,
takingintoconsiderationtheelevenmostimportantones.Afurtherexaminationofthephysical
phenomenaofpartialdischargeandcorona,arcing,andpyrolysisisdoneinchapterfour.For
thecaseofpyrolysis,therespectivegasesfromthedecomposition,byoverheatingtheoil,are
reexamined.
Theexperimentalsetup,results,anddiscussionisdoneinchaptersfiveandsixrespectively.
Here,applyingahighvoltageacrosstheelectrodes,inatreatedoilsampleisourmaintoolto
examinethepropertiestested.Thepropertiesincludeacidity(HCl(aq)),moisture(water)andan
impurity(NaOH(aq)).
Thelastchaptercontainstheconclusionandrecommendationsfromsomeworldleading
companiesinthisarealikeABBinSweden.

Chapter 2: Background.

Inapowertransformer,thelightemittedbyasparkoccursbecauseofthematerialmedium
fluorescesasaresultofcollisionsfromtheelectrons.Ascollisionsoccurbetweenelectronsand
moleculesinthegap,electronontheatomshellsareexcitedtohigherenergylevels.Whenthe
electronsnolongergetmoreexcitation,thefallbacktothepreviousenergylevel,releasingthe
extraenergyintheformofheat,lightandsometimessound.[2]Thisiscalledthephotoelectric
effect.Thesparkscannotforminavacuumbecausetherewouldbenoairparticlesforcollision.
Withoutinterruptingelectromagnetictransitions,onecanseethespark.However,inoil,itis
possibleforthesparkstooccurbutnotasreadilyasinair.ItisalsoworthmentioningthatOil
helpsextinguisharcs.Mostpowertransformersthatuseoilhavethreedielectricmaterials;oil,
paper(onthewallsandwindings),and/orpaintonthewindings.Thesethreelinesofdefense
istomakesurethatsparks,arcsorpartialdischargeofanykindshouldnotoccurinthe
transformer.

2.1 Corona.

Therearesomevitaldevelopmentalstepsforapositivecoronadischargetooccur.[3]
First:apositiveandnegativeelectrodecharacteristicconfigurationmustbemet.
Second:Ahighvoltageshouldbesupplied.
Third:Aroundthegapbetweentheelectrodes,freeelectronsshouldbeafloat.
Fourth:Accumulationofelectronsshouldbuildupinthegap,readytocauseanavalanche
breakdown.
Fifth:theupanddownchangeofelectronsfromhigherenergytolowerenergylevelsproduce
photons;asenergyisgainedandlost,whichinturnenergizenewchargecarriersaroundthegap
Sixth:Theinitialavalanchebreakdowncausesacascadeeffecttochargesclosertothecathode
(negativeelectrode).

2.2 Pyrolysis (Overheating)

Pyrolysisbeginwhentheoilheattoabout2000C.Atthistemperature,onlyhydrogenismost
likelytobethegaseousproductofthemilddecomposition.Astemperatureissteadilyincreased
toabout7000C,thereisalmostatotaldecompositionoftheoil,givingamixtureofmethane,
ethane,ethylene,acetylene,andhydrogengasasproductsofseveredecomposition.[4]
analytically,weconcludethatheatingincreasesoildecomposition.

2.3 Arcing.

Anarcisaluminouscurrentdischargeformedwhenalargecurrentforcesadielectricgapto
conductthelargecurrentbetweentwoelectrodes.[5]
Themaindifferencebetweenarcingandcoronaisthat;incorona,theaccumulationofcharges
issustained,resultinginabreakdown.Inarcing,asurgeincurrentcausesanimmediate
breakdownofthedielectric,releasinghugeenergy.Consequently,arcsaremoredangerous,
releasemoreenergy,andmoredifficulttohandle.
Arcsoccurusuallyduringvoltagetesting,shutdownandstartupofasystem,accidentalcontact
withenergizedcomponents,miscalculationsofratingparameters,rusting,decayand
degradationoftheequipmentthatcancausepotentiallyharmfulshortcircuitpaths.
Technologyhashowevermadearcsusefulinwelding.ThiscameasresultofthedesignofArc
weldingtransformers.[6]

2.4 Transformers.

Wewillbeginwithasimpletransformerliketheonepicturedbelow[7a].

Fig 1.1.1. A simple stepup transformer.

Transformersweredevelopedfromtheknowledgeofthelawofelectromagneticinduction.
Transformerscanbeeitherstepuptransformer;wherethenumberofprimaryturnsislessthan
thenumberofsecondaryturns,seeFig1.1.1,orstepdowntransformer;wherethenumberof
secondaryturnsislessthanthenumberofprimaryturns.
Aseverepartialdischarge(PD)betweenanynumberofturnsinanypartofthetransformer,
resultsintheaffectednumberofturnstobehaveasonereducingthetotalnumberofturns.
Evidently,fromtheformulabelow,thenumberofturnsaffectsvoltageeitherway,hence,
efficiency.
N2/N2=V1/V2=I2/I1..(1)
Wherepower=P,current=I,voltage=V,Numberofturns=N.
Inanidealtransformerthepowerinputvalueissameasthepoweroutputvalue.
Power=P=V1xI1=V2xI2.............(2).
Inarealworld,equation(2)becomesinvalidsincethereareusuallylossesinafunctioning
transformer.[7b]
Efficiency=Poweroutput/Inputpower.
Efficiency= 1

Wherelosses=cupperlosses+ironlosses.
Thetransformerwindingsmust,therefore,beinsulated.Theoperationofthetransformer
producesheat.Thesearethemainfocusofthisthesis:heatandinsulation.
Transformeroilsperformatleastfourbasicfunctionsinanoilimmersedtransformer.Oil
providesinsulation,cooling(heatdistribution),andhelpsextinguisharcs(voltaicdischarge).Oil
alsodissolvesgasesgeneratedbyoildegradation,deterioration,andgasesandmoisturefrom
whateveratmospheretheoilisexposedto.Closeobservationofdissolvedgasesintheoil,and
otheroilproperties,providesthemostvaluableinformationabouttransformerhealth.
DissolvedGasAnalysis(DGA)isthemostimportanttransformerdiagnostictool.

Themineraloil,withthemainrolesofinsulatingandcoolinginpowertransformers,issimilarto
thebloodinhumanbody.Consideringtheworldwideneedforhighefficiencyofpower
transformersandtherisingpriceoftheoil,wehavetocontrolandmonitorthetransformeroil
characteristicsconsistently.Thereareseveralcharacteristicswhichcanbemeasuredtoassess
thepresentconditionoftheoil.Usingacombinationofthesediagnostictestsallowstheoilto
beexaminedforitsbehaviorwithrespecttovariouscharacteristicsasageincreases,whether
thechangesareduetothermal,dielectricorchemicaleffects.Thebenefitofexamininghow
quicklytheoilisagingisthatitpermitstheoiltobeusedaslongaspossible.Ifthisisdone
properly,areplacementorpurificationcanbedonebeforeitcancausedamagetothecontainer
orothermaterialsinsidethetransformer,ortotheenvironment.Wedonotwantthe
transformerstoundergoleakages,explosions,sparks,firesoranykindofdestructiontoitselfor
theenvironment.Thetransformermineraloilisoneofthemostexpensiveextractsproducedby
itsrefinementofcrudeoil.Refiningisthecollectivetermfortheprocessesinvolvedinchanging
5

thecrudeoilintooilwiththerequiredpropertiesforaparticularapplication.Onlyaboutthree
percentofthecrudeoilisappropriateforproductionoftransformeroil.Becauseofthe
importanceofthepowertransformersinelectricalnetworks,permanentlytakingcareoftheoil
qualityisvital.

Insulatingoilinatransformerduringoperationissubjectedtoheat,oxygenandelectrical
discharge,whichmayleadtoitsdegradationespeciallythroughtheprocessofoxidation.[8]This
severelycausestheoiltocarryoutitsprimaryfunctionsofinsulationandheattransferasaging
productsreduceelectricalpropertiesandcoolingefficiency.Oxidationproducts,suchasacids
andconsequentlytheformationofsludge,arealsovitalinagingacceleration.Therefore,
monitoringandmaintainingoilqualityisessentialinensuringthereliableoperationofoilfilled
electricalequipment.Eveninidealconditions,oilagesanddegradesovertime,asitsuseful
servicelifeisfinite.

Therateofagingisnormallyafunctionoftemperatureandmoisture,aswewilldiscusslaterin
DissolvedgasAnalysis(PDA).Oilwillagerapidlyathightemperaturesandmoistureactsasa
catalystforitsagingTherefore,oilaginginoilfilledtransformersisinevitable.Therearesome
catalystspresentinatransformerthatcouldaccountforoildegradation.Theseincludecopper,
paint,varnishandoxygen[9].Themainprocessofoildeteriorationisoxidation,whichcauses
somepolarcompoundstobeformed.Theseoxidationproductswillhaveadeleteriouseffect
endresult,givingrisetothevariationweseektogetourconclusion.Theprincipaloilproperties
areclassifiedintothephysical,chemicalandelectricalcharacteristics.Someofthemore
importantpropertiesoftheoilareviscosity,specificgravity,flashpoint,oxidationstability,total
acidnumber,dissipationfactor,volumeresistively,breakdownvoltage,anddielectricconstant.

2.5 Transformer oils.

GenerallytransformerOilexistsintwotypes[10]:

ParaffinbasedTransformerOil

NaphthabasedTransformerOil

Oncomparisonofbothtransformeroils,paraffinoilislessoxidizedthanNaphthaoil,though
oxidationproductforinstancesludgeinthenaphthaoilisextremelysolublecomparedto
paraffinoil.Hencethesludgecontentinnaphthabasedoilisneverprecipitatedatthe
transformerbottom.Thereforeitallowsoilcirculation,hencethetransformercoolingsystem
runningnormally.ForparaffinoilwhoseoxidationrateislowercomparedtothatofNaphthaoil
issludgeandinsoluble,itisprecipitatedatbottomofthetankthereforehindering
thetransformercoolingsystem.
Goodtransformeroilactsasaliquidinsulationinanelectricalpowertransformeranddissipates
heatfromthe transformer(coolant).Also,becauseit helpspreservethecoreandwindingsof
thetransformerfortheyaredippedinit.Duetooxidationsusceptibilityofthecellulosepaper
6

insulation made for the primary and secondary windings, the transformer oil prevents direct
contactofatmosphericoxygen.
2.5.1 Mineral oil
Petroleumoilhasbeenusedfortransformeroilsince1891.Anoverviewofthesourceand
purificationprocessofpetroleumisasfollows:[11]

a). Crude petroleum


Crudeoilcomesfromtheextractionsourceknownascrudepetroleum.Itcontainslongchains
ofcarboncompoundsandalsosmalleramountsofsulphurandnitrogen,depositedovermillions
ofyearswithhighpressureundertheearthscrust.Basically,hydrocarbonmoleculescanbe
classifiedintothreemaingroupsasdescribedbelow:
-Paraffin:
Thisthemaincontentofpetroleum,intermsofpercentage.
-Cycloalkanes:
Characteristicallycontainaringstructurewithsixcarbonatoms(withinsixmemberedrings)or
fourteencarbonatoms(withinthreememberedrings).
-Aromatics:
Ithassixmemberedringstructures,fallintotwogroups:monoaromatics(singlerings)and
polyaromatics(twoormorerings).
b). Refining petroleum
Crudepetroleumhastoberefinedtosomeoftheseclassifiedpetroleumproductslikegasoline,
kerosene,liquidpetroleumgas(LPG),lubricatingoils,etc.Fractionaldistillationisthenameof
theprocessofrefiningofcrudeoil.Itcomprisesavacuumdistillationcalledafractionating
towerwhereseveralcatalystsanddifferenttemperaturesareusedtogetthedifferent
products.[12]Youcanworkouttheformulaofanyofthemusing:CnH2n+2.[13]

Cycloalkaneshaveaclosedring.Theyareoneofthreemainconstituentsofcrudeoil,theother
twobeingalkanesandaromaticcompounds.
Cycloalkanesareclassifiedintovarioussizescycloalkanes,wherecyclopropaneandcyclo
butanearethesmallestsizedcycloalkanes.cyclopentane,cyclohexane,cycloheptanearethe
commonones,cyclooctanethroughcyclotridecanearethemediumones,andtherestare
largerones.
Cycloalkanesaresimilartoalkanesintheirgeneralphysicalproperties,buttheirringstructures
allowthemtohavehigherphysicalpropertieslikeboilingpoints,meltingpoints,anddensities,
thanalkanes.Theirmeltingandboilingpointsare10Kto20Khigherthantheircorresponding
straightchainalkanes.[13]

Theclassificationofalkanesisderivedfromtheirsizesandshapesfromthechemicalstructure.
Methane,beingthesimplestofall,hasjustonecarbonatom.Thenethanehastwocarbon
atoms,propanewiththree,butanewithfour,andsoon.
Boilingpoints,meltingpoints,anddensitiesincreaseasthenumberofcarbonatomsincrease.
Thelongerthecarbonchain,thehigherthetotalmolecularmassofthemolecule;thus,increase
indensity,boilingpoints,meltingpoints,etc.

Fig 2.5.1 Structure of benzene.


Benzene,whosestructureisdepictedinFig2.5.1isapetroleumcomponent.[14]Chemical
processeslikeselectivesolventextraction,sulphuricacidextraction,fractionaldistillation,earth
filtration,Oxidation,halogenation,Hydrogenation,cracking,redistillation,filtration,and
dehydrationareusedintheformationandmodificationoftheseorganiccompounds.
Mineraloilrefinedfromcrudeoilisawellknown,goodinsulatingmaterialhasgoodelectrical
properties,agingbehavior,andlowviscosity.Othercharacteristicslikethelowrelative
permittivitygiveanadvantageregardingtheirbehaviorforinsulationintransformeroperation.

NB:Mineraloilisproducedbyseveralcountriesandisrelativelyinexpensive.But,themain
drawbackoccurswhenthereisatransformerleakageandthemineraloilwillcontributeto
environmentalhazardsbecauseofitspoorbiodegradability.

2.5.2 Vegetable oil.

Thereexistbothsyntheticandnaturalvegetableoils.Esteroilshaveafunctionalgrouplikethe
onebelow.[15]

Fig2.5.2. General Structure of an ester molecule.


RandR1representalkylgroups.Thetwooxygenatomsbondedtothecarbonatomconstitute
thefunctionalgroup.Theremainingcarbonatomscouldbelongchainsofcarbonmolecules
(complex)orassimpleastheseintheFig2.5.2.Thegeneralformulaandtheesterification
process(ProductionofEsters,RCOOH)istheequilibriumreactionbetweenacarboxylicacidand
alcohol(R1OH).Water(H2O)isthebyproduct.
RCOOH+R1OHRCOOR1+H2O.
Esterscanbeextractedfrompalmnuts,soybeans,groundnutsetc.
Syntheticestersalsoexist.Theyaremadefrompetroleum.

2.6 Oil Testing and analysis.

Statisticsproofthatmostdestroyedtransformerssufferedfromseveralconditionssuchas
overloadcondition,which,moreoftenthannot,isthemaincauseoftransformerfailures,as
discussedandshowninthefirstchapter.Othercomponentssuchasthematerialofthecore
andtypeoflaminationarealsovital,buttheinsulationsystemplaysoneofthemostimportant
rolesinthetransformerslife,courtesyofthestatisticsofmosttransformerfailures.
Acoupleoftestsareviewedinourstudy;knownasDissolvedGasAnalysis(DGA)andPartial
DischargeMeasurement(PD).Thedissolvedgasanalysis(DGA)iscarriedoutontheaged
samplestopredicttheincipientfaults.Thoughthereisnodirectmethodtodetectthese
incipientfaults,itisknownthatthesefaults,especiallyintheformofoverheating,
arcingorpartialdischarge,developcertaingaseoushydrocarbons,whichareretainedbythe
insulatingoilasdissolvedgases.Thustheevaluationofthesegascompositionsandtheir
interpretationknownasDissolvedGasAnalysis(DGA)seemstobeoneofthelifesaving
diagnostictestsonconditionmonitoringoftransformers.

Theearlydetectionofpartialdischargepresentinatransformerisveryimportantto
avoid/reducethelossestothecatastrophicfailureoftransformer.Also,oncethePDisdetected,
thelocationofthesameisveryimportantsothatthedefectscanbepinpointedandsolved
effectively.

Chapter 3: Transformer Oil Insulating Properties

Transformer/Insulatingoilisahighlyrefinedmineraloilthatisstableathightemperaturesand
excellentinsulatingproperties.Itisobtainedfromfractionaldistillationprocesswithsubsequent
processingofcrudepetroleum.Ithastwomainfunctionstoinclude:
Actingasaliquidinsulationinanelectricalpowertransformerandsecondlydissipatingheatof
thetransformer(coolant).Also,becauseithelpspreservethecoreandwindingsofthe
transformerfortheyaredippedinit.

Duetooxidationsusceptibilityofthecellulose(paperinsulation)madeforthewindings,the
transformeroilpreventsdirectcontactofatmosphericoxygen.[16][17]
TheTransformerOilparametersarecategorizedas:

Electrical Parameters Dielectric Strength, Specific Resistance, Dielectric Dissipation


Factor,ChemicalParametersWaterContent,Acidity.
PhysicalParametersInterFacialTension,Viscosity,FlashPointandothersasexplained
indetailbelow.

3.1 Total acidity

Totalacidityalsocalledtotalacidnumber(TAN)referstothemeasurementofaciditythatis
gottenbytheamountofpotassiumhydroxide(expressedinmilligrams)whichisrequiredto
neutralizethehydrogenions(H+(aq))inonegramofoil.Thetotalacidnumbervalueshowstothe
crudeoilrefinery,thepossibilityofcorrosionproblems.Tofindthetotalacidity,different
methodscanbeusedtoinclude:
Potentiometrictitration;wheretolueneandpropanolaredissolvedwithasampleandalittle
waterthentitratedwithalcoholicNaOH(aq).Areferenceelectrodeandaglasselectrodeis
immersedinthesampleandconnectedtoavoltmeter/potentiometer.Themeterreading(in
millivolts)isplottedagainstthevolumeofthetitrantthentheendpointtakenatthedistinct
inflectionoftheresultingtitrationcurvecorrespondingtothebasicbuffersolution.
Colorindicatingtitration:ArightpHcolorindicatorforinstance,phenolphthalein,isused.
Titrantisaddedtothesamplebymeansofaburetteandthevolumeoftitrantusedtocausea
permanentcolorchangeinthesampleisrecordedandusedtocalculatetheTANvalue.
Transformeroilacidityisnevergoodfortheperformanceofthetransformer,ifatanymoment,
oilgetsacidifiedthenthemoisturecontentintheoilshallgethighsolubilitylevels.Thisshall
lateraffectthepaperinsulationofthewinding.Acidityincreasestheoxidationprocessinthe
transformeroil.Acidpresencealsoacceleratesrustingofironincombinationwithmoisture.The
10

KOHinmgisusedtocombatacidityofoilbyneutralizingitineverygramofoil.Thisisreferred
toasneutralizationnumber.[18]

3.2 Breakdown voltage

Thebreakdownvoltageofaninsulatorreferstotheminimumvoltagewhichresultsinpartofan
insulatortobecomeanelectricconductor.Itisusuallyauniquepropertyofaninsulatorthat
definesthemaximumvoltagedifferencethatcanbeputacrossthematerialbeforeitsinsulator
conducts.Insolidinsulatingmaterials,thisoftencreatesaweakenedpathwithinthematerialby
creatingpermanentmolecularorphysicalchangesbythesuddenhighcurrent.
Thebreakdownvoltageofamaterialisnotadefinitevalue.Breakdownvoltageisalsoreferred
toaswithstandvoltagewheretheprobabilityoffailureatagivenvoltageissolowthatitis
consideredatthemomentofdesigninginsulation,withassurancethatthematerialwillnotfail
atthisvoltage.
Thereexiststwowaysformeasurementofbreakdownvoltageofamaterialwhichincludethe
impulsebreakdownandtheACbreakdownvoltages.ACvoltagesarethelinefrequenciesofthe
mains,whilewiththeimpulsebreakdownvoltages,theyaresimulatinglightningstrikes.[19]

3.3 Viscosity

Herewemainlyfocusofliquids/fluidsandtheviscosityofafluidreferstoameasureof
itsresistancewithreferencetoitsgradualdeformationbyshearstressortensilestress.
Itcorrespondstotheinformalnotionof"thickness";ifwefocusonliquids.Forexample,water
hasalowerviscositycomparedtohoney.Viscosityisbroughtaboutbyhighfrictionbetween
neighboringmoleculesofthefluidthataremovingatdifferentspeeds.Onforcingafluidintoa
tube,itwillmovefasterslowestnearthewallsofacontainerwhenpouredout.Thereforea
littlestressisneededtoovercomethefrictionbetweenlayersandkeepthefluidmoving.So
generally,viscosityofafluidishighlydependentontheshapeandsizeofitsparticlesplus
attractionsacrosstheparticles.[20]
Atverylowtemperatures,whenviscositycanbeobservedinsuperfluids.Afluidwithno
resistancetoshearstressiscalledanidealfluid.Otherwiseallfluidshavepositiveviscosity.For
instanceiftheviscosityisveryhighatpitch,thefluidismostlikelytoappearasasolidinshort
while,Aliquidwithaviscositygreaterthanwaterisreferredtoasaviscousliquidandtheother
liquidwhoseviscosityislowerthanthatofwateriscalledamobileliquid.

11

WithemphasisonViscosityoftransformeroil,viscosityreferstooppositiontoflowatallfactors
constant(normalcondition).Withreferencetotransformeroil,resistancetoflowsimply
describesoppositiontoconvectioncirculationofoilinthetransformer.
Oilusedintransformerswithlowviscosityisessentialandsimultaneouslyimportantinthat,
transformeroilviscosityshouldnotchangemuchiftemperatureisdecreased.Itshouldbe
notedthatallliquidsgetmoreviscouswithdecreaseintemperature.Lowviscosityisonethat's
betterrecommendedinordertoprovideenvironmentforlowresistancetoconventionalflowof
oilhencepropertransformercooling.
Itisworthmentioningthatviscosityofaliquid,moreoftenthannot,isusedtodeterminingitas
acoolingagent.Thustransformeroil,whichisthickandscarcelyfacilitatesconvection,inhibits
thespreadofheatbyconvectioninatransformer.However,sinceeveryliquidbecomesless
viscoswithtemperatureincrease,convectiontakesplacetofacilitatecoolingaswell.[21]

3.4 Dielectric dissipation factor (tandelta).

Dissipationfactorreferstoameasureoflossrateofenergyofamodeofoscillationina
dissipativesystem.Itisaswellreferredtoaslossfactor.Thedielectricdissipationfactorofan
insulatingmaterialisthetangentofthedielectriclossangle.Thisisanangleinwhichthephase
differencebetweentheappliedvoltageandconsequentialcurrentdivergesfrom/2rad,atthe
pointwherethecapacitor'sdielectricencompassesonlyofinsulatingmaterial.
Thedielectricdissipationfactorinrelationtotransformeroilisbrokendownasinthissimple
description:Thelossangleisavitalpropertyofdielectricoil.Withanidealdielectricmaterial,
voltageandcurrenthasaphaseangleas90betweenthem.Butbecauseofimpurities,certain
leakagecurrentflowsthroughthedielectricandactualphaseangleisslightlylessthan90.A
risingdissipationfactorisanindicationofoilcontaminationoroilageing.Polarcomponents
stronglyinfluencethedissipationfactorandarethereforeaverysensitiveparameter.Thetan
deltaoftransformeroilhappenswhenaninsulatingmaterialisplacedbetweenthelivepartand
groundedpartofanelectricalcircuit;resultinginleakagecurrentflow.Theinsulationideally
leadsthevoltageby90obecauseoftheinsulatingmaterialbeingdielectricnaturally,thereby
creatinginstantaneousvoltagebetweenlivepartandgroundoftheequipment.Inapractical
world,noinsulatingmaterialsareperfectdielectricinnature.ThisissimplycalledDielectric
DissipationFactororsimplytandeltaoftransformeroilcourtesyoftangentofanangleslightly
shortof90oduetoimperfectionsininsulatingmaterialsandtheirdielectricproperties.[22]

Wearegoingtoillustratetheaforesaidwithagraphthatillustratesthatasthetransformer
ages,impuritiesincrease,thereforedecreasingdielectricresistance.Impuritieswillincrease
currentflowthroughthedielectric.[23]Theangledeltaislessthan900whentheimpuritiesare
more.
12

NB:TheTanDeltatestworksontheprinciplethatanyinsulationinitspurestateactsasa
capacitor.ThetestinvolvesapplyingaverylowfrequencyACvoltage.Thevoltageisgenerally
doubletheratedvoltageofthecableorwinding.

Alowfrequencycausesahighervalueofcapacitivereactancewhichleadstolesserpower
requirementduringthetest.Besides,thecurrentswillbelimitedenablingeasiermeasurement.

Inapurecapacitor,thecurrentisaheadofthevoltageby90degrees.Theinsulation,inapure
condition,willbehavesimilarly.However,iftheinsulationhasdeterioratedduetotheentryof
dirtandmoisture,thecurrentwhichflowsthroughtheinsulationwillalsohavearesistive
component.

Thiswillcausetheangleofthecurrenttobelessthan90degrees.Thisdifferenceintheangleis
knownasthelossangle.ThetangentoftheanglewhichisIr/Ic(opposite/adjacent)givesusan
indicationoftheconditionoftheinsulation.Ahighervalueforthelossangleindicatesahigh
degreeofcontaminationoftheinsulation.
ReresistancewillreduceasFig3.4.1belowillustrates.[17]

Fig3.4.1. Tandelta illustration.

3.5 Specific resistance.

Specificresistancewithreferencetoelectricalresistanceofanelectricalconductorreferstothe
oppositioninthepassageofanelectriccurrentthroughaconductor.TheSIunitofelectrical
resistanceistheohm(),andthatofelectricalconductanceisSiemens(S).[19]
Anyconductorwithspecifiedcrosssectionhasaresistancerelativelyproportionalto
itsresistivity,lengthandisinverselyproportionaltoitscrosssectionalarea.Apartfrom
superconductors,whichhavearesistanceofzero,therestofthematerialsshowsome
13

resistanceatanygivenpointintime.Aconductor'smaterialandtemperaturegreatly
determinesitsspecificresistance.
Resistance(R)ofanobjectisdefinedastheratioofvoltageacrossit(V)tocurrentthroughit(I).
Andconductance(G)istheinverse:

Wherevoltage(V)andcurrent(I)aredirectlyproportionalforawiderangeofmaterials.This
automaticallysetsRandGasconstantsbutcanaswelldependonotherfactorslike
temperatureasearlierexplained.
SpecificResistanceoftransformeroilfocusesonmeasureofresistancebetweentwoopposite
sidesofonecm3blockofoil,thestandardunitistakenasohmcmataspecifictemperature.The
resistivityofoilreducesdrasticallywhentemperatureincreases.Whenatransformerhasbeen
shutoffforalongtime,itsoiltemperatureshallbethesameasthatatambient.Withafullload,
thetemperaturecanriseupto90oCespeciallyatanoverloadedcondition.Thereforeinsulating
oilresistanceshouldbeabletoaccommodatetheneedsofboththehighandlowtemperatures;
thatisatambientlevel.
Itishighlyrecommendedtomeasurespecificresistivityoftransformeroilbothat27oCaswell
as90oChencecoveringtheexpectedhightemperaturesandminimum.
Thestandardsareasfollows:
Theactualminimumstandardforspecificresistanceoftransformeroilat90oCis35X1012ohm
cm(maximum)andatthelowerboundaryisestimatedat27oCis1500X1012ohmcm
(minimum).[25]

3.6 Flash point.

Theflashpointofachemicaloranyvolatilematerialisthelowesttemperatureatwhichitcan
evaporatetoformanignitablemixtureinairorcombustibleconcentrationofgas.Thispoint
indicateshowhardoreasythisvolatilematerialmayburn.Materialswithhigherflashpointsare
lessflammableorhazardousthanchemicalswithlowerflashpoints.Determiningaflashpoint
requiresanignitionsource.Theflashisnotdependentonthetemperatureoftheignition
source.
Mineraloilisaderivedproductofcrudepetroleum.Athighertemperatures,itwillvaporize.
Afteracertaintemperature,themixtureofthisoilvaporandatmosphericairproducesahighly
combustibleproductwhichiseasilyignitablebyanykindofspark.Anyburningfireoropen
flamewillnotnecessarilyignitethegasbutahotsurfacelikeaheaterwilldoforchemicalswith
morethanhighhazard.

14

Theflashpointhascommonlybeenusedtoexplainanddistinguishliquidfuel,andaswellhelp
uniquelyidentifythefirehazardsofliquids.
SobasicallyFlashpointmeansbothflammableliquidsandcombustibleliquids.Various
standardsfordefiningeachtermexist.
Thiscanbeevidencedmoreasfollows;Liquidswithaflashpointlessthan37.8Care
consideredflammableandthosewithaflashpointabovethepreviouslymentioned
temperaturesareconsideredcombustible.
Thistemperatureistheflashpointoftransformeroil.Generally,140Cistheminimum
thresholdflashingpointforstandardpowertransformers.
Flashpointwithreferencetotransformeroilappliesinthesamewayashasbeenexpressed
abovefortheotherliquids.Itisthetemperatureatwhichoilevaporatestoproducea
flammablemixturewithair.Themainimportanceofthemixtureistobrieflygiveaflashon
applicationofflameunderstandardcondition.
Thisprocessisveryvitalforitsignifiesthechancesoffirehazardinthetransformerforthat
reasonahigherlevelsoftemperaturepointsoftransformeroilflashpointaredesired.[25]

3.7 Moisture content.

Moisturecontentisdescribedastheamountofwatercontainedinamaterial,suchassoilsoil
moisture,apple,foodandothers.Moisturecontentisusedinbothtechnicalandscientificareas
plusdaytodaylifeactivities.Itisoftenusedinrationswhichvaryfrom0tomeanwhenthe
materialiscompletelymoisturefree(dry)uptothevalueofthematerials'beingporousat
saturationpoint.Themoisturecontentisalwaysmeasuredinvolumeormassascontainedin
thematerialinfocus.
Waterisaveryundesirablepollutanttotransformeroilandotherinsulatorsinatransformer.
Firstly,consideringmoistureinoil,moisturemakestheoillessthickwithalowerboilingpoint
thanoil.Moisturecontentisadirectproportionalitytotransformeroilaging.
Secondly,thepaperwinding,whichisalsoaninsulatorandadielectricintheoiltransformer,is
alsoadverselyaffectedbymoisture.Themoistureslowlysoaksthepaperasthetransformeroil
ages.Asoakedpaper,ontransformerwindings,decreasesinsulation,andthusthetransformers
functioningandefficiency.Whenthetemperaturehasincreasedinthetransformer
environment,thisverysoakedpaperagainreleaseswaterintothetransformeroil.Thisleadsto
oxidation,hence,increasestheamountofacidandwater.Thiscausesoilqualityreductiondue
tooildecomposition.[19]
Fortheabovereasons,itishighlyrecommendedtoavoidwaterintransformeroilforincreased
performance.
15

3.8 Dielectric constant (relative permittivity r)

Relativepermittivity,inthiscontext,isthemeasureoftheresistanceencounteredinthe
formationofelectricfieldsbetweentheelectrodesintheoilinsulationmedium.
Adielectricmaterialisanelectricalinsulatorthatgetspolarizedwhenanelectricfieldisapplied
toit.Whenadielectricisplacedinanelectricfield,electricalchargesneverflowthroughthe
materialascomparedtothewaytheyflowinaconductor;theyjustslightlyshiftfromtheir
meanequilibriumpositionscausingdielectricpolarization.Theeffectofdielectricpolarizationis
that:positivechargesaredisplacedtowardsthefieldandnegativechargesshiftintheopposite
direction.
Dielectricconstantisanelementofanelectricalinsulatingmaterialwhichisequaltotheratioof
thecapacitanceofacapacitorfilledwiththegivenmaterialtothecapacitanceofanidentical
capacitorinavacuumwithoutthedielectricmaterial.Asaresult,aninternalelectricfieldis
createdthatreducestheoverallfieldwithinthedielectricitself.Moleculesofadielectric
materialthatareweaklybondedshallbepolarizedandtheiraxisofsymmetrywillgetre
organizedtothefield.[26]
Studiesfocusedondielectricpropertiesemphasizestorage,dissipationofelectricandmagnetic
energyinmaterials.
Amaterialwitharelativepermittivityequalingtoafrequencyofzeroisreferredtoasitsstatic
relativepermittivity.[27]

3.9 Interfacial Tension.

Thisisdescribedassurfacetensionatthesurfaceseparatingtwononmiscibleliquids.Itisa
tensionwithacontractivetendencyofthesurfaceofaliquidthatgivesitthepotentialtoresist
anexternalforce.Whatactuallyhappensis;allmoleculesatthesurfaceoftheliquidforma
weakbondwitheachothercreatingasurfaceblankettotheothermoleculesoftheliquid
beneath.Agoodexampleisfloatingobjectsonthesurfaceofwater,eventhoughtheyaremore
densecomparedtowater.[19]
Interfacialtensionhasdimensionofenergyperunitarea,thiskindofenergyisusedcommonly
insurfacetensionorsurfacefreeenergy.
Cohesiveforcesbetweenliquidmoleculescreateinterfacial/surfacetension.Whenreferringtoa
heavyorbulkoftheliquid,everymoleculeisseparatedequallyineverydirectionbyneighboring
liquidmoleculeshenceanetforceequalingtozero.Themoleculesatthetopoftheliquidhave
16

noneighboringmoleculesontopofthemsotheyareonlypulledinwardsorneighboring
moleculesunderthem.Asaresult,internalpressurewillbecreatedcausingtheliquidsurfaces
tocontracttotheminimalarea.
Surfacetensionisresponsiblefortheshapeofliquiddrops;dropletsofwatertendtobepulled
intoasphericalshapebythecohesiveforcesofthesurfacelayereveniftheyareeasilyde
shaped.Withoutforcesforinstancegravity,dropsofalmostallliquidswouldnormallybe
sphericalwhichshapereducesthenecessary"walltension".
Alsowithemphasistoenergy,moleculesincontactwiththeirneighborsareinalowerstateof
energythaniftheywerenotincontactwithadjacentneighbors.Insidemoleculeshavemany
neighborsasmuchastheycouldbutthemoleculesontheboundarymissneighborsandso
automaticallyhavehigherenergy.Therefore,ifaliquidistoreduceitsenergystate,thenumber
ofmoleculesofhigherenergyontheboundaryshouldbereduced.Thiswilldefinitelyreduce
surfacearea.
Withminimizingthesurface,itwillhaveasmoothshapehencehighenergywillbegained,and
gravitationalpotentialenergyshallaswellbereduced.
Withsurfacetensionisresponsibleforseparationofoilandwaterduetotensioninthesurface
betweendissimilarliquids.Newlyacquiredtransformeroilshowshighinterfacialtensionwhile
contaminants,duetooxidation,lowertheInterfacialtension.Thisphenomenonisusefulin
determiningthepresenceofpolarcontaminantsandtransformeroildecayproducts.[28]

3.10 Dielectric Strength.

Thetermdielectricstrength(canaswellmeanvoltagebreakdown)hasdifferentmeanings
dependingontheprimaryfocus,withreferencetoaninsulatingmaterialitreferstothe
maximumelectricfieldstrengththatthematerialcanwithstandcontinuouslywithoutbreaking
down;tobespecific,withoutexperiencingfailureofitsinsulatingproperties.[19]
Withmajorfocusontransformers,dielectricstrengthappliestotransformeroil.Thedielectric
strengthisdeterminedtakingnoteofatwhatvoltage,sparksbetweentwoelectrodesimmersed
inoilandaspecificgapbetweenthem.Lowvalueofdielectricstrengthshowspresenceof
moistureandmaybeotherconductingsubstancesintheoil.Thisisdonewithabreakdown
voltagemeasuringkitinwhichonepairofelectrodesisfixedandhasagapmeasuringabout
2,5mmapart.Thenvoltageshallbeappliedtothepairofelectrodes.
Withcarefulincreasingofvoltageonbothelectrodes,criticalobservationshouldthenbetaken
onwhenthesparksbetweenelectrodeshappen;exactlywhenthedielectricstrengthof
transformeroilbetweenelectrodeshasbeenbrokendown.[29]

17

3.11 Transformer insulation (Paper insulation)

Paperinsulationisusedforseveralinsulationpurposesintheelectricalfield;severalelectrical
insulationpapertypesexistandareusedinmanyapplications,thisisbecausepurecellulosehas
unbelievablygreatelectricalproperties.Celluloseisanoutstandinginsulatoraswellasapolar
substance.Thisisbecauseofitshavingadielectricconstantsignificantlygreaterthanone.
Classificationofelectricalpaperdependsonthicknessfromlessthan1.5mmtoover20mils
(0.508mm)thickness.[19]
Moisturecontentintransformeroilisneveragoodcombinationforitinterferesgreatlytheoil
dielectricproperties.Thewatercontentinoilalsoaffectsthepaperinsulationofthecoreand
winding of transformer. Paper is extremely hygroscopic so it absorbs a lot of water from oil
whichaffectspaperinsulationpropertyplusloweringitslifespan.Withaloadedtransformer,oil
temperature increases, resulting in the solubility of water in oil increase. Hence the paper
releasesmoisture,resultingtoanincreaseinthewatercontentinthetransformeroil.[30]

18

Chapter 4: Transformer Oil Analysis.

4.1 Partial discharge (PD)

SignsofpartialdischargewerefirstobservedinanoscilloscopeintheSixties.Laterinthe
Eighties,computerizeddataacquisitionbecamecommonlyavailable.Thisgreatlyenhanced
storageanddigitalprocessingofdischargepatterns.[31]
PD,moreoftenthannot,startsinsidetinybubbles,voids,cracks,orinclusionswithinasolid
insulator(dielectric),atconductordielectricinterfaceswithinsolidorliquiddielectrics,orin
voidsthatoccurinliquidinsulatorsusedasdielectrics.SincePDsonlyoccurataparticular
portionintheelectrode,thefaultscreatedbythedischargesonlypartiallyconnectthe
separationoftheelectrodes.
PDintransformersdegradesthepropertiesoftheinsulatingmaterialsandcanleadto
eventualfailures.PDscanbeidentifiedbyusinganalysisfromacousticmeasurementsorby
measurementsoftheelectricalsignals.Anotherpreferredmethodisbydoingchemicalteststo
analyzethegasesproducedfromthepartialdischarges.
PDscauseconsiderabledeteriorationtotheinsulation(dielectric)itoccursin.Itisworth
mentioningagainthatwhenthegasesarecollectedbyupwarddeliveryordownward
displacementofair,andtheresultoftheanalysisofthegasescanbeusedtodeterminethe
typeoffaultthatoccurred.Forthecaseofpartialdischarge,hydrogengasisproduced.
Generally,andforalloiltypes,thepartialdischargeexperimentsshowthattherateofpartial
dischargeisdirectlyproportionaltoageoftheoil.
Thisisreasonablebecauseduringpartialdischarge,manychemicalbondsarebrokentoform
severalgasesandthiseffectivelyshortensthenhydrocarbonchainsoftheoil.PD,therefore,
wouldbeworthwhiletobedetectedearlyfortechnicalintervention;else,itcanruinthe
transformer.

Someofthegasesdissolveintheoil.ThisbringsustoDissolvesGasAnalysis.

4.2 Dissolved gas Analysis (DGA)

Dissolvedgasanalysisisthestudyofdissolvedgassesintransformeroil.Thegassescomefrom
thedeteriorationofthematerialsthatformthecontainerofthetransformeroil.These
materialsincludeboththeelectricalequipment,theinsulatingmaterialsforthecoils,andthe
ore.
Whenthegasesareanalyzed,thestatisticscanbeusedtodeducetherealelectricalfaultofthe
transformer,ortheequipmentatfault.
19

Sincetheoilisincontactwiththeinternalequipment,thegasesformedbyoxidation,
vaporization,decomposition,insulation,oilbreakdownandelectrolyticaction,aredissolvedin
thetransformeroil.Atthatinstance,theoilishot.Theheatenhancesthedissolutionofthe
gasses.
Duringnormaltransformeroperation,gassesareproduced.Butwhenthereisafault,thegasses
areproducedinlargerquantities.Thegassesproducedareproportionaltothefault.Below,are
themostcommonfaultsandgassesproduced;inincreasingseverity.[32]
Partialdischargeorcorona:Produceshydrogengas(H2(g)).
Localizedhotspots(Pyrolysisorthermalheating):Atlowertemperatures,itproducesCH4,C2H6
andathightemperatures,itproducesamixtureismethane,C2H4(ethylene),ethaneand
hydrogengas.
Arcing:producesamixtureofethaneacetylene(C2H2),ethylene,methane,andhydrogen
gas.[33]

4.2.1 Dissolved Moisture in Transformer Oil.

Free water causes few problems with the dielectric strength of oils in transformers;
however,itshouldbedrainedassoonasitisnoticed.

Moisture is given in the dissolved gas analysis in ppm, and some laboratories also give
percent saturation. Percent saturation means percent saturation of water in the oil. This is a
percentageofhowmuchwaterisintheoilcomparedwiththemaximumpossiblesaturationof
waterinoil.Thesaturationofwaterinoilgreatlydependsontemperature.

Thecurves,inFig4.,belowshowsomepercentsaturationcurves.Ontheleftline,findthe
ppmofwaterfromyourDGA.Fromthispoint,drawahorizontallineandextrapolatetoreadthe
corresponding temperature and corresponding level of percentage saturation on or between
thecurves.[34]

20

Fig 4.: Transformer Oil Percent Saturation Curves.

Forexample,iftheoilis50ppmandthetemperatureis40C,youcanseeonthecurves
that this point of intersection falls about halfway between the 20% curve and the 30% curve.
Thismeansthattheoilisapproximately35%saturated.

However,expertsdisagreeonhowtotellhowmuchmoistureintheinsulationbasedon
howmuchmoistureisintheoil(ppm).Atbest,methodstodeterminemoistureintheinsulation
basedsolelyonDGAarenotveryaccurateinaccurate.

21

Chapter 5: Experimental Setup.

Thischapterwilldiscusstheexperimentalsetupsusedinthisthesisproject,includingtheaging
processonbothtypesofoil,themeasurementprocedureofBreakdownvoltage.

Fig (5.1.1.) Diagram of the experimental setup.


Asitshowninthediagramoftheexperimentalsetup,ithas,installed,twopoles(electrodes)in
themiddleofthecontainer,immersedintestoil,oneofthemconnectedtothehighvoltage
sideandothertoground.

5.1 Requirements for experiment.


Ac voltage control (7K Volts Power supply):
Usedtocontrolthevalueofvoltagethatappliedtotheoil,andincludedofoursmadea
protectionsystemthatwillbeoperatedwhenthebreakdownvoltageappearintheinsulation.
Resistors:
Theresistorshaveconnectedinserieswithsetvalueto500(ohms).
Syringe:
Ithasusedasaunitofmeasurementtoaddthesolutiontothemineralandvegetableoil.
Multimeter (VoltOhm meter):
Itusedtomeasurethevoltage,current,resistantintheexperiment.
Heat source (Extreme temperature):
Itusedtoheattheoilandincreaseitsagingtime.A6000Cheatsourcewasused.
22


Additionalrequirementsusedintheexperiment:
1.HydrochloricAcid(HCL).
2.SodiumHydroxideNaOH(aq).
Theoldsamplesarepreconditioned.Then,theacceleratedthermalagingprocessisstarted.
First,thesamplecontaineriscleanedbeforeitisfilledwithnewoilsample.

Fig(5.1.2): Shows the experiment equipment.

Thesetupwasasshowninthepictureabovethattheywereusedintheexperimental
measurements.Afteraddtheoilsampleinthecontainer,theoilsampleissubjectedtoa
steadilyincreasingalternatingvoltageuntilbreakdownoccursinthedielectricintheBDVtest
kit.Thebreakdownvoltageisthevoltagereachedatthetimeofthefirstsparkappearsbetween
theelectrodes.Thesparkvoltage,whichindicatesthehighsurgeofcurrent,isrecorded.The
testiscarriedoutninetimesoneachsample.Theelectrodesaremountedonahorizontalaxis
withatestspacingofabout0.1mm.

Fig(5.1.1)showsthelogicallayoutofthephysicalexperimentallayoutweconductedasshown
inFig(5.1.2).Thenextpagecontainsthepicturesduringtheartificialagingprocess.InFig
(5.1.3),theoilwasheatedwithaheatsourceof6000C,aswellastheoilsphysicalstateduring
thethermaldisintegration.

23

Fig (5.1.3): The operation of heating the mineral oil about 60 minute with a
600 degrees heat source. Figures of artificial aging in the lab.
24

5.2 Conditions of the oil samples

Beforestartingtheacceleratedthermalagingprocess,theoldsamplewasreplacedbeforethe
acceleratedthermalagingprocessisstarted.Afterthat,thecompletesetupwasconnectedasin
thelayoutaboveandthentheresultsweretaken.Thisoiltreatmentprocedureelevatesthe
humidityoftheoilduringandaftertheheating.

Also,treatmentoftherespectiveoilsampleswithHClandNaOH,includetheintroductionof
calculatedamountsofthechemicals;aslatershowninchaptersix.Themoisturecontentofthe
oilaffectsitsdielectricproperties,suchasbreakdownvoltageanddielectriclossangle(tan
delta).

5.3 Breakdown voltage measurement in oil

TheBreakdownvoltage,knownastheminimumvoltagethatthesparksoccurbetweenthe
electrodes,causesaportionofaninsulatortobecomeelectricallyconductive.
Inourmeasurementstheelectrodeswereinstalledinhorizontalposition.
Theelectrodeswerepolarized,andtheaxisoftheelectrodesystemshallbehorizontalandat
least20mmbelowthesurfaceofthetestoil.Thegapbetweentheelectrodesissetto0.1mm,
andthecontainershouldbealmostfilledwithoilsample.Themeasurementsarecarriedout
untilninebreakdownsoneachsample,andthentheoilsampleissubjectedtoasteadily
increasingalternatingvoltageuntilbreakdownoccursinthedielectricintheBDVtestkit.

25

Chapter 6: Experimental results and Discussion.

Allpresenteddatafromthedielectricpropertymeasurementswhichincludethebreakdown
voltage,relativepermittivity,andhumiditycontentaremeasuredandthedataarepresentedin
trendplotstobeusedforcomparingthedielectriccharacteristicsbetweenmineraloiland
(vegetable)esteroil.

6.1 Vegetable Oil experiment

HCLwasaddedwithdifferentpercentage.Weuseda4MHCLsolutionappliedvoltagetotheoil
andincreasedthevoltagecarefullybyanACvoltagecontroluntilbreakdownoccurs.

Firstreading:3.1KVrms.
Secondreading:3.1KVrms.
Thirdreading:3.1KVrms.
Average:3.1KVrms.

Theresultsofbreakdownvoltage(BDV)measurementsforthevegetableoilscoolingarelisted
intables.

Coolingtimeforvegetableoil
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
20

Breakdownvoltage
2.51
2.50
2.00
2.18
1.99
2.02
2.01
2.01
2.02

Table (6.1.1): Shows minutes of cooling after heated for 60 minutes with
10ml of water against breakdown voltage.

26

3
2,5

BDV

2
1,5

Figer(611)cooling
timeVsBDV

Linear(Figer(611)
coolingtimeVsBDV)

0,5
0
0

10

15

20

25

coolingtimeofVegetableoilwithexposuretomoisture

Fig (6.1.1): A graphic representation of the breakdown voltage of vegetable


oil along the time.
Theoilisartificiallymoisturizedbyheatingtheoilforsixtyminuteswith10mlofwater.Atthe
beginningoftheplottingonFig(6.1.1),theBreakdownVoltageofvegetableoilhasnotchanged
between02minutes.Thenthebreakdownvoltagedecreasedslightlytowardsthefourth
minute.Whenapproachingthe6thminute,theBDVslightlywentupagain,beforegoingdown
againateighthminute.Approachingthetenthminute,theBDVincreasedslightlytovaluewhich
wasstilllowerthantheBDVatthebeginningoftest,anditbecomesmorestabletotheendof
agingtime.Inspiteofinconsistencies,thegeneraltrendisaslightnegativegradient.The
generalslopedetectedbythecomputerisaslightdecrease;indicatedbytheblackline.The
irregularityofthegraphcanbeaccountedforbytheunstabledielectricgapandtinydust
particlesfromtheenvironmentthatenteredtheoil.Whenheatingstopped,thereisa
continuousdecompositionoftheoilschemicalcomponents.Thisgraduallydecreasesastheoil
cools,givingrisetothenegativegradientofthegraph.
CoolingtimeofVegetableoilwithHCl.
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
20

Breakdownvoltage
2.21
2.22
2.10
2.14
1.92
2.04
1.91
1.81
1.82


Table (6.1.2): Shows minutes of cooling after heated for 60 min with
addition of 2ml of 4mol/dm 3 HCL solution against Breakdown voltage.
27

2,5
2
1,5
BDV

Figure(612)cooling
timeofvegetableoil
withHCL

Linear(Figure(61
2)coolingtimeof
vegetableoilwithHCL)

0,5
0
0

10

15

20

25

coolingtimeofVegetableoilwithHCL

Fig (6.1.2): A graphic representation of the breakdown voltage comparison


vegetable oil along the time with HCL.
AftertheadditionofHCLsolutiontovegetableoil,asimilartrendtoFig6.1.1wasplotted.When
wemonitortheBDVandminutesofcoolingafterheatingfor20minweseetheinitial
breakdownvaluefornewvegetableoilwithHCLwaslowerthanvegetableoilintheprevious
measurement.Inthebeginningitjumpedupinthe2ndminute.Later,theBDVdecreasedslightly
ascoolingapproachedto4thminute,andthenthegraphshowedatendencyofdeclininguntil
20thminuteofartificialaging.Thegeneralslopedetectedbythecomputerisaslightdecrease;
indicatedbytheblackline.Theirregularityofthegraphcanbeaccountedforbytheunstable
dielectricgapandtinydustparticlesfromtheenvironmentthatenteredtheoil.Whenheating
stops,thereisacontinuousdecompositionoftheoilschemicalcomponents.Thisgradually
decreasesastheoilcools,givingrisetothenegativegradientofthegraphinFig6.1.2.
VegetableoilwithNaOH(aq)testing:
Weweregiven4mol/dm3NaOH(aq)butwithoutthepercentagemass.Tocalculatethemass,we
needthenumberofmoles.Sincemolarmass,MofNaOHis34wecancalculatethenumberof
grams(ofNaOH)usedintheexperimentbyusingmolarityasfollows:
TotalMass,mtot=4 34=136g.
1361000100%=13.6%.
Foreachexperiment,weused2cm3ofNaOH.
MassofNaOHineachdrop,mexp=2%X136=0.27g.
Volumeofoilis250cm3.Therefore,0.27252100=0.11g
0.11gistheamountofsoluteNaOH(aq)weuseintheexperimentbelow.
28

Timeofcoolingafteradding2cm3ofNaOH
andheatingfor60mins.
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
20

Breakdownvoltage
2.54
2.30
2.00
2.88
2.92
2.42
2.11
1.21
2.22

Table (6.1.3): Shows minutes of cooling after heated for 60 min with added
NaOH (a q) solution Vs Breakdown voltage.
3,5
3

BDV

2,5
2

vegetableoilwith
NaOHVsBDV

1,5

Linear(vegetableoil
withNaOHVsBDV)

1
0,5
0
0

10

15

20

25

coolingtimeofvegetableoilwithNaOH

Fig (6.1.3): A graphic representation of the breakdown voltage comparison


vegetable oil along the time with NaOH (aq) .
AsshowninthismeasurementsandtheresultinggraphonFig6.1.3,theminutesofcoolingafter
theoilisheatedfor60minuteswithaddedNaOH(aq)solutionagainstbreakdownvoltage;the
initialbreakdownvalueforanewsamplewithNaOH(aq)solutionshowedconsistentresultsfor
thefirst4minutes.Itthenjumpeduphigherthanthefirstvaluebetween68minbeforegoing
downagainat14minutes.Between1420minutes,BDVvalueincreasedtothehighestvalue
whichwasstilllowerthantheBreakdownvalueatthebeginningoftest.Whencoolingstarted,
therewasacontinuousdecompositionoftheoilschemicalcomponents.Thisgradually
decreasesastheoilcools,givingrisetothenegativegradientofthegraph.Thegeneralslope
detectedbythecomputerisaslightdecrease;indicatedbytheblackline.Theirregularityofthe
29

graphcanbeaccountedforbytheunstabledielectricgapandtinydustparticlesfromthe
environmentthatenteredtheoil.
Intable(6.1.4),wegotthesolutepercentagecontentofHCLinthevegetableoilbythis
equation,
12%ofHCL=>120g/dm3ofsolutionbecause12gexistin100g(givenacidsolutionmass).
Therefore0.24gexistsin2gofsolution.
TogetthepercentagemassofHCLin250gofoilintheexperiment,
Sowesaythat(0.24)(250+2)
Volumeofoilis250cm3.Therefore,thegeneralequationwillbe[(N0.24)(250+M)]X100.
N:istheexperimentnumber.
M:numberofmillilitersof12%ofHCL.

VariationofHCLMolarityinpercentage

0.09
0.18
0.28
0.37
0.46
0.54

Breakdownvoltage(BDV)
3.15
3.04
2.83
2.62
2.22
2.01


A graphic presentation of the breakdown voltage comparison vegetable oil
along the time is described in Figure (6.1.4.)

30

3,5
3

BDV

2,5

Figure(614)
VariationofHCL
Molarityin
percentageVsBDV

2
1,5

Linear(Figure(614)
VariationofHCL
Molarityin
percentageVsBDV)

1
0,5
0
0

0,2

0,4

0,6

percentageHCL

Fig (6.1.4): Relation between BDV Versus HCL in vegetable oil.


Afteraddingthesolutionandatapplyingthevoltage,thebreakdownvoltagedecreasedslightly
between3.15to3.04andtheBDVslightlywentdownto2.83KVandthencontinuouslygoes
downtill2.01KV.TheBDVvalueofvegetableoilwasreducedfrom3.15kV(newoil)to2.01kV
(endofaging).Fig(6.1.4)isaconcisecharacteristicgraphofartificiallyagedvegetableoils
breakdownvoltagecharacteristic.

6.2 Mineral oil experiment.

Theoilsampleissubjectedtoasteadilyincreasingalternatingvoltageuntilbreakdownoccursin
aBDVtestkit.Thebreakdownvoltageisthevoltagereachedatthetimeofthefirstspark
appearsbetweentheelectrodes.Thetestiscarriedoutninetimesoneachsample.The
electrodesaremountedonahorizontalaxiswithatestspacingofabout0,1mm.Wereplace
theoldoilbyanewsample,andthenweaddedHCLwithdifferentquantities.

Weuseda4MHCLsolution,appliedvoltagetotheoil,andincreasedthevoltagecarefullybyan
Acvoltagecontroluntilbreakdownoccurs.

Firstreading:4.50KVrms.
Secondreading:4.45KVrms.
Thirdreading:4.44KVrms.
Average:4.46KVrms

31


Coolingtimeofheatedmineraloil
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
20

Breakdownvoltage
4.24
4.21
4.22
4.12
4.19
4.20
4.15
4.09
4.10

Table (6.2.1): Minutes of cooling after heated 60 minutes with10ml of


water against recordings for breakdown voltage .

4,26
4,24
4,22

BDV

4,2
4,18
Fig(621)coolingtime
VsBDV

4,16
4,14

Linear(Fig(621)
coolingtimeVsBDV)

4,12
4,1
4,08
0

10

15

20

25

coolingtimeofMineraloilwithexposuretomoisture

Fig (6.2.1): Minutes of cooling after heated for about 60 minutes.

Theoilisfirstartificiallymoisturizedbyheatingwith10mlofwaterfor60minutes.Atthe
beginningoftherecordingtime,thecurveonFig(6.2.1)showsthattheBreakdownvoltageof
mineraloildecreasedslightlybetween02minutes.ThentheBDVslightlyjumpedupastime
approaches4minutesbeforegoingdownagainduringthe6thminute.Betweenthe6th10th
minutes,theBDVvalueincreasedtoaveryhighvalue,whichwasstilllowerthanthebreakdown
voltageatthebeginningoftest.Itthendecreasestothelowestvaluebetween1014minutesof
cooling,beforeslightlyincreasingslightlytill20min. Inspiteofinconsistencies,thegeneral
trendisaslightnegativegradient.Thegeneralslopedetectedbythecomputerisaslight
decrease;indicatedbytheblackline.Theirregularityofthegraphcanbeaccountedforbythe
unstabledielectricgapandtinydustparticlesfromtheenvironmentthatenteredtheoil.
32

Coolingtimeofmineraloilafterheatedwith
HCl.
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32

Breakdownvoltage
4.20
4.23
4.25
4.29
4.27
4.28
4.15
4.05
3.77

Table (6.2.2): Minutes of cooling after heated 60 minutes with add HCL solution to the
mineral oil against breakdown voltage.
4,4
4,3

BDV

4,2

Figure(622)cooling
timeofvegetableoil
withHCLVSBDV

4,1
4

Linear(Figure(622)
coolingtimeof
vegetableoilwithHCL
VSBDV)

3,9
3,8
3,7
0

10

20

30

40

coolingtimeofMineraloilwithHCL

Fig (6.2.2): A graphic representation of the breakdown voltage of Mineral


oil versus cooling time with HCL in mineral oil.
Fig(6.2.2)showsanotherfigureofbreakdownvoltagesasapropertyofmineraloilaffectedby
heatingwithHCl(aq).TheBreakdownvoltageofmineraloilincreasesslightlybetween012
minutes.ThentheBDVslightlydecreasedbetween1216minutesbeforeitincreasedagainto
20minutes,afterwhich,thedecreasebecomesmoreandmoreevidenttillthe32ndminute.In
spiteofinconsistencies,especiallyinthebeginning,thegeneraltrendisaslightnegative
gradient.Thegeneralslopedetectedbythecomputerisaslightdecrease;indicatedbytheblack
line.Whencoolingstarts,atthebeginningofthegraph,thereisacontinuousdecompositionof
theoilschemicalcomponents.Thisgraduallydecreasesastheoilcools,givingrisetothe
negativegradientofthegraph.Theirregularityofthegraphcanbeaccountedforbythe
unstabledielectricgapandtinydustparticlesfromtheenvironmentthatenteredtheoil.
33


Weweregiven4mol/dm3NaOH(aq)butwithoutthepercentagemass.Tocalculatethemass,we
needthenumberofmoles.Sincemolarmass,MofNaOHis34wecancalculatethenumberof
grams(ofNaOH)usedintheexperimentbyusingmolarityasfollows:
TotalMass,mtot=4 34=136g.
1361000100%=13.6%.
Foreachexperiment,weusedat2.0cm3ofNaOH.
MassofNaOHineachdrop,mexp=2%X136%=0.27g.
Volumeofoilis250cm3.Therefore,0.27252100=0.11g
0.11gistheamountofsoluteNaOH(aq)weuseintheexperimentbelow.
Mineraloil(NaOH)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
20

Breakdownvoltage
4.45
4.42
4.34
4.28
4.02
4.42
4.01
4.91
4.02

Table(6.2.3): Minutes of cooling after heated for about 60 minutes with


NaOH.
6
5
Figur(623)cooling
timeofmineraloil
withNaOH

BDV

4
3
2

Linear(Figur(62
3)coolingtimeof
mineraloilwith
NaOH)

1
0
0

10

20

30

coolingtimeofMineraloilwithNaOH

Fig (6.2.3): Minutes of cooling after heated for about 60 minutes with NaOH
against BDV.
34

Intheaboveexperiment,afterheatingtheoilwithNaOHsolutionfor60mins,andcoolingfor
20minutes,thebehaviorofthedielectricpropertyslightlydeteriorates,almostuniformlytillthe
8thminuteasseenonthefirstpartofFig(6.2.3).Later,werecordedirregularresultstillthe20th
minute.Inspiteofinconsistencies,especiallyinthebeginning,thegeneraltrendisaslight
negativegradient.Thegeneralslopedetectedbythecomputerisaslightdecrease;indicatedby
theblackline.Fromthebeginningofthisexperiment,thereisacontinuousdecompositionof
theoilschemicalcomponents.Thisgraduallydecreasesastheoilcools,givingrisetothe
negativegradientofthegraph.Theirregularityofthegraphcanbeaccountedforbythe
unstabledielectricgapandtinydustparticlesfromtheenvironmentthatenteredtheoil.
Inthefollowingexperiment,wegotthesolutepercentagecontentofHCl(aq)inthemineraloilby
thisequation:
(N0.24)(250+M)X100.where:
N:istheexperimentnumber.
M:numberofmillilitersof12%ofHCL.
VariationofHCLMolarity
0.09
0.18
0.28
0.37
0.46
0.54

Breakdownvoltage
4.55
4.44
4.30
4.12
3.99
3.86

Table (6.2.4): The solute percentage content of HCl in the mineral oil by
multiplying the 12% 4M HCl we had, by the quantity of mineral oil we used
(250cm 3 ).
4,7
4,6
4,5

BDV

4,4

Figure(624)Variation
ofHCLMolarityin
percentageVsBDV

4,3
4,2
4,1

Linear(Figure(624)
VariationofHCL
Molarityinpercentage
VsBDV)

4
3,9
3,8
0

0,2

0,4

0,6

precentageofHCL

Fig (6.2.4): Relation between BDV Versus HCL in mineral oil.


35

Afteraddingthesolutionandatapplyingthevoltage,thebreakdownvoltagedecreasedslightly
between4.55to4.44andtheBDVslightlywentdownto4.30andthencontinuouslygoesdown
till3.86.TheBDVvalueofmineraloilwasreducedfrom4.55kV(newoil)to3.86kV(endof
aging).Fig(6.2.4)isaconcisecharacteristicgraphofartificiallyagedmineraloilsbreakdown
voltagecharacteristic.

6.3 Comparison between Vegetable and Mineral Oil Characteristics

Asearliermentioned,Mineraloilcanbeobtainedfrompetroleumanditisagoodinsulating
materialbecauseofitsgoodelectricalproperties.OthercharacteristicssuchashighBDValso
enhancetransformeroperation.Themostimportantthingisthatmineraloilisalreadyproduced
worldwideandofferedatalowcost.Butthebiggestproblemwilloccurwhenthereisa
transformerleakageandthemineraloilwillendangertheenvironmentbecauseofitspoor
biodegradability.

Thevegetableoilhasnearlythesamedielectricconstantasthatfoundinmineraloil.The
mineraloilmainlyconsistsofrefinedpetroleumwhichcontainsnonpolaralkanemolecule.So
wecancomparethetwotypesofdifferentoilsbylookingattheirexperimentresults.
Vegetableoilcanbeobtainedfromfishoil,animalfats,palmfruitsorseedswithdifferent
processes.Severaltypicaloilseedswhichareobtainedandprocessedbeforetheyarereadyto
beusedasthetransformerinsulationarerepresented.
Whenwementioncomparisonbetweenmineraloilandvegetableoilcharacteristic,wehaveto
mentionseveralCriteriabetweenbothofthosetypes:
Forexample;Keypropertiesformineraloilcharacteristic:producedfrompetroleumcrudeand
nonrenewablepowerandscarcesources.

Keypropertiesforvegetableoilcharacteristic:Producedfromdomesticallygrownandfrom
renewablesources,suchassoybeansandcorn.

EnvironmentalPropertiesforthemineraloil:Containscompoundsthatdonotreadily
biodegrade.Itmayalsocontaintracesofaconfirmedcarcinogen.

EnvironmentalPropertiesforthevegetableoil:Highlybiodegradable;nontoxic;doesnot
containpetroleum,silicone,orhalogens.

LeaksandSpillsforthemineraloil:Thelatestfindingsofthescientistsofgeneticengineeringto
eliminatethisproblem.Somebacteriahavetheabilitytoabsorbthesesubstancestoxicoilsand
syntheticallyconvertitintoafooditems.Itcouldbeformedbyhybridizationformorethanone
typeofbacteriafoundinnature.Thiscouldpossiblycausealargenumberofexchanges
betweendifferentgenestoreachthedesiredqualitiestoproduceanewtypeofbacteriathatdo
notexistinnature.

36

LeaksandSpillsforvegetableoil:Relativelyrapidbiodegradationmayeliminatetheneedfor
environmentalawarenessrelatedtofindnewcomplicateddynamicprocessestocurbeco
concernsduringspills.

FireRiskforthemineraloilcharacteristic:Catchesfiremoreeasily,leadingtohigherprobability
oftransformerfires

FireRiskforthevegetableoilcharacteristic:reducesthefrequencyandimpactoftransformer
fires;virtuallyeliminatessustainedfires.

TransformerPerformanceforthemineraloil:Doesnotslowdownthestandardinsulationaging
rate,requiresspecialandexpensiveprocessingtodryoutthepaperinsulation.

Transformerperformanceforthevegetableoil:ithasproventoslowdowntheagingrateofthe
insulationsystem,resultinginanincreaseintheexpectedlifeofatransformerbydecades,also
promotesautomaticdryoutofpaperinsulation.

UtilityCostforthemineraloil:Itleadstoshortenedlifeofthetransformeranddiminished
economicreturns;increasesliability

UtilityCostforthevegetableoil:Itprolongstransformerlifeandleadstolongertermeconomic
benefits.

6.4 Discussion.

Theacceleratedthermalagingprocessshowedadifferenteffecttothecolorofthevariousoil
samples.Thecoloroftheagedmineraloilchangedmorethanagedvegetableoiltodarker
probablybecauseoftheirspecificchemicalproperties.Therewasalsoindicatedsludgecontent
inagedmineraloil,whileinthevegetableoil,itwashardlyobserved.TheBDVofbothtypesof
oilshowedadynamicbehavioralongtheacceleratedthermalagingprocess.Therewasa
tendencyofalloilsamplestogetlowerBDVattheendofaging.Wenotethatpuretransformer
oilreachbreakdownvoltageatvaluearound4.46KVrms.Whencontaminationispresentin
theoilthenthebreakdownvoltageanddielectricstrengthoftheoilwilldecrease.

Alltheheatingproceduresresultsintheproductionofsomegases.Thisindicatedtheactualloss
ofchemicalstructureandsignificantbreakageofchemicalbonds.Theresultingchemical
compositionoftheoildoesnotproducethesameeffectastheinitialoilsample.

WhenweaddHCLtothevegetableoilwithpercentageof4Mandheatedfor20minutes,then
appliedvoltagetotheoil,withdistanceofabout0.1mmbetweentheelectrodes,thebreak
downvoltagedecreasedto3.1KV.

WecanconcludethattheadditionofHCLandheatedmoisturebadlydecreasestheBDVofthe
oilaswhenwecompareFigures(6.1.1)with(6.1.2).

37

WhenweaddNaOH(aq)tothevegetableoilwithpercentage4MFig(6.1.3)andheatedfor20
minutes,thenappliedvoltagetotheoil,thebreakdownvoltagedecreasedthenincreaseandat
thedecreased.SowecanconcludethatwhenweheattheoilandaddapercentageofNaOH(aq)
isbadlydecreasingtheBDVoftheoil.

WegotthesolutepercentagecontentofHCLinthevegetableoilbymultiplyingthe12%
4mol/dm3ofHCLwehad,bythequantityofvegetableoilweused,whichwas0.25dm.Fig
(6.1.4)wasthenobtainedwiththeotherspecificationskeptsame.WhenweaddHCl(aq)tothe
vegetableoilwithpercentageof4mol/dm3andheatedfor20minutes,thenappliedvoltageto
theoil,withdistance0.1mmbetweentheelectrodes,thebreakdownvoltagedecreasedfrom
3.15KVto2.01KV.

Whenweheatthemineraloilforabout60minuteswithexposuretomoisture,wegetFig
(6.2.2).Thesamedistanceof0.1mmbetweentheelectrodeswasused
WhenweaddHCl(aq)tothemineraloilwithpercentageof4Mandheatedfor60minutes,then
appliedvoltagetotheoil,withdistance0.1mmbetweentheelectrodes,thebreakdownvoltage
decreasedto3.77KV.

WhenweaddNaOH(aq)tothemineraloilwithpercentageof4Mandheatedfor60minutes,
thenappliedvoltagetotheoil,withdistanceofabout0.15mmbetweentheelectrodes,the
breakdownvoltagedecreasedfrom4.45KVto4.02KV.

WegotthesolutepercentagecontentofHCl(aq)inthemineraloilbymultiplyingthe12%4M
HCl(aq)wehad,bythequantityofmineraloilweused(0.25dm3).SotheBDVdecreasedto
3.86KV.

Wecanconcludethattheadditionofmoisture,HCl(aq)andNaOH(aq)tothemineraloiland
vegetableoils,aswellastheheating,forsomereasonableamountoftime,badlydecreasesthe
BDVoftheoil.

38

Chapter 7: Conclusion and recommendations.

Followingthefactthatalltheheatingproceduresresultsintheproductionofatoxicgas,we
concludethattherewastheactuallossofchemicalstructureandsignificantbreakageof
chemicalbonds.Theresultingchemicalcompositionoftheoildoesnotproducethesameeffect
astheinitialoilsample.Thereis,ineffect,areasonablepointtoconcludethat;viewingthe
interestingtrendswegotfromourgraphs,andconsideringthealreadyprovenscientific
statementsontransformeroilproperties,wecameoutwiththefollowingconclusions:
1. Aged(acidified)transformeroilhasalowerbreakdownvoltage.Itcanruinthe
transformerssmoothfunctioning.Thisourconclusionisanalogoustothefollowing
publicationbyPowerSubstationServices:[35]
AcidcontentinOil.(N)
Oilstatus
0.010.03
Excellent
0.050.10
Good
0.110.15
Marginal
0.160.40
Bad
0.410.65
VeryBad
0.661.50
Extremelybad
0ver1.50
HighRisk(Transformerfailureimminent)

N=Normality.

2. Moisturizedtransformeroilhasalowerbreakdownvoltage.Heatincreasesmoisture
solubilityandsoakingofthepaperonthetransformerwindings.
3. Contaminatedtransformeroilcanalsoreducebreakdownvoltagebydecreasingits
dielectricinsulationproperties.Weseethatinthedecreasingtrendintheexperiments
withNaOH(aq).
4. Alsowewouldnotleaveoutcommentingonthebeautifultrendygraphwegotfromthe
experimentwithmoisturizedandoverheatedtransformerandvegetableoil.Therewas
aremarkabledecreaseinthetransformeroilinsulationproperties.Thiswasdefinitely
becauseofthebreakingofbondsandformationofsmallermolarmasscompounds
whichdonothavegoodinsulationanddielectricproperties.Aswecanseefrom
Fig(6.2.1),weobservedtheformationofmanybubbleswhenwereachedhigh
temperatures.Bubbles,whichconsiderablydecreasesurfacetension,areaveracious
indicationofthepresenceofimpurities;inthiscase,moisture.
5. Arcinghorngapscanbeusedtopreventovervoltagesandotherimpulsevoltage
surges.[36]
6. Coronaringscouldalsobeusedtodistributetheelectricalfields,preventingthe
protectedhardwareandthecoronaringitselffromcorona.Thiscanbeusedon138Kv
voltagelinesorhigher.
7. Mostimportantly,acknowledgingthefactthattransformeroil,despiteitsfantastic
insulationandcoolingproperties,ithasamajordisadvantageofbeinghighlytoxicto
39

theenvironment,andverylowbiodegradability.Wewouldlovetoborrow,wordfor
word,SwedensABBsidealsontransformeroilpurificationandrecyclingwiththemain
goalofsustainability:[37]
ReclaimingoilwithareactivatedFullersearthsystemistheonlyeconomicalmethodto
restorethepropertiesofthetransformeroiltoclosetothevaluesofnewoilwitha
lastingeffect.Alsoreclaimingoilprovidesanenvironmentaladvantageinsteadof
replacinganonrenewableresource,theoilisprocessed.

40

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43