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Conceptual Physics, 11e (Hewitt)

Chapter 17 Change of Phase


17.1 Questions About Change of Phase
1) Wrapping a hot potato in aluminum foil significantly reduces the rate at which it cools by
A) conduction.
B) condensation.
C) evaporation.
D) melting.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Evaporation
2) The molecules in a room-temperature glass of water jostle around at
A) a great variety of speeds.
B) much the same rates of speed.
C) a very small range of speeds.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: Evaporation
3) Evaporation is a cooling process and condensation is
A) a warming process.
B) a cooling process also.
C) neither a warming nor cooling process.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: Evaporation, Condensation
4) Evaporation is a cooling process because
A) heat is radiated during the process.
B) of conduction and convection.
C) the more energetic molecules are able to escape the liquid.
D) the temperature of the remaining liquid decreases.
E) none of these
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: Evaporation
5) To say that evaporation is a cooling process is to say that the
A) more energetic particles escape.
B) more energetic particles remain in the water.
C) the less energetic particles escape.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: Evaporation
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6) A hot dog pants


A) to help evaporation occur in its mouth and bronchial tract.
B) to bring more oxygen into its lungs.
C) for no particular reason some things just happen.
D) to impress dogs of the opposite sex.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: Evaporation
7) Steam burns are more damaging than burns caused by boiling water because steam
A) gives up additional energy when it condenses.
B) has more energy per kilogram than boiling water.
C) Choices A and B are both correct.
D) Choices B and C are both incorrect.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: Condensation
8) We feel uncomfortably warm on a muggy day because water molecules are
A) evaporating from our moist bodies.
B) condensing on our bodies.
C) evaporating and condensing on our bodies at the same rate.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: Condensation
9) We are warmed by condensation because water molecules in the air that strike our bodies
A) transfer some of their kinetic energy to us.
B) gain kinetic energy as they change state.
C) form an insulating layer on our bodies.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Condensation
10) When a gas is changed to a liquid state, the gas
A) releases energy.
B) absorbs energy.
C) neither releases nor absorbs energy.
D) both releases and absorbs energy.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: Change of Phase

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11) When a solid is changed to a liquid state, the solid


A) releases energy.
B) absorbs energy.
C) neither releases nor absorbs energy.
D) both releases and absorbs energy.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: Change of Phase
12) When liquids change to a solid state, they
A) absorb energy.
B) release energy.
C) neither absorb nor release energy.
D) both absorb and release energy.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: Change of Phase
13) Which could burn a boy scout the most?
A) 100 g of water at 100 degrees C
B) 100 g of steam at 100 degrees C
C) Both would be equally damaging.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: Condensation
14) When heat is added to boiling water, its temperature
A) increases.
B) decreases.
C) does not change.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: Boiling
15) Boiling water does not increase in temperature when additional heat is applied because
A) the temperature doesn't change in a Change of Phase.
B) added input energy doesn't increase the water's internal energy.
C) the increased heating produces increased boiling, and therefore increased cooling.
D) none of these
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Boiling

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16) For increased atmospheric pressure, the boiling temperature of a liquid


A) goes down.
B) goes up.
C) remains at 100 degrees C.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: Boiling
17) Increased air pressure on the surface of hot water tends to
A) prevent boiling.
B) promote boiling.
C) Neither choice A nor choice B is true.
D) Choice A and choice B are both true.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: Boiling
18) Near the top of a mountain, water in an open pot boils at
A) a higher temperature than at sea level.
B) a lower temperature than at sea level.
C) the same temperature as at sea level.
D) None of the above choices are true.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: Boiling
19) The food in a refrigerator is cooled by
A) vaporization of the refrigerating fluid.
B) condensation of the refrigerating fluid.
C) the ice in your nearby freezer.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: Energy and Changes of Phase
20) Hot water has a relatively high rate of
A) evaporation.
B) condensation.
C) conductivity.
D) convection.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: Energy and Changes of Phase

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21) Suppose you walk on red-hot coals with bare feet. If bits of the coals do not stick to your
feet, it would be best if your feet are
A) wet.
B) dry.
C) warm.
D) cold.
E) very hot.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: Energy and Changes of Phase
22) To turn ice at zero degrees Celsius to water at zero degrees Celsius, we must add
A) temperature.
B) energy.
C) force.
D) time.
E) It can't be done water is always warmer than that.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: Change of Phase
23) Compared to a glass of ice water with ice in it, a glass of plain ice-cold water without ice on
a warm day will warm up
A) faster.
B) slower.
C) in the same amount of time.
D) None of the above choices are true.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Change of Phase
24) To increase the temperature of 50 grams of water by 2 Celsius degrees requires
A) 0.04 calorie.
B) 2 calories.
C) 4.18 calories.
D) 25 calories.
E) 100 calories.
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Topic: Energy and Changes of Phase

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25) To melt 50 grams of 0-degree-Celsius ice requires


A) 25 calories.
B) 50 calories.
C) 80 calories.
D) none of these
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Energy and Changes of Phase
26) To turn 50 grams of boiling water to steam requires
A) 50 calories.
B) 500 calories
C) 540 calories.
D) more calories than are required to bring 50 grams of ice at absolute zero to the boiling point.
E) None of the above choices are correct.
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Energy and Changes of Phase
27) When bringing water to a boil in the mountains, the time needed to reach the boiling point is
A) less than at sea level.
B) more than at sea level.
C) the same as at sea level.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Boiling
Figure 17-B

28) Food in a pressure cooker is cooked faster because of the


A) higher temperature.
B) greater rate of bubble formation in the water.
C) increased internal energy in the water.
D) Choices A, B, and C are all true.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Boiling

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29) Food cooked in boiling water at a mountain top cooks slower than when cooked at sea level.
If the temperature under the pot of boiling water is increased, the food will cook
A) faster at the mountain top.
B) faster at sea level.
C) faster at both places.
D) no differently than it did before the increase.
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Boiling
30) If you want to cook eggs by boiling them while in the mountains, then compared to sea-level
cooking, you should
A) use a hotter flame.
B) boil the eggs for a shorter time.
C) boil the eggs for a longer time.
D) None of the above choices are true.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Boiling
31) The operation of a geyser, such as Old Faithful in Yellowstone Park, is most like the
operation of a
A) vacuum bottle.
B) canteen.
C) coffee percolator.
D) teakettle.
E) vat of molten lead.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Geysers
32) When snow forms in clouds, the surrounding air
A) warms.
B) cools.
C) neither warms nor cools.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Change of Phase
33) Melting snow
A) warms the surrounding air.
B) cools the surrounding air.
C) neither warms nor cools the surrounding air.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: Change of Phase
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34) When water vapor condenses on the inside of a window, the room becomes slightly
A) warmer.
B) cooler.
C) neither warmer nor cooler.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: Change of Phase
35) A refrigerator
A) produces cold.
B) causes internal energy to disappear.
C) removes internal energy from inside the refrigerator.
D) changes heat into cold.
E) none of these
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Change of Phase
36) The cooling effect inside a refrigerator is produced by
A) an electric motor that converts electrical energy into internal energy.
B) compressing the refrigeration gas into a liquid.
C) vaporizing the refrigeration liquid.
D) proper insulation.
E) replacing the warmer air with colder air.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Change of Phase
37) On a humid day, water condenses on the outside of a glass of ice water. This phenomenon
occurs mainly because of
A) the porosity of glass.
B) capillary action.
C) adhesion of water molecules to glass.
D) the saturation of cooled air.
E) evaporation.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Condensation in the Atmosphere
38) An inventor discovers a harmless and tasteless salt, which changes its boiling point when
added to water. The market value for this salt will be best if the salt
A) lowers the boiling point of water.
B) raises the boiling point of water.
C) either raises or lowers the boiling point, as the food would be cooked either way.
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Boiling
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Figure 17-C

39) The phenomenon of regelation depends on the


A) freezing point of water.
B) melting point of water.
C) open-structured nature of ice crystals.
D) high specific heat of water.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: Regelation
40) Morning dew on the grass is a result of
A) evaporation of water.
B) the open-structured form of water crystals.
C) air pressure on water vapor.
D) slow-moving water molecules sticking to one another.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: Change of Phase
41) Ice is put in a cooler to cool the contents. To speed up the cooling process, the ice can be
A) wrapped in newspaper.
B) drained of ice water periodically.
C) kept out of contact with the food.
D) kept in one solid chunk.
E) covered with salt.
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Topic: Change of Phase
42) Firefighters find that the temperature of burning material is best lowered when water is
A) used in small amounts.
B) pointed away from the flames.
C) sprayed as a fine mist.
D) salted.
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Change of Phase
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43) Consider a steaming aluminum soda-pop can that contains a small amount of boiling water.
When it is quickly inverted into a bath of cooler water the can is dramatically crushed by
atmospheric pressure. This occurs because the pressure inside the can is rapidly reduced by
A) contact with the relatively cool water.
B) sudden slowing of the air and steam molecules inside.
C) condensation of steam inside.
D) reduced internal energy.
E) rapid conduction of heat to the relatively cool water.
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Change of Phase
44) The calories needed to change 10 grams of ice at zero degrees C to steam at 100 degrees C is
A) 6200.
B) 6400.
C) 7200.
D) 8000.
E) None of the above choices are correct.
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Change of Phase
45) Which involves the larger number of calories?
A) the condensation of 1 gram of steam at 100 degrees Celsius to water at 100 degrees
B) the cooling of 1 gram of water at 100 degrees Celsius to 1 gram of ice at absolute zero
C) Both involve the same number of calories.
D) Neither involves calories.
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Topic: Change of Phase
46) The minimum amount of 100-degree-C steam needed to melt 1 gram of 0-degree-Celsius ice
is
A) 0.125 gram.
B) 0.148 gram.
C) 6.75 grams.
D) 8 grams.
E) none of these
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Topic: Change of Phase

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47) The mass of ice that can be melted by 1 gram of 100-degree-C steam is
(Hint: Don't forget about hot water remaining from condensed steam.)
A) 0.125 gram.
B) 0.148 gram.
C) 6.75 grams.
D) 8 grams.
E) none of these
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Topic: Change of Phase
48) A substance can be sprayed on crops to prevent frost formation under many conditions. If
frost did not form on the fields and woods of an entire continent, cold nights would be
A) less cold.
B) even colder.
C) no different.
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Change of Phase
49) Stored potatoes, beets, and rutabagas freeze at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius
(rather than at exactly zero) because
A) they are good radiators of energy.
B) they are good absorbers of radiant energy.
C) the water in them contains dissolved salts and sugars.
D) they are very dense.
E) All of the above choices are true.
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Topic: Change of Phase
50) Stored potatoes, beets, and rutabagas in a well-insulated but unheated room can be protected
from freezing by having in the room
A) large blocks of foam plastic.
B) large tubs of water.
C) large rocks.
D) large blocks of salt.
E) large cubes of sugar.
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Topic: Change of Phase

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51) When a block of ice at zero degrees Celsius melts, the ice
A) absorbs energy from its environment.
B) releases energy to its environment.
C) absorbs energy and gets warmer.
D) releases energy and gets warmer.
E) absorbs energy but does not change its temperature.
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Topic: Change of Phase
52) A factor that usually determines whether a substance is in the solid, liquid, gaseous, or
plasma state is its
A) composition.
B) atomic number.
C) atomic shell configuration.
D) temperature.
E) none of these
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: Change of Phase

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