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COURSE 4

WEEK 1 JOBS
Introduction
How to select the best candidates and avoid the worst
By Adrian Furnham
Investing thousands of pounds in the recruitment and training of each new graduate
recruit may be just the beginning. Choosing the wrong candidate may leave an
organization paying for years to come.
Few companies will have escaped all of the following failures: people who panic at
the first sign of stress; those with long, impressive qualifications who seem
incapable of learning; hypochondriacs whose absentee record becomes astonishing;
and the unstable person later discovered to be a thief of worse.
Less dramatic, but just as much a problem, is the person who simply does not come
up to expectations, who does not quite deliver; who never becomes a high-flyer or
even a steady performer; the employee with a fine behind them.
The first point to bear in mind at the recruitment stage is that people dont change.
Intelligence levels decline modestly, but change little over their working life. The
same is true of abilities, such as learning languages and handling numbers.
Most people like to think that personality can change, particularly the more negative
features such as anxiety, low esteem, impulsiveness or lack of emotional warmth.
But data collected over 50 years gives a clear message: still stable after all these
years. Extroverts become slightly less extroverted; the acutely shy appear a little
less so, but the fundamentals remain much the same. Personal crises can affect the
way we cope with things: we might take up or drop drink, drugs, religion or
relaxation techniques, which can have pretty dramatic effects.
Skills can be improved, and new ones introduced, but at rather different rates.
People can be groomed for a job. Just as politicians are carefully repackaged
through dress, hairstyle and speech specialists, so people can be sent on training
courses, diplomas or experimental weekends. But there is a cost to all this which
may be more than the price of the course. Better to select for what you actually see
rather than attempt to change it.
From the Financial Times
Vocabulary
Opposites
A) You can from a word of opposite meaning by adding a prefix, such as:
un- in- im- ir- dis(un)impressive (in)efficient (im)mature (ir)responsible (dis)respectful
Click on two adjectives formed in this way in this paragraph of the article you read.
Click on a place in the picture to answer question correctly.
1.Few companies will have escaped all of the following failures: people who panic at
the first sign of stress: those with long, impressive qualifications who seem
incapable of learning;
1. incapable
2. hypochondriacs whose absentee record becomes astonishing; and the unstable
person later discovered to be a thief of worse.
2. unstable
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Find correct opposites of the following adjectives.


3. movable
3. immovable
4. moral
4. immoral
5. satisfied
5. dissatisfied
6. effective
6. ineffective
7. flexible
7. inflexible
8. steady
8. unsteady
9. reliable
9. unreliable
10. rational
10. irrational
11. resistible
11. irresistible
12. capable
12. incapable
Sometimes you cannot form a word of opposite meaning by adding a prefix you
just have to find another word:
right wrong
13. - shyoutgoing
- take updrop
- busyidle
- succeedfail
- complexsimple
14. hard-workinglazy
- acceptrefuse
- presenceabsence
- findlose
- improveworsen
Collocations word partners
Some verbs and nouns are frequently used together in business English.
E.g. choose + the (right) candidate
look for + a job
Match the following verbs and nouns, which are frequently used when talking about
jobs
15. interviewjob applicants
- deal witha problem
- attenda meeting
- ask fora raise
- enclosethe C.V.
16. apply fora job
- takea day off
- enjoyworking with people
- learnnew skills
- providetraining
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Verbs and prepositions


Choose the right preposition:
17. She forgot to enclose___the C.V. with her job application.
17. 18. Having considered all the options, Ive decided to apply___the job.
18. for
19. I must say I really enjoyed___the dinner.
19. 20. We are going to interview___job applicants tomorrow at 10 a.m.
20. 21. He called to inform you that he will not be able to attend___the meeting this
afternoon.
21. Meanings of adjectives
Write the adjectives next to their definitions:
22. Someone or something that can be trusted or depended on.
22. reliable
23. Successful, and working in the way that was intended.
23. effective
24. Having the qualities or ability needed to do something.
24. capable
25. Pleased because something has happened in the way that you want or because
you have got what you want.
25. satisfied
26. Thoughts, decisions etc. based on reasons rather than emotions.
26. rational
Listening
Understanding spoken English Minimal pairs
Minimal pairs are pairs of words that differ only in one sound. Look at this table and
listen to some examples of minimal pairs in English:

1.
2.
sleep
slip
bill
bell
heel
hill
pin
pen
seat
sit
chick
check
leave
live
fill
fell
fell
fill
wrist
rest
4.
5.
bet
bat
cap
cup
pen
pan
bag
bug
men
man
sack
suck
said
sad
ban
bun
leg
lag
rag
rug
Now click on the word you hear in these sentences:
1. When did he___?

3.
pen
wet
tell
test
pepper
6.
look
pull
full
soot

pain
wait
tail
taste
paper
luke
pool
fool
suit

1. live
2. How did you___last night?
2. slip
3. How did you like the___you saw?
3. staff
4. I had the___responsibility for quality control.
4. full
5. ___free to take a sample.
5. Feel
6. My___is much better, thank you.
6. uncle
7. Dont throw that___.
7. rug
8. Office workers are paid better___factory workers.
8. than
Understanding spoken English Minimal pairs
Here is a list of word pairs that Business English students often find confusing:
accept/except
Accept is a verb, which means to agree to take something
Except is a preposition or conjunction, which means not including.
affect/effect
Affect is a usually a verb To affect something or someone.
Meaning: to influence or change something or someone, to have an effect on
something or someone.
Effect is usually a noun
Effect means influence, or the end result. It is usually followed by the preposition on
and preceded by an article (an, the)
complement/compliment
Complement is a verb, which means to make something seem better or more
attractive when combined.
Compliment is a noun, which means a remark that expresses approval, admiration
or respect, or it is often used in plural to express praise or good wishes, especially
when a company or organization sends goods or information.
Example: It was the nicest compliment anyone had ever paid me.
or
With the compliments of Coca Cola.
loose/lose
Loose is an adjective. If something isnt fixed properly or it doesnt fit, because its
too, large, its loose.
Lose is verb that means to no longer possess something because you do not know
where it is, or because it has been taken away from you.
For example:
A lot of people will lose their job if there is a recession.
personal/personnel
Personal is an adjective. It can mean relating to or belonging to someone. It can
relate to the private parts of someones life, including their relationships and
feelings. It can also mean something that is designed for or used by one person.
And it can relate to your body.
For example:
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Your personal belongings are the things that belong to you.


If you have personal problems, it means you have problems
that are private and sensitive to you.
a personal computer or stereo.
when talking about personal hygiene.
Personnel is a noun and means the same asstaff
The people who work for an organization are the personnel.
The department of an organization that deals with finding people to work there,
keeping records about them, etc is the Personnel Department.
Today, Personnel Department is frequently renamed Human Resources Department
For example:
military personnel are the members of an army.
I need to speak to someone in Personnel.
principal/principle
Principal as an adjective means first in order of importance.
Principal as a noun can mean the head teacher in a school or college.
Principal as a noun can also mean the original amount of a debt on which interest is
calculated.
For example:
The companys principal source of revenues are its consulting activities.
The teacher sent the unruly student to see the principal.
She lives off the interest and tries to keep the principal intact.
Principle is a noun which means a basic idea, standard of behavior or rule that
explains or controls how something happens or works.
For example:
If we stick to our business principles, we will reach our goal of becoming the best
financial services company in the world.
raise/rise
Raise (v) Something else is needed to raise something.
Raise is a regular verb: raise / raised / raised
For example:
Lynne raised her hand.
The government is going to raise taxes.
Rise (v) Something rises by itself
Rise is an irregular verb: rise / rose / risen
For example:
The sun rises in the east.
The chairman always rises to the occasion.
I will rise tomorrow morning at 6 a.m. to finish the report.
stationary/stationery
Stationary means standing still or not moving.
Stationery means the items needed for writing, such as paper, pens, pencils and
envelopes.
Talking about a job
Look at the list jobs. Listen and identify which of the jobs the speaker describes:
9. Personnel Officer
Now listen to the next conversation and complete the sentences.
10. Peter works as ___
10. a computer technician
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11. Hes responsible for___


11. systems administration and in-house programming
12. On a day-to-day basis, he has to deal with___
12. developing in-house programs for special company tasks
13. He provides___
13. information on a need-to-know basis for employees
14. His job also involves___
14. small system glitches
Vacancies
Vocabulary check
Match words with definitions
15. vacancyavailable job
- staffpeople who work in a company
- shiftone of the periods during each day or night when people work
You will hear a manager telephoning Human Resources about vacancies in his
department.
Listen to the conversation and choose the correct answer.
16. The start date is___
16. 6th October
17. The line manager is___
17. Sue Blackmann
18. Customer Services department needs___telephone operators.
18. 8
19. Starting salary is___
19. 16950
20. Holiday for telephone staff is___
20. 33 days
21. The reference number for these posts is___
21. CSO08011
Reading
Spot the Clue
You will see a notice for employees and three statements below it. Only one of them
means the same as the notice. You can figure out which one it is by finding clues,
or key words, in the notice and in the correct answer.
Notice
Staff are reminded that all arrangements for leave must be approved in advance by
line managers.
Choose the correct answer:
1. Staff must___
1. get permission from their manager for time off
The correct answer is:
Staff must get permission from their manager for time off.
Look at the key words that help you to find the correct answer:
Staff are reminded that all arrangements for leave must be approved in advance by
line managers.
Staff must
a) inform their manager that they are absent.
b) get permission from their manager for time off.
c) remind their manager of when they are on leave.
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Now choose the correct answer:


Office Staff Required
Experience essential
Full training given (leading to recognized qualifications)
2. Applicant must have___
2. previous experience
To: Unit Managers
Subject: Training
Please contact Personnel regarding supervisors still requiring quality control
training.
3. Unit Managers should inform Personnel which staff___
3. are in need of training
Accounts clerk wanted.
12,000 per year. Experience an advantage. Full training provided. Immediate
availability. Call 01636-619423 now.
4. Applicants for the above post___
4. must be able to start work straightaway
For more information about any of the job vacancies on this list, phone 0845 1234,
quoting the reference number.
5. Phone 0845 1234 for___
5. details about jobs on the list.
6. Looking for a top job? Contact Jobservices.com for a better presented CV.
6. Improve the look of your CV with the help of Jobservices.com.
People and departments
Employees encounter various problems or needs in their day-to-day activities.
Match scenarios in the table with people or departments that deal with each of
them.
Match scenarios in the table with people or departments that deal with each of
them.
7. We need 5000 components for Production.
7. Sales Department
8. The photocopier has broken down again.
8. Service Engineer
9. We need to know when the components we ordered will arrive.
9. Inbound Logistics Department
10. The goods have not arrived yet and we need them urgently.
10. Despatch Department
11. Theres mistake on my pay slip.
11. Salaries and Wages Department
12. One of the machines has stopped.
12. Maintenance Department
13. We have paid for the goods, but have received a reminder from our supplier.
13. Customer Accounts Department
14. My computer has crashed.
14. IT support
15. Our customer has not paid for the goods we supplied four months ago.
15. Legal Department
16. I dont get on well with my colleagues.
16. Personnel Manager
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Grammar reminder
Read the article about attending job interviews and choose the correct word to fill
each gap:
How to succeed at interviews
17. Preparation for interviews is essential. Interviewers like to see people
that___prepared to ask questions about the company.
17. are
18. ___good interviewer is going to be looking for candidates 19. ___demonstrate
that they will 20. ___something new to the company.
18. Any
19. who
20. bring
21. Think of the things you___contribute to the organization.
21. could
22. Looking good is also very important. ___many companies now allow 23.
___formal clothes in the workplace, this does not mean it is no 24. ___essential to
wear a suit for an interview. The most important thing is to be yourself.
22. Although
23. less
24. longer
25. The most important thing is to be yourself. ___you must never do is 26. ___to be
something you are not, in order to get the job. If you have to do 27. ___, then you
will probably not enjoy working in the position, 28. ___will the job be suitable for
you.
25. What
26. try
27. this
28. nor
Writing
Match each word in the box to its definition below.
appraisal-commitment-deadline-etiquette-insight-outcome-overview-predecessothreaten-workload
1. The amount of work that a person has to do:
1. workload
2. A description of the main features of something:
2. overview
3. The person who had a job before someone else:
3. predecessor
4. A set of rules for behaving correctly:
4. etiquette
5. An opinion about how successful someone is:
5. appraisal
6. Enthusiasm, determination and loyalty:
6. commitment
7. An ability to understand something clearly:
7. insight
8. The final result of a process, meeting, etc.:
8. outcome
9. To tell someone you might cause them harm:
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9. threaten
10. A date by which you have to do something:
10. deadline
Curriculum vitae (c.v.)
When you apply for a job, you must send your CV (or resume, as it is called in North
America). Here is a sample of how you CV should look like:
Exercise:
Now write your own c.v. (in Microsoft word) after the same model.
Your CV should be:
- word-processed,
- laser printed on good quality paper,
- no longer than two pages of A4 paper
You should include:
1. Personal Details
- The employer wants to know who you are and how to contact you (essential
information only)
2. Education
3. Work experience
- Dont just describe the job stress what you achieved and what you learnt.
4. Positions of responsibility
- If you dont have a lot of work experience, this section will show employers your
potential.
5. Skills
- Be positive about your ability never undersell your experience.
6. Interests
- Stress any significant achievements related to your interests.
7. Referees:
- Current students and recent graduates should choose an academic referee and a
personal one (this could be an employer)
- Get your referees permission first and tell them what you are applying for and
what you would like them to stress in a reference.

WEEK 2 TRAVEL
Introduction
How to turn a business trip into a vacation
Tips, ideas for workers looking to add personal days to their trips
Each year, Dr. Slim Feriani and his five colleagues visit 20 countries looking for the
next hot economy. As specialists for Progressive Developing Markets Limited, a
London-based boutique investment group, they travel to places like Brazil, Vietnam
and Russia in search of emerging markets.
Though it sounds glamorous, the grueling meeting schedule and fast pace often
leave the two-person teams exhausted. Thats why once business is finished, Dr.
Feriani encourages the staff to take a few days to leisurely explore the area. During
this time, they take in a museum, visit shopping centers or see nearby ruins. It may
feel like a vacation, but such experiences better inform their understanding of a
potential market.
Its quite enriching to the individual and to the team, says Dr. Feriani,
Progressives managing director and chief investment officer. They gather first-hand
information about local purchasing power while shopping; at the hotel, they take
mental notes on other patrons; and, while enjoying the night life, theyll chat up taxi
drivers to gain an insiders perspective.
The experts at Progressive arent the only business travelers taking a few vacation
days onto a trip. About half of the 2,000 road warriors surveyed by Deloitte last year
said they had extended a business trip for vacation.
With investment opportunities growing in emerging and frontier markets, business
travelers are also frequently landing in lesser-known countries and trying to take
advantage of a unique travel experience. That can be easy to do-even in countries
like Croatia, Malaysia and Namibia-with just a little preparation.
Be prepared
Research is important. At first blush, some destinations might seem lacking in
cultural or recreational offerings. For instance, Croatia, which is an S&P frontier
market, boasts extensive national parks, beautiful reefs and islands and the Istrian
thermal springs, where several resort-style spas have popped up in recent years.
Jordan lacks neither accommodations for the business traveler or the tourist. In the
capital city of Amman, there are more than two dozen four-and five-star hotels.
Theres plenty to experience in Jordan outside of business, though, including the
ancient city of Petra, the Dead Sea, and the mountainous region of Wadi Rum,
where tourists can hire a local Bedouin guide to help them explore the area.
Malaysia, an S&P emerging market, is home to the vibrant capital of Kuala Lumpur,
where global street-food has become a culinary highlight for many tourists. There
are also opportunities for adventure travel in the Mulu caves or the jungles of Endau
Rompin, both located in national parks.
International SOS, a company that provides medical and security assistance to
employees abroad, noticed a 44 percent increase between 2004 and 2007 in the
number of business travelers who extended their program coverage for personal
travel. Richard Culver, senior director of security services, says companies often
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provide their employees the coverage as a benefit, but when they dont, individuals
can purchase services at a 20 precent discount, starting at $80 a day.
For the business traveler-turned-tourist, an emergency assistance plan is a crucial
part of preparedness. Culver says the company rescued employees stranded by the
2005 tsunami and employees stuck in Lebanon during the 2006 war.
Everyone we helped during the tsunami was on vacation, he says. Lets face it.
Vocabulary
Vocabulary building
Somebody said that Great Britain and the USA are two countries divided by the
same language. Try to find American travel-related words on the right that mean the
same as British ones on the left.
1. timetableschedule
- car parkparking lot
- return ticketround-trip ticket
- motorwayfreeway
- luggagebaggage
- steward/stewardessflight attendant
2. holidayvacation
- petrolgasoline
- lorrytruck
- taxicab
- tubesubway
- queueline
Means of travel
Study the chart below, which shows some words related to various means of travel:
By rail
By bus/coach
By air
By sea
station
bus terminal
airport
port
train
bus
aircraft
ship
catch/get on catch/get on/
get on/board
embark
board
get off
get off
get off/disembark disembark
platform
departure gate
departure gate
quay/
dock
passenager coach/bus
passenager jet/
liner
airplane
journey
journey
flight
voyage
depart/leave depart/leave
take off
sail
arrive
arrive
land
dock
engine
drivers seat
cockpit
bridge
engine driver
bus driver
pilot
captain
corridor/
aisle
aisle
gangway
aisle

Try to fill in the blanks:


By rail
By bus/coach
station
___
train
bus

By air
airport

by sea
port
ship
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catch/get on
___
get on/board
embark
get off
get off
get off/disembark
platform
departure gate
departure gate
___
passenager train coach/bus
passenager jet/airplane
___
journey
flight
voyage
___
depart/leave
take off
sail
arrive
arrive
dock
engine
___
cockpit
___
engine driver
bus driver
captain
___
aisle
aisle
gangway
3. ___
depart/leave take off
sail
3. depart, leave, depart/leave
4. arrive
arrive
___
dock
4. land
5. train
bus
___
ship
5. aircraft
6. engine driver bus driver
___
captain
6. pilot
7. get off
get off
get off/
___
disembark
7. disembark
8. engine
___
cockpit
bridge
8. drivers seat, drivers seat
9. station
___
airport
port
9. bus terminal
10. catch/get on ___
get on/board embark
10. catch, get on, board, catch/board
11. platform departure
departure
___
gate
gate
11. dock, quay/dock, quay
12. passenager coach/bus
passenager jet
___
train
/airplane
12. liner
13. ___
aisle
aisle
gangway
13. corridor, aisle, corridor/aisle
14. journey ___
flight
voyage
14. journey
Travel Collocations
Rail travel
Match words on the left with words on the right to make rail-travel collocations.
15. computertrain
- seasonticket
- trainfare
- departuresboard
- lostproperty
16. ticketoffice
- waitingroom
- buffetcar
- leftluggage
- travelenquiries
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Air travel
Now do the same with the words relating to the air travel.
17. baggage
claim
- handluggage
- jetlag
- boardingpass
- emergencyexit
18. aisleseat
- overheadcompartment
- ticketcounter
- flightattendant
- seatbelt
What do the pictures below show?
19. What do the pictures below show?
19. Ticket office
20. What do the pictures below show?
20. Departures board
21. What do the pictures below show?
21. Buffet car
Now, complete the sentences below with the best answer:
22. The ___ will be serving food and beverages after the plane reaches its cruising
altitude.
22. flight attendants
23. When you travel to another continent, you may suffer from ___.
23. jet lag
24. If the cabin loses pressure during flight, you should put on your ___ so you can
breathe comfortably.
24. oxygen mask
25. You will get a ___ at the check-in counter.
25. boarding pass
26. After the plane lands, you can pick up your luggage at the ___.
26. baggage claim
Write the nouns next to their definitions:
27. The tired and confused feeling that you can get after flying a very long distance,
especially because of the difference in time between the place you left and the
place you arrived at.
27. jet lag
28. A board in an airport or station that shows the times at which plains or trains
leave.
28. departures board
29. A special door used only when there is danger.
29. emergency exit
30. A belt attached to the seat of a car or phone which you fasten around yourself
for protection in an accident.
30. seat belt
31. A part of a train where you can buy food and drink.
31. buffet car
Write both British and American versions of the words next to their definitions:
32. The cases, bags etc. that you carry when you are travelling.
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32. luggage
33. A person whose job is to serve food and drinks to passengers on a plane or ship.
33. steward, stewardess
34. A list of the times at which buses, trains, planes etc. arrive and leave.
34. schedule
35. The cases, bags etc. that you carry when you are travelling.
35. baggage
36. A very wide road for travelling fast over long distances, especially between
cities.
36. motorway
37. A railway system that runs under the ground below a big city.
37. tube
38. A person whose job is to serve food and drinks to passengers on a plane or ship.
38. flight attendant
39. A very wide road for travelling fast over long distances, especially between
cities.
39. freeway
40. A list of the times at which buses, trains, planes etc. arrive and leave.
40. timetable
41. A railway system that runs under the ground below a big city.
41. subway
Listening
Understanding spoken English-Homophones and homographs
Homophones are words that sound the same but have different meanings. Look at
some examples of such words in English:
ad/add
its/its
cite/site
guessed/guest
hear/here
knew/new
plain/plane
sun/son
war/wore
wear/where
You should understand the context to be able to write the correct word.
Now listen to the following sentences and click on the correct word to write.
1. I had a___of fie after dinner.
1. piece
2. Thats___house on the corner.
2. their
3. Our sales were___last month.
3. weak
4. Lets go to the___at the supermarket.
4. sale
5. Theres a___in the wall we need to repair.
5. hole
6. I dont know___hes coming or not.
6. whether
7. He will be the___speaker at the dinner tonight.
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7. guest
8. He used the___to stop suddenly.
8. brake
9. They___their office for three months.
9. leased
10. I took a country___instead of highway.
10. road
Homographs are words that are spelled the same but pronounced differently. Here
are some examples:
read I read newspapers every day.
I read a good book last week.
lead Ill lead our team at the next competition.
We should replace these lead pipes.
desertTo desert military is a crime.
The Gobi is a large desert in Asia.
Now match the underlined words with their pronunciation:
11. If you refuse to work on Sundays, we cant hire you/refju:z/
- Please clean up all your refuse/refju:z/
12. Guests are coming any minute now/minit/
- The difference is so minute, I cant see it/mainju:t/
13. Could you close the window, well freeze?.../kleuz/
- Were close friends/kleus/
14. The wind is blowing really hard/wind/
- Can you wind up the window, please?.../waind/
15. A kind nurse bandaged his wound/wu:nd/
- He wound up the scarf round his neck/waund/
In English, there are also many words which have the same spelling, but whose part
of speech changes with the word stress. Listen to these examples. The verb form is
read first, followed by the noun. Can you hear the difference in word stress?
record
progress
present
permit
Now listen to these words. Do you hear a verbs or a noun?
16. Progressverb
17. Produceverb
18. Progressnoun
19. Exportverb
20. Producenoun
21. Recordverb
22. Conductnoun
23. Exportnoun
Now you will hear some verbs followed by adjectives or nouns. Can you hear the
difference in pronunciation?
alternate
articulate
associate
deliberate
duplicate
elaborate
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estimate
graduate
moderate
separate
Listen to these words. Do you hear a verb or a noun/adjective?
24. Aggregatenoun/adjective
25. Duplicatenoun/adjective
26. Associatenoun
27. Elaborateverb
28. Associateverb
29. Separateverb
30. Graduateverb
31. Moderateadjective
Announcement
Now listen to the announcement and answer the questions on your screen.
32. What is the ultimate destination of the flight?
32. Caracas
33. The ground crew is
33. removing ice from the wings
34. What change has been announced?
34. the gate number
35. What time will the plane depart?
35. 8:45 PM
36. The airline is offering
36. later flights to passengers with tickets
Listen
Listen to the interview with David Keith, Customer Service Manager for an
international airline, who talks about problems he has to solve for business
travelers, and fill in the missing information in the table.
37. David Keith works for___
37. British Airways
38. He works in Terminal___
38. four
39. He works at___Airport.
39. heathrow
40. The main problem he has to solve is___requests.
40. seating
41. Sometimes, his company has to oversell flights due to___pressure.
41. commercial
42. The opposite thing to downgrading is an___.
42. upgrade
43. Gold Card is part of B.A.___scheme.
43. frequent flight
44. Passenagers baggage may have been I___
44. lost
45. or d___.
45. damaged
Reading
Travel messages and notices

16

Read the following messages and notices and find the sentence that means the
same thing.
1. Telephone message
Bill Ryan caught 9.30 flight due here 11.30 now, not 12.30.
1. Bill Ryan is expected to arrive at 11.30.
2. The Airport Express departs from Platform 3 every 20 minutes during the day
(every 30 minutes at night)
2. The train service to the airport runs 24 hours a day.
3. For economy reasons, employees traveling to the USA will fly overnight to
Baltimore rather than Washington
3. Employees flying to the USA will no longer land in Washington.
4. Dont forget flight BA692 6.45 pm
4. The plane arrives at quarter to seven in the evening.
Letters and memos
Read the part of the letter and the memo below, and complete the form by writing a
word, phrase or number.
With regard to our conversation on the phone yesterday, I can confirm that, due to
serious illness, John Brookes has to cancel his flight to Madrid on Saturday 22 June
and I therefore request a refund. I enclose the ticket: First Class, flight number UA
453, booking reference 3434/4.
Travelgo Ltd.
Memorandum
To:
Julia
From: Luke
Date: 6June 2005
Could you please fill in a refund from for this client? Note that the booking reference
number is actually 01/3434/A. It was a company booking for a Business Class (not
First Class) UATAUR flight from Heathtrow. They paid by credit card but its easier if
we send them a cheque for 525.00.
Complete the form by writing a word, phrase or number.
Travelgo Ltd.
Refund No: 0055 78A
Booking reference
Ticket details:
Date of Departure 22/06/05
Flight number
UA 453 (UATAIR)
Departure from
Heathrow
Destination
Ticket class
Refund due:
Method of refund
Reason for cancellation
5. Booking reference
5. 01/3434/A
6. Destination
6. Madrid
7. Ticket class
7. Business
8. Refund due
8. 525.00
17

9. Method of refund
9. cheque
10. Reason for cancellation
10. illness
Grammar reminder
Read the advertisement about an exhibition and choose the correct word to fill each
gap.
11. Business show of the year 14-18 september 2009 London
Business 2009 is a key event aimed at people intending to set up their own
business. This years exhibition___provide visitors with valuable information on
11. will
12. products and service essential for___a small business.
12. running
13. ___is also free advice on
13. There
14. is also free advice on___to obtain finance, getting the best out of Information
Technology and deadling with
14. how
15. and deadling with the___problems of health and safety in the workplace.
15. many
16. Entrance to the exhibition is free and Business 2009 hopes to___at least 5,000
visitors a day.
16. attract
17. Companies___took part last year said it was well worth the cost.
17. that
18. If you would like further information___having a stand at the Business 2009
exhibition
18. about
19. having a stand at the Business 2009 exhibition, contact___on 020 5493 7721
for an exhibitorspack.
19. us
20. We___arranged special reduced travel and hotel rates for standholders.
20. have
21. So dont___the opportunity, book a stand now.
21. miss
Writing
Making notes using notes
Making notes
Read the two e-mails below and complete the notes about Robert Shorts itinerary
Itinerary for Robert Short
1. Monday See___(p.m.)
1. local politicians
2. Tuesday Meet___(a.m.)
2. architects
3. Tuesday Visit___(p.m.)
3. suppliers
4. Wednesday Attend___meeting (all day)
4. planning
5. Thursday Meet trade union at___.
18

5. 9 a.m.
Complete the text with words below
although
as
of
at
possible
because
some
by
still
do
their
for
them
from
then
however
used
in
well
like
were
nearest
what
next
when
Weather Myts
There are many myths and superstitions connected with the weather. In the past
people 6.___to think that storm clouds were the transport of the gods and that the
gods showed 7.___anger in thunder and lightning. Elements of nature and the
weather such 8.___the sun or winds were thought to be gods and 9.___given names.
People prayed to these gods to give 10.___the weather they needed for farming or
for safe journeys.
Even today many people 11.___pay attention to myths concerning the weather.
Fishing-boats, 12.___instance, are often still painted with an eye to watch for the sea
gods and to warn 13.___likely storms.
If they are outside in an electric storm many people try to find a stinging nettle
14.___of the ancient belief that a nettle gives you protection 15.___lightning.
Farmers and fishermen are always particularly anxious to know what the wather will
be 16.___. They have found many signs in nature which, they believe, predict
17.___the weather is going to do next. It is, thus, said that cows lie down before it
rains and that 18.___swallows fly high the wather is going to be good. There does
not, 19.___, seem, to be any scientific basis for the idea that animals and birds can
predict the weather 20.___such ways.
Nor is it 21.___to make realistic long-term predictions about the weather by
observing 22.___aspect of nature though people in Britain often say that when there
are lots of berries on trees and bushes in autumn, the winter is going to be a hard
one or if it rains on the 15th of July, 23.___it will rain each day for the next forty days.
24.___looking at clouds can help people to make realistic predictions about what the
wather is going to do in the 25.___few hours, modern scientific techniques are the
only reasonably reliable way of predicting the weather over a period of several days.
6. used
7. their
8. as
9. were
10. them
11. still
12. for
13. of
19

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

because
from
like
what
when
however
in
possible
some
then
although
next

WEEK 3 COMPANIES
Introduction
Afizz with competition
Coca-Cola and Pepsi are fighting around the world to gain supremacy in newly open
territory
Coca-Cola has operated outside the U.S. since 1897, at first with only marginal
competition from Pepsi, and in the process it has become the worlds best-known
trademark. More than any other product even Levis or McDonalds Big Mac it is
an American emblem*. It is also, a Harvard Business School study has found, the
second best-known word in the world after OK.
Today Coke outsells Pepsi around 3 to 1 outside the U.S. The domestic race is closer,
with a 42%-32% ratio in Coca-Colas favor. While Pepsis parent company makes
20

most of its profit from its snack-food and restaurant operations, Coca-Cola gains
80% of its operating profit from its overseas beverage business. Last years take in
the international soft-drinks race was $2.5 billion for Coke, vs. $112 million for
Pepsi.
In part, Coca-Cola can thank the U.S. government for its success abroad. During
World War II, the U.S. military built more than 60 Coke bottling plants outside the
U.S. to supply American troops. This gave the company a leg up* in Europe and Asia
once the conflict was over. (In the 1943 North Africa campaign, General Dwight D.
Eisenhower communicated in a military cable* with Washington:
On early convoy request shipment three million bottled Coca-Cola, (filled) ship
without displacing other military cargo.
Pepsi got its international marketing break in 1959 when then chairman Donald
Kendall handed Soviet President Nikita Krushchev a bottle as cameras clicked: that
gave the company an entree into Eastern Europe. In 1972 Leonid Brezhnev gave
Pepsi exclusive franchise in the Soviet Union.
Since the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989, Coca-Cola has moved swiftly to
overcome Pepsis edge in Eeastern Europe. Coke claims the lead in Hungary, Poland,
the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria and the former Yugoslavia. Pepsi is
fighting especially hard in the former Soviet Union where it claims to retain the lead.
Coke, however, now outsells Pepsi by more than 13 to 1 in eastern Germany.
Pepsis strongest recent showing has been in Mexico where the companys reports
its market share has jumped from 28% to 33% during the past two years. Theyre
fighting over every extra case*, says consultant Daniel Caraco of Arthur D. Little
Mexicana. With its $ 750 million investment Pepsi intends to double plant* capacity
by 1998.
However the Coke-Pepsi battle turns out, people the world over will probably drink
more of the beverages. Both companies are going to make their products more
available. Theyre also going to lower prices. That means more consumers buying
more soft drinks, says Joseph Doyle, who follows the industry for Smith Barney in
New York City. The average American consumes 720l of soft drinks a year more
soft drinks in fact than water. Non-Americans have a long way to go before they
reach that level and that would translate into booming business for the two giants.
- emblem: symbol
- leg up: some extra help
- cable: cables were used to communicate before telex or fax
- case: container
- plant: factory
Vocabulary
Compound nouns and adjectives
Compound nouns and adjectives are words made up of two parts.
Example:
trademark
overseas
Which ones are adjectives and which ones are nouns?
1. best-known
1. adjective
2. trademark
21

2. noun
3. snack-food
3. adjective
4. overseas
4. adjective
5. soft-drinks
5. adjective
6. chairman
6. noun
7. Global companies have many___branches.
7. overseas
8. Nestle is well-known for its___operations.
8. snack-food
9. The UK___sector is growing rapidly.
9. soft-drinks
10. A___is a symbol used by a company to identify and advertise its goods.
10. trademark
11. OK is the___word in the world.
11. best-known
12. The___is the most senior person in the company.
12. chairman
Dependent prepositions
When you learn a new verb it is important to know which preposition can follow it.
Some verbs always or typically have a particular preposition after them:
insure/plot/react
against
profit/stem/suffer
from
believe/invest/result
in
concentrate/insist/rely
on
amount/object/refer
to
deal/part/sympathise
with
Other verbs may be followed by one or another preposition, depending on the
meaning:
Our problems result from past errors.
The change has resulted in chaos.
Our success consists in our ability to react rapidly to changing circumstances.
(i.e. is based on/depends on)
The team consists of four Europeans and two Americans. (i.e. is made up of)
Weve agreed on a date for the meeting.
Weve agreed to see her today.
I agree with you entirely.
Complete this letter to shareholders.
Dear Shareholder;
I write to inform you that the Board has received information of a takeover bid for
your company. This 13.___an attempt by Thor Engineering to acquire a controlling
interest by offering to purchase shares at a price of 650 pence. We have brought in
a team of consultants to 14.___the tactics we should use to resist the bid.
Although the offer seems attractive, it does not reflect the true value of the
company or take into account our future prospects. We have 15.___a major
programme of expansion. During the next two years we plan to 16.___new plant and
22

equipment. we have also allocated funds to 17.___a new computerized stock control
system which will allow us to 18.___our much larger rivals.
Furthermore, we plan to 19.___a machine tool company in a joint venture in China.
We are confident this will allow the company to 20.___opening up new markets in
Asia. Policies like these 21.___our success to date and contribute to our vision of the
future. Therefore, we strongly advise you not to accept Thor Engineerings offer.
You can 22.___ the Board to keep you fully informed of any future developments, but
for the present we advise you to take no action in relation to the offer.
Yours faithfully
Derek Hammond
Chairman
13. consists of
14. advise us on
15. budgeted for
16. invest in
17. spend on
18. compete with
19. combine with
20. succeed in
21. account for
22. rely on
Listening
1. Understanding spoken English Sentences
When people speak, they do not pronounce each words separately, like in this
example:
The company has launched a new product.
The company has launched a new product.
Most sentences have two types of words:
- content words
- structure words
Content words are the key words of a sentence. They are the important words that
carry the meaning.
Structure words are not very important words. They are small, simple words that
make the sentence correct grammatically. They give the sentence its correct form or
structure.
If you remove the structure words from a sentence, you will probably still
understand the sentence.
If you remove the content words from a sentence, you will not understand the
sentence. The sentence has no sense or meaning.
The basic rules of sentence stress are:
- content words are stressed
- structure words are unstressed
The following tables can help you decide which words are content words and which
words are structure words:
Content words stressed
Words carrying the meaning
Example
main verbs
sell, give, employ
nouns
car, music, mary
23

adjectives
red, big, interesting
adverbs
quickly, loudly, never
negatives
not, dont, arent, cant
wh-question words
how, who
demonstratives
this, those
Note: In content words of more than one syllable, only the appropriate syllable is
stressed.
Structure words unstressed and weakened or reduced:
Words for correct grammar
Example
pronouns
he, we, they
prepositions
on, at, into
articles
a, an, the
conjunctions
and, but, because
auxiliary verbs
do, be, have, can, must
Note: Structure words are sometimes stressed, for example to correct information.
Listen how native speakers weaken or compress structure words:
Artices
a
a mistake
the
in the city
an
an emergency
Prepositions
of
volume of sales
to
gone to lurch
for
call for John
at
at home
Conjunctions
or
pass or fail
and ups and downs
Pronouns
him tell him
her
introduce her
them warn them
you you see
Auxiliary vers
do
what do you want?
be
were leaving
have shes gone
Now listen to a talk about the early history of the LEGO company and fill in the
missing structure words in the text.
We 1.___been in business 2.___over 70 years. 3.___company was founded
4.___Denmark by Ole Krik Christiansen.
5.___was the village carpenter and he always had 6.___lot of little bits 7.___wood left
over, so he started making 8.___into wooden toys.
When Ole Kirk died, he 9.___succeeded by his son, Godtfred Kirk, 10.___this was a
real turning point for the company.
1. have
2. for
3. the
4. in
24

5. He
6. a
7. of
8. them
9. was
10. and
Because structure words are reduced in spoken English, you may have to listen
carefully to understand the meaning of the sentence.
Listen to the following three sentences and click on the one you hear.
11.She likes pineapples./She likes pie and apples.
11. She likes pie and apples.
12. Would you like some soup or salad?/Would you like some Super Salad?
12. Would you like some soup or salad?
13. Wood and matches are used to start fires./Wooden matches are used to start
fires.
13. Wooden matches are used to start fires.
Listening
Kevin Warren, a Vice President at Coca-Cola and Schweppes Beverages (UK), is
talking about competition.
Answer the questions below. Then listen to the first part of the interview and check
your answers.
14. How many servings of Coca-Cola are sold world-wide?
14. one billion a day
Complete the chart. To be successful you need:
15. a portfolio of pr____
15. products
16. an efficient manu____g and dist____n operation
16. manufacturing and distribution
17. the best br____
17. brands
18. the most recognizable pack____
18. package
19. Choose the correct answer. Kevin thinks the way to stay ahead is to focus on:
19. Your own products and customers.
Interview
I: The soft drinks market is one of the most competitive in the world. How do you
stay ahead of your competitors?
We grow our business one bottle at a time. Now behind this you need an efficient
manufacturing and distribution operation. All the glamorous TV advertising in the
world wont sell your product if Tescos has run out. And of course advertising,
especially for a company like the Coca-Cola Company has a major part to play in
ensuring the consumer is aware of the intrinsic values of our brands, a good
example of which is refreshement. So, in summary, the way to stay ahead is to
focus on delivering to the consumer a product that adds value to their lives rather
than simply focusing upon the actions of your perceived competitor.
I: Does competition always lead to better products and better value for customers?
Who hasnt suffered the 2 a.m. flight time, the delayed departure and so on?
Dependent on your needs as a consumer, you will therefore have a different view on
25

whether you think this is better value. So I guess the point is that better doesnt
necessarily mean cheaper. Although price as an element of value is very important,
and the key challenge is to maintain a balance.
Which of these statements more accurately reflects Kevins views?
20. Price is the most important element when you are talking about value./Value for
money is not only about price. Cheaper is not always better.
20. Value for money is not only about price. Cheaper is not always better.
Listen to the third part of the interview. What changes in consumer habits does
Kevin predict?
I: How do you see competition affecting the way your business operates in the
future?
Will they not even go to the store? i.e. Will they shop from home? There will
definitely be continued increase in leisure time, so we need to be where the
consumer is, whether that be the sports centre or the multiplex cinema, for
example. Will the increase in out-of-home eating, especially snacking, for example,
sandwich bars, continue? We think it will. So clearly, whilst its important to keep
improving our core offerings, our product portfolio, our packaging, our operational
efficiency, most importantly we have to prepare for the needs of our future
consumer.
What changes in consumer habits does Kevin predict?
21. More than one answer is correct.
21. continued increase in leisure, increase in out-of-home, shopping from home
time activities
Listen to a business analyst and complete the table below.
BA: Right, so the first company I want to look at is a pharmaceuticals company. It
develops and manufactures a wide range of medicines and its currenly developing
a new drug against asthma.
Well, as you all know, more and more people are suffering from asthma so they
hope to make a healthy profit from this drug. This company preparing to launch a
TV advertising campaign. As you may know, it is illegal to show drugs on TV, so the
campaign focuses on the illnesses not the drugs. It will be interesting to see public
reaction to this.
BA: So, lets have a look at the second company. This company is a cable operator.
Well, it provides cable television to thousands and thousands of homes but it wants
to expand and its developing a new high-speed Internet service.
Now, this service uses cables not phone wires and this means it is very fast, 100
times faster than a normal phone line. As you know, the number of people who are
using the Internet is growing and everyone wants instant information so this is a
company with a great future.
What the company does?
22. Pharmaceutical company (1/2)
22. It develops and manufactures a wide range of medicines.
23. Pharmaceutical company (2/2)
23. It is currently developing a new drug against asthma.
24. Cable operator (1/2)
24. It provides cable television to thousands of homes.
25. Cable operator (2/2)
26

25. It is developing a new high-speed Internet service.


Reading
1. Shaking Up the Business
Since becoming Chief Executive of the Star City shopping center and exhibition
halls, Peter Maurice feels he has done a lot. Now, though, he wants to change the
whole feeling of the business. Visitors should feel we are looking after them, he
says. Very often the public go into a shop and find so much there that they cant
decide what to buy, so they dont buy anything. Keep it simple, thats the key to
retailing.
At Star City, staff are encouraged to tell managers, including Maurice himself, what
they think of them. The things they say about me are what I expect, because Im
fairly self-aware I know what Im like and that I can make people a little angry. But
Im very much in favour of change, and everyone knows that a lot needs to be
done.
He learnt his management technique the hard way. At 23 I went into business and
lost money. I had to learn fast. Then, at 32, I won an export contract to Hong Kong. I
admire the strength of character and the ambition of the people there, and brought
back two very significant words: No problem. Then I took a course at Harvard
Business School. It was very hard work, but worth it.
As well as running Star City, Peter Maurice controls Big Events, which organizes
exhibitions. At the moment, Big Events is working on plans for a boat show to rival
the Capital Boat Show, which in 2004 is moving from its traditional site at Star City
to a new venue.
Maurice has created an unusual company structure. The financial director and
commercial director are responsible to me directly, but in my first week here, the
head of Marketing resigned. Then the same happened with Human Resources. I said
to both teams: Do you want to self-manage? Thats what they decided to do it
can work if you have people who work well together and can report to you as a
team, he explains.
For the immediate future, Maurice will continue with the essential work of updating
the centre. After that, he plans to look at ways of expanding Star City beyond the
present conferences and exhibitions, to include major shows and concerts. I want a
lively centre full of exciting events, where my well-trained staff are ambassadors for
the company.
Choose the correct answer for each question. Mark one letter (A;B; or C).
1. In Peter Maurices opinion, what prevents many customers form making
purchases?
1. There is too much to choose from.
2. Maurices staff say that he
2. sometimes annoys them.
3. What does Maurice say he learnt from his experience in Hong Kong?
3. The importance of being confident and having a positive attitude.
4. Which of these departments has a director who reports to Peter Maurice?
4. Finance
5. Maurices long-term ambition for the centre is to
5. bring entertainment to the centre.
27

2. Team-building through activities


Nowadays, company bosses are increasingly trying to find unusual team-building
events as part of their training programme. An activity park 6.___Fast-track has just
opened to offer 7.___events. It specializes 8.___events to attract the corporate
entertainment market, 9.___is growing all the time.
The park is situated just a few kilometers outside the city centre 10.___it provides
events that 11.___entertain as well as train. Clients can try outdoor attractions such
as sailing or climbing, 12.___availability clearly depends entirely 13.___the weather.
Activities of 14.___kind are perfect team-building exercises.
Id 15.___been to an activity park before, explained James Black, a company
manager. Before we came, I didnt think we 16.___enjoy ourselves so much and I
didnt expect the huge difference that Fast-tracks programme has 17.___to my
team. Now we work better together than we did before.
6. called
7. such
8. in
9. which
10. and
11. will
12. although
13. on
14. a
15. never
16. would
17. made
Writing
Read the definitions and complete the words by filling in the missing letters.
1. Computer screen: m___r
1. monitor
2. A row of icons on a computer screen: to ___r
2. toolbar
3. Something you hope your computer doesnt do: c___h
3. crash
4. Make a computer more powerful: u___de
4. upgrade
5. Something that goes in a printer: ca___dge
5. cartridge
6. Connect to the electricity supply: p___g in
6. plug in
7. Send a document with an email: a___ch
7. attach
8. Someone who a business sells to: c___r
8. customer
9. Someone who a business buys from: s___r
9. supplier
10. A written promise that a company will repair something you buy form them:
g___e
10. guarantee
Dragon boat racing
28

Make the story of a boat race by finding the next sentence:


11. A company decided to buy a rowing boat and enter a team for a boat race.
11. The company put together a team of rowers and the team trained hard for two
months.
12. The company put together a team of rowers and the team trained hard for two
months.
12. Despite this, the company came last in its first race by more than 200 metres.
13. Despite this, the company came last in its first race by more than 200 metres.
13. The management called in an internal consultant to analyze the situation.
14. The management called in an internal consultant to analyze the situation.
14. Her report stated that of the ten people on the boat, only two had actually been
rowing. The other boats in the race had at least eight rowers, with one drummer
and one oarsman to steer the boat.
15. Her report stated that of the ten people on the boat, only two had actually been
rowing. The other boats in the race had at least eight rowers, with one drummer
and one oarsman to steer the boat.
15. Based on the these preliminary findings, the consultant delivered her advice: to
increase the number of rowers on the boat.
16. Based on the these preliminary findings, the consultant delivered her advice: to
increase the number of rowers on the boat.
16. The management decided to implement the consultants recommendations.
17. The management decided to implement the consultants recommendations.
17. The new team was made up for one executive director, one deputy director, one
manager, one supervisor, one coordinator, one drummer and four rowers.
18. The new team was made up for one executive director, one deputy director, one
manager, one supervisor, one coordinator, one drummer and four rowers.
18. With this new team, the company entered a new race. Again, they lost the race
by a huge distance.
This time, the management made a quick decision. They fired the four rowers and
the durmmer and sold the boat. They stopped all further investment straightaway.
Then, with the money from the sale they gave the managers and supervisors a
bonus, and raised salaries of the directors in recognition for completing the project
under budget.

29

WEEK 4 PRODUCTS
Introduction
Products are fine,
but packaging
Wrap rage
Surveys show that intense frustration and even injury caused by modern packaging
is on the increase, especially among seniors. Seventy per cent of over 50s admit to
suffering cuts, sprains and bruises to fingers, hands and shoulders as a result of
wrap rage, a new term used to describe the irritation and loss of self-control
experienced when struggling to open wrapping.
In recent years manufacturers have been under increasing pressure to keep food
items sterile, to provide child-proof packaging for dangerous or toxic household
cleaning products, to protect products during transport and to reduce in-shop
shrinking due to pilfering. At the same time, they are forced to keep costs to a
minimum. As a result, packaging has become ever more resistant to fingers, nails
and even teeth.
In their frustration with blister packs and welded plastic, which defeat all attempts
to be pulled, torn or even cut open with scissors, consumers resort to stabbing with
screwdrivers, twisting with pliers or slashing with knives. At best , the product inside
the packaging is at risk; at worst, it is hardly surprising that 60,000 people a year
are injured in Great Britain alone.
Some of the most common triggers of wrap rage are processed cheese packages,
tightly wrapped CDs, child-proof tops on medicine bottles, and milk and juice
cartons. Ring-pull cans are particularly problematic for arthritic fingers and delicate
skin. Even wrestling to remove price tags from items bought as gifts can raise blood
pressure, and unnecessary overpackaging is a red rag to the ecologically-minded
bull.

30

However, it seems theres light at the end of the tunnel. Manufacturers are listening
to customerscomplaints, and some have begun to research and invest in more
consumer-friendly packaging.
The bottom line is that if they dont react, they risk losing sales if consumers simply
stop buying products with packaging that offers too much resistance.
Vocabulary
Word definitions
Match these words from the article to their definitions
1. - without any hairbald
- increasing the quality or amount of somethingenhancing
- a particular kind in a range of productsvariety
- to keep or continue to have somethingto retain
- a symbol on a product to show a companys ownershiptrademark
2. to try hard to sell a product by advertising or other activitiesto promote
- each yearannual
- to say that something is particularly importantto emphasise
- person in charge of a particular arearegional manager
- improvedpicked up
- money received from selling goodsprofits
Passives
We make passive verb froms with the verb to be + past participle.
Zespri Gold is marketed in south Korea and Taiwan.
We often choose a passive structure when we are not interested in or is not
necessary to know who performs an action.
Kiwfruit are grown in New Zealand.
If we want to mention who performs an action, we can use by.
All selling rights have been retained by the Kiwifruit Marketing Board.
We can use the passive to describe a process, system or procedure.
At the final stage of the process, the kiwifruit are packed into containers.
Change these active sentences into the passive so that they sound more natural.
The gold variety of the kiwifruit is planted worldwide.
Example
Workers plant the gold variety of the kiwifruit worldwide.
3. Workers in France make these Renault cars.
3. These Renault cars are made in France.
4. Farmers grow this rice in India.
4. This rice is grown in India.
5. The employers asked the staff for their opinions.
5. The staff were asked for their opinions.
6. A mechanic is repairing my car at the moment.
6. My car is being repaired at the moment.
7. Somebody has found the missing file.
7. The missing file has been found.
8. Somebody made this toy in Japan.
8. This toy was made in Japan.
How to answer.
Each car in our fabric___1(make) by hand, so every car___2(purpose) to every one
customer specifically. (is made, is purposed)

31

The article below describes how a health care company develops new products.
Complete the article with passive forms of the verbs in brackets.
9. The idea for how our companys new products___1(develop) is not new
it___2(model) on the well-known example of the Body shop.
9. are developed, is modelled
10. When a new product___1(plan), the first step is to send Product Development
Agents to the region of the developing world chosen for the project. They start by
finding materials that___2(use) in the product. Then links___3(arrange) with local
suppliers.
10. is planned, are used, are arranged
11. Wherever possible, products___1(manufacture) locally as well, although the
finished product___2(export) for sale mostly in the developed world. Normally,
products___3(ship) in large containers and___4(package) in their final form only
when they reach their destination.
11. are manufactured, is exported, are shipped, are packaged
12. The Product Development Agent identifies and establishes links with local
material suppliers. After that he or she ensures that these links___1(maintain). The
agent is also responsible for producing the goods safely so that human
rights___2(respect) and local workers___3(not exploit).
12. are maintained, are respected, are not exploited
Listening
I Understanding spoken English Sentence focus
Any word in the sentence can be a focus in a message. You can focus on a noun, a
verb, an adjective, an adverb, a preposition, or an auxiliary. The speaker uses focus
to emphasize a certain part of his/her message. The use of focus can indicate the
speakers intended meaning of a message. The focused word needs to be stressed,
so it louder and longer than other words in a message. Thus, instead of using
special expressions or grammatical devices to emphasize a certain part of the
message, we can also stress the most important word more than others. Thus,
sometimes we can emphasize a structure word if it is the most important one in the
sentence.
Look and listen to these examples and find the different emphasis in each sentence:
1. John is leaving Paris next week. (Emphasize the time)
2. John is leaving Paris next week. (Emphasize the place)
3. John is leaving Paris next week. (Emphasize the action)
4. John is leaving to Paris next week. (Emphasize the truth)
5. John is leaving to Paris next week. (Emphasize the person)
Now match these pairs of sentences with the correct responses:
1. They bought two bottles of Coke.Not three?
- They bought two bottles of Coke.Not cans?
2. I think her new car is a Ford.Not an Audi?
- I think her new car is a Ford.Arent you sure?
3. Frank wanted to go early.When?
- Frank wanted to go early.Who?
4. Sally develops marketing plans.No, she reviews them.
- Sally develops marketing plans.No, Bob does.
5. We want to buy a lot of desktops.Not laptops?
32

- We want to buy a lot of desktopsHow many?


Choose the correct ending for the following sentences:
6. He told me Peter was going to buy a new car,
6. not a second-hand one.
7. I wish you hadnt her about the money,
7. I wish someone else had.
8. I think he said he worked in France,
8. not lived there.
9. I havent seen their new product yet,
9. but Ive heard about it.
10. Jeff says coffee is good in the new restaurant,
10. not in our cafeteria.
How to answer on next question.
Each car in our fabric___1(make) by hand, so every car___2(purpose) to every one
customer specifically. (is made, is purposed)
II Changes to order
11. Complete the sentence below by filling in the blanks.
Changes to order
Customer: Amstel Machine Tools
Product: Workshop tables
Order reference number, width, length, height, quantity, price per item, new
discount, contact name
11. /
Reading
1. Save money and keep your staff happy
It can be expensive to keep the canteen open to serve drinks to your staff through
the day. Our QVM hot drinks machine replaces this service, so that you can close
the canteen between mealtimes.
You can install the QVM hot drinks machine anywhere in the building. One machine
is suitable for a staff of tne to fifteen people. It costs 1300 to buy, or 11.00 per
week to rent over 60 months. It is not expensive to operate: for example, the cost of
power for one day is 30 p, nearly as cheap as the price of one hot drink from the
machine.
Our company will carry out a weekly service, at a charge of 10.00. We can also
refill the machine with drinks ingredients for an extra charge of 8.00. Some
customers prefer to do this themselves, however.
There are eight choices of hot drink available from the QVM machine, and our
company offers one months trial free of charge, so that you can estimate how
popular the machine will be and see what the actual savings are.
1. With a QVM machine, companies can avoid having a canteen altogether.
1. Wrong
2. The QVM machine provides enough hot drinks for up to fifteen people.
2. Right
3. Most customers prefer to rent the QVM machine over sixty months.
3. Doesnt say
4. The electricity used daily by the machine costs less than the price of a hot drink.
4. Wrong

33

5. The machine company empties the money from the machine as part of its service
agreement.
5. Doesnt say
6. Customers can refill their machines with drinks ingrediants, if they want to.
6. Right
7. During the trial period, the customer pays a reduced amount to rent the machine.
7. Wrong
2. OpenOffice
OpenOffice is the leading open-source office software suite for word processing,
spreadsheets, presentations, graphics, databases and more. It is available in many
languages and works on all common computers. It stores all your data in an
international open standard format and can also read and write files from other
common office software packages. It can be downloaded and used completely free
of charge for any purpose.
OpenOffice is the result of over twenty yearssoftware engineering. Designed from
the start as a single piece of software, it has a consistency other products cannot
match. A completely open development process means that anyone can report
bugs, request new features, or enhance the software. The result: OpenOffice does
everything you want your office software to do, the way you want it to.
8. How much does OpenOffice cost?
8. Its free
9. Does it work on laptops?
9. It works on all common computers including laptops
10. What types of documents can you create or edit using OpenOffice?
10. All office software documents
11. Who can use OpenOffice free of charge?
11. There are no limits to this
12. Who are the people who can participate in development process?
12. Anyone
3. Grammar reminder
13. Look at the photographs of the briefcases. Match the description of the
briefcases to the photos.
13. An elegant leather briefcase with a beautiful metal handle.
14. Look at the photographs of the briefcases. Match the description of the
briefcases to the photos.
14. A stylish cylindrical light brown leather bag with a brass lock.
15. Look at the photographs of the briefcases. Match the description of the
briefcases to the photos.
15. An interesting sporty two-colour bag with long shoulder strap.
16. Look at the photographs of the briefcases. Match the description of the
briefcases to the photos.
16. An elegant light brown briefcase with a brass lock and a long shoulder strap.
17. Look at the photographs of the briefcases. Match the description of the
briefcases to the photos.
17. A durable leather briefcase with a brass locks.
How to answer
The table shows the order of adjectives in front of a noun. For each of the
briefcases, complete the table with words from the sentences under these headings.
34

Opinion/Shape-Width/Colour/What its made of


This guide shows you how to answer on next fill in questions. Separate each answer
by comma, as in video. Use picuture to help you.
2. Fill in
The table shows the order of adjectives in front of a noun. For each of the
briefcases, complete the table with words from the sentences under these headings.

Opinion

Fact
Size/Lenght

Shape/width Colour Where its from What its made

of Noun
1. elegant
leather
beautiful
handle
2. ?

briefcase
metal
?

briefcase
?
lock
3. ?
bag

?
?

strap
4. ?
briefcase

?
?
Lock
?

strap
5. ?
briefcase

?
?

locks

18. stylish, cylindrical, light brown, leather


19. interesting, long, shoulder, two-colour
20. elegant, long, shoulder, light brown
21. durable, leather
Writing

35

Complete the sentences using words from the box: chance communication field
issues needs sale solution view
1. Packaging is the manufacturers last___to seduce the customer.
1. chance
2. Many products are identical from the customers point of___.
2. view
3. Most purchasing decisions are made at the point of___.
3. sale
4. The principal problem is a lack of___between the people involved in the design
and development process.
4. communication
5. There are different groups of experts, all working in their own specialized___.
5. field
6. Production people know nothing about consumer___.
6. needs
7. The manufacturing people deal with the technical___as and when they arise.
7. issues
8. Our task forces can deliver an optimal___in one week, sometimes less.
8. solution
WEEK 5 TRENDS
Introduction
The Future of Oil
As Oil Prices Surge, Theories Fall Away
People who have spent their careers tracking the ups and downs of the global oil
markets say their compasses are spinning. Oil prices rise for reasons they cannot
quite understand, and where prices will be a year from now has become, literally,
anybodys guess.
Those uncertainties have left regulators, oil companies and suppliers worldwide
uncertain whether increases in supply of declines in demand will affect prices as
they have in the past. Some wonder whether the market is broken in some way,
creating a bubble of artificially expensive oil, which has reached about $ 137 a
barrel.
This whole industry has absolutely been turned on its head, said Stephen Schork,
who edits an energy newsletter.
A major factor behind the steady price rise, virtually everyone agrees, is that energy
consumption is surging in high-growth countries, and oil supplies are not growing
fast enough to keep up. But what confounds many experts is that the price of oil
seems to be changing much faster than the world is changing.
For example, it took five years, from 2002 to 2007, for oil to go up by $ 60 a barrel.
In just the last year, it galloped another $ 60 higher. For the first time since oil
drilling began in the 1850s the price has climbed for seven consecutive years.
Old assumptions that once helped traders foresee the direction of prices no longer
seem to work. And energy experts offer radically diverse predictions.
One of the guideposts that no longer seems to provide much guidance is that the
price of oil any given day was usually higher than the price of oil delivered at some
36

point in the future. But, with increasing frequency, the future price is higher than
the spot price.
That development usually signals concerns over future supplies, encouraging
refiners to stockpile oil, which has not happened yet. It also typically signals that
prices are likely to fall, and that has not happened, either.
Many economists see a straightforward explanation for rising prices: Global oil
supplies remain tight and there is a fear that demand will grow faster than new
production for years to come.
But it still does not explain why prices have risen as fast as they have.
One popular theory is that a falling dollar has driven investors to commodities. But
experts say that there had been little correlation between the dollar and oil prices
over the last 30 years.
Another theory is that energy subsidies are distorting the market. Developing
countries are beginning to address that problem. Recently, China cut some of its
subsidies, effectively raising the price of gasoline and diesel. But other subsidy cuts
in Malaysia and India have been met with street protests.
A senior executive at Inlnad Oil, a fuel retailer in Ephrata, Washington, said, Prices
are becoming completely disconnected from the real market. (Adapted from The
New York Times)
Vocabulary
Vocabulary building
1. Describing change
Ups and Downs
Look at the article again. Words that describe trends have been highlighted yellow
for you.
The Future of Oil
As Oil Prices Surge, Theories Fall Away
People who have spent their careers tracking the ups and downs of the global oil
markets say their compasses are spinning. Oil prices rise for reasons they cannot
quite understand, and where prices will be a year from now has become, literally,
anybodys guess.
Those uncertainties have left regulators, oil companies and suppliers worldwide
uncertain whether increases in supply of declines in demand will affect prices as
they have in the past. Some wonder whether the market is broken in some way,
creating a bubble of artificially expensive oil, which has reached about $ 137 a
barrel.
This whole industry has absolutely been turned on its head, said Stephen Schork,
who edits an energy newsletter.
A major factor behind the steady price rise, virtually everyone agrees, is that energy
consumption is surging in high-growth countries, and oil supplies are not growing
fast enough to keep up. But what confounds many experts is that the price of oil
seems to be changing much faster than the world is changing.
For example, it took five years, from 2002 to 2007, for oil to go up by $ 60 a barrel.
In just the last year, it galloped another $ 60 higher. For the first time since oil
drilling began in the 1850s the price has climbed for seven consecutive years.

37

Old assumptions that once helped traders foresee the direction of prices no longer
seem to work. And energy experts offer radically diverse predictions.
One of the guideposts that no longer seems to provide much guidance is that the
price of oil any given day was usually higher than the price of oil delivered at some
point in the future. But, with increasing frequency, the future price is higher than
the spot price.
That development usually signals concerns over future supplies, encouraging
refiners to stockpile oil, which has not happened yet. It also typically signals that
prices are likely to fall, and that has not happened, either.
Many economists see a straightforward explanation for rising prices: Global oil
supplies remain tight and there is a fear that demand will grow faster than new
production for years to come.
But it still does not explain why prices have risen as steadily as they have.
One popular theory is that a falling dollar has driven investors to commodities. But
experts say that there had been little correlation between the dollar and oil prices
over the last 30 years.
Another theory is that energy subsidies are distorting the market. Developing
countries are beginning to address that problem. Recently, China cut some of its
subsidies, effectively raising the price of gasoline and diesel. But other subsidy cuts
in Malaysia and India have been met with street protests.
A senior executive at Inlnad Oil, a fuel retailer in Ephrata, Washington, said, Prices
are becoming completely disconnected from the real market.
Mark the word highlighted yellow with the correct meaning:
1. Downs
Example: Surge > Ups
1. downs
2. Ups
2. ups
3. Rise
3. ups
4. Increases
4. ups
5. Fall
5. downs
6. In surging
6. ups
7. Are (not) growing
7. ups
8. Go up
8. ups
9. Has climbed
9. ups
10. Falling
10. downs
11. Will grow
11. ups
12. Have risen
12. ups
38

13. Declines
13. down
14. Rising
14. ups
Nouns and verbs
Change can be described by nouns and verbs.
E.g.
Verb: Oil prices rise for a number of reasons.
Noun: Oil prices have registered a steady rise.
Note: Verb participles can be used as adjectives.
E.g.
Rising oil prices worry experts.
The increased prices resulted in lower sales.
Fill in the blanks in the table:
15. a rise
16. to improve
17. an increase
18. to grow

Rising
Verb
to rise
to increase
to climb
to peak

No change
Noun
Verb
Noun
?
to stagnate
an
to mantain
improvement
(position)
to remain
stable/steady
a growth
to level off

Falling
Verb

Noun
a fall
to decrease
a drop

to go down
a decline
to slide
a dive
to sink

to surge
to go up
19. Use the verbs below to label the pictures.
- falla
- riseb
- level offc
- remain steadyd
- recovere
- peakf
Adjectives and adverbs
Look at the adjectives (highlighted blue) and adverbs (highlighted green) in the text
you read, and complete the information below.
20. Adjectives give additional information about___.
20. nouns
E.g. The steady price rise surprises everybody.
21. Adverbs give information about___and <2>.
21. verbs
E.g. The prices have risen steadily. Artificially expensive oil reached $ 137 a barrel.
22. Adverbs give information about<1> and___.
39

22. adjectives
E.g. The prices have risen steadily. Artificially expensive oil reached $ 137 a barrel.
Look at the graphs below and complete the description of Millenium Softwares net
sales and net income.
Net sales remained 23.___ at 17m in 1994 and 1995 and then rose 24.___ in 1996
to reach 21m. This was followed by further growth as sales 25.___ at 22m in
1997. However, as a strong pound began to affect exports to Europe, net sales fell
26.___ in 1998.
23. steady
24. sharply
25. peaked
26. slightly
After net income 27.___by 0.25m in 1995, there was a strong 28.___in 1996 due to
increased sales and reduced costs. This was followed by a further 29.___in net
income of 0.7m over the next two years: it grew 30.___from 1.4m in 1996 to
2.1m in 1998.
27. fell
28. growth
29. increase
30. steadily
Prepositions
Underline the prepositions in the previous exercise, and then complete the following
sentences.
31. There was a fall___operating costs.
31. from
Operating costs fell 32.___12m 33.___10m
32. from
33. to
34. Operating costs fell___2m.
34. by
35. There was a fall___2m.
35. of
Now complete the sentences with one of the following prepositions.
Last year there was a drop 36.___net sales 37.___9%.
36. in
37. of
38. Market share increased___3%, up to 8%.
38. by
39. Net sales peaked___22m in 1997.
39. at
40. Europen sales went___4.2m to 3m.
40. from
41. Sales leveled off___5m in 1998.
41. at
Costs rose 42.___3.3m. This was a rise 43.___10%.
42. by
43. of
44. Office software sales fell___10% in 1997.
44. by
40

45. A strong pound meant a fall___exports in 1998.


45. in
Listening
Understanding spoken English Pausing and thought groups
When we write, from thought groups by using grammatical units such as phrases,
clauses and sentences. We separate thought groups using punctuation marks and
conjunctions.
When speaking, we use pauses to separate thought groups. Thus, using pauses in
different places can give a sentence different meanings.
Listen to these two sentences. Can you find the difference in meaning?
(A) The teacher said, That student is lazy. (The teacher was speaking.)
(B) The teacher, said that student, is lazy.
(The student was speaking.)
Now listen to the sentences and click on the one you heard.
1. We have to pay John./We have to pay, John .
1. We have to pay John.
2. John said, Our boss is out for lunch./John, said our boss, is out for lunch.
2. John, said our boss, is out for lunch.
3. The CEO said, That reporter is lying./The CEO, said that reporter, is lying.
3. The CEO, said that reporter, is lying.
4. Linda believes,I said, that Jims storys true./Linda believes I said that Jims
storys true.
4. Linda believes I said that Jims storys true.
5. He sold his house, boat and car./He sold his houseboat and car.
5. He sold his houseboat and car.
6. Panda is a Chinese animal that eats, shoots, and leaves./Panda is a Chinese
animal that eats shoots and leaves.
6. Panda is a Chinese animal that eats shoots and leaves.
7. We need to see, Ms. Miller./We need to see Ms. Miller.
7. We need to see, Ms. Miller.
8. We wrote three-hour-long exams./We wrote three-hour-long exams.
8. We wrote three-hour-long exams.
Describing graphs
Look at the graph showing car sales from 1991 to 2000 and listen to the sentences
describing it. Are they true or false?
we express our gratitude to our sponsors and supporters?
9. Sales increased slightly from 1991 to 1992.
9. False
10. Sales decreased dramatically from 1992 to 1993.
10. True
11. In 1993, sales improved significantly.
11. False
12. Sales rose from 1993 to 1994.
12. True
13. Sales grew steadily from 1994 to 1997.
13. True
14. Sales fell sharply from 1999 to 2000.
14. False
Drawing graphs

41

Before listening to a report, check your knowledge of following words by matching


them to their definitions:
15. bidan offer to buy the shares in a company and take control of it
- acquirebuy
- takeovera situation in which one company takes control of another try buying
the majority of its shares
- alliancean agreement between two or more organizations to work together
- dipdecrease slightly
- soarincrease quickly to a high level
Describing graphs
Listen to a radio stock market report and complete the graph of Fraxis Corps shareprice history.
Reading
Look at the charts below. They show the orders for eight different companies (A-H)
over three years.
Which company (A-H) does each sentence (1-5) describe:
1. After a sharp drop in 1999, orders recovered for twelve months and then fell
again in 2001.
1. f
2. Orders rose sharply in 2000 but peaked at the end of the year and then leveled
back to their 1999 levels.
2. h
3. Orders remained steady between 1999 and 2001.
3. g
4. The order books showed strong growth throughout the three year period.
4. c
5. After decreasing steadily for two years, orders finally leveled off and began
revcovery in 2001.
5. a
The Wall Street Crash
The stock market crash in the United States in 1929 was huge and led to a severe
and lasting economic crisis in the world. Many bankers and industrialists lost their
money and reputations. Some went to prison and others committed suicide.
Share prices on the New York stock exchange had begun rising in 1924, and in 1928
and 1929 they rocketed to unbelievable levels. In spring 1929 there was a break in
the rising prices when the Federal Reserve Bank said it might raise interest rates to
slow down the boom. However, a major bank, National City Bank, assured investors
that it would continue to lend money to them at affordable rates.
Soon the market took off again. People could buy stock for 10% of its value and
borrow the remaining 90%. The lending rate varied from 7% to 12%. Almost
everyone was optimistic. One economist, at the peak of the boom, said that people
generally agreedstocks are not at present overvalued.
It all ended on 21 October, 1929. The market opened badly and there was heavy
selling. Confidence in the market disappeared. There was a rumour that the big
bankers were getting put of the market. Share prices fell dramatically and kept on
falling. The boom was over. But its consequences would last for years to come.

42

Find words or phrases in the text which are similar in meaning to the definitions
below:
6. a powerful business person controlling lagre companies
6. industrialist
7. went up very fast
7. rocketed
8. a change for a short period
8. break
9. became very active
9. took off
10. highest point
10. peak
11. sold at too high a price
11. overvalued
12. selling all of their shares
12. getting out of the market
III Grammar reminder
Read the article about a retailer and choose the correct word to fill each gap:
Hocking, the High Street retailer, yesterday published figures indicating a 13.___in
sales for the first month of the year. This pleased the companys shareholders, who
14.___had a difficult time since last year. The news was not all good, 15.___.Sales at
Hockings sister company, Hockings Pharmacy, were disappointing, improving
16.___only 0.7 per cent during the period.
James Bowen, the company chairman,, said, The retail climate is improving 17.___.
Our retail business found that trading conditions were 18.___in April, very poor in
May, then improved considerably in June, with this improvement continuing in July.
Operating costs are growing more slowly 19.___sales, so our profit forecasts for the
rest of the year are good. The company said that it will install customer computer
kiosks in more then 250 stores by Christmas, after sales 20.___by 5 per cent during
a trial period in 21.___than 20 stores in the north of England. These computer kiosks
allow specially targeted discounts and promotions to be 22.___to individual
customers.
13. recovery
14. have
15. however
16. by
17. slowly
18. reasonable
19. than
20. rose
21. more
22. offered
Writing
Presentation slides
Read the two presentation slides. Which is the better way of presenting the
information?
Side A
Guidelines for slides
43

You shouldnt use more slides than necessary: one or two per minute of your
presentation will be enough. Dont present information in sentences and
paragraphs, divide it up into individual points. Try not to present more than six
points on one slide. You should reduce text to keywords and phrases: try to have no
more than six words per line. Dont forget, a graph or chart is much easier to
understand than a text.
Side B
Guidelines for slides
- 1-2 slides per minute of presentation
- Information in points, not complete sentences
- Maximum six points per slide
- Reduce to key words and phrases
- Maximum six words for each point
- Graphs and visuals wherever possible
1. Which is the better way of presenting the information?
1. Slide B
2. Click on the key words in each extract to include on a slide about writing
presentations.
2. One of the most challenging aspects of writing a presentation is the need to
organize the information in a logical way.
3. Click on the key words in each extract to include on a slide about writing
presentations.
3. Choose attractive background and text colors that are comfortable for the
audience to read.
4. Click on the key words in each extract to include on a slide about writing
presentations.
4. Presentation software can be fun to use. Be creative, but do not include too many
effects which may distract your audience from your content.
5. Click on the key words in each extract to include on a slide about writing
presentations.
5. Make sure the text is large enough that the audience can read it easily from the
back of the room. Also, use a standard font that is not too complicated or distracted.
6. Click on the key words in each extract to include on a slide about writing
presentations.
6. Use positive statements like The figures show rather than vague language like
The data could possibly suggest.
Causes and effects
A cause is something that makes something else happen. Out of two events, it is
the event that happens first. To determine the cause, ask the question Why did it
happen?
An effect is what happens as a result of the cause. Of two related events, its the
one that happens second or last. To determine the effect, ask the question What
happened?
Look at the following pairs of events:
Cause
Effect
Oil prices are rising.
Experts are worried.
Energy consumption is high.
Oil prices are rising.
44

The company cut its production costs. The profits increased.


The price of raw materials went down. The company managed to cut its production
costs.
The cause and effect are linked with connecting words. Examples of connecting
words are:
because, because of, so, consequently, therefore, hence, due to, thanks to, owing
to, since, as a result, as a result of, as a consequence, as a consequence of, thus,
that is why
Move these expressions into the appropriate column: one for those that introduce
causes, and one for those that introduce effects (results).
7. because introduces cause
- as a result introduces effect
8. thanks tointroduces cause
- sointroduces effect
9. because of introduces cause
- consequently introduces effect
10. due to introduces cause
- therefore introduces effect
11. since introduces cause
- as a consequence introduces effect
12. as a result of introduces cause
- thus introduces effect
13. as a consequence of introduces cause
- for this reason introduces effect
14. owing to introduces cause
- hence introduces effect
These connecting words belong to different parts of speech and are thus used in
different ways. Look at the chart to see how.
Adverbs (followed by a clause) because since
Our sales rose because
we introduced
a few new products.
Prepositions (followed by a
because of
Our sales rose because of the
introduction of
noun or a noun phrase)
due to
new products.
thanks to
owing to
as a consequence
of
as a result of
Connectors (connect two so far
We introduced a few new products, so
our sales
independent clauses)
rose.
Sentence Transitions (used
Therefore.
We introduced a few new
products. Therefore,
in the beginning of the next
Consequently,
our sales rose.
sentence, followed by a Thus Hence.
comma)
For this reason. As
a result
15. There was a considerable improvement in the companys image
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/
- JTL Holdings Brazilian subsidiary went bankrupt:
/
- The company enjoyed moderate growth
/
- After the merger, our profitability will improve significantly
/
- Due to lower labour costs,
profits will grow dramatically.
- They saw a slight increase in sales
as a consequence of their diversification into new markets.
- Share prices went up sharply
because of excellent third quarter results.
- We plan to acquire new technology;
/

WEEK 6 MOCK-UP TEST


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Reading
Part one
Questions 1-5
Look at questions 1-5.
In each question, which sentence is correct?
For each question, choose the correct answer, A, B, or C.
1. We guarantee delivery to your door within 24 hours, if the goods are in stock.
1. Goods are delivered next day, depending on availability.
2. Fashion Master
India-based manufacturer of fashion items wishing to do business in Europe is
looking for importers.
Fashion Master wants to:
2. sell its products abroad.
3. Telephone message
Sue Giles missed 8.30 flight due here 12.30, not 11.30.
When is Sue Giles expected to arrive?
3. 8.30
4. Schroders
Special Offer on photocopier rentals.
First 3000 copies free. After that each copy costs just 3p.
4. For the first 3000 copies, Schroders make no charge.
5. Telephone interviewers wanted
$ 7.50 an hour. Experience an advantage. Paid training provided.
Immediate availability essential. Call 416-9327764 now.
Applicants for the above job:
5. must be able to start work straightaway.
Part 2
Look at the business advertisements below, and choose which company each
person needs to consult.
6. A human resources manager has to urgently find an executive secretary for the
Managing Director.
6. Pronto Secretarial Services-Office tasks quickly completed.
7. A marketing director requires five hundred leaflets to promote a new product.
7. Rapidprint-For all your printing needs.
8. A publishing company wants to select a computer course for new staff.
8. In Trainers-Leaders in the training field
9. The sales manager of a software company has to arrange several trips abroad for
her staff.
9. Thorns travel agency-Experts in foreign business travel.
Part 3
Look at the chart below. It shows a retail stores income, total expenditure and
advertising costs over an eight-month period. Which month (A-H) does each
sentence describe?
10. In this month, total expenditure, like income, showed a fall, while spending on
advertising demonstrated the opposite trend.
10. February
11. Total expenditure rose slightly in this month, while advertising costs reached
their peak, leading to a higher income in the following month.
11. June
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12. Despite a decline in advertising costs in this month, expenditure as a whole


rose.
12. July
13. This months improvement in income was particularly welcome, as it was not
matched by an increase in expenditures.
13. August
14. While this month a low point in the restaurants income, expenditures continued
to fall.
14. May
Part 4
Read the article about a hair products business. Are sentences about the article True
or False? If there is not enough information for you to decide, choose Doesnt say.
Louise Woods Success Story
Three years ago, Louise Wood set up her own hair products company. She soon
found she had more orders than she could handle by herself, and now employs ten
people. Her turnover last year was $ 5.8 million.
I used to work as a rep, selling hair products to people like famous hairdressers.
One day someone suggested to me that I should make and sell similar products
myself, and I thought, Why not?
Before I started, I thought running my own business would be similar to my
previous job, but straight away I had problems Id never dealt with before. Im glad I
took the risk, though.
Ive always insisted on 90 dayscredit to make the company self- supporting,
without huge loans from banks. Luckily my manufacturers agreed!
Louise uses local suppliers and expects them to come to her if they want to do
business with her. I rarely leave the office and try to fit everything into normal
working hours. Im no good at working late.
So what are Louises plans now?
My friends predicted I wouldnt keep this business for long as Im always having
new business ideas, but at the moment I want to see this project through.
15. Louise Wood recruited her staff as soon as she set up her business.
15. False
16. As a rep, Louise enjoyed meeting famous hairdressers.
16. Doesnt say
17. Louises first few months of business were less difficult than she had expected.
17. False
18. Her suppliers have complained about having meetings at her office.
18. Doesnt say
19. Louise regularly works overtime.
19. False
20. Louise feels committed to this business for the present.
20. True
Part 5
Read the text below, which is part of the annual report of a retail company called
Bennets. Its customers order goods from catalogues and collect them from the
companys stores.
It is true that this has been a difficult year, with a fall in trading profits, largely
resulting from weaker consumer spending, but not helped by disappointing
48

productivity levels in the stores. It is also a cause of worry that production costs are
continuing to rise. However, changes in the way we deliver to stores have led to
considerable savings.
With the aim of improving customer service and shopping convenience, we have
introduced a number of new services in the last twelve months. Shopping over the
Internet was added to the existing telephone ordering facility, and the early
response to this has been good. In stores, there are now information screens for
customers to check availability of goods they want to purchase. Together with other
existing systems, which reduce queues and tell customers when their orders are
ready for collection, this is giving positive results.
Another change has been the replacement of the Traditional and Modern catalogues
with a single catalogue. As a result, customers who use the Modern Catalogue now
have over 30% more products to choose from, although we have dropped the less
popular lines. Annual printing costs already show the benefit of this move, and sales
are expected to start growing within the next year.
We have to change our plans for the coming year. It is clear that shoppers expect
staff in stores to be both friendly and efficient. A major programme to raise
standards will be introduced at once, while the planned improvements to store
facilities will be delayed for twelve months. The proposed interactive TV shopping
service will not now go ahead, and neither will the planned redevelopment of the
corporate headquarters.
Bennetts is changing fast, and we are confident that the newly appointed members
of the management team will help us to improve sales within the next twelve
months even if, as expected, there is no recovery in economic climate. Our aim is to
spend this time making sure that the company is as efficient as possible, and to
delay our strategy of considering mergers and takeovers.
Choose the correct answers to questions to questions about the text.
21. In the last year Bennetts has
21. opened a number of new stores.
22. One improvement in the last year is that Bennetts has managed to
22. reduce distribution costs.
23. As a result of developments in the last year, customers can now
23. collect their orders without queuing in stores.
24. Replacing two catalogues with one has meant that
24. the catalogue has now become cheaper to produce
25. Bennettsmain aim for the next year is to improve
25. customer service in stores.
26. Bennetts is hopeful about the future because
26. it has made changes to its management team.
Part 6
Read the article about a sportswear company and choose the correct word to fill
each gap.
How to answer.
Each car in our fabric___1(make) by hand, so every car___2(purpose) to every one
customer specifically. (is made, is purposed)
Read the article about a sportswear company and choose the correct word to fill
each gap.
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27. Tony Pearson was appointed to the board of Greens, the sportswear company,
as Chief Executive Officer nine months ago.
He has___(taken, passed, spent) almost 27 years in clothes retailing,
previously___(held, holding, holds) a senior position with Munroes, a company with
as___(much, most, many) as 300 retail outlets across the UK.
27. spent, holding, many
28. Pearson is responsible for the companys latest five-year plan. His general
strategy has been to increase profits by expanding Greens product___(variety,
range, collection), and so far the policy has worked. Stores___(have, should, ought)
report a sales growth___(in, till, of) about 20% this year.
28. range, should, of
29. Thirty-five more stores___(have, were, did) redesigned in the current year___(at,
from, by) a cost of $ 23 million. In addition, ten new stores are expected to
open___(another, any, each) year for the next three of four years. Two of___(these,
they, them) new stores will be outside the UK. Mr. Pearson says the
company___(ever, too, also) intends to increase the___(number, figure, sum) of
distribution centers, and improve customer services.
29. were, at, another, these, also, number
Part 7
Read the memo and note below and complete the claim form.
To:
Barbara Sinclair
From:
Peter Rogers
Date:
14 June 2008
Subject:
Insurance Claim
Could you deal with this? its our insurance claim, for the damage at the weekend.
The insurance policy is in my name, and we bought the carpet for $ 300, although it
will cost at least $ 500 to replace. Luckily our office carpets seem fine.
Thanks
Part 8
Read the memo and note below and complete the claim form.
Owen Smith insurance company
with compliments
_____________
Thank you for your recent phone call regarding flood damage in your photocopy
room.
Could you please complete the attached form and return it to me as soon as
possible.
John Martin
Fill in the blank to complete the claim form.

Insurance claim
Name of policy holder
Policy number
Item(s) to be replaced
Location of item(s)

LD4757093C

50

Value when purchased


Cause of damage
Date of damage
Sunday, 3 June, 2008
30. Name of policy holder:
30. Peter Rogers
31. Item(s) to be replaced:
31. a carpet
32. Location of item(s):
32. photocopy room
33. Value when purchased:
33. $300
34. Cause of damage:
34. flood
Writing
Common mistakes
You are going to see the next from three e-mails that contain words which can often
be confused.
In each e-mail, select the most appropriate word.
How to answer
I am writing with___to our telephone conversation this morning about year order
7895LG. I must___for the delay in processing this order. I can now confirm that the
goods have been shipped and should___you within 10 working days. We have taken
special___to make sure that the items are exactly as you requested. Once again,
please___our apologies. If you have any further questions, do not___to contact me
again.
connection reference regarding/regret apologise sorry/reach arrive deliver/care
attention caution/take have accept/stop fail hesitate
This guide shows you how to answer on next fill in questions. Enter only one from
which you think is correct into fill in box. Separate each answer by comma, as in
video.
1. Email 1
I am writing with___to our telephone conversation this morning about your order
7895LG. I must___for the delay in processing this order. I can now confirm that the
goods have been shipped and should___you within 10 working days. We have taken
special___to make sure that the items are exactly as you requested. Once again,
please___our apologies. If you have any further questions, do not___to contact me
again.
1. reference, apologise, reach, care, accept, hesitate
2. Email 2
I was___to hear about the damage to the products you have received this morning.
However, I am___that we cannot___responsibility in this___. All our products
are___very carefully before leaving the factory, and the damage in this case must
have been caused in transit. I___that you contact the shipping company directly
about possible compensation. In the meantime, we can ship the same order to you
again, if it would help. If you give us a firm instruction to do so___the next few days,
it should reach you___the end of the month.
2. sorry, afraid, accept, matter, checked, suggest, within, by
51

3. Email 3
I am writing to you___the meeting that we___for this Friday. I am afraid something
urgent has come up and I will not be able to attend. Can we___the meeting until
next week? I can make any time Wednesday or Thursday. I apologise for any___this
may cause, and I___to___from you.
3. concerning, arranged, postpone, inconvenience, look forward, hearing

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