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1. Unprecedented land use conversion
- The conversion of agricultural
lands to commercial use has left
farmers only poorer and with
little or no land to till. Because of
land use conversions (LUCs), farm
area fell by 304,078 hectares
between 1991 and 2002.
- Earlier cases of farmlands
converted for commercial,
residential and eco-tourism
ventures have also led to
certificates of land ownerships
awards (CLOA) cancellations and
the eviction of hundreds of
peasant families such as the First
Cavite Industrial Estate by
Marubeni Corporation of Japan
involving 232 hectares; Hacienda
Looc in Batangas with 8,650
hectares, 400 hectares in Aplaya
Laiya, Batangas and 218 hectares
in Silang and Dasmarinas, Cavite.
2. Land Monopoly Monified
- While government claims that the
CARP has successfully reached
80% of its reduced scope, genuine
land distribution remains elusive.
Only 1% of the entire Philippine
population still owns almost 1/5
of the country's total agricultural
lands while 2 million farmers are
left to divide another 1/5 among
- Land reform programs have been
slow to acquire most of privately
owned-land, including
commercial farms and
- It is therefore not surprising that
the landscape of land ownership
in the Philippines has barely
changed. In fact, big landlords
remain dominant around the
country, such as Danding
Cojuangco Jr. owning 30,000

hectares in Negros, Isabela,

Cagayan, Davao del Sur, Palawan
and Cotobato; the Cojuangcos,
Faustino Dy and Juan Ponce Enrile
sharing 13,085 hectares in Iligan,
Isabela; the Zobel-Ayalas with
more than 12,000 hectares of
land in Calatagan, Batangas and
the Floreindo Family with 11,048
hectares in Davao and Davao del
3. Unjust rent, low wages and usury
- Apart from the ages-old miserable
working conditions of Filipino
peasants prevalent in foreign and
local agribusinesses, haciendas
and farms, feudal rent, low wages
and usury continue to burden the
Filipino peasant.
- The 60-40 to 10-90 distribution of
gross harvest favorable to
landlords remains intact
- The actual amount peasants earn
fall way below the agricultural
daily minimum wages that range
from P151 to P212 nationwide.
- Extreme poverty compels farmers
to usury, where they are obliged
to pay high interest rates for
credit. It ranges from 15%-35%
per cropping season up to
anywhere between 100%-300%
per harvest and 400% per year.
4. Lack of Support
Agrarian Reform Communities
(ARCs) have not progressed both
in scope and in terms of support
received demonstrates how CARP
is bound to fail even despite its
five-year extension.
- However, only 3 out of 10 CARP
beneficiaries are covered by 1,959
ARCs. ARCs also suffer from lack
of government support.
- The CARP itself suffers from lack
of support. According to a
German Technical Assistance
(GTZ)-commissioned review of the
CARP in 2007, CARP lacked the

support services and credit that

farmer beneficiaries needed to
5. Pushing the peasantry deeper in
- These ventures are seen to
worsen the problems in the
production of rice, vegetable and
livestock industry brought about
by the influx of imported
agricultural products.
- The country is now the world's
no. 1 rice importer, pushing
farmers and producers into
deeper debt and poverty.
1. Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law
or the RA 6657
The State shall recognize the
right of farmers, farmworkers
and landowners, as well as
cooperatives and other
independent farmers'
organizations, to participate
in the planning, organization,
and management of the
program, and shall
provide support to agriculture
through appropriate
technology and research, and
adequate financial
production, marketing and
other support services.
- It is an act which aims to promote
social justice and industrialization,
providing the mechanism for its
implementation, and for other
- It is the legal basis of CARP, or the
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform
- CARP is the redistribution of
public and private agricultural
lands to farmers and farmworkers
who are landless, irrespective of
tenurial arrangement. CARPs
vision is to have an equitable land
ownership with empowered
agrarian reform beneficiaries who

can effectively manage their

economic and social development
to have a better quality of life.
One of the major programs of
CARP is Land Tenure
Improvement, which seeks to
hasten distribution of lands to
landless farmers. Similarly, the
Department offers Support
Services to the beneficiaries such
as infrastructure facilities,
marketing assistance program,
credit assistance program, and
technical support programs.
Furthermore, the department
seeks to facilitate, resolve cases
and deliver Agrarian Justice.

2. Magna Carta of Small Farmers or the

RA 7607

It is the declared policy of the State

to give highest priority to the
development of agriculture, such
that, equitable distribution of benefits
and opportunities is realized through
the empowerment of
small farmers.

The statute contains a statement

of Government policy, affirming
certain fundamental rights and
obligations of small farmers as
well as a number of Government
Among small farmers' rights is
that to duly elect farmers'
representatives to have a seat on
the board of interested national
Government agencies, and to
serve as members of planning and
implementing units of local
governments (sect. 6).
The Government's obligations
amount to a vast programme of
socio-economic development for
the benefit of small farmers,
ranging from the provision of
infrastructure and inputs (sects.
10-17) to the provision of support
services for water resources
management and irrigation (sects.

19 and 20), and from the

provision of agricultural credit
facilities (sects. 21 and 22) to
various forms of incentives and
price support (sects. 23-27).
Among other things, the Act
directs that a ceiling of 75 percent
of commercial rates shall apply to
credit rates for small farmers; and
provides for the consolidation of
all agricultural lending
programmes of the Government
in the Land Bank of the
Philippines (sect. 21).
"Small farmers" are defined in
the Act according to the
predominance of subsistence
farming as a source of income and
on the value of agricultural
income. Provision is made for the
periodic review and adjustment of
the latter to reflect inflation and
other pertinent factors of change
(sect. 4(1)).

3. Organic Agriculture Act of 2010 or

the RA 10068
- It was on April 6, 2010 when the
Republic Act No. 10068 or more
Philippine Organic Agriculture
Act was approved which declares
the policy of the state to promote,
propagate, develop further and
implement the practice of organic
agriculture in the Philippines that will
cumulatively condition and enrich the
fertility of the soil, increase farm
productivity, reduce pollution and
destruction of the environment,
prevent the depletion of natural
resources, further protect the health
of farmers, consumers and the
general public, and save program for
the promotion of community-based
organic agriculture systems which
include, among others, farmer
produced purely organic fertilizers
such as compost, pesticides and other
farm inputs, together with a

promotional campaign for their use
and processing, as well as the
adoption of organic agricultural
system as a viable alternative shall be
- The state recognizes and supports
the central role of farmers,
indigenous people and other
stakeholders at the grassroots in
this program.
- Under Section 5 of RA10068 is the
National Organic Agriculture
Program where it is hereby
established a comprehensive
organic agricultural program
through the promotion and
commercialization of organic
farming practices, cultivation and
adoption of production and
processing methods which have
already been developed, or to be
developed, continuing research
and upgrading thereof, the
capacity building of farmers and
the education of consumers
thereon, the extension of
assistance to local government
units (LGUs), peoples
organizations (NGOs) and other
stakeholders including individuals
and groups who are willing to do
other pertinent activities, and
documentation and evaluation of
the program.
- Research and Development for
continuing research and
upgrading of relevant
technologies is one of the
identified key components for the
institutionalization of a
comprehensive organic
agriculture program.
- The Bureau of Agricultural
Research, in line with its mandate
and commitment to consolidate,
strengthen and develop the
agriculture and fishery R&D
system for the purpose of

improving its effectiveness and

efficiency, under Section 20 of
RA10068 has been assigned to
lead and coordinate among
research and educational
institutions, local government
units, non-government
organizations, recognized
associations of interest groups to
develop, enhance and support,
and consolidate activities for the
formulation and implementation
of a unified organizations,
recognized associations of
interest groups to develop,
enhance and support, and
consolidate activities for the
formulation and implementation
of a unified and integrated
organic agriculture research
development and extension
(RD&E) plans and programs from
the national down to the field