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LTE Air Interface Course

MIMO for LTE

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Nokia Solutions and Networks Academy


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Module Objectives
At the end of this module, you will be able to:
List the main types of MIMO and their characteristics
Describe the principles of antenna mapping and precoding
Explain the transmit diversity and the spatial multiplexing
Describe application options of MIMO in relation to radio planning and
performance issues
Explain Advanced MIMO techniques

CT82357EN01GLA1

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

MIMO for LTE


Transmission Modes in 3GPP
Antenna Mapping and Precoding
Transmission Diversity
Spatial Multiplexing
Examples
Advanced MIMO techniques

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Multiple-Input Multiple-Output MIMO Principle


Signal from jth Tx antenna

Sj

Input

T1

R1

T2

R2

Tm

MxN
MIMO
system

MIMO
Processor

Rn

MIMO: Multiple-Input Multiple Output


M transmit antennas, N receive antennas form MxN MIMO system
Huge data stream (input) distributed toward m spatial distributed
antennas; m parallel bit streams (Input 1..m)
Spatial Multiplexing generate parallel virtual data pipes
Using Multipath effects instead of mitigating them
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Output

Multiple Antenna Systems

Improved
Transmission
Reliability

Greater
Coverage or
Range

Reduced UE
Power
Consumption

Increased
Transmission
Throughput

Multiple Antenna Systems

SIMO

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MISO

MIMO

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Multiple Antenna Systems, cont.


LTE Physical Layer services assume multiple port antenna systems are used.
Multiple port antenna
systems are implemented for the following reasons:
Improved transmission reliability
Greater coverage or range
Reduced UE power consumption
Increased transmission throughput
Multiple port antenna systems include the following:
Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO)
Multiple Input Single Output (MISO)
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)

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Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO)

Rx

Tx

Switched Diversity
Equal Gain Combining
Maximum Ratio Combining
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Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO), cont.


In a SIMO configuration the transmitter (usually the UE) has one transmitter and the receiver (the
eNodeB) has two physically separated antenna ports. The receiver picks up multiple versions of
the same signal but separated spatially. SIMO receivers use the following techniques to compute
the best received signal.
Switched Diversity
In Switched Diversity, the input with the best signal is chosen as the best source. The best
signal may be based on Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) or Bit Error Rate (BER). Switched
diversity is the most simple and inexpensive SIMO technique.
Equal Gain Combining
Equal Gain Combining is a summation of all available received signals.
Maximum Ratio Combining
In Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC), each received signal has compensation applied to it
before being combined to produce a composite single signal. This technique is particularly
effective where the signal undergoes deep fading. Because fading probably occurs at different
frequencies on each antenna port, the reliability of the radio link is increased.

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Multiple Input Single Output (MISO)

Tx

Rx

Space-Time Transmit Diversity

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Multiple Input Single Output (MISO), cont.


A MISO (eNodeB) transmitter has two or more physically separated antenna ports, while the
MISO (UE) receiver has one antenna. Each Tx port transmits the same information bits. In
addition to data signals, reference signals are also transmitted via both antenna ports. The
normal reference signal pattern is sent via the first antenna port and the diversity reference
signal pattern via the second antenna port.
In Space-Time Transmit Diversity (STTD) the same data is transmitted simultaneously over
both Tx ports. On each port, the channel-coded data is processed in blocks of four bits, then
the bits are time reversed and complex conjugated. The physical separation of the antenna
ports provides the space diversity, and the time difference derived from the bit-reversing
process provides the time diversity. These features together make the decoding process in
the receiver more reliable.

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Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)

Tx

Rx

Improved Transmission Reliability


Increased Coverage or Range
Reduced UE Power Consumption
MIMO systems contain multiple antenna ports at both the transmitter and receiver. The MIMO transmitter
transmits signals using time, frequency, and space diversity. The MIMO receiver recovers the data
across multiple receiving antenna ports.
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MIMO Techniques
Data Stream 1

Tx

Rx
Data Stream 2

Space-Time Coding (STC) 1 Data Stream


Spatial Multiplexing 2 Data Streams

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MIMO Techniques, cont.


Space-Time Coding (STC) provides diversity gain to combat the effects of unwanted
Multipath propagation. Similar to STTD, time delayed and coded versions of the same signal
are sent from the same transmitter antenna. The codes that are used are mainly: trellis and
block (less complex) codes.
This improves the SNR for cell edge performance.
Spatial Multiplexing (SM)
With Spatial Multiplexing, unique (different) data streams are transmitted over different
antenna ports.
Spatial multiplexing can double (2x2 MIMO) or quadruple (4x4 MIMO) capacity and
throughput. This technique gives higher capacity when RF conditions are favorable and
users are closer to the eNodeB. The graphic shows spatial multiplexing with a 2x2 MIMO
configuration. The receiver can identify the transmitting antenna port for each received
signal

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Single User MIMO


Data Stream 1

UE
Data Stream 2

eNodeB

Improved Performance (STC), or


Improved Throughput (SM) for Single UE
MIMO supports single user MIMO and multi-user MIMO. Single User MIMO improves the
performance for a UE (via space time coding), or increases the throughput for a UE (using
spatial multiplexing).
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Multi-User MIMO

UE

UE
eNodeB

Improved Number of UEs


No Increase in System Bandwidth
In multi-user MIMO, the data for different users is multiplexed onto a single time-frequency resource, so
the capacity of the cell can increase in terms of users without increasing the system bandwidth.
Switching between SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO is supported on a per UE basis. The use of codes and
reference signals not only allows the receiver to differentiate between antenna streams and users, but also
allows accurate channel estimation
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Transmission Modes in 3GPP (1/2)

3GPP MODE 1
Single antenna port; port 0
1 TX antenna transmitting always

on port 0

3GPP MODE 2
Transmit diversity
Multiple antennas transmit same
signal

Improves SINR

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3GPP Mode 3
Open loop spatial multiplexing
Multiple antennas transmitting
different signals
No feedback from the UE used
Improves user data rate
3GPP Mode 4
Closed Loop spatial multiplexing
Multiple antennas transmitting
different signals
Feedback from the UE used
Improves user data rate

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Transmission Modes in 3GPP (2/2)

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3GPP MODE 5
Multi user MIMO
Multiple antennas transmitting
to different UEs in the cell
Increase sector capacity
3GPP Mode 6
Closed-loop Rank=1 precoding
Beamforming
UE signals back the suitable
precoding for the beamforming
operation

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3GPP Mode 7
Single Antenna port; port 5
Beamforming
UE specific reference signals are
generated for feedback

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

MIMO for LTE


Transmission Modes in 3GPP
Antenna Mapping and Precoding
Transmission Diversity
Spatial Multiplexing
Examples
Advanced MIMO techniques

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LTE DL: Baseband Signal Generation


Split into several
streams if needed
Weighting data streams
for transmission
Code words

scrambling

Modulation
mapper

Layer
mapper

Modulation
scrambling

Antenna
ports

layers

mapper

Precoding

Resource
element
mapper

OFDM signal
generation

Resource
element
mapper

OFDM signal
generation

Source: 3GPP TS 36.211 V8.6.0

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Antenna Mapping
LAYERS = different streams used by spatial
multiplexing
Mapping of symbols onto antenna ports

ANTENNA PORT = defined by specific


reference signals

Antenna mapping
Up to NL
LAYERS

Maximum of
two
CODEWORDS

Layer

Precoding

mapper

NA
ANTENNA
PORTS

RANK
1 CODEWORD = 1 Transport Block
which is coded and modulated (input)
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RANK = number of layers transmitted

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

MIMO for LTE


Transmission Modes in 3GPP
Antenna Mapping and Precoding
Transmission Diversity
Spatial Multiplexing
Examples
Advanced MIMO techniques

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Transmission Modes in 3GPP

3GPP MODE 1
Single antenna port; port 0
1 TX antenna transmitting always

on port 0

3GPP MODE 2
Transmit diversity
Multiple antennas transmit same
signal
Improves SINR
Diversity 2x2 MIMO

eNodeB
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Same data
stream
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3GPP Mode 3
Open loop spatial multiplexing
Multiple antennas transmitting
different signals
No feedback from the UE used
Improves user data rate
3GPP Mode 4
Closed Loop spatial multiplexing
Multiple antennas transmitting
different signals
Feedback from the UE used
Improves user data rate

2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

MIMO for LTE


Transmission Modes in 3GPP
Antenna Mapping and Precoding
Transmission Diversity
Spatial Multiplexing
Examples
Advanced MIMO techniques

25

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2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Transmission Modes in 3GPP


3GPP MODE 1
Single antenna port; port 0
1 TX antenna transmitting always

on port 0

3GPP MODE 2
Transmit diversity
Multiple antennas transmit same
signal
Improves SINR

Spatial multiplexing 2x2 MIMO


Data stream 1

eNodeB
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3GPP Mode 3
Open loop spatial multiplexing
Multiple antennas transmitting
different signals
No feedback from the UE used
Improves user data rate
3GPP Mode 4
Closed Loop spatial multiplexing
Multiple antennas transmitting
different signals
Feedback from the UE used
Improves user data rate

Data stream 2
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Spatial Multiplexing

Layer

Pre-

mapper

coding

Transmission on a single antenna port

RE mapping
OFDM signal

Spatial multiplex rank 2

Layer

Pre-

mapper

coding

Symbols after scrambling and

Two data stream

modulation, 2 code words

are supported

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Closed Loop MIMO

Pilot Channel on All Antenna Ports

2
3

Preferred Codebook Index

UE
4

Adjusted MIMO Transmission

eNodeB

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Evaluate
Codebook
Options

Closed Loop MIMO, cont.


MIMO supports both open loop and closed loop control. Open loop MIMO transceivers adjust their
transmission based on received (reference signal) measurements. This assumes no rapid feedback
technique is available from the UE receiver back to the eNodeB transmitter. Unfortunately, in open loop
operation, the transmitter receives no feedback regarding antenna port operation or signal strength in
the forward direction.
Closed loop MIMO supports a feedback loop describing eNodeB transmitter operation and UE
recommendations. Both the eNodeB and UE contain a codebook which describes possible RF
parameters, for example, the phase shift between antenna ports. In closed loop MIMO, the UE
describes eNodeB transmitter operation by returning an index into the shared codebook.
Closed loop operation uses the following steps.
1. The eNodeB transmits a DL pilot channel as a reference signal on all antenna ports.
2. The UE evaluates various codebook options that specify the RF parameters.
3. The UE transmits its recommendations in the form of a codebook index to the eNodeB.
4. The eNodeB adjusts its DL transmission to the UE based on the recommended parameters.

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Differences between Mode 3 and 4


3GPP Mode 3
Open loop spatial multiplexing
Multiple antennas transmitting
different signals
No feedback from the UE used
Improves user data rate

3GPP Mode 4
Closed Loop spatial multiplexing
Multiple antennas transmitting
different signals
Feedback from the UE used
Improves user data rate

In case of open loop spatial multiplex two cases have to be distinguished. If the transmitted rank indication (TRI) = 1 the
transmission mode corresponds to transmit diversity.
If TRI >1 large delay CDD is used. The number of layers is 2, 3 or 4.
In case of closed loop spatial multiplexing feedback from the UE it is used.
The UE feedbacks values of the RI = Rank Indicator and PMI = Precoding Matrix Indicator.
In case of 2 antenna ports the codebook consists of 2 matrices, in case of 4 antenna ports there are 16 entries. A restriction
may be signaled so that only a subset thereof can be used.
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MIMO for LTE


Transmission Modes in 3GPP
Antenna Mapping and Precoding
Transmission Diversity
Spatial Multiplexing
Examples
Advanced MIMO techniques

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Examples of MIMO Usage


Spatial
multiplexing

Transmission
diversity

MIMO type

Gain downlink

Transmission
diversity 2x2 MIMO

+35dB downlink
link budget due to
SINR improvement

Spatial multiplexing
2X2 MIMO

+100% peak data


rate

Spatial multiplexing
4X4 MIMO

+300% peak data


rate

Typically, close to the eNodeB Spatial multiplexing could be used to improve the throughput
At the cell edge Transmission diversity could be used to improve the coverage
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Single Antenna Port and DL Reference Signals


DL RS, Extended TCP

DL RS, Normal TCP


f=1
Reference

f=2

Signal

f=3

Resource
f=11

Element

f=12
S=0
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S=6
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S=0
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S=5

2 Port DL Reference Signals, Normal TCP


DL RS, Normal TCP
Port 0
R0

Reference
Signal

Port 0

R0

R0

Not used
on this port

R0

Port 1

R1

Reference
Signal

eNodeB

R1

Port 1
R1

Not used
on this port
R1
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2 Port DL Reference Signals, Extended TCP


DL RS, Extended TCP
Port 0
R0

Reference
Signal

Port 0

R0

R0

R0

Not used
on this port

R1

Port 1
Reference

eNodeB

R1

Port 1
R1

Signal

Not used
on this port
R1

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Antenna Port Layering

eNodeB

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4 Port DL Reference Signals, Normal TCP


Even Slot

Odd Slot
Port 0
R0

R0

Reference
Signal

Port 0

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

R1

R1

Not used
on this port

Port 1

eNodeB

R1

Port 1

Reference
Signal

R1

R1

R1
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R1

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R1

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4 Port RS, Normal TCP Continued


Even Slot

Odd Slot

R2

Port 2

Port 2

Reference

R2

Signal
R2

Not used
on this
port

R2

R3

eNodeB

R3

Port 3

Port 3

R3

Reference
Signal
R3
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Antenna Port Layering

0
1

2
3

eNodeB

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MIMO for LTE


Transmission Modes in 3GPP
Antenna Mapping and Precoding
Transmission Diversity
Spatial Multiplexing
Examples
Advanced MIMO techniques

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Enhanced Multi-antenna Techniques in Downlink


Extension up to 8-stream transmission
Rel. 8 LTE supports up to 4-stream transmission, LTE-Advanced supports up to 8-stream transmission
Satisfy the requirement for peak spectrum efficiency, i.e., 30 bps/Hz
Specify additional reference signals (RS)
Two RSs are specified in addition to Rel. 8 common RS (CRS)
Channel state information RS (CSI-RS)
UE-specific demodulation RS (DM-RS)

UE-specific DM-RS, which is precoded, makes it possible to apply non-codebook-based


precoding

UE-specific DM-RS will enable application of enhanced multi-user beamforming such as zero
forcing (ZF) for, e.g., 4-by-2 MIMO

CSI feedback
Max. 8 streams

Higher-order MIMO up
to 8 streams
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Enhanced
MU-MIMO
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Enhanced Multi-antenna Techniques in Downlink, cont.


Release 10 has enhanced the reference signal design with user specific reference symbols
for signal demodulation and common reference symbols for feedback purposes in downlink
and more orthogonal reference signal structure in uplink. The enhanced design enables
better performance when the number of antenna branches is high.
Downlink MIMO has already been included in LTE Release 8. The LTE Release 8 codebook
and reference symbol design was found to be quite optimum for two and four transmit
antennas (2x2, 2x4 and 4x4 antenna configurations), but the channel state information
feedback from UE to eNB could have been more accurate. This limitation is overcome by
the new reference symbol design of Release 10, which is also more effective when the
number of transmit antennas is higher. Based on the studies and numerous contributions in
3GPP, it can be safely concluded that the higher the number of antennas, the higher is the
gain that Release 10 MIMO provides in downlink. With two eNB and two UE antennas,
Release 10 downlink MIMO provides no improvements over release 8 in SU-MIMO mode
but small performance improvements have been gained in MU-MIMO mode. In most cases
it is best to operate two TX antenna eNBs in Release 8 SU-MIMO mode. When eNB has
four transmit antennas, Release 10 downlink MIMO gain is more than 20% over Release 8
and with eight transmit antennas a bit higher. Reference symbol overhead effects on system
performance are significant with four and eight transmit antennas. Therefore the selection of
MIMO operating modes and system parameters for both Release 8 and 10 UE is a critical
network optimization task.

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LTE-A DL MIMO
Up to 8-stream transmission (8x2 MIMO)
single user (SU)-MIMO up to 4-stream transmission
Additional reference signals (RS):
Channel state information RS (CSI-RS)
UE-specific demodulation RS (DM-RS)

4 antenna ports

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LTE-A DL MIMO, cont.


An important point worth remembering is that the network should also support Release 8
and 9 UE which does not benefit from the Release 10 enhancements. The capacity gain
from Release 10 downlink MIMO enhancements could even be negative since new
reference symbols create overhead for all UE. However, these overheads can be decreased
by decreasing the Release 8 and 9 specific reference symbols, but this would prevent nonLTE-A UE to operate in MIMO mode and thus lower their data rates. Additionally, there
would be negative effects on common control channel performance. Consequently, the
timing of the introduction of the new features and the configuration of the system parameters
are essential for an optimum performance of the LTE network.
CSI - For downlink channel sounding / Sparse, low overhead (configurable)
CSI = PMI(precoding matrix indicator) + RI(rank indicator) + CQI (channel quality indicator)
DM - UE-specific DM-RS, which is precoded, makes it possible to apply non-codebookbased precoding (precoding based on CSI feedback and/or UL sounding)- UE-specific DMRS will enable application of enhanced multi-user beamformingsuch as zero forcing (ZF) for,
e.g., 4-by-2 MIMO - DM RS pattern for higher numbers of layers is extended for 2-layer
format for transmission mode 8 in Rel-9 //CDM between RS of two layers// E.g. for 4
antenna ports:

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Enhanced Multi-antenna Techniques in Uplink


Introduction of single user (SU)-MIMO up to 4-stream transmission

Whereas Rel. 8 LTE does not support SU-MIMO, LTE-Advanced supports up to 4-stream transmission
Satisfy the requirement for peak spectrum efficiency, i.e., 15 bps/Hz

Signal detection scheme with affinity to DFT-Spread OFDM for SU-MIMO

Turbo serial interference canceller (SIC) is assumed to be used for eNB receivers to achieve higher
throughput performance for DFT-Spread OFDM
Improve user throughput, while maintaining single-carrier based signal transmission

Max. 4 streams

SU-MIMO up to 4 streams

Uplink MIMO provides significantly higher peak rates and improved spectrum efficiency in uplink direction.
SU-MIMO provides mainly increased data rates in lightly loaded networks for high-end multi-transmitter UE,
whereas MU-MIMO can offer significant improvement of spectrum efficiency even with single transmitter
UE. This can boost network capacity at low costs The LTE-A system can operate in both SU and MU-MIMO
modes at the same time using dynamic user specific MIMO transmission configuration.
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LTE-A UL MIMO
UL transmit diversity for PUCCH
Single user (SU)-MIMO up to 4-stream transmission (2x4)
MU MIMO supported

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LTE-A DM-RS

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LTE-A MBSFN subframe


LTE-A can configure MBSFN subframes to schedule non MBSFN data (PDSCH).

Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) is used instead of PDSCH.


Special RS pattern with higher density in frequency domain supports longer delay spread
from multi-cell transmission.
Multimedia Broadcast Single Frequency Network(MBSFN) mode of operation is supported by EUTRAN to
enable efficient multicell transmission of EMBMS services
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