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• Organisational change, re-structuring, cross

functional teams, devolving HR responsibilities to
line managers
• Quality management system(Cooper et al 2003)
People Resourcing • Attracting, recruiting and retaining quality people
• Changing ’careers’ perspective, work/life
Recruitment and Selection 1 balance(White et al,2004)
• War for Talent (Brown & Hesketh,2004)
• Fairness-Equality and Diversity(Moynagh et al,2005)
• Costs, competition

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Herriot & Anderson (1997) The changing nature of work roles

• ‘Environmental drivers’ • Cost- cutting (increase productivity),customer facing
and innovation
• ‘deep rooted changes in organisations • Decline of jobs and the emergence of work roles
• ‘dominant predictivist paradigm’ becoming • Psychological contract-relational to
‘maladaptive to its environment’ transactional(Rousseau,1990)
• Research should focus on selecting for • Flexible work roles,newly created
change,multiple levels of analysis,cross-cultural jobs,teamworking,concerns over organisational
transferability of theory,different theory (predictivist fit,moves towards a segmented labour
versus constructivist) market,proactive career management by the

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• Predictivist perspective (Smith and Robertson,1993)

Dominant perspective Psychometric/Traditional approach Predictivist perspective
North American
• Selection as rational and strategic,evaluating selection • Person-job fit is of primary importance (Cook,1993)
processes-reliability,validity,utility and fairness,best
methods • The job is viewed as a stable entity, recruitment of
the most suitable candidate
• Constructivist perspective (Herriot,1989 Iles & • Job analysis, person specification, selection criteria,
Robertson,1997) recruitment, selection,
• European approach Exchange perspective-exchange and • Selection methods are ‘predictors’, applicant the
negotiation ‘subject’
• Uncertainty and competition, changing work design and • Weaknesses, consideration of the following?
job role requirements • Changes in job design, flexible forms of work, team
• The role of applicants,social processes(the interview) based roles, erosion of specialisation
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The predictivist perspective Evaluating selection methods
• ‘Selection methods are …referred to as
‘predictors’ with the more accurate methods • Criterion-related (predictive) validity
accounting for future jobs performance more • Reliability
fully than less accurate predictors.The
applicant is seen as ‘subject’ to selection • Financial return of selection method
methods for which control is vested squarely • Adverse impact (fairness,equal opportunities)
in the hands of the organisation (Chmiel p.72) • Organisational results(retention,productivity)

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Selection Process
• Reliability test-retest reliability, tester reliability, ’test’ • PREDICTORS The signals used by the
reliability organisation to predict future job performance
• Correlation co-efficient r =1.0 perfect positive • Interview rating
• Validity-predictive or criterion-related validity • Test scores
• The relationship between the predictors (results • Group discussion rating
from the selection methods used ) and the criterion • CRITERIA The measures of successful job
(the performance in the job) It must discriminate
between candidates in terms of subsequent performance used by the organisation against
behaviour in the job which the predictor is judged
• Usefulness • Eg supervisor rating of a good employee
• Weaknesses by employers in reviewing these areas

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The dominant predictivist/traditional Rodgers 7 point plan(1952)

approach Personal qualities essential or desirable
• Attracting people who will make a contribution • Physical make up
• Systematic review of organisations requirements • Attainments
• Job analysis • General intelligence
• Job description-purpose of the job, tasks, expected • Special aptitudes
performance standards, responsibilities • Interests
• Job specification-psychological and behavioural • Disposition
requirements of the job • Circumstances
• Behavioural competencies • Reliance on personal judgement, potentially

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Job Competencies
Munro Fraser (1978)
• Impact on others • Emphasis on Job Competencies rather than
personal qualities
• Acquired knowledge • Focus on behaviours
• Innate abilities • Effective Individual behaviours-organisational
performance (Boam &Sparrow,1992,Dale &Iles
• Motivation 1992)
• Emotional adjustment • Demonstration of competencies-situational and
behavioural examples
• Reliance on personal judgement, potentially • ‘an underlying characteristic of a person which
discriminatory results in effective and/or superior performance

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Constructive perspective Constructivist/social process

• Organisations need to compete for the best perspective
• Candidates as well as organisations make decisions • ‘ recruitment and selection constitute the initial
in selection episodes in the developing relationship
• ‘ a viable psychological contract’ (Herriot,1989) between individual and organisation.Selection
• ‘an implicit contract between an individual and is not the gate through which applicants must
his/her organisation which specifies what each
expect to give and receive from each other in their
pass before they can relate to the
relationship’ organisation;it is itself part of that
• ‘Person-organisation fit’ (values and organisational relationship(Herriot,1989) in Smith &
culture) Robertson
• ‘Person-team fit’ (skills, attitudes and working group)
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Social process theories Social validity

• Increase the focus on the applicant • Information about job and organisation
• The recruitment stage • Participation/control
• The interview • Transparency of the situation
• Herriot-importance of subjective interpersonal • Feedback (Schuler 1993)
elements of selection role-making 2 way • Scholarios & Lockyer(1999) informal
expectation, information networks and interviews
• reciprocity,episodes(Argyle),power of the (professional firms in Scotland)
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Equality and diversity Selection Methods(Chmiel,2000)
• Tight labour markets Diverse workforce-increase in female • The Interview is still the most common method for
employment, minority ethnic groups, disabled, demographics- selection
• Application forms CVs and biodata
• Legislation-Sex Discrimination Act,1975,Race • Telephone screening • Realistic job previews
• Relations Act 1976(Amendment) Regulations 2003 • Interviews
Amendment) • Cognitive Ability tests
• Disability Discrimination Act (1995)
• Personality Tests
• Age –to be introduced 2006 • Integrity and Honesty Tests
• Religious belief, Sexual orientation December 2003 • Work samples • Assessment Centres
• References
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Additional references
• Herriot,P (1989)’Selection as a social process in Smith,M and
Robertson,I.I (Eds) Advances in Selection and
Assessment.Wiley.Chichester pp 171-187
• Anderson,N(2001)’ Towards a theory of socialisation
impact:selection as a pre-entry socialization’ International
Journal of Selection and Assessment vol.9.pp 84-91
• Scholarios,D and Lockyer,C (1999) Recruiting and selecting
professionals:context,qualities and method’ International
Journal of Selection and Assessment vol.7,no3,pp142-156
• White,M,Hill, S,Mills,C and Smeaton,D(2004) Managing to
Change?Palgrave MacMillan
• Moynagh,M & Worsley,R (2005) Working in the 21st
Century,ESRC and the Tomorrow Project.
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