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AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION

5 HP 19

ZF GETRIEBE GMBH SAARBRCKEN

Imprint:
Responsibility for the contents
ZF Getriebe GmbH, Department MKTD,
Saarbrcken, Germany
Printed by HAGER PAPPRINT GmbH, Kirkel
Printed in Germany
Reproduction, printing or translation either
wholly or in part isprohibited.
Published by ZF Getriebe GmbH,
Saarbrcken, Department MKTD
Printed in Germany by
HAGER PAPPRINT GmbH, Kirkel.
Item No. 1060 754 002

Introduction / Note

Function description 5 HP 19
Contents

This brief technical description is intended to provide information on


the component parts, design and function of the automatic transmission.
Status of information: March 1998
Alterations and additions to the technical data are contained in the relevant current Technical Service information.

Page

Introduction / note

Contents

Sectional view of the 5 HP 19 automatic transmission

Key

General description of the transmission (brief description)

Planetary gear (Ravigneaux), planetary gear (rear-mounted)

Description of individual components

10

Converter

11

Oil pump

14

Volume control valve

15

Control elements: clutch, freewheel

16

Overlap circuit

20

Selector lever positions: P, R, N, D + one-touch gate

21

Position switch

26

Parking lock

27

Descriptions of individual gears

28

Solenoid valve and clutch logic

34

Power flow / closed control elements

35

Hydraulic selector unit

36

Hydraulic control diagram (DIN)

46

Electronic Transmission Control (EGS)

47

Pin assignment (EGS modular 134-pole connector), block diagram

48

Automatic transmission oil filling

51

Technical data

52

Notes
Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
1

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

53/54
March 1998
2

5 HP 19 transmission
7

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

5
4
3

2
1

31

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

Key
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Turbine
)
Converter lock-up clutch piston
)
Stator
) Torque converter
Converter cover
)
Pump
)
Transmission housing
Multi-disc brake C
Multi-plate clutch B
Multi-plate clutch E
Multi-disc brake A
Ravigneaux planetary gear set
Multi-disc brake D
Freewheel, 1st gear
Multi-disc brake G
Multi-plate clutch F
Single rear-mounted planetary gear set
Parking lock gear
Gearbox extension complete with preset bearing
Output flange
ATF pump - crescent-type
Flow control valve
ATF drain screw
Magnet
Oil pan
Oil filter
Speed sensor, gearbox rotating speed/turbine (Hall-effect generator)
EDS-1 pressure control valve for modulation/system pressure
Hydraulic control unit
Solenoid valves 1, 2 and 3 and pressure control valves EDS 2, 3 and 4
Speed sensor, gearbox output speed (inductive sensor)
ATF filler cap (at side of transmission housing)

Key to picture on page 6:


1
2
3
4

Hydrodynamic torque converter


Heat exchanger connections
2a) Intercooler input
2b) Intercooler output
Output flange
Oil drain

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

5
6
7
8
9

Oil filler
Breather
Selector lever connection
Plug connection for electronic control unit
Plug connection for electronic position switch

March 1998
5

Brief general description


The ZF 5 HP 19 automatic transmission was developed for cars with a power output of
110 kW to 150 kW.
It is positioned longitudinally in relation to the vehicles forward travel direction, to match the engines
installed position . The mechanical elements use the planetary gear principle, with an electronichydraulic control unit; the hydraulic control unit is attached to the transmission, the electronic control
unit (German abbreviation: EGS) to the vehicle.

Rear-wheel drive

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
6

Power is supplied to the transmission through a hydrodynamic torque converter with an integrated
converter lock-up clutch.
The transmissions capacity ratings are:
max. power input:
max. torque:

150 kW (204 bhp)


300 Nm

The 5 forward gears and 1 reverse gear are obtained by means of a Ravigneaux double planetary gear
set and a rear-mounted single planetary gear set with one spider.

Ravigneaux planetary gear set


This consists of:

2 sun wheels of different sizes


3 matching planetary gears,
1 planetary spider
1 annulus

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
7

Rear-mounted planetary gear set


This consists of:

1 sun wheel
4 matching planetary gears
1 planetary spider
1 annulus

The individual gear ratios are obtained by introducing torque at certain elements of the planetary gear
train, while other elements are braked.
Power is always transmitted to the output shaft via the annulus or ring gear (see power flow description).
The mechanical ratios are as follows:

Gear:

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

Rev.

Ratio:

3.67

2.0

1.41

1.0

0.74

4.10

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
8

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998

1
2

Multi-plate clutch E
Multi-plate clutch A

3
4

Multi-plate clutch B + brake C


Multi-disc brake D + 1st-gear freewheel

Planetary gears (Ravigneaux)

5
6

Action of shift elements

Multi-plate clutch F
Multi-disc brake G

Output shaft

Planetary gear (rear-mounted)

Description of individual components


The hydrodynamic torque converter
1. Converter operating principle
The converter consists of the impeller, the turbine wheel, the reaction member (stator) and the oil
(Automatic Transmission fluid or ATF) necessary for transmitting the torque.
The impeller, which is driven by the engine, causes the oil in the converter to flow in a circular
pattern. This oil flow strikes the turbine wheel, where its direction of flow is deflected.
In the hub area, the oil leaves the turbine and enters the reaction member (stator), where it is again
deflected before reaching the impeller with the correct input flow direction.
The reversal effect generates a torque at the stator, the reaction to which is used to amplify the
turbine torque.
The relation between turbine torque and pump torque is referred to as torque multiplication.
The greater the difference in speed between the pump and the turbine, the greater the torque multiplication; it is at its highest when the turbine is at a standstill. The higher the speed of the turbine, the lower the torque multiplication.
When turbine speed reaches about 85 % of pump speed, torque multiplication = 1, that is to say
turbine torque is equivalent to pump torque.
The stator, which bears against the housing via the freewheel, then rotates freely in the oil flow
and the freewheel is overrun. From this point onwards, the converter acts as a straightforward
fluid coupling. The stator is at a standstill during the conversion process, conversion, and bears
against the housing via the freewheel.
(See diagram)

Impeller

Turbine wheel

From
engine

To transmission
Condition at
moment of driving
off (stationary
stator)

Stator

Intermediate condition (stationary


stator)

nT < nP
nT < nP
Turbine wheel turns
slightly slower than
impeller

Status in so-called
coupling range
(stator rotating)

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

nT = 0
Vehicle at a
standstill

March 1998
10

5 HP 19 torque converter

4
5
3
6
7
8

9
2
1

Upper half: W 254 2 GWK


Lower half: W 254 1 GWK

1
2
3
4
5

Converter cover
Lock-up clutch piston
Engine connection
Turbine
Pump

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

6
7
8
9

Freewheel
Stator shaft
Turbine shaft (input shaft)
Stator

March 1998
11

2. Torque converter lock-up clutch


The torque converter lock-up clutch is a device which eliminates converter slip and thus helps to
improve fuel consumption.
The previous control principle for converter lock-up clutch operation has been replaced on the 5
HP 19by a controlled-slip function . The converter lock-up clutch is engaged and released in a
regulated manner. During the controlled-slip phase, a slight speed difference between the impeller
and turbine is permitted. This ensures that torsional vibration from the engine is not passed on to
the transmission, thus enhancing shift quality and acoustic performance.
Lock-up clutch piston pressure is controlled by an electronic pressure control valve (EDS4) (see
oil flow diagram).

n/engine

1
2
3
4

Space behind lock-up clutch


piston
Clutch plate lining
Lock-up clutch piston
Converter cover

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

5
6
7

Turbine
Pump
Stator

March 1998
12

3. Hydraulic and mechanical power flow in


the converter:
When open (in the torque conversion
range), the oil pressures behind the converter lock-up clutch piston and in the turbine
zone are equal. The direction of flow is
through the turbine shaft and the space
behind the piston, to the turbine chamber.

Lock-up clutch/open
n/engine > n/turbine

To engage the lock-up clutch, the direction


of flow is modified (reversed) by means of
a valve in the hydraulic selector unit. At the
same time, the space behind the lock-up
clutch piston is vented. Oil pressure passes
from the turbine chamber to the lock-up
clutch piston and presses it against the converter cover (outer shell). The turbine is
then locked by the lined plate between the
piston and cover, and permits rigid throughdrive to the planetary gear train with no
slip (or reduced slip if regulated).

Lock-up clutch/engaged
n/engine = n/turbine

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
13

Oil pump
The oil pump is a crescent-type pump with a delivery rate of about 24 cm3 per revolution; it is located
between the torque converter and the transmission housing.
The converter is located in the pump by a plain bearing. The pump is driven directly from the engine
via the converter shell, and supplies the transmission and selector unit with oil.
The pump draws in oil through a filter and pumps pressurized oil through the flow regulating valve,
which at higher operating speeds returns any excess pressurized oil directly to the pumps intake side.
The pressurized oil is pumped from the flow regulating valve through the main pressure valve in the
hydraulic selector unit, where the oil pressure is modified and the surplus oil returned to the sump.

1
8

1
2
3
4

Sealing ring
Disc
Shaft sealing ring
Bearing bush

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

5 Pump housing
6 Pump ring gear
7 Impeller
8 Centering sleeve

March 1998
14

Flow regulating valve diagram (MRV)

Intermediate plate

PUMP
Flow regulating valve

POSITION SWITCH

Transmission delivery rate (l/min)

5 HP 19 pump charging

Engine speed (l/min)

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
15

Shift elements
In addition to the converter lock-up clutch, the shift elements include a sprag-type freewheel:
freewheel for 1st gear, for shifting from 1 to 2 and 2 to 1, beneath brake D
four rotating multi-plate clutches A, B, E and F
three fixed multi-disc brakes C, D and G
Shifting from 1 to 2 and 2 to 1 is supported by the sprag-type freewheel, so that there is no overlapping of the two clutches or brakes.
Overlap occurs when shifting from 2-3, 3-4, 4-5 and 5-4, 4-3, 3-2. In other words, during the shift one
clutch must remain capable of transmitting the drive at a reduced main pressure until the corresponding clutch can accept the incoming torque.
The shift elements, clutches or brakes are engaged hydraulically. The pressurized oil reaches the space
between the cylinder and piston, as a result of which the plates are compressed. When the oil pressure
drops, the diaphragm spring acting on the piston presses the piston back to its initial position.
The shift elements are designed to permit gearshifts under load without interrupting the tractive force.
Muli-plate clutches A, B, E and F supply engine power to the planetary gear train, with multi-disc brakes C, D and G reacting to the torque at the housing.

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
16

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

17

March 1998

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Vent
Cylinder for brake G
Brake G
Transmission housing
Cylinder for clutch F
Clutch F
Cylinder for brake G (external plate carrier)
locked to the transmission housing (with screws)

2
3

Example of a multi-plate clutch (clutch E)


The dynamic pressure at clutch E is equal i.e. the clutch piston is pressurized with oil from both sides
in order to prevent speed-dependent pressure build-up in the clutch. This equalizing effect is achieved
via tha baffle plate (7) and the pressureless oil supply via the lubrication channel (1), which fills the
space between the piston and baffle plate with oil.
The advantages of this dynamic pressure equalization are:
reliable opening and engaging of the clutch in all speed ranges
smoother shifts

7
1

10

1
2
3
4
5
6

Lubrication channel
Input (input shaft),
cylinder E
Main pressure, clutch E
Piston E
Cylinder E (external plate carrier)
Clutch assembly

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

11

12

7
8
9
10
11

Baffle plate
Diaphragm spring
Output (interior plate carrier)
Space between piston and cylinder
Space for dynamic pressure
equalization
12 Bearing

March 1998
18

Example of a freewheel
Sprag-type freewheel
Purpose and operating principle of the freewheel:
The freewheel transfers torque in one direction only, and rotates freely in the other. Its purpose is to
simplify the shift operation in technical terms without interrupting the flow of the tractive force, and
to achieve consistent shift quality.

Direction of rotation:
The sprag blocks are located in the space between the inner and outer ring in such a way
that these can turn in relation to one another.

Locking direction:
The sprag blocks between the inner and outer
rings are asymmetrically shaped, and are raised upright when the rings turn in opposite
directions. They consequently become lodged
between the inner and outer rings, preventing
any relative movement of these two components. The sprag blocks are located in a special cage.

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
19

Overlap control
In the case of the overlap shift procedures 2-3, 3-4, 4-5 and 5-4, 4-3, 3-2, the place of the freewheel is
taken by suitable control of the clutches. The appropriate clutches are energized by electronic-hydraulic means. This saves both space and weight.
The electronic-hydraulic circuit is formed by various valves within the hydraulic selector unit, which
are energized by means of pressure regulators.
These elements cause the appropriate clutches or brakes to cut in or out at the right moment.
The electronic control unit is located away from the transmission, at a separate point
(see electronic control unit).

Diagrams of overlap control (upshift)

Speed

Engine speed

Speed
characteristic

Time
Pressure

Pressure
variation

Pressure, cut-in clutch

Pressure, cut-out clutch


Time
Torque
Output

Torque
characteristic
Pressure
cut-in clutch

Pressure
cut-out clutch

Control phase Load transfer

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

Time

March 1998
20

Selector lever positions


1. General information
Gears are obtained by moving the selector lever, which is connected to the hydraulic
selector unit.
The transmission positions
(P, R, N, D)
are simultaneously supplied to the electronic control unit in encoded form by a switch (position
switch) mounted on the transmission selector shaft.
Automatic transmission

Mechanical positions

P
R
N

One-touch gear shift


Position switch

Selector unit

Module connector

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
21

2. Selector lever positions


The following positions can be obtained manually
with the selector lever.

R
N
D

Position / function
P = Park, must only be engaged if the vehicle is at a standstill. Procedure: first apply handbrake,
then engage position P.
R = Reverse, must only be engaged if the vehicle is at a standstill and the engine idling.
N = Neutral, when the vehicle is at a standstill, apply the handbrake first to prevent the vehicle
from rolling away. When the vehicle is moving, only select Neutral in order to counteract
skidding.
D = Drive, automatic-shift position for normal driving. Automatic gearshifts from 1st to 5th and
5th to 1st and all intermediate gears.
The 5th, 4th, 3rd, 2nd and 1st gears are shifted up by moving the lever in the direction of the
plus (+) symbol or down by moving the lever in the direction of the minus (-) symbol in the
manual program (one-touch mode). The currently selected gear is retained (see M program).
4th gear: Select this position if the transmission tends to hunt between 5th-4th/4th-5th in
certain driving conditions (only possible in Steptronic mode).
3rd gear: Select this position if the transmission tends to hunt between 3rd and 5th in certain driving conditions. Also recommended for lengthy descents (only available in
Steptronic mode).
2nd gear: Select this position when driving over mountain passes with lengthy ascents and
descents (only available in Steptronic mode).
Advantages:

1. Gang:

- more effective use of engines power


- engine braking utilized
- unnecessary up- and down-shifts avoided.

Selecting 1st gear always has a braking effect


(only in the M mode).

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
22

5 HP 19 BMW - program selection

M-program
- manual
up-shifts

- manual
down-shifts

N
D

XE-program
S-program

The individual programs are no longer selected by the program button, but by moving the selector
lever to the appropriate gate.

There are three programs available.

Shifting to blue (D)

XE - program
Adaptive Transmission Control (AGS)

Shifting to red (S)


without touching
+ or -

S - program
Adaptive Transmission Control (AGS)

Shifting from red to


+ or -

M - program (one-touch mode)

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
23

XE-program (AGS)
Standard drive program in position D.
P

The adaptive transmission control (AGS) has


variousdrive programs, e.g.:
- Trailer towing
- Mountain driving
- Highway/motorway driving
(constant speed)
- Cornering

R
N
D

The programs are selected by the electronic control unit, which automatically modifies the transmissions shift characteristics according to rolling
resistance, load, accelerator pedal movement and
the road situation.

BMW 5 HP 19 AGS program architecture


Drive-off
evaluation

S/D gate

Kick-Fast
evaluation

Uphill driving recognition

Driving
operation
evaluation

Braking
evaluation

Evaluation of the
type of driver

Shift program selection

Downhill
driving
recognition

Fast-Off
recognition

Selector lever

Corner
recognition

Gear selection

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
24

S-program 5 HP 19 BMW
S-program
The S program is a performance-oriented program with the transmissions shift characteristics
moved up to higher engine speeds. To select the
program the selector lever is moved across into
the left gate, but without moving farther to + or -.

P
R
N

Gears 1-4 and 4-1 are selected automatically.

5th gear is locked out of action.

M-program 5 HP 19 BMW
M-program (one-touch mode)
The M program is a manual shift program which is
activated by pushing the lever to + or - in the left
gate.

P
R

It is possible to drive off in gears 1 or 2; 1st gear is


intended principally to provide an engine braking
effect.
3rd gear can be selected manually above a speed of
about 10 km/h, 4th gear from approx. 35 km/h and
5th gear from around 45 km/h.

N
D

Every time the lever is moved to + a sequential upshift takes place.


Every time the lever is moved to - a sequential
down-shift takes place.

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
25

The position selector


The position selector is situated on the transmissions selector shaft and is designed to carry out two
tasks:
1. To inform the EGS by means of an electronic signal of the transmissions mechanical selector lever
position (P, R, N, D, 4, 3, 2). Positions 4, 3 and 2 are selected in one-touch mode.
2. To prevent the engine from starting in the drive positions R, D, 4, 3 or 2), but to enable it to start
when the vehicle is stationary (in P or N).

Coding table
L1
L2
L3
L4

P Z1 R Z2 N Z2 D Z3 4
1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

3
0
0
1
1

2
1
0
1
1

March 1998
26

Parking lock (5 HP 19 rear-wheel drive)


The parking lock is a device for preventing the car from rolling away.
It is engaged (purely mechanically) at the selector lever with the vehicle at a standstill and prevents
the output shaft from turning by means of a pawl which engages in the teeth on the parking lock gear.
The rear-axle differential is then locked by way of the propeller shaft.

1
2
3
4

Pawl
Connecting rod
Output shaft
Parking lock gear

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
27

Description of individual gears


Power flow in 1st gear

In 1st gear, the power is introduced from the torque converter purely hydraulically to the front planetary gear train . The connection between the converter turbine and the sunwheel (2) in the planetary
gear set is established by a rotating multi-plate clutch, clutch A. The freewheel beneath the multi-disc
brake D locks the planetary gear sets spider when rotating to the left. Sunwheel 2 drives the planetary
gears that are meshed with planetary gears I. These in turn drive the ring gear which is connected to
the ring gear support and the ring gear (interior disc support brake G) of the in-series planetary gear
set by a spider shaft.
The multi-disc brake G blocks the sunwheel of the rear-mounted planetary gear set via the cylinder of
the multi-plate clutch F. This causes the spider to be driven.
The spider is connected with the output shaft.
Spider speed = output speed
In 1st gear, with braking effect when coasting, the multi-disc brake D is also engaged, i.e. the spider
of the front planetary gear set is blocked.

Ring gear
Short planetary gear
Long planetary gear
Sunwheel 1
Planet carrier
Sunwheel 2

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
28

Power flow in 2nd gear

In the same way as for the 1st gear, the sunwheel 2 of the front planetary gear set is driven via the turbine shaft and clutch A.
The sunwheel 1 is locked by the multi-disc brake C.
Planetary gears 2 drive planetary gears 1, which roll around the stationary sunwheel 1.
Output is as for 1st gear via the ring gear of the front and the in-series planetary gear set, the spider
and simultaneously the output shaft.

Ring gear
Short planetary gear
Long planetary gear

Sunwheel 1

Planet carrier
Sunwheel 2

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
29

Power flow in 3rd gear

The sunwheel 2 is once again, as for gears 1 and 2, driven via the converter turbine shaft and clutch
A. Multi-disc brake C blocks the sunwheel 1. The planet carriers 2 drive the planetary gears 1 which
roll around the stationary sunwheel 1. Output is then accomplished, as in gears 1 and 2, via the ring
gear of the front and the in-series planetary gear set. The planetary gears are driven via the ring gear
through the engaged multi-plate clutch F. Unlike in 1st and 2nd gears, through-drive in the rear-mounted planetary gear set is thus achieved.

Ring gear
Short planetary gear
Long planetary gear
Sunwheel 1
Planet carrier
Sunwheel 2

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
30

Power flow in 4th gear

Power is transmitted via the turbine shaft with the multi-plate clutches A and E engaged.
Multi-plate clutch A drives the sunwheel 2 and multi-plate clutch E the spider of the front planetary
gear set at engine speed.
The ring gear is driven to the right (in the direction of engine rotation) as a result of the inertial thrust
of the vehicle mass thrust, thereby locking the planetary gears (through-drive at the front planetary
gear set). Consequently, the ring gear of the rear-mounted planetary gear set is driven at engine speed.
The planetary gear of the rear-mounted planetary gear set is driven by the engaged multi-plate clutch
F via the ring gear and the sun wheel. In this way, through-drive is achieved in the rear planetary gear
set as well.

Ring gear
Short planetary gear
Long planetary gear
Sunwheel 1
Planet carrier
Sunwheel 2

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
31

Power flow in 5th gear

Power transmission is via the converters turbine shaft and the engaged multi-plate clutch E. The inner
plate carrier of the clutch E meshes with the planetary spider.
The sun wheel 1 is locked via the body of multi-disc brake C.
The planetary gears 1 then roll around the sunwheel 1 and thereby drive the ring gear of the rearmounted planetary gear set which is in the through-drive setting as in 3rd and 4th gear.

Ring gear
Short planetary gear
Long planetary gear

Sunwheel 1

Planet carrier
Sunwheel 2

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
32

Power flow in reverse gear

Power transmission is via the turbine shaft and cylinder A (which is also the inner plate carrier of
clutch B) to the engaged multi-plate clutch B.
The engaged multi-plate clutch B transmits the power to the sunwheel 1 via the body.
Multi-plate clutch D is engaged and locks the planetary spider.
The planetary gears 1 thus cause the sunwheel 1 and the ring gear, which is connected via the spider
shaft to the ring gear carrier and the ring gear of the in-series planetary gear set (inner disc carrier,
brake G) , to reverse direction.

Ring gear
Short planetary gear
Long planetary gear
Sunwheel 1
Planet carrier
Sunwheel 2

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
33

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

34

N = Neutral (DIN)

WK 3rd-5th

D, 5-4 traction

M, 1st

D, 5th

D, 4th

D, 3rd

D, 2nd

D, 1st

N = Neutral

R = Reverse

POS / GEAR

MV

*-*

MV + EDS LOGIC

EDS

*
*

CLUTCH

*-

*-

BRAKE

CLUTCH LOGIC

5 HP 19 E 18

1. G.

FREEWHEEL

Solenoid valve and clutch logic

March 1998

Power flow 5 HP 19
Power flow, 5 HP 19 version

Closed control elements


Gear

Clutch

Brake

Freewheel

Ratio
i

Ratio
steps
PHI

Total

depending on operating condition

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
35

Hydraulic selector unit


The hydraulic selector unit is located in the automatic transmission oil pan.
It contains electrical actuators and sensors, plus a number of hydraulic valves which are responsible,
together with the electronic control unit, for engaging the gears in the automatic transmission.
The electrical components:
Solenoid valves 1, 2 and 3
Pressure regulators 1, 2, 3 and 4
Speed sensor
Speed sensor

(MV)
(EDS) electronic pressure control
Turbine (turbine speed, transmission)
Output (output speed, transmission)

are arranged in such a way that they are accessible when the transmission is installed on the vehicle
(see drawing).
The temperature sensor is integrated into the wiring harness on the control-unit side.

Oil filter

Turbine
speed
sensor

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

System pressure
control

Hydraulic
selector unit

Solenoid valves
and shift pressure
controls

Output speed
sensor

March 1998
36

The valves are located in the following valve housings:


Valve housing I
Clutch valve for clutch C
Clutch valve for clutch G
Clutch valve for clutch A
Clutch valve for clutch E

(KV-C)
(KV-G)
(KV-A)
(KV-E)

Traction valve for shifting 5 -> 4


Main pressure valve (system pressure)
Retaining valve for clutch C
Retaining valve for clutch G
Selector gate for positions P, R, N, D, 4, 3, 2

(ZV5-4)
(HD-V)
(HV-C)
(HV-G)
(WS)

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
37

Brief description of valves


Clutch valves (KV-A, KV-C, KV-E, KV-G)
The clutch valves are variable pressure-reducing valves. They are controlled via the corresponding
pressure control valve (EDS) and determine clutch pressure during shifting.

Traction valve (shifting from 5 -> 4 / ZV 5 - 4)


Traction valve 5 -> 4 works as a clutch valve and fills clutch A initially when shifting from
5 -> 4.

Main pressure valve (system pressure / HD-V)


The main pressure valve is a variable pressure-limiting valve which controls the oil pressure generated
by the pump. Surplus oil flows back into the oil pan.

Retaining valve (for clutches C, G / HV-C, HV-G)


The retaining valves actuate the clutch valves, i.e.: the regulating function (regulating phase) of the
clutch valve during the gearshift is terminated by the main valve at the appropriate moment, as a
result of which clutch pressure rises to the same value as system pressure. Both valves (clutch and
retaining valves) are controlled by the corresponding pressure regulator (EDS).

Selector valve
The driver of the vehicle selects the direction of travel (forward or reverse), the park position and the
neutral position via the selector valve.

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
38

Valve housing II
Solenoid valve 1

(MV1)

Solenoid valve 2

(MV2)

Solenoid valve 3

(MV3)

Electronic pressure control valve 2

(EDS 2)

Electronic pressure control valve 3

(EDS 3)

Electronic pressure control valve 4

(EDS 4)

Traction/coasting valve

(ZS-V)

Control valve for converter pressure

(SV-WD)

Shift valve 1

(SV-1)

Shift valve 2

(SV-2)

Shift valve 3

(SV-3)

Reverse-gear valve

(RG-V)

Pressure reduction valve 1

(DRV-1)

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
39

Brief description of valves


Solenoid valves 1, 2, 3 (MV 1, 2, 3)
There are three 3/2 solenoid valves in the hydraulic selector unit, i.e. 3 connections and 2 shift positions. The solenoid valves are energized by the electronic transmission control unit and have two positions (open or closed). Their purpose is to switch over the valves.

3/2 Solenoid valve (MV)

Type:
Pressure range:
Rated voltage:
Nom. diameter:
Starting current:

Plate-armature valve
0 to 5 bar
12 V
1.6 mm
166 mA

Pressure regulator (EDS 1, 2, 3, 4)


The electronic pressure regulating valves convert an electrical current into a proportional hydraulic
pressure. They are energized by the electronic transmission control unit and actuate the valves associated with the shift components. The characteristic shown only applies to EDS 1; EDS 2, 3 and 4
have a rising characteristic.

Control pressure (bar)

Electrical pressure regulating valve (EDS)

Tolerance range
for falling pressure
characteristic

Adjusting point
Hysteresis
for rising pressure characteristic

Control current (A)

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
40

Output speed sensor


(Inductive sensor)

Dimension A

Gap:
Interior resistance:

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

< 0.25 mm (dimension A)


260 10 %

March 1998
41

Turbine speed sensor


(Hall-effect sensor)

Hall-effect sensor

Plug

V+

V-

Electronic circuit

Hall I. C.
- Bipolar mono-cell
- 75 G

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
42

Traction/coasting valve (ZS-V)


The traction/coasting valve is supplied with oil from the pressure reduction valve and switches off the
regulating function of the traction valve 5 -> 4 if required.

Control valve for converter pressure (SV-WD)


The regulating function of the converter pressure valve is switched off by the control valve and the
space behind the converter clutch is therefore vented.

Shift valves 1, 2, 3 (SV 1, 2, 3)


The shift valves are actuated by the solenoid valves and direct the system pressure to the corresponding clutch regulating circuits.

Reverse-gear valve (RG-V)


The reverse-gear valve has two functions:
1. Shift valve for reverse gear, and
2. Safety valve for the forward gears, to prevent inadvertent selection of
reverse.
It is actuated by the pressure at clutch A.

Pressure-reducing valve (DRV-1)


Pressure-reducing valve 1 lowers the system pressure at which the rear-mounted solenoid valves are
energized to approx. 5 bar. The solenoid valves require a constant input pressure in order to function.

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
43

Converter lock-up clutch housing (WK)


Valve for lubricating pressure
Converter lock-up clutch valve
Converter pressure valve
Valve for traction shifting 4 -> 5

(Schm.-V)
(WK-V)
(WD-V)
(ZV 4-> 5)

Modulation pressure housing


Modulation pressure valve
Pressure-reducing valve II
Electronic pressure control valve EDS 1

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

(Mod-V)
(DRV II)
(DR-P)

March 1998
44

Brief description of valves


Valve for lubricating pressure (Schm-V)
The lubricating valve reduces the system pressure and guarantees the necessary lubrication pressure.
Maximum pressure is also limited.
Converter clutch valve (WK-V)
The converter clutch valve is controlled by the electronic pressure control (EDS4) together with the
converter control valve (SV-W). In this function, thedirection of oil flow is reversed. The space in
front of the converter lock-up clutch is pressurized at system pressure and the control valve vents the
piston space behind the converter lock-up clutch.
Converter pressure control valve (WD-V)
The converter pressure valve reduces the system pressure and simultaneously maintains the required
pressure for the converter. Maximum converter pressure is limited to prevent the converter from being
distorted by excess pressure. When SV-WD is energized, the oil channel behind the lock-up clutch
piston is vented.
Valve for traction shifting 4 -> 5 (ZV 4-5)
The traction valve 4 -> 5 works as a clutch valve and serves to vent clutch C initially when a
4 -> 5 shift takes place.
Modulation pressure valve (Mod-V)
The modulation valve, which is energized by the electronic pressure control unit (EDS1), generates
the modulation pressure. The modulation pressure reaches the main pressure valve and thus has an
additional regulating effect on the main pressure. Modulation pressure is proportional to engine torque.
Pressure-reducing valve II (DRV II)
Pressure-reducing valve II reduces system pressure to approx. 5 bar, which is applied to the downstream pressure contrrol systems (EDS 1, 2, 3, 4) . Pressure control requires constant input pressure if it
is to function correctly.

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
45

Control circuit diagram

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
46

Electronic Transmission Control (EGS)


Electronic Transmission Control (EGS) processes the following transmission, engine and vehicle signals (type of signal is shown in brackets):

From transmission
Turbine speed
Output speed
Transmission temp.

(frequency, inductive sensor)


(frequency, inductive sensor)
(analog, resistor)

Version with CAN


From engine

From vehicle

Engine speed
Engine torque
Throttle butterfly
Engine temperature

(all engine
signals are
transmitted via
CAN bus)

Kick-down
P, R, N, D (4, 3, 2 -one-touch mode)
Program (manual)
Brake light
Signals from other vehicle systems

(digital)
(digital, encoded)
(digital)
(digital)

These data include, for example:


Shift characteristics for gears and the converter lock-up clutch
Coordinating parameters for ressure calculation, engine manipulation and
time stages
Regulator parameters for regulating gear shifts and converter lock-up
clutch
Diagnosis parameters
The control program calculates the correct gear and lock-up clutch status, and also the optimum pressure patterns for gear shifting and operation of the converter lock-up clutch, from the input signals
and the stored data.
EGS energizes the solenoid valves and pressure regulators via special output modules (output stages,
current regulating circuits) and thus influences the automatic transmissions hydraulics.
The engine management system is also informed of the degree and duration of engine intervention via
the CAN bus.
On vehicles which are not equipped with CAN, the corresponding signals are transmitted via discrete
interfaces (BMWs are equipped with CAN in all cases).
Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
47

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

48

March 1998

Module 1 (power supply)


No. Assignment
1.01 Ignition ...
1.02
1.03 Diagnosis ...
1.04 Electronic mass Kl. 31E
1.05 Power mass Kl. 31L
1.06 Power mass Kl. 31L
1.07 Permanent positive supply
1.08 DME relay Kl. 37
1.09 DME relay Kl. 37
Bridge to pin 1.03
Bridge to pin 1.03

Note
Bridge to pin 4.31

Module 1: is fixed due to PS-10 compatibility and cannot be changed


Module 2: Chamber remains vacant (no contact pins in the plug)
Module 3: half equipped, pin 27 ... 52 not pressed in, assignment
according to list
Module 4: fully equipped, assignment/layout according to project
Module 5: Chamber remains vacant (no contact pins in the plug).

Modular plug inputs and outputs are divided according to functional groups.

Pin assignment

The middle row of contacts in the power circuits have a leading function, in
the signal circuits the upper and lower row of contacts have a leading function.

A modular plug contact system with 5 chambers is used at the control unit end
(BMW diagram x xxx xxx) as a pin contact system. The pin housing for the
transmission control is to be blue so it can be distinguished from other control
units. The connectors are not encoded. The drawing numbers have yet to be
defined.

Connector specifications

only 5 HP 24
only 5 HP 24
only 5 HP 24

Bridge to pin 4.24

Note

Module 4 (transmission) (Assignment by control unit manufacturers)


No. Assignment
Note
4.02 Output speed ...
4.03 Output speed
4.04 Transmission switch ...
4.05 Input speed ...
4.06 Electronic ... EDS ...
only 5 HP 24/3G
4.07 ... EDS ...
4.11 Power supply EDS 4
4.12 Oil temperature sensor
4.13 Output speed ...
4.14 Transmission switch ...
4.16 Solenoid valve MV3
4.17 Electronic pressure ...
4.21 MV power supply
4.22 Oil temperature sensor
4.23 Input speed ...
4.24 Transmission switch line 2
Bridge to pin 3.03
4.26 Solenoid valve MV2
4.27 Electr. pressure ...EDS ...
4.28 Electr. pressure ... EDS
4.31 Transmission switch power supply
Bridge to pin 1.01
4.32 Diagnosis ...
Bridge to pin 1.03
4.33 Input speed ...
4.34 Transmission switch ...
4.35 CAN bus ...
4.36 CAN bus high
4.37 CAN bus low
4.38 Solenoid valve MV1
4.40 Reversing light
only ...

Module 3 (car body)


No. Assignment
3.01 Lifting magnet shift-lock
3.02 Power supply lifting magnet shift-lock
3.03 PIN signal ignition lock
3.09 Program switch A program
3.10 Program switch S program
3.14 FGR controller
3.15 Brake light signal ...
3.16 Brake light signal ...
3.17 Kick-down signal
3.18 Steptronic: manual gate
3.19 Steptronic: tip-up
3.20 Steptronic: tip-down

Pin assignment EGS 8.60 BMW (134 poles)

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

49

March 1998

GE
GR
OR
WS
BL
WE
GE
GR
GN
GE
RT
VI
OR
WS
VI

yellow
grey
orange
white
blue
white
yellow
grey
green
yellow
red
violet
orange
white
violet

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Transmission plug pin assignment 5 HP 19 BMW

EGS plug module

n / output (inductive sensor)


EDS 1
EDS 2
MV 3
n / turbine + (Hall-effect sensor)
n / turbine - (Hall-effect sensor)
EDS 3
MV 1
MV 2
n / output (inductive sensor)
EDS 4
BN ( + )
Temperature sensor +
Temperature sensor Bn ( + )

Pin assignment 5 HP 19 BMW GS 8.60

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
50

Automatic transmission oil filling


(Overflow screw)

General requirements before checking or correcting the oil level:


The vehicle has to be positioned horizontally on the hoist.
The driven wheels or the transmission output have to be at a standstill for at least
two minutes before the oil level is checked.
Selection lever in position P. Engage handbrake.
The EGS must not be in the emergency program.
Energy-consuming devices such as air conditioning must be turned off.
When opening the ATF filling screw, the transmission sump temperature has to be
30 C.
The transmission oil temperature check must be made with the correct testing
device.

Checking the oil level:


Start the engine and select various gears. Engage R and D, shift up to the 3rd gear
step by step (gears remain engaged for 3 seconds each), engage position P.
Idle speed 650950 rpm (according to car manufacturers specification).
Open the screw at the overflow hole.
Add ATF at approx. 30 C until it overflows.
Transmission temperature increases during idle, oil expands and escapes.
Close overflow hole when 40 C (+ 10 C) are reached.
Settling time between opening and closing the oil filling cap at least 60 seconds.
Starting temperature 30 C.

Important!

Oil level checking at regular operating temperature is not possible.


Checking or adjustment of the oil level is only necessary after repair work on the
transmission, the cooling system or the pipes.
The transmissions are filled to the overflow point with lifetime oil (ESSO LT 71
141) at an oil temperature of 40 C before leaving the factory.
If the filling screw is opened at operating temperature (80), not enough oil will
remain in the transmission due to overflow and it will consequently fail.
If the overflow hole is closed after adjustment at below 37 C, the transmission
will be too full.
The temperature range (opening at 30 C, closing at 40 C) should be complied
with as closely as possible.
Oil level adjustment in the emergency program is prohibited.

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
51

5 HP 19 passenger car automatic transmission


Technical data

TRANSMISSION TYPE:

Passenger car automatic transmission, 5-speed,


conventional driveline layout

TRANSMISSION POWER
HANDLING CAPACITY:

Tmax
Pmax
nmax
nmax
nmax
Tmax

CONVERTER:

W 254 S with GWK (lock-up clutch)


Tp = 90 - 230 Nm at np = 2,000 min-1

RATIOS:

1st gear

2nd gear

3rd gear

4th gear

3.67

2.0

1.41

1.0

Gears:

engine at 3,500 min-1


engine at 6,000 min-1
in 1st to 4th gear
in 1st to 5th gear
Kick-down operation
Turbine

= 300 Nm
= 150 kW (204 bhp)
= 6,540 min-1
= 5,000 min-1
= 6,400 min-1
= 540 Nm

POSITIONS:

P, R, N, D (4, 3, 2)

CONTROL:

Electro-hydraulic
Various shift programs available

WEIGHT WITH OIL:

7779 kg depending on version

5th gear Reverse


0.74

4.10

Engine application

5HP18

5HP19

Difference

M52B28
M52B25
M52B20

84.0kg
84.0kg
79.8kg

79.5kg
78.9kg
76.6kg

4.5kg
5.1kg
3.2kg

TRANSMISSION OIL:

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

Lifetime oil filling

March 1998
52

Notes

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, MKTD department

March 1998
53

Notes

Function description 5 HP 19
ZFS, Department MKTD

March 1998
54