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Kertas 2 Bahagian C

PAHANG
Diagram 12.1 shows a typical circuit on a household electrical
appliance that using a fuse.

Diagram 12.1
(a)
(b)

(c)

(d)

What is a fuse?
[ 1 mark ]
Explain the advantages o parallel circuit in a house wiring
system.
[ 4 marks ]
An immersion heater its specifications of 240V , 500 W is used
to boil water. The efficiency of that immersion heater is 85.
(i)
What is meant by 250 V, 500 W?
[ 1 mark ]
(ii) Calculate the electric current that passes through the
immersion heater.
[ 2 marks ]
(iii) Calculate the output power of the immersion heater.
[ 2 marks ]
Fuse takes some time to melt or blow. A fast-blowing fuse is
required to protect semiconductor equipments which cannot
stand high current surge for too long. When a fuse blows,
sparking may occur and produces high temperature. The fuse
wire is placed in a sheath or catridge as shown in Diagram 12.2
to prevent its sparks from causing damage.

PAHANG
(a) A fuse is a very thin wire, which either melts or vaporizes when
too much current flows through it
(b) - A parallel circuit can run several devices using the full
voltage of the supply.
- If one device fails, the others will continue running normally
- If the device shorts, the other devices will receive no voltage,
preventing overload damage.
- A failure of one component does not lead to the failure of the
other components.
- More components may be added in parallel without the need
for more voltage.
- Each electrical appliance in the circuit has it own switch.
(c) (i) The electrical appliance use 240 V of voltage to generates
500 W of power.
(ii) Current = Power/Voltage
Current = 500/240 = 2.08 A
(iii) Efficiency = Output Power x 100 %
Input Power
Output Power = 85 x 500
100
Output power = 425 W
(d)
Characteristics
Explanation
Thin fuse wire
Less space needed/ to carry a limited
electrical current/ less mass hence low
heat capacity/ shorter time to heat up to
melting point and blow.
Ceramic cartridge

Fuse rating is 13 A
Low melting point

R is chosen because

Diagram 12.1
Table 12.1 shows the specifications of five fuses tat can be
used to protect a semiconductor device.
Catridge
Rating Melting
Fuse Thickness
of fuse
Tye
point
wire
P
Medium
Rubber
10 A
Medium
Q
Thin
Glass
10 A
Low
R
Thin
Ceramic
13 A
Low
S
Thin
Plastic
10 A
High
T
Thick
Ceramic
13 A
Low
Table 12.1
Determine the most suitable fuse to protect a 240V , 2000 W
semiconductor material device. Study the specifications of all
five fuses based on the following aspects:
The thickness of wire
The rating of fuse
The catridge type
The melting point
Explain the suitability of the aspects and justify your choice.
[ 10 marks ]

Can withstand higher temperature


because sparks created by high voltage,
240V can be huge/
Maximum rating must be higher than
normal current.
For fast blow/ Melting faster when
excessive current flow/ Easy to cut the
current flow.
Because it has thin fuse wire, ceramic
cartridge, fuse rating is 13 A and low
melting point.

KEDAH

KEDAH

Diagram 12.1 shows a hair dryer labelled 240 V, 500 W connected to


a three pin plug.
Diagram 12.2 shows the fuse in the three pin plug.

Diagram 12.1

(a)

High melting point


Can withstand high temperature / heat // does not melt easily
Not easily oxidized
Can last longer
(b) (i) Maximum current flowing through the fuse is 0.5 A
(ii) 1
Low melting point
2
Can melt easily
3
Low specific heat capacity
4
Can heat up easily
5
Small
6
High resistance // more heat released // easy to break
7
High
8
High resistance // more heat released
9
Z
10 Low melting point, low specific heat capacity, small
diameter and high resistivity
(c) (i)
(ii)
(iii)

Diagram 12.2
(a)

(b)

State two properties of the material of the heating


element in the hair dryer.
[4 marks]
(i)
What is the meaning of the label 0.5 A on the
fuse?
[1 mark]

(ii)

Table 12 shows the specification of a few


metals to be used as a fuse wire.

Metal

W
X
Y
Z

Melting
point
o
C

Speci
fic
heat
capac
ity
/
J kg1

1100
600
1100
700

900
900
240
240

Diameter

Resistivity

Big
Small
Big
Small

Low
High
Low
High

Table 12

Explain the suitability of each characteristic of


the four metals and determine the most suitable
metal to be used as the fuse wire.
Give reasons for your choice.
[10 marks]
(c)

The hair dryer is Diagram 12.1 is switched on.


(i)
Calculate the current flowing through the hair dryer.
(ii)
State whether the 0.5 A fuse is suitable to be used in
the plug.
(iii) Calculate the energy used by the hair dryer when it is
switched on for 10 minutes.
[5 marks]

500
240
= 2.08 A
Not suitable
500 x (10x60)
300 000 J

Kertas 3 Bahagian B

KELANTAN

SELANGOR

Diagram 4.1 and Diagram 4.2 show an identical bulbs connected to


the conductor wires of identical length but of different thickness.
When the power supply is switched
on, the bulbs lighted with
different brightness.

Diagram 4.1 and Diagram 4.2 show two night market stalls which are
fixed with two identical bulbs that are connected to two identical car
batteries 12 V with different length of connecting wires. Both bulbs
bright up with different brightness.

Based on the information and observation:


(a)
State one suitable inference.
(b)
State one hypothesis that could be investigated
(c)
With the use of apparatus such as dry cells, constantan
wire, and other apparatus,
describe an experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated
in 4(b).

SELANGOR
(a)
(b)

(c)

The length of wire affects the resistance/current


The shorter the wire, the higher the current/the resistance is
decrease
(i) To investigate the relationship between the length of wire
and current/resistance
(ii) Manipulated variable : length
Responding variable : Current/Resistance
Constant variable
: Potential
difference/Temperature/Diameter
(iii) Ammeter, voltmeter, dry cells, constantan wires, ruler
(iv)

(a)
(b)
(c)

(a)

(b)
(c)

(v)

State one suitable inference,


State one hypothesis that could investigated.
With the use of apparatus such as a dry cells, constantan
wire and other apparatus, describe one experiment to
investigate the hypothesis stated in 4(b).
Resistance// brightness of bulb depends on the
diameter/thickness of the conductor wire
When the diameter/thickness increase , the resistance decrease
(i) To investigate the relationship between the diameter
/thickness of the conductor wire and resistance
(ii) Manipulated : diameter / thickness
Responding : resistance / voltage
Constant
: length of conductor
(iii) Dry cells, insulated constantan wire, connector wire,
ammeter, voltmeter, rheostat , switch, meter rule
(iv)

The length of wire is measured at 10 cm.


The current is observed and recorded using the ammeter/
The resistance is calculated.
Repeat with different lengths of 20 cm, 30 cm, 40 cm
and 50 cm.

(vi) Tabulate the data

(v)

(vii)

A 20 cm length of constantan wire of diameter of 0.1


mm is connected to a circuit as shown in diagram above.
Adjust the rheostat and until the ammeter reading is I =
(0.2A). Measure the corresponding reading on the
voltmeter, V
Calculate the resistance of conductor using equation;
R = V/I
Repeat the experiment with the diameter of constantan
wire , 0.2 mm , 0.3 mm, 0.4mm and 0.5mm.

MRSM
Diagram 4.1 shows a lamp which lights up with normal brightness
when the dimmer knob is set at its minimum value.
Diagram 4.2 shows the lamp dimmer when the dimmer knob is set at
its maximum value.

(v) Measure the length of a constantan wire with a ruler , l =


10 cm
The switch is on and adjust rheostat until ammeter
reading shows current , I = 0.5 A
Record the potential difference from voltmeter , V
Calculate the resistance , R = V / I
Repeat the experiment by using constantan wire of l =
15.0 cm, 20 cm , 25 cm , 30 cm and 35.0 cm.
(vi) Tabulate the data

(vii) Plot the graph R against l

Diagram 4.1
Diagram 4.2
Based on the information and observation:
(a)
State one suitable inference
(b)
State one suitable hypothesis
(c)
With the use of apparatus such as constantan wire ,
voltmeter and the other apparatus, describe an experiment
to investigate the hypothesis stated in 3(b).

MRSM
(a)
(b)
(c)

The brightness // dimness of bulb is affected by the length of


wire
The longer the wire , the higher the resistance // the smaller the
current
(i) To investigate the relationship between the length of wire
and the resistance // the current flow
(ii) MV : length of wire,l
RV : resistance ,R // Current ,I
CV : diameter of wire // thickness of wire // cross
sectional area of wire // temperature of wire
(iii) Ammeter , voltmeter , rheostat , constantan wire , dry
cells , meter ruler , connecting wire
(iv)

PERLIS

PERLIS

Diagram 4.1 shows Aminah ironing her school uniform. After the
iron is switched on for a while, there are still wrinkles on the
uniform.
Diagram 4.2 shows that the wrinkles are gone when the temperature
control knob as shown in figure 4.3 on the iron is turned.

(a)
(b)
(c)

The heating effect of a conductor is affected by magnitude of


the current.
The larger the current, the higher the temperature of the water
which is being heated
(i) To investigate the effect of current on heating
(ii) MV : current ,I
RV : temperature ,
CV : volume of water
(iii) Beaker, ammeter, immersion heater, thermometer,
connecting wire, rheostat and stop watch
(iv) Draws a labeled and functional diagram of the set up of
the apparatus.
(v) Pour 200cm3 of water into the beaker and measure its
temperature.
Switch on the circuit and adjust the rheostat until the
reading of ammeter is 1.0 A.
The stop watch is started.
The final temperature is recorded after 2 minutes.
Step repeated by adjusting the rheostat so that the
ammeter readings are 2.0 A, 3.0 A, 4.0 A and 5.0 A.
(vi) Tabulate the data

Based on the observation on Diagram 4.1, Diagram 4.2 and Diagram


4.3 and using your knowledge of the effect of current on heating:
(a)
(b)
(c)

State one suitable inference


State one suitable hypothesis
With the use of apparatus such as beaker, an ammeter, an
immersion heater and the other apparatus, describe an
experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in 3(b).

(vii) The graph of increased in temperature against current is


drawn