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5/31/15

important due to large number of heating and cooling problems in industry
eg. In metallurgical and food processing
Time dependent
eg. Hot Metal slab is removed from a furnace and exposed to a cool stream or
surrounding.

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Chem. Eng. Dept

BIOT NUMBER
Biot number NBi compares the relative values of internal conduction
resistance & surface convective resistance

N Bi =

resistance to internal heat flow hx1

=
resistance to external heat flow k

NBi < 0.1

Lumped thermal capacity single mass averaged temperature
where

x1 = characteristic dimension of the body = V/A

Sphere
Long Cylinder
Long Square Rod

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x1 = r/3
x1 = r/2
x1 = x/2 where x = thickness
Chem. Eng. Dept

5/31/15

HEAT TRANSFER DIFFUSION EQUATION

conduction in one direction in a solid

qz |z + !z

q y| y
q x| x + !x

q x| x
z

qz |z

Rate of heat Input + rate of Generation = rate of heat Output + rate of heat Accumulation

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HEAT TRANSFER DIFFUSION EQUATION

Rate of heat Input + rate of Generation = rate of heat Output + rate of heat Accumulation

rate of heat input :

q x| x = !k("y."z)

rate of heat ouput:

q x| x + !x = "k(!y.!z)

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#T
#x

x + !x

\$T
\$x

("x"y"z)q

("x"y"z) #c p

#T
#x

q =

% #T
"k'
& #x

"
x +\$x

\$x

#T
#x

(
*
x +\$x )

= +c p

#T
#x

5/31/15

HEAT TRANSFER DIFFUSION EQUATION

conduction in one direction in a solid

"T
k " 2T
q
" 2T
q
=
+
=
\$
2
2 +
"x #c p "x
#c p
"x
#c p
conduction in 3 dimensions:

!
\$ " 2T " 2T " 2T ' q
"T
= #& 2 + 2 + 2 ) +
"x
"y
"z ( *c p
% "x

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HEAT TRANSFER DIFFUSION EQUATION

Cartesian coordinates ;

\$ # 2T # 2T # 2T ' q
#T
"& 2 + 2 + 2 ) +
=
#y
#z ( *c p #t
% #x
Cylindrical coordinates:

1 " # "T & 1 " 2T " 2T q 1 "T

+
+ =
%r ( +
r "r \$ "r ' r 2 ") 2 "z 2 k * "t

Spherical coordinates :

1 " # 2 "T &

1
" *
"T 1
" 2T q 1 "T
sin ) / + 2 2
+ =
%r
(+ 2
,
2
r "r \$ "r ' r sin ) ") +
") . r sin ) "0 2 k 1 "t
k = a + bT

FKKKSA

Chem. Eng. Dept

5/31/15

Lumped capacity /Newtonian heating or cooling method

where

Negligible/ very low internal conductive resistance (NBi < 0.1) :

hA t

c V
T T
= e p
To T
(hA/cp V)t
Q = cpV(To T )[1 e
]
To = temperature of object at t = 0 (K)
T = average temperature of object at t s
T = sudden change in ambient temperature at t = 0
A = surface area of object (m2)
V = volume of object (m3)
3
= density of object (kg/m
... )
t = time (s)
Q = total amount of heat transferred from the object

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EXAMPLE 5.2-1 & 2

A steel ball having a radius of 25.4 mm is at a uniform temperature of 699.9 K. It
is suddenly plunged into a medium whose temperature is held constant at 394.3
K. Assuming a convective coefficient of h = 11.36 W/m2.K, calculate the
temperature of the ball and the total amount of heat removed after 1 h. The
average physical properties are k = 43.3 W/m.K, = 7849 kg/m3 and cp = 0.4606
kJ/kg.K.
Ans: 474.9 K, 5.589 x 104 J

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5/31/15

FLAT PLATE WITH NEGLIGIBLE SURFACE RESISTANCE

Very large heat transfer coefficient at the surface or a relatively large
conductive resistance in the object

No convective resistance and unsteady-state conduction in the x-direction only

where
T = T0 and c = c0 at t =0
T1 or c1 = sudden change in ambient temperature or concentration at t = 0
T or c = temperature or concentration in solid at t = t
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FKKKSA

5/31/15

FKKKSA

Chem. Eng. Dept

SOLID
Kk c
DABt
DAB

Surface resistance
Semi-infinte solid:

c c0
c1
c
K 0

where
= thermal diffusivity = k/cp (m2/s)
h, kc = convective transfer coefficient
t = time (s)
DAB = mass diffusivity
K = equilibrium distribution coefficient = cLi/ci
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x
2 DABt

Chem. Eng. Dept

...

5/31/15

EXAMPLE 5.3-1
The depth in the soil of the earth at which freezing temperatures penetrate is
often of importance in agriculture and construction. On a certain fall day, the
temperature in the earth is constant at 15.6 oC to a depth of several meters. A
cold wave suddenly reduces the air temperature from 15.6oC to -17.8 oC. The
soil convective coefficient above the soil is 11.36 W/m2.K. The soil properties
can be assumed as = 4.65 x 10-7 m2/s and k = 0.865 W/m.K. Neglect any latent
heat effects.
a) What is the surface temperature after 5 h?
b) To what depth in the soil will the freezing temperature of 0oCpenetrate in 5h?
Ans: 5.24oC, 0.0293 m

...

FKKKSA

Chem. Eng. Dept

EXAMPLE 7.1-2
A very thick slab has a uniform concentration of solute A of co = 1.0 x 10-2 kgmol
A/m3. Suddenly, the front face of the slab is exposed to a flowing fluid having a
concentration c1 = 0.10 kgmol A/m3 and a convective coefficient kc = 2 x 10-7 m/s.
The equilibrium distribution coefficient K = cLi/ci = 2.0. assuming that the slab is
a semi-infinite solid, calculate the concentration in the solid at the surface and x
= 0.01 m from the surface after t = 3 x 10-4 s. The diffusivity in the solid is DAB =
4 x 10-9 m2/s
Ans: 6.96 x 10-2 kgmol/m3, 2.04 x 10-2 kgmol/m3

FKKKSA

Chem. Eng. Dept

5/31/15

Large flat plate:

where
m = relative resistance
D
m= k
m = AB
hx1
Kk c x1
n = relative position
n = xx
1

c1
c
K
c1
c
K 0

X = relative time
Y = unacccomplished change, a dimensionless ratio
FKKKSA

Chem. Eng. Dept

D AB t
x12

Temperature (or concentration) at center of a large flate plate:
D
m = AB
Kk c x1

c1
c
K
c1
c
K 0

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D AB t
x12
Chem. Eng. Dept

5/31/15

Long cylinder:
where
m = relative resistance
D
m= k
m = AB
hx1
Kk c x1
n = relative position
n = xx
1

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c1
c
K
c1
c
K 0

D AB t
x12

Chem. Eng. Dept

Temperature (or concentration) at center of a long cylinder:
D
m = AB
Kk c x1

c1
c
K
c1
c
K 0

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D AB t
x12
Chem. Eng. Dept

5/31/15

Sphere:
where
m = relative resistance

m= k
hx1

m=

D AB
Kk c x1

n = relative position

n= xx

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c1
c
K
c1
c
K 0

D AB t
x12

Chem. Eng. Dept

Temperature (or concentration) at the center of a sphere:
D
m = AB
Kk c x1

c1
c
K
c1
c
K 0

D AB t
x12
FKKKSA

Chem. Eng. Dept

10

...

5/31/15

EXAMPLE 7.1-1
A solid slab of 5.15 wt. % agar gel at 278K is 10.16 mm thick and contains a
uniform concentrations of urea of 0.1 kgmol/m3. Diffusion is only in the x
direction through two parallel flat surfaces 10.16 mm apart. The slab is suddenly
immersed in pure turbulent water, so the surface resistance can be assumed to
be negligible: that is, the convective coefficient kc is very large. The diffusivity of
urea in the agar is 4.72 x 10-10 m2/s.
a) Calculate the concentration at the midpoint of the slab and 2.54 mm from the
surface after 10 h.
b) If the thickness of the slab is halved, what would be the midpoint
concentration in 10 h?
Ans: 0.0172 kgmol/m3,2.0 x 10-4 kgmol/m3

...

FKKKSA

Chem. Eng. Dept

EXAMPLE 5.3-2
A rectangular slab of butter which is 46.2 mm thick at a temperature of 277.6 K in
a cooler is removed and placed in an environment at 297.1K. The sides and
bottom of the butter container can be considered to be insulated by the container
side walls. The flat top surface of the butter is exposed to the environment. The
convective coefficient is constant at 8.52 W/m2.K. Calculate the temperature in
the butter at the surface, at 25.4 mm below the surface, and at 46.2 mm below
the surface at the insulated bottom after 5h of exposure.
Ans: 19oC, 15.1oC, 14.2 oC

FKKKSA

Chem. Eng. Dept

11

...

5/31/15

EXAMPLE 5.3-3
A cylindrical can of pea puree has a diameter of 68.1 mm and a height of 101.6
mm and is initially at a uniform temperature of 29.4 oC. The cans are stacked
vertically in a retort and steam at 115.6 oC is admitted. For a heating time of 0.75
h at 115.6 oC, calculate the temperature at the center of the can. Assume that the
can is in the center of a vertical stack of cans and that is is insulated on its two
ends by the other cans. The heat capacity of the metal wall of the can will be
neglected. The heat transfer coefficient of the steam is estimated as 4540 W/
m2.K. Physical properties of puree are k = 0.830 W/m.K and = 2.007 x 10-7 m2/
s.
Ans: 104.4oC

FKKKSA

Chem. Eng. Dept

2-dimensional systems:

T T
Yx = 1 x
T1 T0

c1
cx
K
Yx = c
1 c
K 0

Transfer in x & y direction:

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Yr =

T1 " Ty
T1 " T0

Yx,r =! (Yx)(Yr) =
Chem. Eng. Dept

T1 Tx, y
T1 !T0

c1
" cy
Yr = K
c1
"c
K 0
c1
cx, y
=K
c1
c
K 0

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5/31/15

3-dimensional systems:

Yx =

T1 Tx
T1 T0

Yy =

T1 Ty
T1 T0

Yz =

T1 Tz
T1 T0

c1
cx
Yx = K
c1
c
K 0
c1
cy
K
Yy = c
1 c
K 0
c1
cz
Yz = K
c1
c
K 0

Transfer in x, y, & z direction:

c1
cx, y, z
T1 Tx, y, z
K
Yx,y,z = (Yx)(Y
...y)(Yz) = T T = c
1 c
1
0
K 0
FKKKSA

Chem. Eng. Dept

EXAMPLE 5.3-4
A cylindrical can of pea puree has a diameter of 68.1 mm and a height of 101.6
mm and is initially at a uniform temperature of 29.4 oC. The cans are stacked
vertically in a retort and steam at 115.6 oC is admitted. For a heating time of 0.75
h at 115.6 oC, calculate the temperature at the center of the can. Assume that the
can is in the center of a vertical stack of cans and conduction also occurs from
the two flat ends. The heat capacity of the metal wall of the can will be
neglected. The heat transfer coefficient of the steam is estimated as 4540 W/
m2.K. Physical properties of puree are k = 0.830 W/m.K and = 2.007 x 10-7 m2/
s.
Ans: 106.6oC

FKKKSA

Chem. Eng. Dept

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5/31/15

Example:

In a manufacturing process stainless steel cylinders (AISI 304) initially at 600 K are quenched by
submersion in an oil bath maintained at 300 K with h = 500 W/m2 K. Each cylinder is of length
2L = 60 mm and diameter D = 80 mm. Consider a time 3 min into the cooling process and
determine temperatures at the center of the cylinder, at the center of a circular face, and at the
mid-height of the side.

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