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THEORY

OF

MUSIC
WITH

INTRODUCTIONS
BY

W.

L.

EMIL

HUBBARD
LIEBLING
AND

W.

J.

HENDERSON

ARTHUR

FOOTE
EDITOR

SQUIRE

IRVING
Toledo
New

York

Chicago

Copyright

1908

by

SQUIRE

IRVING

Entered

Stationers'

LONDON

Hall

CONTENTS

Introduction

Development

of

History

of

Pianoforte

Vocal

Technique

Music

15

Tonality

25

Harmony

53
.

91

Counterpoint
.

133

Fugue
Subject

152

Answer

155
157

Counter-subject
...

159

Episode
Exposition

160
.

Stretto

163

Coda

164

171

Form
Sonata

Pathetique

Sonata

quasi

198
.

una

Fantasie

202
206

Sonata

Waldstein
Sonata

214

Appasionata

229

Appreciation
.

The

Chamber

267
277

Music

280

The

Piano

The

Violin

The

Orchestra

"89
,

A|5

Organ

'

The
Chorus

298

Opera
and

Choral

Music
,

ji

308
,

Solo
Th"

319

Singing
Practical

Value

of

325

Music
...,.,

351

LIST

Theatre

Court

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS

Weimar

Frontispiece.

Bizet

Georges

17

Brahams

Johannes

49

.......

Feliz

Bartholdy

Mendelssohn

.81
.

Amadeus

Wolfgang

Mozart

145
.

Puccini

Giacoma

209
.

JRichard

Strauss

241
........

Carl

Von

Marie

Weber

373
.

Fanny

Bloomfield

Zeisler

305
......

INTRODUCTION

L.

W.

of

Encyclopedia
needs

the

of

and

within

here

If

right

felt

that

first

gentleman

is
or

lover

time

no

Wishing,

he

found

although
and

when

consulted

in

by

hoped
contain

will

their

for

ment
state-

and

and

being
of

amount

no

them

nary
prelimi-

favor

and

and

it

is

desire

of

themselves

the

discoverable

and

history,
books

as

search
-the

rule

couched

little

themselves.

penings
hap-

certain

musical

of
and

hand,
was

He,

country,

devote

facts
at

were

after

volumes"

rare

were

as

this

art

concerning
certain

only

to

the

information

instances
very

able

and

learn

to

historical

been

has

points.
of

women

science

the

the

musical

and

but

day

such

several

sometimes

of

certain

men

music,

from

sprang
on

the

of

one

musical

that

work

the

study

however,

he

public

win

stand

must

believed

is

for

then,
will

extended

no

the

to

not,

himself

of

the

to

in

theory,

of

idea

majority

sincere

do

They

inform

to

large

It

making.

wine

will

they

The

like

live*

to

needs

and

Good

necessary,

book

excusing

and

explaining-

scarcely

justification

they

History
"

presented

ample

issuance.

the

its

American

the

good

for

themselves

their

is
so

reason

volumes

the

that

Music

bush/*

no

of

prefacing

lengthy

HUBBAtUX

while

obtainable
"

through
theoretical
in

varied

parts

language

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

In
to him.
virtuallyunintelligible
department
he addressed a letter to the music
his perplexity
that It

technical

so

Chicago Tribune, statinghis dilemma,

of the
advice
as

to

as

and

asking my
in English such
to
My inability

rise to the firstconcept of the

gave

Music.

Encyclopediaof

History and

The

need

would
which
serve
creatinga work
instant and satisfactory
reference, in which
at
would be immediately and conveniently
of

realized
of

means

was

could understand."

work,

"

theory that

on

person

to such

American

information

in which

and

book

some

non-musical

refer him

was

was

in

the

that

language

Englishbut

understands

has

not

the time

to

the
hand

be

would

to the
intelligible

was

who

obtained

when

information

as

pressed
ex-

who

man

master

the

technical phraseologyof music.


pressed
exDespitethe incredulity,
or
implied,of certain learned authorities,it was

Englishlanguage.isample enough, accurate


clear enough to make
possiblethe statingof

believed that the

enough,

and

musical

facts in terms

technical,and

not

that

if musicians

in
concerningtheir art and sufficiently
command
of the Englishlanguage to write simply and clearly
could be found, the making of the
of what
they knew
Encyclopedia would be possible.These, the endeavor was

well

enough

made

to

from

some

informed

discover,and
half-dozen

writers such

and
whom

began.
time

citiesand

then
This

corps

The

of researchers

securingof

to

men

of material could be
collecting
and
the preparationof the work

the

followed
was

possibleto assemble

was

towns

needed.

were

directingof

the

entrusted

as

graduallyit

than

more

two

years

ago

and

since that

six to twenty persons have been steadily


engaged
in gatheringthe facts and preparingthe material for the
from

Encyclopedia.
As
was

soon

reached

as

the

to

make

the

range

of national

While the whole


be covered

the

purely American
to

plan began

the decision
shape itself,
American*
representatively

to

work

music

Encyclopedia itself was


labor,

prefaceeach volume

The
were

and

to

be

historywas to
the product of

introductory
essays that
to

be written

by

men

who

were

had

INTRODUCTION

results in the field of American


music
accomplished practical
and who
were
recognizedas identified with the progress that
is being made
along all musical lines in this country. With
with
this end in view, arrangements for articles were
made

Frederick

Professor

knowledge of

whose

peoplesis wide
of Boston, who
of
significant
with

Starr

the

and

the music

stands

development

Frederick

A.

him

Universityof

of barbaric and

as

one

of

the

Chicago,

semi-civilized

foremost

Chadwick
and

most

and whose
familiarity
composers,
of creative music in the United
States
native composers;
with
Theopositionas leader of the dore

write

to

of

Stock, whose
Orchestra

Thomas

the

with George W.
authoritative;

American

fits
peculiarly

of

of

our

Chicago and whose


of the
positiveness

qualifyhim to speak with


orchestra; with
growth of the modern

compositions
formation

and

Krehbiel, music
York Tribune, and whose
editor for many
years of the New
criticisms,
annotations,prefatory essays, and books, while
stances
incoveringthe whole range of music, have been in many
devoted solelyto consideration of opera and music
is peculiarly
and who
drama
suited,therefore,to write of
and
its development; with Dn
of
Frank
Damrosch
opera
New
York, whose extended and in certain respects pioneer
work

in connection

E.

with the

him

schools warrants

H.

in

teachingof music in the public


that subject;
on
writingauthoritatively

music
York
editor,
J. Henderson, the New
author, and pedagogue, whose long research into the history
him especially
of vocal art qualifies
to discuss that line of
musical art and its history;and with Emil Liebling
of Chicago,
lecturer and littera-*
whose position
as
teacher,pianist,
relative
teur lends weight and positiveness
to his statements
to the evolution of piano techniqueand its application.

with

W.

editors of certain
supervising
volumes, Arthur Foote of Boston, whose compositionsand
valuable as
book on
whose
harmony make htm especially
editor of the volume
which has been preparedon musical
of
theory and harmony; Professor George W. Andrews
Oberlin Conservatory,
who wa$
chosen because of his thorTo

these

were

added,

as

of instruments

ough knowledge
of the volume
also

Dickinson

upon

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

that

to

superintendthe

and
subject;

historyand developmentof
collectingof material for

church

music

writings on

fit him

volume

the

Edward

Professor

Oberlin, Ohio, whose

of

tion
prepara-

on

the

direct the

to

Oratorios

and

Masses.

gatheringof material the aim has been not so


to bring together
as
to produce that which is original
lished
estabwhich
is complete,
comprehensiveand sufficiently
desire has
authoritative, The
as
to be recognized
the

In
much
that

been

to

first of all

make

work

with

of reference

that
systematized

arranged and

so

and

any

thing
every-

all facts

instantlyobtainable,to bring into one set of books


an
covering of the whole range of music and
encyclopedic
its history,and to present all this in language so clear,so
and so exact that every reader who
free from
technicality

will be

comprehensionof Englishwill be able to


definite and reasonablycompleteinformation
reliable,

has

fair

point he
branch

and

render

of music

the

one

stood
under-

and

all essential and

facts

fundamental

order and present them


systematize,

to

informative

on

the books

bring into
so

course

any

the scope of the field


but the aim has been
this out of the question,

the limits of the volumes

covered

on

of any

exhaustive treatment

is of
subjecthas been impossible,

or
"

to

desire. That

may

secure

that all the

that the

laytnanor the average student


requirewill be at their disposal.The volume

matter

may

Foreign Music will be found to contain sketches of


development and history of music in all the principal

countries,civilized and semi-barbaric,


of the world, many
the sketches
and

having been prepared by


presentingfacts and data

other works

on

the endeavor

the

has

musical
striking

subject In

natives
not

the two

of

of those countries,

contained in any
volumes

on

Opera

been to outline the story, note

the most
numbers, and give the date and placeof first

production of all the operaticworks now


included in the
present day repertory. A greater number of operas are thus
described than

are

to

be found

in other volumes

of similar

INTRODUCTION
and

nature,

of

several

given placein

been
Masses
and

the list

is carried out
it is added

to

those

the

on

most

The

have

Oratorios

and

volume
lines

same

consideration

and anthems
principalmasses
now
before attempted. The volume
not
describes

recentlyproduced

six hundred

as

on

and

in

those

Opera,
descriptionof the

are

use

undertaking

an

"

on

Instruments

on

lists and

musical

instruments,their origin,
their use
their appearance.
and
In the volumes
of Biographies,
the live facts have
been
retained,the aim having
been to prepare a work
that would
cerning
consupply information
left their impress
and women
who
not only the men
over

music

upon

in the

active in the

inquiry were
contained

work

the

today.
to

sent

volume

on

American

supply a complete outline


music

in the United

obtained

music

In

the

much

of

to be

Much

material

the

autobiographical

been

it has

of the unfoldment

States,

letters of

authoritative.

and

are

wish

the

In
to

and

progress of
of the material has been

papers,
only after long and difficultresearch through newsmagazines and scattered volumes on the subject. It

is believed that
of

and

accurate

Music

thousand

one

will be found

therefore

who

concerningthose

Over

musicians

in the volumes

in character, and

also

past but

so

comprehensiveand

accurate

in this country has not before been


Terms
and
volumes
Musical
on
on

outlining
accomplished.
Theory an
an

To translate into
undertakingwholly unique has been made.
simple,clear English the many technical words and phrases
employed in music and to perform a similar service for the
various

rules that go
compositionis a task which

musical

theory and

forms

and

to
no

make

up

writer

musical

or

group
heretofore
the
It
has
of writers
has had
courage to attempt.
been undertaken in the present instance,and has involved the

solvingof many intricate and vexatious problems. It has


been pioneerwork in the field,
and while there are recognized
shortcomingsin the resultant volumes, the task in the main
has been performed even
than the promore
successfully
moters
of the work had dated to hope*

will

Music
faults

is

itself,

but

been

be

the
to

dignified
keener,
editors

It

produce
it

result

appreciation

truer

be

well

content.

in

lies

work

the

is

that

of

music

of

nature

every

reliable,

wider

in

spots

that

given

be

can

weak

certain

possess

assurance

if

and

will

to

unexpected.

not

made

found

Encyclopedia

and

History

American

the

That

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

its

and

even

the

work

effort

has

intelligible

understanding
then

of

promoters

and

and

and

DEVELOPMENT

OF

PIANOFORTE

TECHNIQUE
LIBELING.

EHIL

The

practical
I

playing,

e.,

the

execution

the

Bach,
it

growth

in

and

the

of

1710

which

in

Stein

and

made

and

of
at

quality

tone

of

universal

built

perfection.
and

States.

has

Paris

which
and
Since
found

could

then

its

problem
building,

at

demonstrated*

the

piano

highest

pianos
modern

our

end

the
and

of

the

Strassburg,
of

the

art.

Broadwood

builder,
a

creased
in-

the

produced

Century
Viennese

depended

which

examples

permitted

brought

the

piano

be

Freiberg

excellent

the

gradual

necessarily

and

Nineteenth
and

of

the

Johann

the

represented

of

of

of

art

construction

the

realize

SchrSter

and

Silbermanns

improvements

poetic

skill

which
for

era

through

purposes

Augsburg

firard

London,

United

of

beginning

the

state

form

the

century

same

and

the

ages

digital

Cristofori

intents

all

to

instruments

At

1729

and

the

medium

the

for

instrument

possibilities
In

successive

of

executants

the

in

piano

difficulties

solution

the

connect

of

compositions

fully

to

evolution

all

with

begins

order

to

necessary

corresponding

the

upon

is

exacting

most

technique

of

mastery

properly

entails,

Sebastian

for

the

of

instrument

with

successful

the

of

development

more

Streicher,

musical

mechanism

building

of

to

has

development

and
a

high

become
m

the

Previous
thumb

performer used straight


edge of the keyboard; the

very

considered

useless; it

rarely;it remained
importance of the thumb

utilized very

or

realize the

and

short

too

was

omitted

the

played at

MUSIC

the

Bach's advent

to

fingersand

OF

THEORY

THE

enormous

either

was

Bach

for
as

to

pivotal

this most

give
point of
of fingersadequateemployment; by passing the
indispensable
under
the
the thumb
fingersover the thumb and vice versa
and to
all pianistic
possibilities

to

of piano playing as
originator
know
it,and graduallyour present hand positionwhich
we
of the thumb
and constant
was
involves curved fingers
use
all major and minor
keys in the
introduced,and by utilizing
epoch in
Well-Tempered Clavichord Bach created a new
Of his contemporariesthe
the historyof piano technique.-

Bach
fingers,

thus

became

Couperins,

Rameau

and

to

cultivate

of

his

Handel's

distant
work

did

rhythmical styleof

much

ance,
perform-

the

the

be termed
Scarlatti may
the
invented difficultiesfor the pleasureof

he

instead of

usingthem

of artistic achievement;thus

purposes

France

Domenico

suites,and

masteringthem,

of

German
severityof
compositionsdevelopedvelocityin many
to

contrast

first virtuoso, as

works

Marchand

gracefuland

quite in
School.

the

as

for

means

higher

find in Scarlatti's

we

jumps, quicklyRepeatingnotes, swift trills,


and

double thirds. Neither

Haydn nor Mozart


extended
the scope of technique
Beethoven
only
perceptibly;
in the works
commencing with the Sonata Op. 53; the
had changed to one
of
lyrical
styleof the precedingmasters
dramatic nteaningand the different requirementswere
met
by greater contrasts of dynamics and tone production.
staccato

Muzio

Clementi

laid the

foundation

for

our

brilliant

styleof pianoplayingin his collectionof studies,the


Gradtts ad Parnassum, in which every speciesof technical
work f$ fullyelucidated,
and his great pupils,
Cramer, Berger

modern

fPtagd, followed

in his footettte,

John Field of

iefloolcultivated the poeticv$k and


t of

series b"

Chopin'sstyle. Carl Ms"fe Von


noble compositions5ftwW"h
the

became
Weber
resources

the
wrote

the
prea

of the

PIANOFORTE

TECHNIQUE

performer find much expansion in the way of


brilliant scale and
arpeggio work, successive and exacting
staccato
glissandiand sonorous
melody propassages, octave
duction.
Carl Czerny, Thalberg and Kullak
also developed
element
the purely mechanical
to a high degree, the latter
in his school of octaves, and Alexander
especially
Dreyschock
Bohemian
amazed
musical
of
able
Europe by the remarkorigin
In Frankfort
virtuosityof his left hand.
Aloys Schmitt
piano

and

the

exercises
publishedfive-finger

adjunct

of

which

study, and

have

become

necessary

Moscheles

forms
a
piano
connecting
the purely classical styleand the modern
tic
roman-

link between

period*
By originatingin
in continuous

chromatic

entire series of
in the

the

Gracjus

modulation

exercise
five-finger

Clementi

suggested the
modern
minating
etudes, cultransposing five-finger
Tausig daily exercises,and this feature of

pianisticevolution

has

revolutionized

the

entire

field

of

technique.
Mendelssohn's

piano playing. He
a supplewrist,
requiresperfectscale and arpeggiotechnique,
cantabile touch and mastery of the polyphonicstyle;some
art

did

much

of extended
effects in the way
melody parts between the two

new

of

Henselt;

and

his master,

Hummel,

for

chords

thumbs
also

and
were

the division

added

illustrated

by

purely

in his Concertos,Sonatas
practically

most
digital
possibilities
and the Fantasie Opus 18.
The
in
romantic
individuality
style,demanding more
in
finds leading exponents
technique and interpretation,
The fetudesof the first master
Chopin and Schumann.
give
a

clew to his work


up

undreamt-of

and

resources

compositionsthe
and

effectivechord
Franz

in novel combinations, ing


openIn Schumann's
of the instrument*

abound
art of

playingare

Liszt is the master

phrasing,solid passage

work

cultivated.

who

combined the excellencies

brought them to a dazzlingculmination.


of the wrist and forearm,
He introduced an elevated position
used the
of fingering,
bold innovations in the mode
made
of all schools and

fingerafter the thumb and


divided
fpur fingers,
three or

fifth

the

sixths between

effects. He

new

their

of

material

have

the

the

him

followed

which

even

veloped
de-

stein
Tausig, Rubin-

but littleto the actual technical

purely mechanical

proved abortive. Logier introduced

hand

appearance.
An

and

pedals with surprising


chapter which Clementi

improve technique by

to

in 1814; later

England

in

thirds

pianism.

Efforts
means

added

Biilow

double

the

used

giftswonderfully,but

own

Von

and

closed

played trillswith

versa

trills in

great virtuosos

The

commenced.

vice

and

hands

two

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

10

of

own

our

time

attempt to rearrange
was

made

the

ance
contriv-

Montreal

guide,and Brotherhood's Technicon


In

keyboard

Bohrer

on

Virgilsystem

made

its

finds followers.

the present arrangement

by Paul de Janko, but

vented
in-

met

of

with

indifferent success.
The
to

the

of one
impossibilities
kindergartenof the next, and

periodare

technical

we

find in

relegated
the piano

of

rhythms and difficult


the works
of
positionswhich even Liszt did not anticipate;
the new
Russian School,of Balakirew, Liapounow, etc,,carry
the requirements
of execution to transcendent heightsand the
arrangements of Chopin's fitudes by Leopold Godowsky
The
represent the ne plus ultra of seeming impossibilities*
is one
which requiresthe swiftest
present state of technique
in double thirds and
fingerdevelopment,perfect facility
scores

of

Brahms

combinations

sixths,a wrist of steel,intuitivemastery of abstruse polyphonic


all
softened and broughtinto one
ous
harmoniproblems,
of purpose and reverent
entityby artistictaste, sincerity
devotion for the true

meaning of the composer.


Having traced the gradualdevelopmentof the technique
of piano playingit will be interesting
and instructive to discuss
the pianists
and artists who were
its practical
exponents.
instruments "whtch preceded the modern
The
pJano
of great feats of execution
p"A"ted the possibility
the
or
4e force" of later ages, hence, the old Englishmastongs
Tatlls,
Bird, Dr. Bull Orlando

Gibbons

and

PIANOFORTE

Henry
a

Purcell, contented
chords

few

and

and

Mattheson
school
and

Daquin

and

Buxtehude

cultivated

foreshadowed

German

themselves

arpeggios;the

Couperin, Marchand
Bach

TECHNIQUE

of

same

of

with

light scales and


limitations apply to
France
and Pachelbel,

Germany.
and

severe

11

The

solid

Handel

and

style'of performance
of the subsequent

the characteristics

period.

dementi

Mozart

and

brilliant execution

delightedtheir

audiences

and

by their
Hummel,

rapid running work, and


Moscheles
and Field followed in their vein,combining sound
musicianshipwith dazzlingeffects. My old master, Heinrich
of his
at the head of the pianists
Dorn, placedMendelssohn
to Liszt
day and preferredhim even
By a singularirony
of the greatest performershave been denied the
them Kullak,Henselt,Chopin
to play in public,
ability
among

of fate

and

some

Nicholas

Rubinstein.

Thalberg'sdaring virtuosityseemed
audiences
and

that the

in order

benches

performer

to

to

Parisians

convince

playing and

was

confederate

incredulous

assist behind

so

climbed

themselves

suspectedhim
the

fabulous
on

that

of

to

his

chairs

only

one

employing

stage*

Chopin'sperformance,though wonderfullysmooth and


essential to
which is imperatively
poetic,lacked the virility
to such
Some
an
pianistshave specialized
publicsuccess*
that we
extent
posers;
identifythem instantlywith certain comthus

we

look upon

Carl Reinecke

as

the

Mozart

the ideal
player par excellence and consider De Pachmann
Chopin interpreter*
confined their repertory
Formerly the great pianists
almost
compositions,but with the
entirelyto their own
of the piano
advent of Liszt's marvelous
art the possibilities
artist is supposed
became unlimited and the modern
concert
Bach to Debussy with
to produce the entire literature from
the analytical
Bach,
consummate
mastery. He must .present
Schumann,
lyric Mozart, dramatic Beethoven, romantic
poetic Field, profound Brahms, sentimental Chopin and
brilliantLiszt with equalauthority.

THE

12

OF

THEORY

MUSIC

of note. Arabella
England has producedbut few pianists
of the
and only of late years some
Goddard
enjoyed renown,
artists like Katherine Goodson, Gertrude Peppercorn
younger
and

Frederick

Lamond

have

come

to the

fore, the last named

Beethoven
player. Spain has remained terra
a
as
especially
of de la Motta;
; Portugal boasts
incognita pianistically
France has always excelled in the niceties and finish of piano
playing;that most versatile of musicians, Saint-Saens, plays
that his listeners
scale of such rapidityand smoothness
a
of the jeu
masters
are
despair; Raoul Pugno and Diemer
Risler gives authoritative readings of the
perle, Edward
and Francis Plante and
Beethoven
Sonatas in their entirety,
Ritter
Theodore
ravishingtechnique
presentedthe most
imaginable. Norway, the land of fjordsand mountains, was
reflected in the

art

of

Madam

Backer-Grondahl

and

Erika

pianists.Italyis ably
representedby Sgambati and Martucci,but stilldepends upon
her vocal masters
for musical pre-eminence. It is interesting
the
that at the Imperial Conservatory at Tokio
to
note
and
works
of European masters are findingready recognition
figurelargelyin the curriculum.
Piano
received a powerful impetus
playing in America
by Rubinstein's visit in 1872. He was a colossal but uneven
player,the victim of moods, unapproachablewhen at his
best
His musical
Von
Hans
antithesis,
Biilow, followed
him
shores
and
his deliberate and analyticalperto our
formances
His subjectivity
proved high educational
terbalanced
counthe great Russian's objectiveness.Joseffy's
impeccableart then came
as
a
great revelation to us and
restored piano playingto true and sane
proportions.Essipoff
was
a
charming artist,Carreno has dominated the concert
decades,Fanny Bloomfield-Zeisler occupies a
stage for many
unique eminence both here and abroad, and Ad"le Aus der
Ohe is an artist of sterling
qualities,
I frequently
Hungary gave us Franz Liszt,whom
heard
in 1876,
whie at Weimar
As he originated
the entire structure
Lie

concert
Nissen, both distinguished

of

modem

technics every

detail was,

of course,

at

his

PIANOFORTE

TECHNIQUE

13

ends; a simpleBeethoven Sonata,a Chopin Prelude


fingers'
finished performance as the huge Don
was
given the same
Juan Fantasie. The fire of youth never became quenched in
his veins and to his last days he remained
the absolute
master.

Carl

Tausig,born

Poland, died

His technical outfit

of his art.

Max

in

Prinner

of

New

York,

was

at the very

unlimited.

threshold
His

pupil,

also

promised well, but was


taken away
by relentlessfate at an earlyage. Paderewski,
of striking
another great Pole, is stillwith us; a man
personality
and
tremendous
technical
strong magnetism
ties.
capabiliRosenthal is the giantof the keyboard and has long
since reached the climax. At the age of thirteen Hanslick,
said of him, that
he had nothing
the great Viennese critic,
is the happy lot of many
to learn." This earlyprecocity
more
the furore which Joseph
and we all remember
great pianists
Hofmann, also of Polish parentage,created at the age of
eight.He has noblykept the promiseof his youth.
in pianistic
The superlative
art has been attained by
and one is temptedto consider the achieveRussian artists,
the
of Lhevinne and Godowsky as the closing
ments
chapter,
"

"

last word.

The

ble
cool bravura of the former and the incredi-

counterpuntalcombinations of the latter approach


wizardry.
and convincing
A noble art is that of Busoni's,
puissant
;
a
nd
in execution,
musicianship,
proportion
magnificent
spective
perwho deserve mention
Among the notable pianists
Rudolf Ganz, Hambourg*,Gabrilowitsch and Bauer, all
are
modern in their attainments.
of them gifted
and thoroughly
is D' Albert,a master
Equallygreat as musician and pianist
in art,and whose profound
who has alwaysstood for dignity
are fully
by a greattechnique.
interpretations
supported
The possibilities
and limitationsof the instrument seem
intimate
its most
to have been fathomed; it has yielded
secrets; all problemshave been solved and it remains for
future ages to create

new

boundaries of the art.

HISTORY

OF

W.

Artistic

singing
of

method

the

worship

psalms,

second

were

(as

canticles,

described

rhapsodizings,
tongues,"

the

adaptation

of

the

of

honor

Greek

cadences

"Undulating*
sometimes

florid

the

entered

in

now

even

artistic

single

on

vowel

the

of

made

an

sounds

long,

of

such
of

these

gift

vowel

on

phrases
which

element,

**

consisted

tones,

final

the

improvised

certainly

caroling

of

called

In

as

carolings

These

gods.

the

part

and

almost
of

custom

Paul,

since

and

apostle

Christians

early
the

forming

not

themselves.

the

by

the

ritual,

Hannah)

Christians

the

among

by

rhapsodizings

were

Of
St.

Hebrew

and
of

in

used

religion.

new

ancient

Bible

Christian

early

mentioned

songs
the

the

third

the

made

Thus

from

the

best

the

materials

the

of

thanksgiving

the

and

songs

in

from

texts

were

psalter

the

spiritual

taken

the

in

from

followers

after

search

used

chants

and

the

in

developed
first

the

hymns
first

the

the

chants
of

MUSIC

HENDERSON.

J.

originated

delivering
These

church.

VOCAL

as

one

chants.

chtirch

afterward

hears

to

rose

such

height.
Out

general

of

system

the

Roman

the

foundation

elements

these
was

of

singing*

schools

the

unification

(306-337).

Constatitme
in

Rome

No

liturgy.

chanted
till

however,

possible,
under

Church

up

grew

by

Then

Pope

of

carne

Sylvester,

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

16

singing entirelyto the choirs by the


in 367, and other important steps.
Council of Laodicea
The
building up of the vast and splendid treasury of
church music occupied centuries, and its historymust
Roman
tine
But through the labors of the Benedicbe sought elsewhere.
able to arrive at a knowledge
are
fathers of Solesrnes we
singers
of vocal culture which the early church
of the amount
possessed. As the chant gained in breadth, dignity and
fluency and as it added to its sustained cantilena a richly
mental
the singersacquireda solid body of fundaflorid element
technique.

the

entrustingof

church

find, then, that before

We

Century

in

smooth, flowing music

long, beautiful

tones

Sixteenth

been

had

The

taught.
systematically

were

the

of

vocal art

all the basic essentials of

and

middle

the

abilityto sing
(legato),the

tone, and
importance of breath control in sustaining
notes in symmetricalphrases,the value of pure vowel
the

of

necessityof distinct enunciation

tained
ascer-

joining
sounds,
and

consonants

the

skill to

elegance and

were

deliver the florid passages with


assiduously studied, and many

singers excelled

these

matters.

about

Several
the

these contained
in the modern

treatises

beginning of
of the

many

the

and

Seventeenth

These

singing appeared
Century and

treatisesdealt with the

voice, registers(head and

of

in

afterward incorporated
principles

Italian method

different kinds

voice

on

agility

chest

were

of tone, hygieneand deportment.They


for each voice on all the intervals.

recognized),emission
contained vocalizes
When
Sixteenth

were

the Italian opera


Century its music

was

invented at the end

differed in

no

of the

essential of technical

requirement from that of the church, and hence singers


cally
musiprepared to deliver it. The first recitatives were
other
than secular chants.
With the advent of
nothing

Claudio

Monteverde

(1567-1643)the element

of

dramatic

expression forged to the front and the chant began to


;apprdach true recitative. Rhythm and accentuation, previously
of small

now
while
moment,
beg"a to be significant,
"e. melodic phrase appeared and became th" bridgebetween
recitative and air.

GEORGKS

CESAR

(ALEXANDER

1838-1875

BIZKT,

Born

Paris.

In

LEOPOLD)

Ills

title

chief

fame

to

as

is

Carmen,"

"

his

did

"which,

after

until

death;

his-

the

in

at

the
was

**

of

reception

death.

his

"with

met

*e

by

"

Carmen

afterward

time

short

appointment
dis-

and

overwork

fact,

poser
com-

with

meet

not

opera

success

cause

"

Carmen

London,

in

prodrtced

meeting*

was

tmqualiHed

and

has

since

with

produced

been

all

success,

the

'world

and

over

dramatic

of

all

is

the

considered

the

in
operas

the

most

modern

popular

and

Jprenc'h
ertory.
rep-

HISTORY

The

Cavalli

of

music

finallyand
form

chant

MUSIC

(1599-1676)
fullysuperseded

had

defined

the

The

rested.

17

little later

in it the melodic

and

became

now

VOCAL

aria, however, arrived

true

works

the

OF

basis
literary

dramatic

the

basis of
which

on

character

its technic entered

and

in

of

singing
period

a
upon
essentials

development embracing not only all the


manded
deby the old church compositions but the added excellences
of great flexibility
of tone, skill in nuance,
taste in
a
phrasing and
larger agility than had
previously been

of

Monteverde

known.
of

those

the

had

utilized florid cadences

chant, and

ornate

his

successors

of such
perceive the pleasingpossibilities
they assiduouslycultivated.
In 1637
the first public opera
house,
in Venice, was
Cassiano
and
opened
opera

that

of the

to

general audience.

popular

became

consideration

exclusive

the

of opera

The

taste.

field for the


to

result

operas of the
those of
especially
The

writing,which

the

were

San

transferred

was

in

skill.

short

This

time

it

reduction

High
only low

voices

well

as

as

forms

of

recitative,
all possiblevocal requirements

cantilena

to

the

most

brilliant

almost

used, basses
exclusively
Tenors were
employed sparingly.
female, reigned,while contraltos

were

ones.

various

their consorts.
In

the

and

sustained

and

being the
Sopranos, male

Teatro

matic
deprived singingof its draequipped it with a remarkable
technique.
the
Seventeenth
Century,
closingyears of
Alessandro
Scarlatti (1659-1725) showed

perfect demarcation of
clearlydefined aria forms
colorature.

the

nobilityto
requiredto appeal

now

vocal

slow

cultured

that

was

displayof

broad

was

to

artistic level

low

but
sincerity

from

It

of

not

were

to

from

similar

now

schools

1700

we

find

fullyequipped singingschools teaching

completelycodified Italian method.


of

Fedi

at

These

Pistocchi
Rome, Antonio
Francesco
Redi
Modena,

at

were

the

Bologna,

at
Florence,
Joseph Brevio at
those of Porpora, Leo and
Rome
and
at
Joseph Amadori
ters
taughtby these masEgizzio at Naples. Some of the pupils
Farinelli,
Tesi, Cuzzoni and
Caffarelli,
the famous
were
heard
were
These singersand their contemporaries
BordonL

frequentlyin
the
best

of

works

the

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

18

Handel, the greatest master

of

with

the

of

the

period,whose recitatives and arias provide us


understanding of the character of the music

time.

dignityof

dramatic

and

breadth

The

while
surpassed,
singer perfect qualityof tone,

have

arias

his

been

never

his

recitatives

demand

of

the

intonation, great
and
of brilliant floridity,
breath support, command
great
the
beauty of stylein sustained cantilena. They summarize
of the preceding century without
best traits of the music
flawless

preservingits extravagances, and for this reason


admirable
schoolingfor singers.
of great singers,
however,
The domination
in the

Italian opera and


succeedingthat of Handel it became
of

decline

for vocal

the

acceptedin
the time
to

was

lieu of

at

hand

when

but these countries


France

rapid

period immediately
mere

the element

itself felt in opera, the


Italian opera had ruled for

In

led to

parade ground

and breath sustaining


were
agility
and
beautiful style
expression.However,

make

singing.
Germany,
own.

now

was

the most

of

Feats

show.

are

the

were

labors

of

of nationalism

great field of artistic


a

time

in France

and

developingschools of their
Lully (1633-1687) and

(1683-1764) had established a national school in


which
broad, elegant,finished recitative and a classically
and dignified
suave
delivery,known
,as the "grand style/'
This stylewas
the imperativedemands.
were
preservedin
the operas of Gluck (1714-1787). The florid element found
littlefavor with the French
and by centering
masters
attention
Rameau

upon

the

grandiosecharacter

of

their music

and

the

styleof its deliverythey preservedFrench opera


pompous
from becoming merely a field for the exploitation
of vocal

agility.The
nature

of the

Parisian

Bernard

singing teachers and as far back as 1668 we find


Bacilly(Remarques sur r Art de Bien Chanter) explaining1
the final E

in feminine

rhymes should be pronounced


of skg*"
""$ givingdirectionsfor other peculiarities
itiU" nativetongue. The au^ve and elegant
charactt^ d?
how

wg

problems thrust into vocal techniqueby the


French language earlyattracted the attention of

HISTORY

French

the older

vocal

works

such

of

OF

VOCAL

music

survives
"

Gounod's

as

MUSIC

19

in the

ures
gracefulmeas-

Faust/' while

the

most

accomplished Gallic singersof


their melodic

phrasingand
result

is the

which

the present possess a polish in


their pronunciation of the words

of

precepts laid down

by Lully

and

Ranieau.
of singing
Germany, as in France, Italian conceptions
but in the course
of time the temperament
at first prevailed,
the exigenciesof the national language
of the people and
combined
Teutonic.
The
to produce a styleessentially
taste
for musical plays was
of the Germans
largelydeveloped and
in which
alternated with
formed
singspiel,"
by the
song
comic operas
and in Beethoven's
spoken dialogue,as in modern
In

"

"

"

Fidelio,"

the German

"

spiel

demanded

which

forward
hear

musical

The

result

was

of the text in order

word

every

conceptionof the

of the story. This


But
of clear enunciation.

development

sounds

and

that he

the concomitant

play

recitative

stillexpected to

might follow
led to

the character
a

singgoing

was

that when

publicdemand

tongue easilybetrayed singersinto


vowel

what

placeof spoken dialoguehe

to take the

began

the

gained
of
perfectunderstanding

stage.

"

with
long familiarity
a

the

on

From

"

the

vation
culti-

of the German

sacrifice of beautiful

beauty of

vocal

tone

to

This trait of German


deliveryof the consonant.
singingwas emphasizedby the popularseriousness toward all
forcible

of drama,

forms

for the sake


other

hand

of

forbade

which

of the consonants

into the cantilena and

from

various

The
nearly harmonized
any

manner

beautyto truth
opposed. The exaggerated

worked

its way

from

recitative

of
thus all lightness

in
prevalent

the German

to be

seemed

treatment

was

the

on

rather called for the sacrificeof


the two

as

ihterpretation

merely external polish,and indeed

whenever

such

all sacrificeof

the

styleand elegance,
florid school of song, disappeared

of

singing.

elements of vocal art


conflicting

in the works

of Mozart

were

more

than in those

of

In his operas we find all kinds of recitative,


other composer*
and airiestconversational type to the
from the lightest

of his arias Mozart

flowingpassages

and

broadest, smoothest

singerswere

of

manner

the florid

styleof

in the

them

from

exacted

musical

most

preservedin certain parts

He

His

while
of delivery,
great elasticity

have

requiredto

thus

MUSIC

stateliestdramatic utterance.

and

broadest

OF

THEORY

THE

20

the

singing.

the

earlier

"

"

Queen of the Night


Italian operas (as in the music of the
matic
drain
The Magic Flute ") and he utilized also the more
styleof florid song, as in the great airs of Donna Anna
"

using the
so
latter he broadened and deepenedits dramatic significance
to impose new
as
requirements
upon the singersof his works.
Elvira in '"Don

Donna

and

therefore,Beethoven

When,

of

In

Mozart.
"

"Abscheulicher
monster"

in

prepared for
"

such

and

in such numbers

as

operas

"Ocean, thou

"Oberon," they refashioned


them

they had in

which

episodesof their

"Fidelio"

in

in

Weber, the firstmasters


to write their operas,

the foundations

they built chiefly


upon
works

and

School, came

German

of the modern

But

Giovanni/'

the

"

all the
Don

as

the
the

mighty
elements

Ottavio,son

They employed the broad and


the stylehalf way
between
powerfully accented recitative,
aria (calledarioso),the sustained melodic
recitative and
phraseologyand the big, dramatic kind of florid passage
"

morta

of

Don

Giovanni."

work, best described


abounds

in

runs

as

and

dramatic bravura*

This kind of song


other difficulties,
but these are treated

view to their

character and with no regard


expressive
for their availability
mediums for the displayof vocal
as mere
skill. Just as Weber
used the most
brilliant flashingof
violins through the range of the scale in his overtures
so he
with

used

the voice in
But

some

of his dramatic

scenes,

this

of the German
practise
composers, developedin
the publicdemand
order, to meet
for sincerity
of expression,
did not affect vocal stylein Italy. Although the
operas of
the Rossinian period showed
advance over
an
.theirpredecessors,
in some
detailsof dramatic expression,
they preserved

of the characteristicsof the older school,and singing


continued to be a displayof technical skill in the delivery
of
.tones witibqmt
much regard for the pronunciation
of the text
most

HISTORY

or

the

OF

of
significance
of

introduction

VOCAL

the

scene.

the custom

of

At

MUSIC

21

this time, however, the

writing operas with the recitatives


accompanied throughout by the orchestra, whereas the
harpsichordhad been previouslyused for much of this work,
led to the

the need

in the cantilena,in order

volume
not

of
recognition

become

apparentlythe

more

for

that the

Grisi

and

singing reigned,of which

of

greater

recitatives should

important parts of the


thirtyor forty years

It was,
therefore, in the first
Nineteenth
Century that the school
dramatic

biggertone

combined

works.
of

the

florid and

Malibran, Pasta and


and
Rubini, Lablanche

representativewomen,
and Mario representative
The singersof this school premen.
served
of
the vocal techniqueof the Handelian
much
period,
but
and
the

were

superimposed upon
largenessof

elegantfinish
At

the time

tone

of

when

it

an

which

vigor of accentuation
of
naturallyobliterated some

energy,

its details.
the

theories
revolutionary

of Richard

Wagner worked such radical changes in the character of the


lyricdrama, singingwas hovering between the German style,
which placedforce and enunciation before beauty of tone, and
the Italian manner,
which strove to conserve
purely superficial
dramatic
Each
beauty and yet introduce
appearance.
school continued to use those set forms of aria which invited

singerto offer an exhibition of either


ing
to the audience,
techniqueor expression
Wagner, by abandonthe set forms and endeavoringto fashion his operas as
playsin continuous dialogue,threw out of his entire scheme
either florid or
the necessityfor set exhibitions of singing,
dramatic.
His works became long sequences of recitatives,
heavilyorchestrated,and here and there broken by purely
lyricpassages, conceived rather in the arioso than the aria
At this same
character.
periodMeyerbeer,the most potent
world up to the time of Wagner's
influence in the operatic
liant
final triumph,was
composingoperas with powerfuland brilarioso passages throughout
orchestration and many
ments
popular eleMeyerbeer, however, strove to retain the more
and the set vocal piece.
of floridity
both

composer

and

The

result

the

facile

and

music

essential to

Wagner
of

the

of

text.

of the music
At

of the Handelian

Bayrcuth, the home

of

the

family,it is taught that the proper way to sing the


and to
Wagner is to lean heavilyon all consonants

short, the contemporaneous

School

German

of

tone

In

singingis the

development of the literaryidea in vocal


idea which lay at the basis of the earlychant, but
speedilysupersededby the musical conceptionof

extremest

music, the
which

after

Florid

study vowel sounds not as producersof beautiful vocal


but with regard only for their conversational character.
last and

tone

prolongedstudy of vocalizes,such

command

abandoned.

been

has

music

forcible declamation

and

tone

neglectedand

is

was

era,

compositionof music
the conditions existing

the

steadilytoward
In Germany the study of beautiful
execution has been superseded by a search

of

volume

as

singingand

plays moved
present day.

for vocal
at

that

was

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

22

was

the art.

Italy the elegantand


has yielded to German

In
Rossini

styleof

fluent

the

influence and

school

in the

of

search

the young
Italian school of
expression
produced large quantitiesof music which

after truthful dramatic

composers
demands

has

skill in

execution, but

merely
powerfultone,
long
and heavy phrases,and vigor in declamatoryemphasis. The
radical difference between the contemporaneous Italian style
and that of Germany is that the former
is founded upon
a
musical
The
Italian seeks rather for
purely
conception.
abundance

of

singer no

of rich and

splendorand
The

the

mass

French

to
ability

of tone

than

sustain

for finish in treatment

the
School,following

of the

trend

given to it by
ment
Lullyand Rameau, continues to cultivate eleganceand refineof diction together with suave
and fluent deliveryof
text.

tone,

modern

development of singingis found

in the field

of the song, which form of compositionassumed


importance
the
of
Franz
Schubert
genius
through
(1797-1828),His

works

combined

melodic

of the moods

grace and
of his texts,

with poetic emfluency


bodiment
The

vocal technie and

HISTORY

of

style

Weber

the

by

show

songs

able

are

than

singers

opera

obliged

sacrifice

to

It

is

changed

and

they

as

the

were

wholly

the

formation,

the

of

strive

to

of

popularity
declamation

of

the

the

violent

has

of

the

they

his

brated
cele-

of
has

are

the

discouraged
heavily

schools.

not

teachers

great

of

the

same

and

physiology

cultivation
been

tone

the

and

time

by

has

of

knowledge

present

singing,

contemporaneous

theory

this

are

singing

Malibran

taught
the

latter

remain

The

of

volume.

Porpora

practise

the

but
schools

and
of

but

beauty

the

that

voice

of

dramatic

singers,

pure

mere

style

Farinelli.

principles

those

of

and

time

of

Pistocchi,

loud

the

recent

of

Song

The

Pasta

of

of

the

sake

verbal

most

that

years.

known,

better

lines

to

of

of

teachers

test

impart

refinements

the

and

correctness

and

Bernacchi

for

the

the

reason

features

in

as

is

The

1700.

the

days

Caffarelli

organs

disproved

the

then

same

for

conception
in

were

in

the

attention

hundred

past
the

pupils,
vocal

much

so

almost
in

are,

that

and

operas.

more

the

became

song

extent

tone,

German

for

years

an

follow

to

devote

sufficed

later

such

of

in

to

in

to

attempt

fashioned

as

however,

the

idea

23

than

But

beauty

decided

recitative

now

literary

MUSIC

more

songs.

overbalanced

emphasis

tone

these

the

VOCAL

period

of

interpretation
affected

OF

those

who

schools
the

of

higher
by
ated
accentu-

the

TONALITY

All

by

the

of

of

vibrations
No

sounds

possible

and

greatly

and

waterfall

pitch,

of

it

is

does

gathered

in

As

of

The

more

will

it

have

finely

per

number

the

be

of

ability

this

result

some

as

very

music,

not

it

bear

inheritance,

by

developed

by
name

well
is

of

sense

recognition
series

of

of
tq"es

from
the

analogy
and

the

definite

This
Latin

existing
ascending

pitch,

form

word

in

progress

is

called

scala,

between

steps

are

selected

are

tones

series

the

to

which

tones

musical

the
falls

and

relation

The

individual

the

rises
no

as

of

roaring

determined

any

degrees.

the

has

such

nature,

sound

tone

it.

whose

defined

in

the

each

constitute

of

or

although
for

series

derived

trees

succeeding

to

noises

previously

or

definite

all

the

but

waves,

together
a

in

through

preceding

pitch

contained

are

or

neither

The

education

blowing

wind

from

just

36,500

to

capable

pitch.

sound

smell.

or

tones

in

or

clearly

extremes.

more

cords,

membranes,

made

two

the

ear

individuals

in

Sounds

in

these

differences

environment

the

between
the

be

can

occasioned

vocal

16

from

of

rate

the

perceive

can

ear

air

air,

of

statement

trained

distinguishing
varies

at

produced

educated

taste

normal

the

as

columns

The

in

substance

some

occurring

second.

vibrations

of

instruments,

bodies.

sonorous

result

the

vibrations

strings

of

is

sound

the
of

scale.

staircase,
ing
progress-

stairs.

The

THE

26

THEORY

MUSIC

OF

further express the comparison by using the name


Tonleiter,a ladder of musical sounds, and the French employ
the one
word, echelle,to designateboth scale and ladder.
Germans

arranging of musical
always been done by all races
This

tones

into

definite series

possessingmusic. Helmsimilar to the


reason
holz attributes it to a psychological
natural
feelingwhich has led to the rhythmicaldivision in
poetry. In other words, it is due to that inherent quality
lies beyond man's explanationbut
of rhythm whose
reason
has

of
is present in everything. It is within the realm
factor in the problem of this science
aesthetics. A constant
which

of the beautiful is to discover what

it is in

thingsthat

makes

tion
ugly,sublime or ludicrous. The explanauniversal laws of aesthetics
is ever receding
and incomplete,
be established,
for beyond a certain point training
cannot
becomes
each man
and
loses its power
an
authorityunto
different tastes.
individuals having vastly
himself,
The degreesof progression
in the scale are not the same
the various races, but have differed with the epoch,
among
the tastes and the natural surroundings of
the civilization,
the people. There
in existence scales so different
are
now
that much
from our
and familiarity
own
are
sary
necestraining
before the beauties of their intervals can be appreciated
them

beautiful

by

alien

an

or

ear.

embryo is the sustained sound of a voice at


different pitches. This constitutes the music
of savage
whose
scales may be limited but who delight
in repeatraces
ing
a few
tones, thus producing a speciesof chant. The
of a primitive
true
chant can only be appreciated
qualities
when
heard as the savage produced it,for when
translated
which constitute our
into the tones
scale it necessarily
is
changed owing to the difference in the number and magnitude
Music

in

of the intervals.

There

are

three

pointsin which all scales

Jn the octave, the fourth and


iyilizations
and localities
may

agree.

They

the fifth. Scales of

contain any number


of i^enip^Kate
tones, but all agree Jn havingestablished the

TONALITY
natural

by

relationshipbetween

the

interval

the Latin

from

derived

in this connection

refer

word

the

octo,

the

which

tones
as

octave,

an

meaning

interval has

degreesof

separated

are

name

eight and
been

the scale.

used

divided

The

by

intervals

the other

intermediate steps may


be of various magnitudes,
the octave, fourth and fifth are
always nized.
recogfor this is founded
reason
the most
on
simple

but
The
laws

the
we

because

termed

eight tones,
between

which

to

27

of

acoustics.

When

stringvibrates

the lowest

tone

of which

will

occur

twice

the

first.

in its entire

length it produces

it is

capable,called its fundamental


If the stringbe lightly
tone.
guage,
touched, or in technical lanstoppedt in the middle of its length and caused to
vibrate, it will do so in two equal lengthsand, as these are
each half of the entire length of the string,the vibrations

vibrated

instance, if

For

128

fast, producing a

as

tone

string

in

an

its entire

times

per second, the same


vibrate 256
times, just twice

lengths would
string be stopped

point one-third of
smaller portionof it will produce a tone with
at

above

octave

length

string in
128.

two

If the

its

length,the

384

vibrations.

Again, by stopping the stringat a point one-fourth from


the end, the smaller portion will produce 5f2 vibrations.
The
tone
resultingfrom the 128 vibrations has been designated
as

in the bass clef

containing256

as

middle

and
be explainedlater),
'(to

C, the eighthtone

above

that

the first.

384 vibrations is G occupyingthe fifth


containing
512 vibrations
from
positionabove middle C" and that resulting
is C occupyinga fourth degreeabove G and two octaves
above the lowest tone produced by the string.
be
This series of partial
tones, as they are called,can
for, in theory,a stringcan be divided
carried on infinitely,
end.
without
Taking the partialtones in their numerical
sections of the
order, which correspondsto the vibrating
strings,the intervals between decrease,for the ascending
and nearer
become
together.The ratio* of the
nearer
partials
is
octave
vibrations of sounds having the relations of an
The

tone

as

half

256

of

is

for 256

2:3

as

other

each

2 does

as

is three

384

and

they produce

the sounds

hence, they and


to

128

is twice

3, and

to

relation

in the

2, the ratio representingsounds

to

in

as

is

fifths

of

128?
tion
rela-

same

similar

one-

times

the

bear

is

128
be

would

sounds

ratio of the two

the

example, as

the above

2, for borrowing from

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

28

manner

of fourths is as 3:4.
the relationship
representing
two
interval existing between
The
magnitude of an
is determined
tones
by counting the interveningtones and
several
Note
includingboth the lower and the higher tones.
tones
two
instances:
The
interval between
having the
any
of
tones
between
two
relation of a third,in other words
the higher is the third above the lower, such as the
which
first and third, the second and fourth, the third and fifth,
tones
having
etc., is a third. The interval between
any two
the ratio

the

relation

of

and

second

fifth,such

two

any

sixth,etc., is

having the
fifth,the second

third and
tones

seventh,is a fifth.
having the relation of

sixth, the second


a

sixth.

The

relation of
and

same.

be

magnitude
The

Music

as

are

the

one

sixth,the

and

two

any

first and

the

of
a

seventh,the second
extremes

upper

octaves

more

or

name

first and

sounded

The

seventh.

removed

and

as

eighth,etc., is
tones
having the

two

any

the first and

smallest interval is

interval between

like tones

between

seventh,such

eighth,etc., is

sixth, such

of

relation

interval between

The

The

fourth.

seventh, the third and

interval

intervals may
the

and

tones

the first and

as

fourth, the

first and

the

as

fifth,the third and

between

interval

fourth, such

the

it is termed

but

interval remains

second, for there


a

the

away

can

of itself,
but
duplicate

the

of

the

be

no

if two

unison.

in its most

from
primitiveform probably arose
the very natural tendency to sustain the voice on
tone
one
in shoutingor chanting. This is monotonous
and the easiest
of obtainingvarietywas
by changing the pitch of the
way
sustained tone.

It is not

continue this form


tone

can

natural that

of music.

man's

be imitated by another

one

individual should

voice

man's

singinga

voice

tain
cer-

givingthe

TONALITY
tone; but if a woman
will find the pitch too

same

she

higherthan

octave

have

ratio of

it is

Thus

establish the

that

seen

the formation

all

of

of the

been

already

agree in

fourth and

there

are

octave.

imitate the sound

will

produce that tone


allow,which will be an
the

is the most

The

man.

tones

been

simple laws in mathematics


have
fourth, which
always
nations, and have served as
rest of the scale,althoughthe

to

the

mentioned

and

man

instinct for the beautiful

that

the

scales

all

of

having established the intervals of an octave,


but beyond these points of resemblance
fifth,

great differences in the intervals which divide the


feel that our
We
present musical system is the most

has been subjectto the


perfectand it certainly
influences. There
are, however, nations

contain

two

simple ratio possible.

established at the will of

their present character


possessedby musicians.

nations
a

produced by

scales

intervals have

It has

organs

fifth and

octave,

guides in
other

and

to

that the most

in the

as

low

1:2, which

appeared

owe

endeavors

like it that her vocal

nearest

29

much

smaller intervals than

are

ing
improvscales

whose

in ours,
hearing,for we
found

of
acute
a
more
sense
indicating
the slightdifferences
unable to appreciate

fact

most

between

this
are

of

some

the tones.

China, however, employs fewer tones than we do. Their


ognizes
system dates from nearly 3000 years before Christ and recthe

octave, which

equal parts. This


resemblance to our
striking

twelve

scale of

thirteen tones

into

bears

tones.
scale,as it is divided into semi-

only five tones

which

correspond
those represented
by the black keys of the piano.
scale. In fact,their sysThe Arabs have a complicated
tem
There

to

in

divide
they theoretically

possesses

are

use

great interest because

of its extraordinary

in the two most


It agrees with ours
important
peculiarities.
but the resemblance ends
the octave and the fifth,
intervals,

of which there
with the introduction of the smaller intervals,
to different authorities.
sixteen or seventeen, according
are
The

musical system o" the Persians holds

an

unusual

30
interest for
of

our

in it

because

us

twenty-four intervals,each

half

being equal to

one

tor
ances-

an

divided the octave

have

suggests that

resemblance

This

semitones.

faintlydiscern

can

we

They

system.

own

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

of

into
one

of

our

us

Persians, and the suggestion


that
the
fact
historytells
is further substantiated by
that the Persians,at a very earlyday, migrated to Greece,
be derived

may

where

The
the

in time

the

of

received

new

names.

began its final development in


music
is
Greeks, the history of whose
the
Sixth
until about
Century before

scale which

hands

tem
sys-

that of the

from

settled and

they

our

greatly obscured

use

we

cian
records concerninga musiChrist, although in the meager
and poet named
Olympus livingabout 1400 B.C., there
is evidence of a regularsystem. The chief elements of the
Greek

been reduced

scale had

to four

tones, which

are

sounded

the tetrachord.
as
stringsof the lyre known
Without
strings
doubt, the interval between the two extreme
remained
the chief element through all
was
a fourth, which
the subsequent changes of the Greek
scale. The
tuning of
the intermediate
strings is very uncertain and doubtless
four

the

upon

several methods
*

Terpander,
of Father

name

which

he

tuning
with

one

from

its

Greek
B.C.

tone

received

the

by adding three strings,

double tetrachord
a
they formed
the junction. The common
tone

importantof

entire

the

seven

and

was

called Mese

the middle.

system

was

crystallized
by Pythagoras,the

philosopher and

mathematician, who lived about 600


other thingshe instituted a societyat Crotona,

precepts

beliefs and

are

most

practisesare

members

world

at

B.C., has

because of the improvement

Music

that

so

positionin

Among

whose

the

seven

670

in the tetrachord

common

The

use.

lived about

of Greek

the most

was

who

wrought

the

in

were

subsisted

interesting
althoughmany
shrouded

invested themselves.

by

in the secrecy

They

of their

with which

believed that

the

the

rhythmicalorder of its elements. The


distances existing
between the heavenly bodies and the earth
were

considered

to

have

been

determined

accordingto

the

TONALITY
laws

relations of musical

and

motion

31

and

harmony

each

body

in its

acter
supposed to create a certain tone whose chardepended upon the distance and the velocityof the
tones
body. The
produced by the various bodies taken
musical
scale and the harmonious
a
music
together formed
either unheard
produced was
by the inhabitants of earth
owing to the great distance of the heavenly bodies,or always
to hearing it they did not perceive
having been accustomed
the sound
with stillness.
it,never
having been able to compare
was

Another
for

their

Music

was
possibility

that

capacity of hearing.

of the
and

Spheres which

the sound

Herein

has

ever

is the
since

too

great

theory

of the

was

figuredin

ture
litera-

song,

Pythagoreans attached considerable importanceto music


of the society
and gymnasticsin their dailylife,
each member
being compelled to possess a knowledge of the lyre,and none
allowed
to retire at night without
was
indulgingin some
It was
form
of music.
for exciting
used greatlyas a means
and appeasingthe emotions.
Pythagoras had a predilection
for -mathematical
study and this led him to trace all things
to

He

number.

placed a numerical

all the elements

three, upon

ciatingthis idea with


assisted him

music

His

in his

have

It has
and

the

been

led

to

or

as^B-

even

his
for

two

numerical
the

art

of

study of its science.

perceived natural laws

which

which

as

man,

great fondness

Pythagoras is well called


He

and

of nature

music,

of intervals.

treatment

value, such

the Father

and

Science.

of Musical

established

acoustical

facts

the test of the many


succeedingcenturies.
impossibleto discover a flaw in his reasoning

stood

only changes

that

have

occurred

have

been

added

all intervals
by him. Previously,
accordingto the dictates of instinct,
of this guide.
and Pythagoras fullyrealized the uncertainty
established the intervals and exTherefore, he scientifically
pressed
the tones, marking them
of numbers
corn
by means
to

the great foundation


had been created

respondingwith
the tones.

He

built

of vibrations which
the number
studied the phenomena of sound

produce^
vibrations

by

of the monochord,

means

wooden
long, narrow,
single string. Movable
which
the portion of
a

limited

at

will.

which

upon

bridges were
the string to

by

of

means

vibrated

be

was

stretched

was

used

instrument

body

whose

instrument

an

box

similar

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

32

could

be

is still employed

in

studying sound vibrations.


He
perceived that by dividingthe string into shorter
produced. The most
lengths,tones of higher pitch were
into two
equal parts, giving a tone an
simple division was
that produced by the vibrations of the entire
above
octave
into
string. The next simplestdivision of the stringwas
thirds,producing a tone which marks an interval called the
fifth and convenientlydividingthe octave.
By dividing the
stringinto four equal parts, a tone situated at an interval of
the last tone was
fourth from
markable
a
produced. There is a resymmetry

in

the

fourth

and

the

fifth,which

at

presented itself to Pythagoras. After the fourth and


fifth had been established they presenteda means
by which a
smaller interval could be determined
much
by computing the
called a tone.
difference between
By the
them, which was
of the tones
use
as
plete
a unit of division it was
possibleto comthe subdivision of the octave.
Pythagoras in doing this
once

turned

his attention

the tetrachord.

to

Terpander had changed the four stringedlyre into one


having seven
stringsby combining two
lyres and giving
them
still another
common
a
string. Pythagoras added
string,in fact, combining two tetrachords with an interval
of a tone between
them, thus completingthe octave.
Using
*

the interval of

between

ence
tone, which he had found to be the differthe intervals of a fourth and a fifth,
the
as
a

unit of division,Pythagoras discovered


a

fourth contained

littleless than half

and

which

here

does

we

not

now

two

tones
a

tone

and

that

fraction which

received the

call semitone.

indicate the sound

interval of

the

The

name

word

it

as

was

of hemitone
tone

from
resulting

as

used

vibrations

it ordinarily
does, but refers to the interval or step between
two
tones
when
the word
is used to signify
The
sound.
as

TONALITY

division
to be

of the

tetrachord,as the interval of the fourth

called,into the lesser intervals of two


The

of

of

Greek

the

the

two

and

differed

from

the Greek
the

the

popular

tone
semi-

that

(marking

the

semitone.

The

different

the

it is believed

the

traditions

Dorian

The
entire

was

interval

of

sidered
con-

of

according to

the
that

the lowest

upward the
tone, tone, semitone, tone

tetrachords),
tone, tone,

two

from

an
first,

separatedeight sounds, only


others,the eighth being
octave
higher in pitch. These
the

dividingthe interval

of

methods

and

intervals

differed
the

with

lesser intervals

in this order:

seven

of
repetition

the arrangement
of
fixed and
not
there

names

them.

and

separationof

which

of

ment
establish-

"

is,counting from

occurred

intervals

was

corresponded

into

divided

arrangement,

after the

even

bearinglike

orthodox

as

Dorian,Phrygian and Lydian


derived
were
point. The names

the

"

belongingto

most

was

semitone

nations

scales

the

scale

regards this

as

arrangements

the ancient

the

the

three varieties

which

seven

musical

by Pythagoras, but

octave

tones

appeared

octave

and

tones

the diatonic system.


retained its prominence

tetrachord

division

that

came

designatedas

was

the

33

of

an

octave

are

called modes.
After

be

the

been

established the

scale could

and
after a time
it was
greater ease
octaves
by adding a tetrachord both above

with

extended

enlarged to

had

octave

two

A record of this enlargedscale


originaltwo.
of diatonic scale
derived the name
of Pythagoras, which
from the diatonic system of arranging the intervals,exists
in a description
left by the Greek mathematician
Euclid,who

and

below

the

lived about

300

B.C.

He

terms

it the "Division

of

the

lengthsof string
gives the proportionate
capable of producingthe various sounds in the scale.
Monochord"
At
names.

and

first the sounds


Each

sound

of the Greek

scale

were

included in the entire octaves

denoted
and

by

those

the two
extremes
were
given a separate name,
designating
Later the names
there being in use
fifteen different names.
of arbitrary
discarded in favor of an equal number
were

scale

carded
they diswith

invested the sounds

and

characters

the Greek

the

adopted

Romans

the

When

characters.

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

34

the

alphabet from A to P inclusive.


During the latter part of the Fourth Century, A.D., Ambrose,
duced
(340-397), one of the Fathers of the Latin church, introdiatonic
into the church, adopting the Greek
music
due to
scale. Many of the later developments in music were
of churchmen
the work
attempting to perfectthat employed
in the church.
tions
adaptaMany of the hymns and chants were
in no
of popular melodies
sense
worthy of the use to
which
they were
put. Although several authorities deny
the claim, Pope Gregory the Great
(540-604) is popularly
of the letters of their

names

with

credited

that

manner

they

schools
refuse

knowledge
of

his

of

works

nomenclature
to

the

was

united

and
of

education

did

choristers
not

Perhaps
in

manner

of the sounds

apart and
scale

by

For

tones

them

denoted
the

the first

E, F, G, for

He

of the

situated

at

lished
estabwould

sufficient

important

as

which

he

scale.

He

cipal
prin-

and

possess

which
recognize clearlythe relationship

established between

all the

in such

them

easilypreserved.

more

music.

church

gathered together

year

priestwho

improvement

the

in the service for all of the

were

the

for

ordain

to

have

the church

of

seasons

to

used

melodies

and

hymns

is said

He

music.

of

toward

much

done

having

as

any
the
simplified

first

the

was

Pythagoras

the distance of

an

had

octave

of the
they occurred in the course
Latin letter,
same
only varying its character*
he used the capitalletters A, B, C, D,
octave
the second he used the small letters,
and for
as

the third the small letters doubled,


Guido

Tenth
with

and

the

Eleventh

the invention

lines which
used

d'Arezzo,

are

Italian

an

Centuries,has been

of the staff

so

Benedictine

monk

of

the

falselyaccredited

the series of five horizontal

or

arranged that

when

ihe

signs ,or

notes

tween
represent the musical tones are placedupon or bethe lines,the pitchof the tones mil be indicated by

to

positionof

etymologyof

the

notes

the word

in

respect

refers to

to

the

its ftmctibn

lines*
as

The

.staff or

TONALITY

assistant in

35

first the characters

determiningpitch. At

represent the

tones

were

very

crude.

The

to

they are

as

neumes,

used

called,were

doubtless derived
irregularin outline and were
from the hieroglyphics
cating
used by the old Jewish rabbis in indipitch in their chants. They possessedvarious shapes,
resembling periods,commas,
lines,and
straightand curved
united
to
of
were
single tones but groups
represent not
rise and
tones.
to
a
They indicated where
melody was
showed
the comparative rather
fall,and their arrangement
than the actual pitch of any
The
character.
neumes
were
to be sung, but it was
placed immediatelyabove the syllables
impossible for them to enable a singer to read a new
piece
of music
Doubtless
at sight.
employed to assist
they were
the singer'smemory
when
attemptingmusic which he had
before.
heard
They were
exceedinglyinadequateand are
to present-daymusicians.
unintelligible
'

About

the year
pitch of one

actual

900

tone.

red line

added

was

line

This

indicate the

to

assumed

was

to

be

F,

naturallyfollowed that the pitch of G and of E was


because of the positionof the
likewise actuallydetermined
characters
representingthese tones immediately above and
the red line. Later
below
a
yellow line signifyingC was
added and the pitchof B and of D became
actuallydesignated
because
of their contiguityto C.
Finally the colors were
and

it

written at the
dispensedwith and the letters F and G were
lines. They acted as keys to
beginningof their respective
the notation and thus acquiredthe name
of claves or clefs
from
the Latin
word
clavis, meaning key. During the

Eleventh
above

Century two
yellow line

the

black lines
and

abandoned

were

square
in use

in use,

the characters

or

notes

and

staff was

although for

was

added

produced very
long time the

neumes

became

lozengeshaped,the development into


continuing
gradually.
fifth line of the staff

the red and

Gradually the

A,

or

The

Guido

and

and

situated

one

situated between

one

E
yellow lines and designating

added,

were

those

either
now

about the time

similar to the
number

one

of

now

of lines which

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

36

Century a staff
and the syllables
in use
of lines was
having a large number
the lines at the proper
between
pitch.
written
to be sung
were
denoted
to proceed was
the voice was
interval at which
The
by the letters T and S placed at the beginning of the staff.
the Latin
and
Semitonum,
words,
They designated Tonus
meaning tone and semitone.
five lines could not absolutelyreprethe mere
sent
However,
clefs have
been
the keys or
and
the pitch of a sound
are
now
in use.
Three
employed.
retained
principalones
staff
and
their
the
of
placed at the beginning
They are
it contained

varied.

position

the

on

the

pitch of
spaces

above

is not

used

G,

in

the

by the

piano

One

music

nor

to

notes

middle

C and

voices.

vocal

These

in

is found

in music

and
and

F clefs

are

the

and

music, and
clef indicates

piano

which

and

ten
writ-

are

in music

sung

third

clef indicates F,

piano

and

staff in which

the

tenor

The

in

middle

Another
persons.
in
C and is found

alto voices*

beginning of the
played by the left hand
at

in

the

and

soprano

relativelythe

clef indicates
much

and

name

lines and

the

on

beginning of the staff in


played by the right hand and

at

fifth below

many

middle

fifth above

notes

it.

below

familiar

music

organ

and

is not

hence

all the

pitches of

and

names

line and

that

standing on

notes

the

staff indicates

the

lines of

early Tenth

the

During

music
organ
written the notes

are

by the bass and


sung
also used in all instrumental

music.
The
or

ordinary staff

added

when

which

lines when

the

or

between

only the length of a note and can


the staff indefinitely,
although when
tends

to

notes

are

be too

be sounded

great for

written

and

an

can

These
necessary.
used extends
notes

of
range
be placed on

can

of five lines

octave

be increased
lines

are

beyond

the

the five lines.

be added

by leger
employed
They

above

the number

number

of added

lines

in

the
writing or interpreting
lower than they are
intended to

ease

dotted line dsawn

the invention

below

or

above them

and

8va, (fenottagthat the


Before

are

pit$i "hould be an octave


of the leger lines,the C clef

marked

higher,
was

used

TONALITY

37

almost

exclusivelyand its positionon the staff was changed


whenever
the change of notes
used overstepped its limits.
The
in use
are
positionsof the clefs now
changed at times
of leger lines. As has
to avoid
adding a very large number
been

the diatonic

seen

scale consists of

series of groups
of
be the extent
of the

what
sounds, for no matter
may
scale it is merely made
of
of
repetitions
up
seven

of

the distance
and

the other

octave

an

six

relations which

of

it

made

are

of the

One

apart.

subservient

seven

sounds

seven

is selected

it

to

at

tain
regardingcer-

importance in the structure


music.
modern
This important tone
is called the keynote
tonic and the system of relations that hangs upon
or
is called tonality.
In the days of the Greeks the keynote was
the mese
or

middle

Aristotle attributes to the middle

tone.

lyre an influence
very frequent use

placein

what
writer

of much

are

ascribes

tuning of the other


compositions.It is a question as to
the mese
occupiedand althoughone

the

over

in all

the octave

stringof the
stringsand a

positionof

fourth

above

the

lowest,the
more
generalbelief is that it was the lowest,which naturally
would
be the more
one
extremity
important as it designates
of the octave.
It is also believed that every composition
in it. The tonalityof the Greeks eventuallybecame
ended
difficultiesto the
very complicated and has presentedmany
the

tury
EighteenthCenfacts which
there presentedany
were
sidered
might be conauthentic. The eightstringedlyre or double tetrachord, an instrument which has previouslybeen discussed,
in nearly all instances used in accompanying vocal
was

investigator.Not

music.

It

between

the

was

until the middle

tuned

so

highestand

that

interval of

an

lowest

an

strings.The

had

decided that this interval of

into

seven

an

octave

octave

existed

diatonic system

should be divided

tones.
five of them tones, and two semilesser intervals,
intervals there were
Given these seven
seven
possible
of

methods

semitone
known

of the

in
as

arrangingthem, each arrangement placingthe


new
positions.The various arrangements are

the Greek

modes.

The

individual characteristics

of each

rested

mode
As

semitones.

time

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

38

entirelyupon the positionsit gave


wrought in
progressedchanges were

the
the

Each addition that


increased
modes, and their number was
was
gathered tended to make the Greek musical system more
Furthermore, only
complex and less easy to understand.
ditions
and unsatisfyingrecords have been left us of the convague
existing during the years preceding the rise of
in
Christianity.Therefore, at this juncturea break occurs
of music.
the historyof the structure
there was
dent
With
a
the coming of Christianity
very evithe expression
Music
as
change in musical structure.
of sentiments

belief in the Christ

and

productiveof

was

new

lievers
sought expression. Furthermore, the beof
admonished
to sound their praises
by means

sensations which
were

music, but
as

serve

only natural

was

that

the

old music

for the new, which


grew
the ritual of the Jews, and from

foundation

borrowed
and

it

from

secular music

should

from

ideas

the

temple

of the Greeks.

the
Century,greatlysimplified
until only four were
retained.
The tones of each mode
were
comprised within the interval
of an
octave
countingupward from the keynote. The four
of Ambrose
modes
are
designatedas the authentic modes

Ambrose, in the Fourth


modes
by rearrangingthem

and

served

as

foundation

four

to

new

ones

which

were

called
by Gregory two centuries later. These were
plagalor leaningmodes, because of the relation which they
added

bore
modes

authentic modes.

the

to

only

was

the tones

were

an

octave, as

The
was

of the plagal
compass
that of the authentic,but

limited to those between

the fourth below

the

keynote and the fifth above the keynote* As an instance let


the notes D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D, represent the firstauthentic
From

mode.
the notes

this the firstplagal


mode

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, Al

was

formed

In both cases'D

by using
was

the

keynote. The compass of the mode had been increased downward


by the interval of a fourth,but as it ascended had been
decreased in the same
degree. When a melody was written
in any

authentic

or

plagalmode

the

varietyof

notes

which

TONALITY
be

might
interval

of

between

eight found within the


as
stated, either
having positions

and

octave

an

the

to

between
the fourth
or
keynote and the octave
the keynote and the fifth note above it. At times
of the authentic and
was
used, in
plagal modes
the compass
of both modes
was
employed and

mixture

which
the

limited

was

the

below

note
a

used

39

case

of

range

notes

between

was

fourth

the

below

note

the

keynote (as in the original


plagalmode) to the octave above
the keynote (as in the original
authentic mode).
Again as
the
time
musical
became
more
progressed
cated.
complisystem
In order
is always demanded
to produce variety,which
made
by progress, several changes were
permissible
the simplicity
instituted by Ambrose
which
and
been
had
lost as had been the originalsimplicityof the Greek
was
centuries

modes

Tiring of

before.

reformation

Another

was

necessary.
of
plagalmodes

confusingauthentic and
Ambrose
and Gregory, Glareanus,a writer of the Sixteenth
ored
Century and poet laureate to Emperor Maximilian, endeavorder.
He
made
to create
a
diligentresearch among
the

Greek

old

authentic
He

the

modes

modes

and

attempted to give

confused

determined

of six
the use
upon
formed
six plagal modes
them.
upon
but became
them the old Greek names,
and

did not bestow

and

ancient

the correct

names

upon

the

modes.
Nevertheless,his work was
correspondingnew
ignored to a great extent and the church modes remained in
in church music
use
although two of those established by
Glareanus, correspondingto our major and minor modes,
used

were

When
church

in secular music.

harmony began

modes

were

leavingthe
secular

music.

One
and

called the modus


the
our

one

most

modern

growth

it

not

suited to its use

two

of Glareanus

of these

pure-rnindedchurchmen
Troubadours

its

other

found

and

they

which

of

wanton

its incessant

adaptableto harmony
major mode, which has

mode.

use

It

was

However,

and

has

had

such

carded,
dis-

were

survived

had

frivolous musicians.

lascivus,or

that the

abhorred
especially

was

because

was

by
by

in
the
the

even

it

was

developedinto
a

generaluse

been

that it has

all
employed in practically

the music

older

The

centuries.

last two

during the

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

40

modes

written

are

times
some-

employed, and a decidedlypowerfulqualitycan be added


when
to music
varietyis obtained by the use of the church
modes, the Dorian, the Phrygian,the Lydian, the Mixolydhis appreshows
ciation
ian, the Ionian and the ^Eolian. Handel
of this fact in the oratorio, Israel in Egypt," where
Egypt was glad/'
he employed the Phrygian in the chorus,
I will exalt Him."
in the chorus, "And
and the Dorian
"

"

intervals

The

by tonalityand

decided

number

proper
to

theory as

on

Sounds

harmony.

togetherin the manner


found to produce an effect which is
the basis of
As harmony has become

was

the

have

may

be perfectaccording
may
the acoustical laws of Pythagoras,but

sounded

when

been

and

of vibrations

based

diatonic scale have

modern

the

of

condition which

could

of harmony
not considered

musical system this

our

to exist.

be allowed

not

they are
pleasant.
It is

alreadyexisted in
for the same
melody where tones are sounded successively,
relations are
mutual
in melody as in harmony.
necessary
With
the laws govthe introduction of harmony in reality
erning
into greater importance until
these relations grew
they formed the basis for fixingthe exact positionsof the
in the scale. Notwithstandingthe importanceof harmony
tones
in solvingthis problem it must not overstep the bounds
true

that

harmony

of its power,

sense

meager

but at all times the

be considered

keynote

in

when

and

reference

had

importanceof the tonic must


be made
to the
continually

must

other

determining the

of

tones

seven

an

octave.

The
the
of

intervals established by the Greeks

of harmony and
application
musicians the magnitude of

changed.

The

intervals of

between G

and

were

to

allow

satisfythe aesthetic sense


of

some

between

tone

intervals

the

was

and

and

and the intervals


lessened,or flattened,

of a: semitone between

E and

and between

Thus the scale as it


increased
intervals in a "rg$ degreeto laws made
were

did not

now

by

exists
man*

and

owes

its

TONALITY

diatonic

The

by

white

the

represent
the

notes

scale with

keys of
which,

chromatic

the

diatonic

piano

when

added

the two

They

desire of musicians

natural

of tones.
natural

as

or

to

Chromatic

to

scale.

the

scale.

semitones, similar

41

which

mark

intervals

of

always existed
added
owing to

in

have

been

increase

to

succession

continuous

represented
The
black keys
organ.
this diatonic scale,form

notes

have

is

keynote

available

the

number

is also

of semitones

the

very

semitones

the two

suggestedby
already
like
have
the
mutual
semitones,
tones, must
with the keynote. They are generally
considered
as
of the diatonic scale changed by having been raised

arrangement,

established.
relations
the tones

The

of the diatonic
by having been lowered half a tone, the name
tone
being retained. Nevertheless,this is by no means
the case, the chromatic
semitones
being entirelyindependent
in this respect and being worthy of independent
of the tones

or

if the

names

from

detracted

semitone

The
when

of the
simplicity
by so doing.

the

of

theory is

distance it

given tone,

say

notation

would

be

exactlyhalf of a tone and


a
represents is counted upward from

A, and

is counted

then

downward

above

flat. This

then

not

will
tones
A, which is B, the new
A sharp, will be a littlebelow
but the first,
tone

not

difference is called

from

be

identical,
the second, B

not

and is
Pythagorean comma
of such minute
magnitude that it is hardly distinguishable
important
by the average ear and, though playinga somewhat
a

part in the mathematical considerationof the scale,is practically


of no importance musically.The difference of opinion
musicians

of

and
physicists
subject has led

to

as

to

rightand

and

reciprocalconcessions

so
point has been established,

that

now

wrong

the

two

on

this

half-way
tones

are

This

system of dividingthe
scale into almost equal intervals is termed equal temperament

considered
and

its

as

sounding alike.

general use

dates from

the

eenth
earlypart of the Eight-

Century,
",_*-/
According to the tnore complicatedand theo1raEical
chromatic tones between eabh two
correct system having two
-

OF

THEORY

THE

42

MUSIC

scale except when


scale would
chromatic

the interval is

of the diatonic

notes

semitone, the

consist

of

only a

seventeen

They would be C,
C sharp,D flat,D, D
sharp, E flat,E, F, F sharp, G flat,
It is true
that
G, G sharp,A flat,A, A sharp,B flat, B.
it was
notes
in order to simplify the scale into the twelve
instead

tones

of twelve

as

it

does.

now

of the intervals out


of tune, the
to
put many
necessary
interval of the octave
remainingin its theoretical perfection.
distributes

equal temperament
inaccuracies in tuning among
that although no
such a way

one

the deviations do not offend the

ear.

However,

the

these

twelve

unavoidable

chromatic

of them

is

in

tones

perfectlypure

appreciatedthe great practicability


of equal temperament and in 1722 there appeared his
contained
famous
Wohltemperirte Clavier which
twentyfour preludes and fugues,each one
having been written in
chromatic
of the major and minor keys of the twelve
one
Johann Sebastian

It

scales.
of the

was

manner

Bach

wonderful

in which
had

and

the scales could

applied to
opened opportunitiesfor variety

temperament

valuable

most

been

them.

demonstration

be used

The

after equal
new

tuning

in

composition that had


hitherto been closed,for in the old theoretically
correct
tuning
the music could only be written in the few keys in which a
limited number
of chromatic notes were
employed.
It has so far been found impracticable
to furnish keyboard
instruments
If it

with

seventeen

keys in

the interval of

an

keyboard would be so extensive


that the fingersof the performer could not cover
a
range
Thus
of notes nearlyas great as is now
is
that
it
possible.
for these instruments
equal temperament has made it possible
to become
This tuning
are.
as
generallyuseful as they now
is as
has been
as
perfectas our musical system requires,
proved by the thorough test which it has undergone for the
octave.

past

two

were

done

the

centuries.

trained ear
tween
can
Only an exceptionally
distinguishbecorrect
equal tuning and theoretically
tuning. The
tones can
be produced only by the voice or with

TONALITY

flexible

instrument

vocalist and

The

such

43

violin

the

as

the

or

trombone.

the

performer upon these instruments have


the power
the pitchof each note which
to determine
is given,
while the pitch of other instruments
is previouslydetermined
The
violinist decries equal temperament
as
by the tuner.
cordant.
improper, and objectsto the piano, declaringthat it is disNevertheless, as far as the piano and a host of
instruments
other
is a
are
concerned, equal temperament
evil and
the violin,the voice, or the trombone,
necessary
follow the newer
must
strumen
tuning when used with the other inThe

divisions

because

and

of

dictates

the

Century, when

Sixteenth

tones

Greeks^

diatonic

scale
In

tones.

left to

was

the

singers until the


scale in its entirety

chromatic

the

the

of the

the taste

to

or

by

chromatic

called

of the chromatic

use

tradition

noted

were

the
embellishing

in

coloring,and

to

music

church

tones

of their value

likened

were

of half

adopted.

was

Chromatic

notes

changing the key

be

can

or

used

to

embellish

be introduced

can

melody

in the

out
with-

production

diatonic

In the latter case


scales by modulation.
variety is secured by adoptingvarious notes of the diatonic
that in the diatonic scale
scale as keynotes. It has been seen

of

new

succession

as

tone, semitone.
occur

between

intervals of tones
and

sequence,

is

semitones

and

keyboards of

the

of

ing
arranged in ascendfollows:
Tone, tone, semitone, tone, tone,
When
C is the keynote and in the arrangement

of tones

the intervals

and

the

and

are

piano and organ,


between

and

changed it has

and

The

C.

always follow the

semitones must

in order

tones
semi-

the

be so when
the
this may
been found necessary to add

that

same

note
keymore

be done only by introducing


the scale,which
can
If G is determined upon for the keynote,
chromatic tones.
to

notes

it will be

key

of

found

C, is

out

highermust
scale

so

that F,
of

it appears

as

placeand

be found

to

that the intervals may

new

act

as

have

as

tone
a

in the

fourth

situated

seventh

the correct

in the

tone
seminew

magnitude.

The

the

For
proper order.
in a similar manner.

the

of C

key

lower

act

to

the

have

intervals

may

tone

will be B

a semitone
flat,

its substitution

chromatic

which

tones

scale in order

diatonic

intervals,varies

be

may

from

seventh

below

new

scale

magnitude.
and by means

so

The
of

occur

maintain
to

one

in

semitone

be substituted for those

must
to

correct

note
key-

in their proper order.


of
keynote. As the number

the intervals will

semitone

Every

the

in the

fourth

as

flattened

for the

situated

tone

the

that
new

place and

of

is out

as

and

in their

be

upon

it appears

as

occur

must

tones

is determined

that B

be found

must

above

semitone

reason

same

If F

found

it will be

sharp,

substituted the intervals will

been

it has

when

will be

tone

new

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

44

succession

the' proper

seven,

that the array of chromatic


signsin a
To
often be bewildering
to the reader.

of the
of

it is

easilyperceived
pieceof music would
obviate the otherwise

of the chromatic signs,a key signature


repetition
Just after the clef in the beginning of the staff the
number
of chromatic signs,sharps or flats,
are
placed

necessary
is used.
proper

the chromatic

spaces where

the lines and

upon

notes

should

until a new
serted
or
signatureis induring the entire piece,
denotinga change of key.
The signswhich
indicate chromatic tones came
into existence
which marks the flat is of
at various periods,That

occur

ancient

most

about

use

and

is found

in the books

of

chant

from

the year 927.


Near the close of the Thirteenth Century
there appeared the sign of the sharp in a slightly
different

form

from

that

destroysthe effect was

now

used.

The

natural

sign which

in

used

cancelingthe flat about the


middle of the Seventeenth Century and has been employed
in canceling
the sharp since the EighteenthCentury.
As

has

been

discussed heretofore,the arrangement of


the intervals forminga scale has been in accordance with the

major

mode.

In the minor

wherein
differs,

mode.

The

mode

lies the

minor
original
btit it is now
Gtereatit(s,
not

the

vals
arrangement of inter-

features
distinguishing

mode
used

was

of the

the JEolian mode

of

The succession
exclusively*

TONALITY

of intervals in this mode

45

4
S^jS 7 8, which
2^3
be compared to the followingsuccession as found in the
may
2
1
5
6
major mode:
3_4
7^8. (The intervals of
tone
and those of the semitone
are
a
signified
by
by^.)
"

is 1

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

It is
the minor

mode

and

mode,

names.

tone

and

the

major
Major.

interval of

is less than

The

the

mode

third, from

interval of the major

same

third of the minor


Lesser

consists of two

of the

smaller

the greater third.


It is also to be

mode

was

third, and

the

at

major

eighth of the major mode is a semitone.


ear
requiresthat the seventh degree be what
leading tone, that is;it should possess such a
it is sounded
to the eighth that when
we
it to go to or lead up to the keynote. Hence,
tone

created

"

interval

an

and

sixth

2^3

changed

was

of

"

of the interval of

the

voice

interval

has

as

natural

no

tone

and

(6

half.

degrees.) This

modern

is termed
marked

tion
rela-

shall expect
interval

the

between

the
thus:

was

tendency

to

and
This

and

7 should

succession

filled

Harmonic, but

is termed

and

this difficultinterval.

The

the posiplus sign signifies


tion

semitone

of

mode

the seventh

succession

the

and

tone

requirementsof music

all the

the

called

change, however,

semitone

that

The

than other

be separatedmore

and

tone

which

semitone

5^6+7^8.

"

to a

degrees so

seventh

time

one

and

of

Minor, while that of


tones, hence, Greater

or

that the interval between

seen

derive

consists of but

mode

whole

In fact,the minor

3, in

1 to

these intervals that the modes

semitone,hence,

mode

the

the

it is from

their

or

that

seen

observe
it became

such

large

advisable

to

done

by increasing
the interval of a semitone between the fifth and sixth degrees
The change brought about a new
sion
succesto that of a tone.
overcome

of intervals

it

the scale descended

thus:
used
reason

"

1"2^3

follows:

as

"

in music

also found

was

6^5

"

for

"

"

4
"

"

well to

3^2"1.

melodic

it has received the name

was

6"7^8,
change the

This

cession
suc-

scale is generally

construction for

Melodic.

As

which

46

is in music.

which

is the idea of motion

Rhythm

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

Any

long and short tones contains a rhythm in that


to itself. In listening
it possesses a completemotion peculiar
it is easy to observe the end-pointof rhythmical
to music
felt that a
divisions for at these points it is instinctively
motion
must
and that a new
begin. Very
occur
pause must
of

succession

similar

instinctive realization that

is the

rhetorical

pauses

placesin a literarycomposition.
of music, is generally
accepted as an
Metre, the measure
essential feature of musical composition. It probably dates
other voices
back almost to the beginningof music, when
essary
joined that of the leader in the primitivechant. It was necthat all would
that they be guided in some
so
manner
should

at certain

occur

attempt the

guide

tone

same

the duration

was

duration

had

been

The

time,

same

and

of the tones

determined

upon

when
the

evident

most

the

length of

smallest

In poetry the

selected

had been

in music

measure

at the

measured

definite

syllables
form

of
arranged according to a
of varying lengthsbeing
several syllables
description,

of

words

some

are

contained

in each

combined

was

division

with

the

of

poetry

divisions in the music.

metrical

elaborate system of

which

metre

of their poetry. When


duration of the tones

When

measure.

poetry

the metrical division which

music

feature
distinguishing

of

music

made
The

is the

similar

necessary

Greeks

used

most

corresponded closelyto

and

poetry

were

combined

that

the

corresponded with the lengthof the


syllables.Short syllables
were
sung to short tones and long
to long tones,
This system of unequallengthof the
syllables
also appliedto the music when
tones was
unaccompanied by
poetry.
The

writers

maintained
it is

matter

music

of the

early Christian era


silence in regard to measure
bewildering
of doubt as to its existence,
but F"is

History of Music

on

shows

the existence 01

have
and
in his

signsof measure
of the Seventh Century. The method
of
regularuniform measure
which rams throughoutis of comparatively
modern
adoption and dates from the beginning
in church

music

TONALITY

of the

of the

use

47

present system of notation.

to
placingthe syllables

place
angular periods or

the

in
of

of

instead

of

them.

Greek

letters

by

of the

staff.
method

This
of various

values

Long,

were

the

being equal

The
as

Semibreve

is

and

to

as

However,
for

no

known

length
and

When

of

the

the

the

Large,

the

Semiminim

or

smaller

lesser

value, each
denomination.

note, the Minim


the quarter, the Lesser

Semifusa
had

duration

the sixteenth.

as

been

determined

together the
breves

two

of

the absence

an

They

of

of

againstone

exact

measure

notation

of duration.
extend

may

have

originatedin

the staff

across

similar lines of

certain
lengths which extended across
The
at an
early date indicated rests.
which
incorrectlyapplied to the measure,

between

into measures,
all of
were

were

several

system

lines of the

bars

tionate
propor-

compositionsinto parts possessingequal


of the
indicatingthe periodicaloccurrence

and

lengths and

the

musical

dividingthe

staff found

notes

Semibreve,

Lesser

as

necessary
the present notation and exact
measure
Bars are the vertical lines which

accent

in which

line

the whole

sung
breve or

to

were

of each

proved inadequate and


improvement gradually brought into existence

duration

duration

observed

one

use

the staff

they merely represented


for
independent melodies

were

this system

the

be

were

next

be

arranged to
balancing two against one
long was adopted* Owing
or

by

even

Semiminim

exact

notes

the
as

eighth,and

duration*
voices

of

two

now

'

to

staff

the

by

beginning

the
of

some

the

the

of

any

the

followed

Semiminim,

lines of the

the lines of

on

of

system

followed

intervals

placed at
was

the

employed. They
Long, the Breve,

the half, the Greater

Semiminim

The

in turn

Minim, the Greater


Fusa, the Semifusa
note

points placed

between

denoted

Double

the

be sung between
older neumes
was

The

the bars.

there being
one

length.

been

is that part of the


first music was
not divided

necessityfor

Later

has

they

were

it

as

the

given

notes

various

for it to be measured, but


necessary
employed, the value of the notes determining

it became
not

no

At

bar

name

varying

staff and

the

changeable,depending

were

short

the long and

in which

order

the

upon

the values

However,

metre.

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

48

followed

notes

deficiencythe use of a mark


called in Latin punctum divisionis,meaning point of division,
it resembled
a
In appearance
period, but
introduced.
was
it followed, only
the value of the note
effect upon
had no
marking the rhythmic periods.
its appearance
The bar began to make
graduallyand was
each

other.

used

at

times

independent melodies
arranged to be sung together.
the notes

aid the musicians

complete in

is

colon

is the

is to be

does not need to

occur

preceded,succeeded, or

bar

double

The

itself.
and

the metre

were

of constant

measurement

music

contain

must

The

number

may

have

need

through
to

bar marks
of it which
ing
with mark-

when

theme

any

reason.

any

brought about

introduction of bars thus

The

parts

a,tthe end of a bar.


be both, by
it may

is used

and
sign of repetition

repeated for

These

double

compositionor of any part


This signhas nothing to do

entire

an

several

placed in order

keeping together. A

in

first

was

for

the bars extended

each other and

the several staffs in which

the close of

It

verse.

in which

under

written

were

of each

the end

mark

to

been

had

voices

this

overcome

music

in

used

To

known

of beats

certain number
the

remain

Each

metre.

as

or

the system
of
measure
time

units.

throughout an entire
at
piece of music, but must continue through two measures,
is apparent. Each beat or time unit
least,until its regularity
need not be representedby an individual note, but one
note
notes

the

not

the value of two

the value

of

positionsotherwise

time

values

in the

merely establishes
unite may

indicated

occur

by

Medieval
and
to

same

beats and

Furthermore,

by

notes

manner

,as

and

various

placedabove

writers

three semibreves.

was

The

may

more

or

occupy

possess various

This, however,
the beats

are

or

time

approximately

the staff.

describe two

imperfect.Perfect

may

and

speeds,which

two

rests

do notes.

symmetricalorder

at

words

held

more

or

beat,

one

same

kinds of time, perfect


that in which a breve was
equal
derived from the fact
name
was

1833-1897

BRAHMS.

JOHANNES

of

native

he

Hamburg-;

of

last

the

the

great

was

German

of

of

masters

in

and

first

the

by

tioned
unques-

His

opment
devel-

success.

line

the

folk-song's

which

writing1

last

at

financial

along-

music

art,

choral

one

was

was

the

life

early

crowned

struggle,

and

poverty

recognition,

of

J3rahms*

music.

development

the

of

dances,

and

brought

Is

polyphony

the

then

its

to

in

highest

form

musical

and.

lastly

the

Rrahms

structure.

of

majesty

culminating"

of

author

the

no

was

but

dramas,

operas,

and

epics

scenes,

tales

in

lie

music

the
was

and

comedies,

dramatic

Joachim.

he

life-long

without

forth

poured

friend

of

Schumann,

number.

Liszt

TONALITY

that the term

perfectwas

always appliedto

of its association

because

49

with

the Ever

the number

Blessed

three

Trinity. In

imperfect time a breve was equal to two semibreves. At the


beginning of every piece of music, immediatelyafter the
key signature,if there is one, there is placed a figurewhich
indicates
is

the metre

and

which

generallya fraction,the
the

value

the

result two

the

metre

indicates the
the denominator

and

measure

notes

number

beats

of

is divisible by two

measure

signature. It

representingeach beat, although


be expressed in notes of other values.
There
may
general divisions of metre, duple and triple. In

the values

duple

of

in

time

pf which

numerator

of beats to be found

number

is called

and

in

which

are

contained

in

the number

triplemetre

is

divisible by three.
About

the Thirteenth

appearance.
perfectof
the

metre

the most
as
signifyperfectmetre the circle,
As the signatureof imperfect
used
was
figures,
semicircle was
fection
employed, by token of its imper-

figure when

sign has been

retained

time."

common

their

To

as

"

made
Century time signatures

resemblance
that

compared
is used

and

Its form
to

with

the

to indicate what

changed until

has

has

which

led to the

it referred to the word

common,

This

circle.

is called

it bears

ing
strik-

too-hastysupposition
although the

by nationalities who have no such word in their


language. A horizontal bar through the sign denotes that
sign is

each

used

contains half

measure

There
but

explanationof

generalidea of
metre

many

their

beats.

of metrical

methods

innumerable

are
an

as

few

ment,
measure-

signatureswill give

The
significance.

for duple
following

The

semicircle with the horizontal bar through it,or

fraction 2-2
each

one

denotes

that each

representedby

contains two

measure

half note

or

its value

the

beats,

in other

notes,

4-2 denotes that each


one

by
represented

measure

half note

or

contains four beats,each


its value in other notes.

semicircle

The
contains
or

four

beats, each

one

by
represented

that each

by
represented

measure

quarter

note

notes,

that each

6-8 denotes
one

fraction 4-4 denotes

or

in other

its value

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

50

contains

measure

dotted

quarter

note

beats, each

two

three

or

eighth

notes.

contains four beats,each


12-8 denotes that each measure
representedby a dotted quarter note or its equivalent,

one

eighthnotes.

three

12-16
each

one

each

that

denotes

by
represented

eighthnote

dotted

four

contains

measure

its

or

beats,
lent,
equiva-

three sixteenth notes.

The

followingare

3-2 denotes
one

that each

by
represented
3-4 denotes

half note

contains three beats, each

measure

its value in other notes.

or

contains three beats,each


quarter note or its value in other

that each

by
represented

one

metres:
triple

measure

notes.

9-8 denotes that each


one

each

represented
by

9-16 denotes

that

one

quarter
each

by
represented

contains three beats,each

measure

note

or

its value in other notes.

dotted

three beats,

contains

measure

eighthnote

or

three sixteenth

notes.

have

such
metres
attemptedirregular
5-4 and 7-4, 5-4 denotingthat there are five beats in
as
each beat represented
each measure,
by a quarter note, and
7-4 denotingthat there are seven
beats in each measure,
each
beat represented
by a quarter note. A notable instance of the
employment of 5-4 metre is by Arensky in his Basso Ostiing
accordnato," and Debussy has measured his "Nocturne"
Modern

composers

"

the 7-4 metre.

to

system of metre

but the

is not

pleasureis increased
changes. The rate at

and monotony avoided by occasional


which the music is to be preted
inter-

be

quickenedor retarded and any such changes


indicated
by the Italian-words, accelerando or rallenmay

are

followed without deviation,

At times

pause is demanded

when1 the motion

is

TONALITY

first

the

of

note

this

note,

the

of

which

which

have

the

of

with

changing
of

founded

no

buu

rules.,

those

of

aesthetic

and
so

to

since

the

that

have

rhythm

and

metre,

upon
to

took

the

place.

any

dictates

scientific

and

in

none

of

but

discovery
musicians

of

the

This

possess

period

many

has

We
of

the
and

been
ing
accord-

occurred
in

the

laws.

notation

changes

have

and

with

history

tonality,

these

man's

training,

its

and

authentic

period,

upon

of

change

likely

music

mental
funda-

most

beautiful.

training

of

well-developed

basis

the

will

occurring

but

of

of

now

founded

are

changing
of

ployed
em-

peoples

the

system

idea

history

been

use

many

methods

of

environment

Grecian

early

changes

based

his

possess

the

Except

generations

varied

our

the

the

methods

coming

that

of

ning
begin-

determining

primitive

most

the

with

the

We

been

very

of

of

history.

upon

changes

sense

additions

have,

but

properly,

environment
years,

of

governing

nature
more

or

arc

dawn

the

found

growth
has

the

means

observations

by

traces

the

gradual

originated.

upon

before

laws

fancy,

music

constitutes

doubtless
since

no

with

work.

very

races

have

we

music-making

in

existence,

systems

for
first

the

how

the

and

manner

success

completed

which

eral
sev-

cating
indi-

by

emphasis

the

system

ages

world,

conjectures

in

the

the

or

music,

his

of
traced

for

same

The

and

accent

hastily

the

speaking.

success

now

of

system

when

the

the

after

upon
other

some

about

brought

music

in

varies

degree

great
We

the

occurs

composer

parts

emphasis

is

change
of

for

continuing

syncopation,

Another

fall

always

not

indicated

be

may

termed

emphasis

does

accent

but

bar,

system,

measures.

in

The

altogether.

stopped

51

which

they

HARMONY

which

Melody,
basis

of
to

which

is

be

capable

they

as

performed

different

more

musical

heard*

without

In

only

the

and

years

of

nations
to

our

to

still

the

East

have

and
them.

there

interpreted,
among

still

are

The

the

musical

signs
but

researchers

used

or

are

that

grown

duced
pro-

is

melody

melody
for

of

to

many

tuneful

not

the

to

the

was

thousands

known

and

belong

two

unaccompanied

perhaps

scales

ancient

most

aesthetic

music

fulfils

existence
to

concerning

all

the

use,

we

belonging

tones

are

differences
notes

know

we

which

one

melodies

few

the
some

the

to

represent

notwithstanding

whom

people

similar

scale
in

pitches

form
are

they

is

which

melody.

the

are

sole

the

to

that

existence

melodies

whom

to

of

the

as

in

Nevertheless

in

Their

people*

Greeks
used

not

exists

has

exist*

according

but

requirements
.The

impression

composition

it

the

of

sense

the

of

ears,

the

pure

written

generally

compositions

and

it.

instruments,

being

different

melody

is

solo

harmony,

at

and

does

form

in

sounds

fact,

harmony

the

from

time

alone,

the

instrument

an

these

heard

written

by
at

of

any

instruments,

simultaneously,
little

or

is

sounds,
distinct

or

tone

one

rarely

usually

are

occur

voice

but

are

single

essentially

one

voice

other

by

accompanied
they

the

called,

are

by

of
is

it

giving

of

As

melody.

succession

although

harmony,

Music

as

is

it

not

of
is

to

easily
opinion

possible

to

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

54

of these ancient melodies.


give a fairlyaccurate reproduction
the tones were
placedimmediately above
The signs indicating
those who
and
to accompany
which they,were
the syllables
into

melodies

the

translated

have

notation

our

have

been

guided as to the difference in the duration of the tones by the


tions
varying shapes and sizes of the Greek signs. The composiby
are

was

the melodies
in

used

Grecian

days
preservedin a

and
more

heard

standard, less crude

our

There

definite notation than

more

the

consequence
completeform.
a

melodies

in the

have

been

In nearly every Roman


heard in accordis now
ance

Gregorianmusic
wishes expressed
by Pope Pius X, in 1903.

the renovations

spiteof

when

purpose

earlyChristian Church.

the

Catholic church
with the

as

the

by

at that time

use

musical

and, according to

modern

More

without

and

appear crude
modern
ears.

music

church

which

has

In

undergone

into
each time there has gradually
periods,
grown
lacked the simple,purely religious
music which entirely
use
by that which it is claimed was established
qualities
possessed
Gregorian
by the early church fathers. Even the strictly
tion
music had been completelychanged in character by the addimodern
of harmonies
agreeingwith more
tonalityto
melodies which
the original
had been arranged accordingto
the ancient church modes.
Strippedof the modern changes
to the best ability
of the researchers and arranged in accordance

at various

with

the old church

different appearance,
is there evidence of
in the modern
less without

Here
church

few

sense
reason

let

has

us

done

and

the music

is

deficient in metre.

even

presents a totally
Neither

there being no
scale
systematic
tonality,
of the word, although the intervalsare

than those in the music


pause and attempt a
for music.
In the

fragments of pagan

remodeled

modes

and

of the Greeks.
the

realization of what

beginningthere

Hebrew

music

were

which

were

built upon littleby little, Pope Gregory in


the Sixth Century is said to have collected and systematized
and

the hymns

and

chants which

and
beginnings

had

had

them

resulted from

eopWi

into

these
a

mentary
frag-

complete

'

HARMONY
book
as

called his
be

to

is said

antiphonywhich

have

formed

The
manifested

fastened

was

available for reference.

ever

to

55

foundation

unchangeable law

itself in music

as

well

as

This

their

developed.

As

their sacred
were

modes
now

music

have

labored

better methods

learned

how

offertories and

other

that notation

was

day by day in copying


suggested themselves and

the Troubadours

confining church

modes

and

that later became

known

as

employed.

musicians
cast

inmates

the

striking
examples

more

in the monasteries

was

the greatest

employed.
We

more

It

so

collection in turn

in all else and

of all ages have left no


abilitythan in their masses,

forms.

sacred

the altar

for many
marked
provemen
imof life is progress which

composers

of

to

These

modes

had

major

afforded

had rejectedthe
made
and

in their gay

the

composers
It is
churchmen.

minor

of
and

two
are

variety for the


have also learned,

more

songs, which, as we
and singers into sad

use

repute among

the

natural,that having used the same


modes,
of these worldly singersbear a strong ,resemthe melodies
blance to the melodies of today.
Each year brought to musicians a realization of the value
realization of the better
which lay in a systematictonality,
a
results to be gained by having an acceptedplan to follow in
also growing
constructingtheir compositions. Metre was
essential part of music
until there
into its position as an
which
melody, in order that it
appeared the three qualities
be true melody, must
possess :
may
The

tones

which

compose
scale.

it must

be

selected

from

properly authorized
Throughout they must be subservient to a key-note,and
fulfilthe laws of tonality.
They must be so evidentlymetrical in their construction
that qualityshall be easilyapparent to the hearer.

Beyond these three essentials there are no rules governing


the qualityof melody. What
tones are to be used and
within the pleasure
how they are to be arranged lie entirely
of the composer.
Melody may be pleasingor distasteful

without

which

The

be

reference

melody

variouslyby individual hearers, and


and fancy which the composer
himself

something

at

the

to

.'esthetic

determined

are

of imaginaflights
tion

any

allow
may
hearers at least.

performer

or

with

find favor

likelyto

are

arrived

have

we

explainedby
of
good qualities

only

can

sense.

Again

reason.

MUSIC

OK

THEORY

THE

56

few

melody is a succession of tones, harmony is the


sounds heard simultaneously.
effect producedby two or more
Whereas

is that

melody

in

Inherent

of

in

idea

musical

rest

while

is the idea of motion,

in

melody

can

harmony
only be

moving succession of tones, while a group of


is called a chord,
tones, sound"l simultaneouslyin what
though it may stand still
a
complete idea, even
expresses
Progressions or a series of chords having different pitches
do changes of
in harmony
as
but related musicallyoccur
pitchin melody, but a chord may express an idea so beautiful
expressedby

The

Not
reasons

which

ever

its rules and

us

it is

To

him

only

not

their

the

as

these rules

the

They

origincan

are

are

be traced

we

student

the

in

manner

will consider
who

the grammar

in which

manner

that is of interest
and

and

beautiful

govern

It is in this theoretical fashion that


music.

harmony

into existence
harmony have come
est
appealedto scientistsas possessinggreat interbeen made
the subjectof innumerable
treatises*

and have
and

of

considered

are

discordant

considered

are

the rules which


has

the succession

those

only is harmony
why certain combinations

others

and

in

forming a story.
important,but the
artistically

resemble

more

he likened

may

sentence, while
the succession of sentences
make

which

words

the attention of the hearer.

hold

singlyit will be able to


of melody
progressions

that

of

in
to

they

desires to
of

write

music, but

to

into existence

came

nearly every
none

harmony

case

artificial

of the fundamental

laws of nature.
There

is

The poets refer

strikinganalogybetween music and language.


to

music

as

the

languageof

the soul and

t|$iptottgh it alone can souls communicate,


In
resembles languagein its growth and in the manner

say

fact music

Jn which

HARMONY

57

it differs in its

appreciation
by nations and individuals. Both
laws which
are
are
governed by man-made
equally without
scientific explanation. Just as
different nations
have
guages
lanentire unintelligible
nations
to the people of other
until an
ence
acquaintancehas been formed, so there is in existbe appreciated
music which cannot
,by any but the people
it belongs. The
to whom
English without suitable training
neither understand
the music
the language of the
can
nor
Chinese.

Language
Words

notes.

is constructed

be

can

be

told,but even
combining of notes.
can

Man's

that he

form

to

of

We
our

ever

turn

to

music, for
Of

their

There

are

to

music

wonderful

of
tales

be told

can

perpetualdesire
the

beauties, and

new

be obtained

which

simultaneously,was
"

creates

for

succession.

tales

wonderful

sense

"

sounds

and

by

the

perceivedcould

of musical

words

joined togetherthat

so
more

aesthetic

is beautiful

which

of

from

for that

first

beauty

the unbounded

mass

in combining them
was
possible,
Harmony, or the sounding of notes
much
later development.
are

the Greeks
them

when

seekingthe beginning

and

knowledge

foundation

the

owe

we

of

our

have
melody we
substantial evidence in a few hymns to the gods which have
been preserved through the ages. It is positively
proved that
mony.
they understood the relations which are recognized in har-

system.

consonance

others

which

is the combination

togetherhas
itselfand

intervals which

certain

and

consonances,

not

effect upon

an

of

use

termed

are

of sounds
the hearer

needinganything to

of

completion. On

the other

hand

when

when

as

sounded

being complete in
as an
ending. It is

of

follow

It alone

statement.

to

dissonances.

which

similar to that inflection of the voice which


with the end of

referred

are

is

givesus

only associated
the impression

dissonance

is the

bination
com-

occurringtogetherproduce
an
impression of incompleteness.It is felt that something
is needed, just as when
more
a
speakeris interruptedhis
is to follow.
The
voice is at a pitchwhich tells that more
of the
Greeks
possessed a realization of the consonance
of sounds

which

of

intervals

octave,

an

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

58

fifth and

expression concerning them which


things so that they are blended and
in which they are
is the same
way
is

there
Greeks.

although there was


in its etymology a

is

by

no

is

first reference
of

worthy

writer

named
He

Christ.

in

serious

to

by the
it

and

carries

taneously,
simul-

sounded

system of

voices

of

singing
apart. This primitivepractise

octave

an

harmony

means

The

the

two

ever,
How-

mentioned

have

an

This

compound.

reference to different tones

of

of

considered.

now

more

the distance

mixing

word, symphony, which

use

form

likelyappliedto
unison, that is,givingthe
it

singing in

in

means

used

practiseof harmony

writers

their

of

None

of the

record

no

fourth, and

our

same

tones,

or

of the word.

sense

anythingresemblingharmony

consideration

made

was

Colonius, livingabout

by

that

Roman

third century after


defined the intervals capableof producing symphony
the

diatesseron,meaning fourth; diapente,


meaning
fifth; and the diapason,containingthe two other intervals and
as

the

thus identical with


the

Ages. Isidore,who
600,

was

rather

an

The

next

importantrecord of

intervals is in the church

of harmonious

use

octave.

our

was

Bishop

Seville about

of

extensive writer

of the Middle

on

the

miscellaneous

as

year

well

subjects. He was a friend of Pope Gregory


and his writings were
worth during the
considered of much
medieval
taneous
period. He refers to the combinations of simulsounds
and speaks of the intervals of an octave, a
fifth and a fourth, as consonant
intervals which easilylent
as

ecclesiastical

themselves to

practise.

in Flanders
about
the
Hucbald, a Benedictine monk
Tenth Century, wrote extensively
of thingsmusical and with
details showed

melody could be accompanied in a


of w.ays which were
number
termed Diaphony or organizing.
According to this system the melody was
accompanied by

many

that

itselftakingcertain intervals above


tones
name

of

which

were

below, the

two

taneous
simul-

-usuallyemployed giving it the

diaphony,althoughit

of three tones at times.

or

was

to make
permissible

In other words, the

use

accompaniment

HARMONY

59

of tones
the
composed of the same
as
was
sequence
interval from the
melody, each tone at a distance of the same
correspondingone of the melody. The intervals which were
considered
above or below, fifths above,
octaves
proper were
fourths above, fifths above or fourths below, or fourths above
fifths below.
and
panied
Formerly melody had only been accomwas

in the

and

octave

practicaluse

for

variety. However,
modern

this

even

familiar

ears

be remembered

must

the acceptance of these new


vals
interafforded
for
new
possibilities
many

with

system appears

new

elaborate

more

that this

crude

harmony,

but

to

it

the first attempt at sounding

was

and although these intervals fail to


simultaneously,
themselves
recommend
the harmony
of. today, without
to
beautiful to medieval
doubt they sounded
If such had
ears.
been the case
not
they would surely not have enjoyed such
The system of diaphony has been greatlycriticized
generaluse.
been referred to as
and has even
brutal,"but it is not
well to lose sight of the fact that we
have no way
by which
condition utterly
to judge it for the -condition of affairs
a
is beyond our comprehension
without harmony in any sense
tones

"

"

"

after the many

centuries of its

Hucbald,
did

being

for

much

establish the system of diaphony,


development of harmony by also

did much

who

instrumental

in

the

use.

to

the
establishing

of the intervals of

use

figured extensively in
the developmentof counterpoint.Throughout the historyof
harmony it has been a very difficultmatter to keep the two
distinct,harmony being the outgrowth of counterpoint

forms
and

having

even

in

the

in
counterpoint

romantic
forsook

familyand

study

care

it is

his

vows

in

of

was

born

left his home

married.
and

centuries,but

usuallydiscussed
However,

forms.

to
impossible

history. He
and

is

musical

the discussion of

de la Hale, who
character

many

intricate and

more

with the utmost


Adam

but

much

harmony
to

subsidiaryto it for

been

counterpointis
after

likewise

He

thirds.

and

seconds

obviate all reference

harmony.

about 1240 in Arras, is


for a time a monk,
was
Later

he

forsook

his

after various travels reached

he died after

Italy,where

deformity.
performed

at

in the

was

to

called the Hunchback

may
and

be

specimen of comic opera


He
court of Naples in 1285.

of cliscant,Ihe

use

without

"

first
the

been

have

Marion

"

His

the

as

I Le

lime.

although he seems
Jeu de Robin el de

Arras,

of

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

60

name

given

at

sidered
con-

was

first

later

prominent
period

was

the
to
accompanying part which had been added
importance and at an
melody. The system began to assume
early date in the Fourteenth Century it acquiredrules all its

to

the

"wn.

become

musicians

As

counterpointappeared. The
in
the
and

in

venturesome

more

Troubadours

were

discant

mental
largelyinstru-

joyed
development, They rather enheld by the churchmen,
disreputein which they were
of
in an effort to further irritate formed a custom

creatingthis

new

often
combining a hymn or chant with some
song
merry
sadly lackingin purity. The melodies of each, changed a
trifle to

fit them

the other in
form

rude

for their
form

of

nothing more
together. It was,
certain qualities
in

was

sounded
possess

conflict in too great

sense,

new

use,

were

placed one

above

for this new


musical
counterpoint,
than
two
independent melodies
of course,
that they
necessary
common

so

that

they

would

not

althoughwithout doubt they did

completely.
This marks
the opening of a long era
in music termed
the polyphonicfrom
the system of combining independent
of combining two
parts. Following the custom
parts the
next
the combination of three parts. Compositions
step was
of this character appear in a crude and nebulous state early
in the Twelfth
Century, but had acquired a comparative
perfectionby the middle of the Thirteenth Century. Progress
brought about the addition of new parts to be sounded
together,and with each addition the increased multiplicity
of sounds
delicate handlingand presented
required more
themselves more
monic
forciblyfor attention regardingtheir harnot

agree

thus layiijg
the foundation for independent
relations,

harmony.

HARMONY

Harmony as we know
Century. Composers
the

writing and

61

it did

not

devoted

until the

appear

teenth
Six-

their entire attention to

arrangingof independent parts.

Each

was

distinct melody and all were


fitted togetherin a
a separate and
that reminds
of a child fitting
his blocks to form
manner
us

design. Each melody was first carefullycomposed, and the


most
tellingefforts were
expended in producing individual
perfection. When
they had been combined
they were
very
but
there
at
sad
related,
frequentlyhappjly
were
points
many
dissonances.
became
evident that these
However, it soon
not
only could be tolerated but by being subjectedto certain
could be made
conditions
to add
beauty to the composition.
This is one
respect in which counterpointand harmony are
a

related, for it is

on

intervals

of dissonant

of this extensive

account

by

writers

and

necessary

counterpointthat they
play such an important part in harmony.
Dissonances
in strictness be employed only when
may
that their
so
they are followed by the proper consonances
How
them acceptable
to make
incompletenessis not evident.
and beautiful to the ear occupiedmuch
of the attention of the
for, as we have seen, dissonances to them were
contrapuntists,
afforded full play in arrangevil. Ingenuitywas
a necessary
ing
them
when
counterpointbecame
properly,and, naturally,
superseded by harmony, this opportunity for ornamentation
of the intricacies
thrown
not
aside; but the secret of many
was
in
and beauties of harmony lies in the cunning-manner
use

these intervals

which

During
octave,

and

handled.

early half of

the

scale

chromatic

are

the

increased

Sixteenth

the

appeared complete

with

of

with

number

twelve
of

Century
notes

notes

the

to

an

opened

from
for more
dissonances,and, as a consequence
possibility
arranging the dissonant chords, greater varietyin composing.
life. Greater
Music
ingenuity
immediately acquired more
the music of the church lost its
into play and even
came
reserved
dignityand the Gloria,the Kyrie, the Credo and
the

Agnus

frolicsome

were

for

ballad and

dance

propriety.Musicians

lost

sung

to

music

far

sight of

too

good

to

and

of

At

"

tunes

their secular

instance; the
mass

absurd

most

lent

even

artistic combining of

the

The

considerations to be subservient

all other

allowed

entirelyand

taste

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

62

of

mass

last the music

became

in

sacred

Armor"

"

More

put that it was

and

was

precipitated.

along this

as

well

as

sonances
dis-

masses

use,

for

and

the

in existence.

were

unfitted for the

so

in the

use

to allow the abuse


impossible

was

reformation

and

Faces

Two

With

the

to

Man

"The

used

were

names

and

consonances

many

to

which

to

continue

other

it

lines

Palestrina

(1524his birthplace,
from
trina,
Pales1594) who was given his name
Palestrina's musical ability
Rome.
gained recognear
nition
1550 and 1555 Pope JuliusIII. appointed
and between
him as one of the twenty-four
collegiate
singersin the Pope's
greatlyin violation of
privatechapel,althoughthe act was
the rules governing this selection, Pakstrina
was
trebly
the
of
for
father
he
a
a layman, was
was
family,
ineligible
The
bad voice.
had
not
and
a
particularly
positionwas
The

foremost

musician

of the time

was

Pope died and the


Pope
succeedingPope only lived twenty-three days, when
permanent,
Paul
to

for

in about

IV, ascended

adhere

to

the

jealousclergywho
him

to

the

years

the

Papal chair.

Prompted by

rules of his office and


were

because of his

displacedhim

two

desire

influenced by the

Palestrina's associates but who

liked
dis-

the Pope
superiormusical qualities,

his

left to
and Palestrina was
position
face most
severe
poverty and hardship for a brief time.
However, his greatesttriumph was before him. The Council
of Trent when
consideringthe abuses so prevalent in the
church music were
at a loss to discover a remedy and even
contemplated discardingmusic entirelyfrom the service.
Fearingthis to be a too extreme measure
they modified it by
which
should
orderingPalestrina to compose three masses
of trulyreligious
music. In 1565 the
possess the qualities
from

submitted to the Council and the firsttwo were


received with great joy,for they indeed seemed fitted for the
tise fot whkfa they were
designed THha third possessed
even

tnasses

were

HARMONY
wonderful

more

been

IV.

Pius

Pope

the

and
qualities

completelyentranced
"

that

of such

the hearers.

nature

have

must

song heard by John the apostlein the heavenly


It was
dedicated to Pope Marcellus
II. Pales-

new

Jerusalem."
trina had

declared

63

established

now

for ecclesiastical music

standard

is still followed, in

which

matic
which, however, the use of chroforbidden.
whose
notes
was
Palestrina, upon
strictly
is the inscription Prince of Music," left nearly one
tomb
and
hundred
and
masses
hymns, besides about sixty motets
"

compositions.He

other
combine

the

The

example

chromatic

notes

for

drawback

to

which

first to

the

the

did

cut

shown

of

mony,
har-

music, the

secular branch

The

off.

brief

the all too

alid
possibilities

scale had

with

away

development of

church, the greatest branch

stillheld out

chromatic

of the

by Palestrina

affordingvarietywas

of the art

been

have

to

the science of music.

set

was

in the

of

means

with

art

is said

use

might

be

great desire

to

what

composers

done.

This

was

epoch-making period.

an

emulate

the

example

have

had

the most

to

their

little store

until

they

have

been.

to

was
use

most

many

but

as

the

imitate

failed to

music

and

Grecian

the

might
dissonances,

music

had

greatest of musical
of the
composer
combinations
of notes.

created

forms.

to

music

new

what

has

Monteverde

periodand
He

resort

difficultthe

more

they felt their

they instead

increase

to

suppositions

many

bearable composers

audacious

unusual

musicians

intensified the

ingeniousmethods,

strivingto

then considered

were

facts with

idea of what

like the ancient

more

lived

since

no

them

make

to

of

In

be.

historical

of

and
They multiplied

all manner

task the

Greeks, who
perfectmusic, led

littleor

had

for in order
to

of the

created

dared

to

readily,
t

polishand

the

specimensof

his

compositions'

duced
written. However, he introincorrectly
could
music
chords
without which
and progressions
is now
have
attained the dramatic grandeur which
never
possible. In 1600 he and a few associates produced what
of the Grecian style,but
they hoped was an exact duplicate
which

remain

are

instead

which

the

was

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

64

first opera

Eurydice."
long periodwas occupiedwhile harmony

"

name

and

Orpheus

was

Its

written.

ever

As

counterpoint

separatedfrom
consisted of

been

has

founded

several melodies

ing
becom-

was

point
counter-

seen,

simultaneously

of

sounded
groups
together,although these groups did not occupy the interest
of composers
as
groups, but only in a dissected condition,
and
of the others of the group
each note being independent
made

consequentlyis

and

up

of

notes

only bearing the proper relations of tonalityto the other


of its respective
notes
melody. By thus combining melodies
the effect of harmony was
gained.
Gradually the groups, or chords, as they are called,
foothold

gained a
into

existence

to the

interest of musicians
of

realization

and

beauties

the

there

that

came

could

of chords, although musicians


gained by progressions

be

were

occurring. Church
change that was
music had been arranged as counterpoint,
accompanied by the
sound
The
tones
can
simultaneously
organ
many
organ.
not

conscious

and

it

was

the

have

of

very easy in the absence of any


fillin the vacancies to
instrument

In order

effect
music

written

was

The

bass

chord

alone

the
these

continuo
It

and

and

enable the

what

written

was

fulfilthe contrapuntal

out

organistto do this the


is known
as
a
figuredbass.
the other

and

notes

of the

by figures
placedabove the notes, representing
intervals,counting from the bass upwards, at

notes

should stand.

This

bass

was

called basso

(continuousbass),

have been firstemployed by Peri, Monteverde


others about 1600, in the accompaniments of their recitatives
seems

and
e.

with

to

of the voices to

indicated

were

which

the

to

songs.

g,, it is to be

later.

Its
found

use

survived

in the

for

long time, for,

of Bach

scores

and

Handel,

It is

no
practically
longer employed in
this .way.
Until this pointit has been difficultto not encroach
when describing
the rise of harmony, but
upon counterpoint
this difficulty
now
is past and harmony beginsto assume
the
even

it
-importance

now

holds.

First it

was

an

accidental effect

HARMONY

65

later
produced by part-writing,

it insinuated

its

importance
counterpoint,of which

the attention of the writers of


upon
it remained
a dependent part, until at last it attained

importance and
into
grow
musical.
The

alone

stood

its

and

independent in
rightfulposition in the scheme

its true

readiness
of

to

things

Frenchman,

the first
Jean Philippe Rameau, was
well-known
writer who
treated independent harmony theoretically
and attempted to explain the reasons
for it and the
rules governing it. Rameau
indeed a musical
was
genius.
His gifts early manifested
themselves
and as he was
of a
musical
for their cultivation.
He
family his trainingwas

exceedinglyversatile

was

theorist,organ

and

and

excellent

was

clavichord

virtuoso

and

belongs the honor of having first observed


true
philosophyof harmony.
The

thorough study

progressionsof
manner

the

as

language

desires

of the

chords

good

create

forms

which

reason

differs from

the

last two

and

lies not

sought
on

the

the art

for

the

makes

music

in
composers
chords
what
and

effects in much

the

same

the

of his
grammar
the classics of literature for

discover

good

creates

in the

beyond

other

that which

is best is

qualities. Music

productions themselves

in that

which

hand, possesses

itself must

These
and

grasped

as

paintingand sculpturein these reasons.


genius merely copies beauties alreadyin
for the beauty of the productionof
reason

art

arts

and

and

proper
the

of

studies

and

pleasingstyle.
Still more
to
interesting

composer,
teacher; to him

standard

combinations

aspiringauthor

for correct

write

to

"

production of

learn what

effort to

an

who

student

as

be found

has

been

the

have

In
ence,
existthese

must

be

copied. Music,

beauties newly created

and

in

explanation.

have littlebasis
explanations

theoretical writers

but

an

created

on

any

natural laws,

hypotheses,many

of

incorrect,until a study of the theories or systems of


without
of them
are
harmony tend to confuse, and many
have proved themSuch men
as
to students.
use
practical
them

selves

truly capableof handling this subjecthave

artificial

They
of the

the

are

the two

between

born

been

have

degree

same

to

arts

as

the

are

again

Mere

how

harmony.

foundations
is

striking

music.

of literature and
of the

use

shown

systems of

the

governing grammar.

rules

analogy

foundations of

artificialin the

are

who

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

66

English language

We
read

the unnatural
and
at
unconsciouslywonder
flowing
awkward
phraseology. We consider how much more
in the
is the language used
and
easy of comprehension
us
Twentieth
Century until our better judgment reminds
that it is entirely
beyond our power to decide what is correct
beautiful in anything that is so absolutelygoverned by
or
the musical composiIn the same
manner
tions
arbitrarylaws.
plicity
to us childish in simof the Elizabethan period appear
Chaucer

and

Even
the
appallingin awkwardness.
simple melodies and harmonies that occupied the attention
of amateurs
duringthe first half of the Nineteenth Century
of the
amateurs
ridiculed by the more
sophisticated
are
and

times

at

have

present who

tasted of

posers.
knowledge of the classical com-

the

complete change which


undergo.
the

There

two

are

hearing which
and

One

of

an

the

example of
public may

in

determining that
of
is the physicalsense

act

in truth established certain

has

fundamental

unchangeablerules,to be explainedlater* The

the aesthetic sense

which

differs in individuals

of certain tones, combinations

they establish
Hence

it must

in the future
The

most

only be

and

exceptionsto

and

to make
tfendfag

of

rightand

and
wrong.

will

change

in the past.

apply in all cases


orthography,there are likelyto

rules than

its dictates*

to

environment

expectedthat this standard

rules that do exist failto

in grammar

and

artificialstandard

it has done

as

is

by the physicaleffect
both senses
progressions,

change with education

to

prone

as

other

laid down

the few laws

Beyond
are

tastes

which

senses

is beautiful in music:

which

witnessed

past sixtyyears have

The

there

and,
be

as

more

rules themselves, thus


the study of the philosophy
of music comare

HARMONY

plicatedand

confusing.

As

67

been

has

harmony is the
sounded
or
more
tones
together. These groups
chords may
each carry a sense
of completion as each word
or
in a literary
productionmay express an idea. However, the
must
not
only aspire for beauty and perfectionin
composer
chords but he must
consider with equal care
the progressions
formed
by combining chords, and both subjectsare included
in the study of harmony.
The most
simple form by which the effect of harmony is
tions
produced is in two sounds taken together. These combinaare
comprised
possess a great importance,for in them
of all harmony
the elementary germs
the more
as
complex
combinations
found
be
and
these
to rely upon
can
analyzed
these combinations
which
some
are
Among
please
germs.
and
which
less agreeable. They
others
the ear
are
are
known
and dissonances,respectively.
as
consonances
A scientific explanationof this phenomenon involves the
All tones
are
explanation of the formation of singletones.
and
a
compound affairs. They consist of a fundamental
number
of harmonies
or
partials.An absolutely
pure tone is
dation
founor
only found in theory,for it is only the fundamental
of the tone that is regarded and which gives a name
seen,

effect of two

to

the

casual

does

ear

strongest part of the

realize that what

not

is a

simple tone
and

It is the

tone.

group

be

to

appears

and

tone

the
pure,

of the

one
mass
composed
strong fundamental
harmonies.
of weaker, less noticeable,
There is

consequently no

fulfilsthe

which

tone

requirements of

an

of the accompanying harmonies


for some
ideal consonance,
harmonies
Those
do not blend well with the fundamental.
which
There

are
seem

are

to

even

to

the

blend

fundamental

best

harmonies
which
always present some
relation to the fundamental, and it is
in evidence

much

too

of
and

nearest

are

be
an

that

homogeneous

whole

insufficient tone

less

complete tones,

disagreeablenoise.

hear

we

but

tone

bear

to

when

which

appears

with

does
be

it.

agreeable
dis-

they
not
posed
com-

itself accompanied by weaker


entire group
producing a
makers
employ their cwi-

the

Instrument

and
in making
silencingthe unpleasant harmonies
of
although some
sound as pure as possible,
fundamental
to the tone.
harmonies are retained as they add a charm

ning
the
the

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

68

in

Just

as

those

harmonies

situated

the

to

nearest

mental
funda-

with it than do those farther


consonance
possess more
of octaves, fifths and
combinations
the simultaneous

away,

fourths

greater

possess

for

consonance,

these

the

are

monies
har-

possessingthe simplestratios with the fundamental,


in the chapter on tonality.They are not
has been shown
as
but their consonance
means
the smallest intervals by any
of their ratiosthe simplicity
rests upon
interval is

ratio of the ideal consonant


is a unison and
1 which, of course,
The

it is

1 is to

as

only logicalthat

bearing the next simplestrelations would possess


have established
Musicians
the next
greatest consonance*
and dissonance of
arbitrarydecisions as to the consonance
certain intervals and in the discussion of harmony it is necessary
to
recognizethe distinction thus determined
upon.
ratios are
intervals whose
of
Those
the
expressedby any
all others except
figuresfrom one to six are consonances,
those that are merely a former interval doubled as 2:6, 1 :12,
4:8, 6:12, etc., are dissonances* The tables of consonances

those tones

read thus

dissonances

and

CONSONANCES
_

Perfect.,

Ratio

fOctave
..J

1:2

,..,...,..,..

Fifth

2:3
3:4

Fourth
te
"

Major third

Imperfect,J

Minor

I Major
Minor

third

4:5
5:6
3:5

sixth
sixth

S;8

DISSONANCES,

Major

second

Minor

second

Major

seventh.
seventh

Minor

"

IMssonant Intervals produce the effect of


a

which
quality

8:9

*,...,.

,....,.,.,..,,.

,.15:16
8:15
9:16
.

being rough

or

is due to reinforcements of the inten-

tit tfafcsottti4occurringat

intervals. We
regtflar

have

HARMONY
that difference

learned

in the number

to

air ab6ut

the

water

is made

will

the
irregularities,

water

longitudinal.The

of

them.

cause

transmits
which

waves

If

the water.

difference

to

its motion

travel

is thrown

stone

just as

immediatelyappear
seeming

motion

the

However,

which

vibrate

to

through

there

pool

is due

tones

second

per

it in the form

travel

waves

into

pitch in

of vibrations

string which

of

69

in the

to

is not

water

of

entrance

the surface
upon
rise and
fall in waves.

the

horizontal
into

stone

but

the

is

water

the adjoining atoms, the compression causingthe


compresses
In
surface of the water
to rise,forming the crest of a wave.

and

become

to

the

force

Just

water.
or

of waves,
motion reaches

which

Each
air

the

other
waves

allow

to

will,in
two

an

vibrations

do

men

hour.

an

occur

less until

the air in the

to

the water

until the

waves

of 256

per second
sounded
are

second,
more
rapidlymust

vibrations

pass each
walk
around

other.

to

hour, and
The

one
circle,

the other

by
the

together
the

gain on

similar
at

at the rate

manner

the
of

The

rate

of

forty-six

rapid rate

of

during the hour.


the sound waves
through the

air

going

man

In

in

and

during a second.

sense,

at

the

more

ten times

of

will be instants when


is in

rate

per

of ten

speed will pass the other


During the passage
there

tinues,
con-

disappears from the


string,a column of air,

transmitted

as

the

of 246

the amount

times
fifty-six
times

of motion

the

rate

whose

one

of

are

travel

occurringat
the

at

relax

auditory nerve, and becomes sound.


vibration of a stringproduces a distinct wave
It is easilyseen
that if two
caused
tones, one

vibrations
other

to

wave

less and

growing

so, the vibrations

form

of the

all disturbance

and

out

adjoining

next

transmission

contact

vibratingsubstances

any

the

of the

the

to

the crest

The

trough.

all effect dies

been

had

causingwhat

atoms

is transmitted

compression

the

turn

what

representsthe

crest

of

one

analogousto the trough of the other


position
instant they would counteract
each other and
at which
wave,
their power
will be destroyed,producinginstantaneous silence.
wave

Naturally these instants

of silence which

constitute what

are

70
called

beats,will

causing them

to

of beats per

number

The

dissonant.

as

regularintervals,breaking the

pulsationsand

into

tones

at

occur

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

be

tinuous
con-

nized
recogwill be

second

equal to the difference in the vibration numbers of two tones.


beats occur, but as
In a unison, the ideal of consonance,
no
tones
diverge in ratios the number of beats per second grows
affirms, where
more
rapid up to the point,so Helmholz
sounded
gether.
toC and D flat are
when
as
thirty-three
occur,
in
Beyond this point the beats lose their intensity
until their
inverse order as they gain in speed per second
In treble C and E in the
disagreeableeffect passes away.
second

above

octave

128 beats occur, but there is


the beats are so short and have

middle

dissonance,as
perceptible
reinforcements
such meager
that there are no appreciable
intensity
united tones
The
of strength in the sound.
appear
of
the pulsacontinuous,there seeming to be an entire absence
tions.
no

The
the loudness
In
the

the

names

must

which

of the notes

In

have

tonalitywe

been spoken of

the

as

proportionto

to understand
necessary
the scale are known
to

learned

certain relation to the

in

them.

cause

study of harmony it is
by which the degreesof

musicians.
bear

the beats increases

of
intensity

that all other

which
first,

has

degrees

heretofore

key-note. TechnicallyJt is known

as

derived from an abbreviated form of the


Tonic, a name
Latin word, Tonica, meaning tone and signifying
that this is
the

the chief tone

The
tonic

which
Next

next

and

to

Dominant,
rule

Importancecomes

preserve

the fourth

Mediant,

is situated
the
above

because

dominant.
lower

called

it appears

in

importantdegree is the fifth above

most

is

which
to

of the scale.

The

mediant.

that of the

over

because

the other

the

fifth below

sixth

It derives its

or

lower

in

nant,
domi-

inverted

degrees it becomes
degree is called the
tonic and

the

Submediant

or

the

is called the
name

in

manner

the tonic. When

midway between
degree

the

degreesof the scale,

Subdommant,

succession of
upper
the tonic.
The third
it is

of

the

manner

mediant, since it is situated half way

similar to
between

HARMONY
the tonic and

subdominant.

Supertonic,as
degree receives
rise

lead

or

it is the
the

The

second

just above

one

degree

the tonic,which

In their successive

from

the
the

order

is called the

the tonic. The

Leading Tone

name

to

up

71

the

seventh

tendency to

demands

ear

that it

of the

degrees
Tonic, Supertonic, Mediant, Subdominant, Dominant,

possess.
are

Submediant

and

point we have
only. These, however,

tones

the

acceptance of the

true

effect of

French
a

of

constitute

not

In

term.

order

to

of two

harmony
produce

in
the

it is necessary to combine
three or more
is called a Chord, a name
derived from the

When

third

between.

notes

it is termed

the root

as

other

second

triad.

chord

member

is

chord

can

it is from
be

is at

of

composed

lowest

The

and

the third member

and

the root

the

of the chord
of the

notes

The

thirds.
from

do

combinations

word, accord, meaning sounded together. The notes


chord are
placed one above the other with an interval

three

the

dealt with

harmony

into what

notes

of

Leading Tone.

this

Until

names

is

note

but

nated
desig-

this note

that

built up in
interval of a third

spelledor

the

at the interval of

fifth.

bearing a relation to the root which fulfils these


If the triad comprises
requirementsis termed a chord tone.
fifth it is called a major triad,but
a major third and a perfect
if it comprisesa minor third and a perfectfifth it receives
If the third is a major one
of minor.
the qualifying
name
and the fifth augmented the triad is an augmented triad. If,
Any

tone

the

on

interval is
is

hand, the fifth is less than

other
a

diminished

diminished

When

Their

all the

page

chords

are

of music

contains

it

third.

it is indeed hard

merely superposed

to

"

thirds.

is due to the inversion of certain


appearance
Each triad is subjectto the first and
of the chord.

second

inversions.

of

triad takes

chord,

the triad which

the

changed

members

the

perfectfifth

triad,the third in it being a minor

glancingover

realize that

fifth and

or

lowest tone

By the first inversion the


a
positionas the lowest

member

member
of

the

musicians,-is in the bass. The


chord is said to be in the bass, the next iti

in the words
of

second

of

72

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

alto,and the fourth in the soprano.


of the Sixth, for the
is called the Chord

the tenor, the third in the

The

first inversion

member

second

interval of
triad

the

member

Chord

of

root

which

sixth with

is at the bottom

adoption of
with

may

chord

the

tones

best

generally the

seeking

satisfactory,
recognizedin the

most

fact is

every

find

doubled

are

octaves, the doubled


is

an

piece of music shall close


root occupiesthis position.
the
at this pointthat in harmony

that

the custom

of

and

When

member.

This

It is worthy of note
interval of an octave
does not
the tones

it is

and

the root

with

the
practise,

in

of the chord-

chord in which

of

Fourth, for the third

fourth

the second

and,
position,

natural

is in the bass

and

inversion

an

from
it is necessary to find that tone
be spelled
Therefore, its
up in thirds.

chord

the others

most

Sixth

the

the interval of

forms

interval of

of

is

chord

the

second

The

the root.

its third member

when

occurs

called

the

sixth from

of

bass

the

occurring as

place,but

that

when

any of
of their

the introduction

by

considered

are

tone

one.

The

root

doubled, although,

be

can

as

a
necessary in order to bring about
gression
proof the other tones may
sounds
be
well, one

it is found

when

that
doubled.
The

1"2"

thus:
is

intervals of the
5"6"

3^4"

designatedby
It will be

major diatonic

7_8.

; that of a

"

that if each

The

scale

are

arranged

interval of

semitone

by

tone

^.

of the first seven

degrees
be taken as a root a triad may
be formed, although not all
of them will contain intervals of like magnitude. Beginning
with the first degree as a root, the triad will contain the
degrees 1,
and

root

between

seen

and

5.

the second
the root

one

interval of

The

is

member

third between

the

major third and the fifth


and the third member
is a perfectfifth,
the
a

chord

beingcalled a major triad.


Using the second degree as a
the degrees2, 4 and 6. The

and

the second

member

is

minor

root

the triad would

interval between

third instead of

tain
con-

the root
a

major

HARMONY

third,but the interval between


remains

73

the root

and

the third member

perfectfifth. Hence, this chord is a minor triad.


Using the third degree as a root, a triad will contain
the degrees 3, 5 and 7.
The
fact that the intervals of this
triad are
of the same
magnitude as those of the preceding
a

triad makes

it self-evident that this also is

minor

triad.

Using the fourth degree as the root, a triad will contain


the degrees 4, 6 and 8.
intervals of this triad
The
to be of the same
magnitude as those of the triad on
prove
the first degree, and the chord is a major triad.
Using the fifth degree as the root, a triad will contain
the degrees 5, 7 and 2, and the triad will be major.
Using the sixth degree as the root, a triad will contain
the degrees 6, 8 and 3, and upon inspection
the chord proves
to

be

minor

triad.

Using the seventh degree as


the degrees7, 2 and 4.
This
a

to
on

Hitherto

chord.

new

change,
the

and

the third had

the fifth has

seventh

the root, a triad will contain


combination
brings about

degree,the

been

remained
third

the

only interval
perfect. In the triad

is minor

and

fifth is

the

triad.
a diminished
diminished; hence, the chord is known
as
By this method we find that the triads formed on the
on
first,fourth and fifth degrees are major, those formed
sixth degrees are
the second, third and
minor, and that
In the key of
formed
the seventh degree is diminished.
on

C the tones
First

degree as

Second
Third
Fourth
Fifth

comprisingthe triads would


root

degree as
degree as

root
root

degree as
degree

as

be named

root

root

Sixth

degree as root
Seventh degree as root

We

learned

in the

precedingchapter that

preserve the sequence of intervals proper


the key of G requiresthe omission of F

for the
as

follows

as

in order

major

it is found

to

mode
in the

'

key

of

sharp, the tone


Consequentlyin the key of G

G.

between

and

forming

the triads would

degree as root
Second degree as root
Third
degree as root
Fourth
degree as root
Fifth degree as root
Sixth degree as root
Seventh
degree as root
matter

mere

to
strikingsimilarity

it will be

of

those found

that in the

seen

names

most

in the

key of C,

the

way
tones

followingmanner

in the

be named

First

In the

half

the introduction of F

and

C,

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

74

I) V

sharp A

sharp

sharp

of these triads bear

key of C,
occurs

Ilowevcr,
the second

on

degree and the triad formed with it as a root is a minor


the fifth decree and
on
triad,while in the key of G it occurs
by the introduction of F sharp the triad becomes major. In
the fourth degree and the triad
the key of C, F occurs
on
it

with

formed

as

is

root

F sharp,occurs
substitute,
triad of

which

it is the

major, but
on

root

in the

the seventh

key of G its
degree and the

is diminished

In

similar

be noticed other differences in the triads


may
also be noticed the numerous
and there may
and

there

manner

here named

pronounced differences broughtabout by using as

more

even

tonics tones

which

introduction

necessitate the

of

several

the proper sequence


of
intervals. The great varietyof combinations
that may
thus
be brought about is also apparent.
chromatic

tones

in order

to

preserve

of triads may
be formed on the degrees
form of which the interscale in the harmonic
vals

like number

of the minor

in the followingorder: 1
2^J5 4
the interval of a tone and a half being indicated
occur

"

Following the
of the

built

major

mode

"

"

5^6+^8,
by +"

of procedure as in the case


it will be found that major triads can be

same

the fifth and

method

sixth degrees,minor triads on the first


and
fourth degrees, diminished triads on
the second
and
seventh degrees,
and because of the interval of a tone and a
on

HARMONY

between

semitone

is built

triad

If

the

the sixth
the

on

tonic

third

in

similar
a
appear
did in the major

key

each

triad

number

is

of

number
scale.

seventh

root

effect

in

the

chord.

chord

of

the

seventh

which

has

as

root

it received

in both

its

major

third

the

on

triads

is

there

triads
and

large
to

prove

triad the

is the

in

since

very

analyzation
top of

will

as

diatonic

there

tone

new

there

combined,

upon

The

chord

interval

of

and

dissonant
a
consequently creates
Although it is possible to build up a
on
degree of the scale, that one
every
the fifth degree or
is the
the dominant

frequently.

most

Dominant

minor

and

modes

which

of

name

in the

inversions

two

is used

and

important

most

augmented

an

changed

fourteen

are

major

and

is formed.
the

is

mode

There

combinations

from

degrees

differences

of

subject to

seventh

the

seventh

minor

belong to this class.


By placing another
of

and

degree.

the

in the minor

each

75

modes.

From

Seventh

and

In

modes

both

its root

is the

same

the

chord

supertonic is second in importance and


of the seventh
the leading tone
the chord
is third.
The
on
the leading tone
in the minor
on
mode, however, is more
one
it
important "that that in the major. In the major mode
seventh

of the

contains
chord

minor

is much

seventh;

used

in the

being secured
half-stepby the

chord

seventh

the

When

or

stated.

be

are

why

to

of

such

of

the

raising the

or

of

seventh
other

the

chords

to

seventh

suppose

of

because

that

they recommended

seventh
were

as

invented

were

seeking

for

not
can-

their
selves
themof

means

dissonance

lution,
requiringresoIn the early history
that is, a following consonance.
it was
music
considered
imperative that, by way of preparation,

the

the

The

form

used.

of the

composers
obtaining variety. The chord
of

interval.

same

It is safe

interval

dissonant

diminished

major, the proper


by lowering the

less often

chords

the

but

interval

root

of

the

on

which

of the chords

case

of

tones

chord

created

was

the

dissonance, the seventh

of the seventh, should

appear

as

in

ber
mem-

immediately preceding the dissonance, but

as

close of

early as the
found
using
This

pointsto

and

world

in its

the

of

cars

the

allow

to

of the seventh

other chords

centuries later,when

until two

manner

use

the

have

must

to acquire
composers
to disregard the positiverule of

still longer time

time

enough
familiar to

become

it to

enough assurance
preparation. The
in this

any

dissonances

new

allow

elapsed to

attempt at preparation.
duction
of the chords, for after the intro-

earlyuse

an

the

of

of the

without

sevenths

diminished

Century Montevercle is
dominant,
leadingtone, and

Sixteenth

the

the chords

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

76

not

were

used

introduced

Bach

custom.

So

far

words, only chords whose


whose

intervals conform

major

or

minor

and

roots

can

to those of the diatonic scale in the

built up systematically
for it is possible
after
the test of analysis,

They

mode.

stand

can

been discussed,in other


discovered and
be readily

diatonic chords have

only

have

been

any inversion to discover the root, the third, and


in which
There
are, however, certain combinations
tones

have

have

proved

been
so

altered, which
chromatically
effective and

and
individuality

acquiredan

that

useful

the
the

fifth.
tonic
dia-

tions
combina-

they have

used

as

generallyas

are

alteration of which

we

speak must

not

are

the diatonic chords*

This

chromatic

be confused
certain

the chromatic

with

key-notes,such

as

that

tones

sharp in

the

necessitated

are

key of G.

by

There

sharp is as essential a part of the diatonic scale of G as is F


natural of the diatonic scale of O
However, if in the key of
G

the

triad D

lowered
tone

to

would

sharp A

F, F would
be

formed

were

and

sharp

were

be

foreignto

altered and the new


chromatically
the key of G.
In like manner
if in

formed and F were


key of C the triad D F A were
raised to F sharp,F would be chromatically
altered,the new
tone beingforeignto the key of C.
When
a chromatic chord
the

has

been

used
tones

the
a

tendency is

semitone

above

to
or

progress

below

to

chord

those which

taining
con-

have

been altered,the progression


voice.
continuingin the same
6f
This"
interval of a
an
course, presupposes that there was

HARMONY
between

the

and

the tone

established

altered

tone

classifywhen

altered
chromatically
to

which

chords

reasons

times

puzzles the

in

theorist.

tone

tion),
(beforeits altera-

the progression is made.


instances

some

undergoingthe
brought about

which

process

their

They

are

The

difficult to

are

of

analysisand
peculiar alterations

most

used

in the

the
at

cented
unac-

and are
often preceded by the real
part of a measure,
of the chord, allowing the hearer to perceivein advance
the chord would
be in its normal
condition.
less,
Neverthe-

tone

what

some

very
chord

a
a

77

chord

may

raised and

strikingeffects

are

ducing
produced by directlyintro-

in its altered form.

be altered

the

same

More
way,

than

and

one

some

tone

of

may

be

lowered.

some

Harmony, which to the uninitiated has the appearance of


being composed of notes built upon each other in any manner
which
satisfythe capriceof the composer, consists,in
may
fact,of a series of .chords which have been built up according
established system, a system based entirely
trary
arbito an
upon
These
laws.
specifiedand
systematicallyarranged
unless
integersare not permissible
they can be intellectually
be possible
that the
verified. By analyzationit must
to show
chords have been built up from a root in the approved manner,
or
they are debarred from being classified as proper
harmony.
that a composer
is always suppliedwith
It will be seen
He
is furnished with a prearranged
material
for his work.
of chords

assortment

which

best, his observation


what

of

one

link togetheras he conhe may


siders
of the work of others telling
him

will be acceptable. He
chord to another and

successions

and

should

should

an

and

musician

in chords

think

chord

ordinary reader and

at

means

by

as

certain

instead of in words,

of notes.

To

is a
as
intelligible
glancehe can determine

is
a

the relations

the effects produced

recordinghis impressionsby
informed

understand

the
word

well
to

its root

formation.
First

the

then musicians

established,
buildingchords was
by experimentsfound that certain chords were
system

of

certain others,
following1

effective when

more

began to
progressionsfrom

take

which
progressions

were

the

on

chord

to

character

their

use

their discoveries

governing
naturallythose

pleasingand

most

established.

became

based

progressionsare

and

rules

of

chord, for very

considered

repeateduntil

were

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

78

mutual

upon

fying
satis-

damentall
Fun-

relations

unity is
existingbetween the chords, and, as a consequence,
preservedby grouping the chords accordingto keys.
simile the ever-ready supply of
By introducinga new
be likened to the pigments which the artist has
chords may
limited by
are
upon his palette.Both artists and composers
certain customs,
how

to

the artist

which

but each

combine

In all the arts

possess

his material

and the composer

sees

this facultythat

upon

must

facultyof

the

to

as

so

depictbeauties

mentallyhears.

geniusrests.
is made
use
practical

of the

of the beautiful is increased when


appreciation
brought into contact with that which is not beautiful

as

it is
It is

insures the acceptance of dissonances


that there are certain dissonances which

phenomenon which

in music.
are

It is

fact that

the

this

standing
under-

It is true

integralparts of

the chords

those in the chords

of the

with which

seventh, and

they appear, such


which

deemed

are

harmony, but there are still other dissonances


duced
wholly artificialand foreignto the harmony which are introfor no other purpose than to create a feelingof the
by that means
necessityof consonances,
making the latter
more
even
pleasingwhen heard. This method of ornamentation
adds grace and spirit
to music which
might otherwise
essential to

be grave and monotonous.


If throughouta pieceof music

all the members

of every

chord

to the followingchord there


progressedsimultaneously
would prevaila sameness
of motion
and a striking
absence

of expressionin the musical sentences, the words


of which
interest is created by
are
representedby the chords. A new
method
of bindingtogetheror conan
irregular
introducing
necting
the chords.
This irregular
connection will naturally
arise if all the members

of

chord

do not

progress

simul-

HARMONY

taneously,allowing
while

the others

delayed members

By

this

chords

dissonance

parts of

component

forming a

linger in

to

more

or

become

the

means

one

79

link between

the

places
chord,

next

the two

because

is created

their

chords.

parts of two

together. This chaining


is technically
known
as
together of harmonies
suspension.
The
sounding of the tone to be suspended as a member
of a chord is termed the preparation,
the holding of that tone
the chord of which
it forms
over
no
part is the suspension,
the progression of the delayed member
and
its proper
to
chord
is the resolution.
position in the new
Throughout
the process the delayed tone or tones must
the same
occupy
be merely held over
tied until the
or
part. They either may
be repeated with
chord
is sounded
it.
or
new
they may
tied the fact is signified
When
by connectingthe two notes
with

momentarily

are

curved

sounded

line.

Suspensions usually occur

the

on

accented

beat

of

only limited by the composer's


is permissibleand
idea of what
of a
by the possibilities
intense the
and
satisfactoryresolution. The more
proper
dissonance
of the suspension,if there follow a thoroughly
Their

measure.

harshness

is

resolution,the
satisfactory

suspension

resolve

inserted

the

may
between

Suspension

unessential

down

and

to

the

notes

The

may

be

the resolution.

first method

dissonances.

effect.

discovered

for

Formerly only those


been accepted. Of

ducing
introwhich

harmony had
course,
such as chords of the seventh,
the so-called essential discords,
had
been the outgrowth of man's
ingenuityin the same
degree as were
suspensions,but all thingsthrough extensive

are

natural

or

up

suspensionand
the

was

agreeableis the

more

to be
grow
excite interest.

use

considered
Such

was

natural and
true

of

lose their

so-called

to
power
essential cords
dis-

unnatural
and consequently
was
something new
sought,the search leadingto the introduction of suspension.
With
his
Monteverde
did much
to develop this device.
daring and ingenuityhe used much harsher suspensionsthan
Their first steps
his predecessors
had deemed
permissible.
and

departurehad

in the

pleasingeffects
in which
that is

to

foreign to

the

motion

be

distance

between

They

The

melody

but

be
may
harmonic

the chord

it sounds

which

with

and

by the interval of a tone or


continuingin one direction. The
left

which

passing tones

more.

and a realization of the


faltering,
obtained were
only reached gradually.

been

now

approachedand

of

MUSIC

OF

proceedto other varieties or ornamentation


dissonances are employed. A passing tone is one

will

We

be

THEORY

THE

80

harmony

two

notes

and

be the consequence
may
be of an
in this case
may

accompaniedby

tone,
semi-

number

only limited by the

is

occur

may

must

of

be one
or
may
melodic
motion.

elaborate character,

extremelysimple harmony,

an

slower
intervals of progression being much
the
the harmony may
than those of the melody. For instance,
be written in whole notes and the melody in quarter or
The necessary changes in pitch due to the
eighth notes.
of the melody bring into use tones
more
rapid progression
which are dissonant with the harmony, but their dissonance
and is immediatelyremedied by a following
is only momentary
The use of passingtones dates from
the
consonance.
Sixteenth Century.
is what is variously
Similar to the passing
termed
tone
tone, and broderie. It differs
auxiliary
returningdissonance,
polated
passingtone in that the dissonance is not interduring the passage from one tone to another, but

from

the

returns

occupy

the

to
a

the

consonance

stronger or

harmony

note

from

weaker

to which

beat in the

it

the two may be a tone or


An Appoggiatura,
by some

which

it

than does

measure

belongsand
a

It may

came.

tween
the distance be-

semitone above

or

below*

wrongly termed an unprepared


is
dissonant
tone
a
suspension,
entirely
foreignto the
chord with which it sounds,but which by resolution passes
into the proper member
of the chord whose placefor the time
it had usurped;it differsfrom a suspension
in that it is not
It is usuallyon the
chord*
prolonged from the preceding
accented beat of a measure.
When
instead
an
appoggiatura,
of passingto its resolution,
the
on
skipsto an appoggiatura

MENDELSSOHN

BARTHOLDY

1809-1847*

The
JtJorn

in

soliil

Mendels-

world

iriamDurg*.

doubly

to

owes

debt

gratitude,

o.f

composing

besides

for,

of

the

finest

w^ritteii

music

founding-

and

^ver

some

musical

great

Sebastian.

John

of

works

Leipsic,

at

conservatory

Rach

and

the

revised

'he

taught

to
us

ciate
appre-

then.lv
?,

"

'

Iix

lie

Mendfelssohni

18?9

most
was

hifrhlv

first

anoreclated.

ipvent

tfo

England,

where

HARMONY

side of

other

Appoggiaturas

it is

of resolution

note

81

be

may

used

double

in two

taneously.
parts simul-

more

or

Anticipation (the opposite of suspension),is made by


unaccented
more
or
tones, usuallyshorter in value than
to the appropriatetone
or
following ones, which move

one

the

in the next

tones

Pedal

chord

tones

fact that

the

from

and

scores,

called

also

are

Pedal

tones

They
such

are

the

assists

points
by one

in the bass, although this need


is

tone

more

or

these

of

in

more

this

conclusion.

voices

through

tonic

or

part of

of

some

generallyfound

is

The
always be the case.
dominant, the latter being

appearingmore

often

near

movement.

indeed

is

not

the tonic

and

common

the end

It

usuallythe

name

appear

forming a consonant
It
but entirelyforeignto the rest.

pedal

their

derived

succession of harmonies
them

introducing

extensivelyin organ
pedals. -The fact that they

notes

organ
sustained

of

method

probably

played upon

are

of the other voices.

in advance
still another

are

artificial dissonances.

the

appoggiatura.

to
striking

of man's
served

ingenuityat

have

rules

from
entirely
resulting

as

in

by

but

are

rules
the

comparativelyrecent

nucleus

They

hedged

themselves

effects which

oramental

how

note

which

around

what

musicians

growth
out-

date.

gathered

have
have

are

considered

beautiful.
Not

alone

does

sounding
from

chord

be committed

to

of

chord

if any

in

tones
are

chord

to

chord

deal with
but

the

of any

key

composer
must

follow

taneous
simul-

the

progressions

vitallyimportant. No

foreignto it. However, the


describingan emotion and he
in such

have

harmony

wrong

chord

will

entirely

is.te41ing
a
story

arrange

the

or

progressions

order that he may logically


carry out his purpose.
of
combination
Hence, to produce valuable music, each new
bear some
relation to the combination which
tones must
cedes
preof

an

it. In this respectthe rule is not akin to the multitude


purely arbitraryrules which govern music, but has a

uphold

to

reason

and

custom

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

82

it. Nevertheless, the

upon

shall be

idea of the beautiful, as

man's

upon

itself rests

reason

seen

later.
In
mind

order

in the

act

must

thoroughly appreciateand

to

music

when

it docs

as

manner

same

enjoy

the

listening

Unless

hook.

break
a
reading a
of a
which is recognizedas intentional and significant
occurs
change of thought no abrupt transition is countenanced.
of ideas along a similar vein
be a continuance
There
must
another
until a new
family of
subjectis introduced, when
thoughts may be ushered in.
of harmony have gleaned through observation
Students
of music which has been accepted and is still deemed
proper

to

oration

an

when

or

relations have

rules

governing them

have

and
satisfactory,

most

and

repeated time

been

these

found

been

that certain relations have

rules

into the

grown

until the

again

governing

harmony.
There
exist

may

That

form

which

the tones

which

the chords

is that

the

various

are

the passage
ear

as

realize

from

having one
There

or

relation to
notes

more

are

device

also

and

are

them.

When

its natural

harmonics

it

octave

to both

was

the

upon

sonant
dis-

not

arc

appeals

to

the

is made

car

chords

is by

chords.

which

considered

allowed

are

discussingthe fundamental
learned

that

the

octave

simplestrelation

to

but it has also been

learned that the

interval of

the next
fifth from

considered in

harmony. The

simplestrelation is that which


the

fundamental

and

to

relations

proper

bears the

is not

the

possessinga

as

exist between

physicalreasons

exist between

the first harmonic

chords

of

key

same

formed

by which

common

figurein determiningwhat
to

if these

ous
obvi-

most

tonality,that

to another
group
and to the mind

one

Another

proper

and

the

to

be

can

relationships

chord

belong

Chords

being entirelyproper

logicalsequence.
to

should

them

degrees of the scale,ami

various

which

simple
appears most
should have the same

diatonic scale,

same

in

ways

harmonic

is the

the next

the

as

mental,
fundaan

bearing

interval of

simplestrelation

HARMONY
exists between

the third harmonic

the

separatedby the
place of dominant

the

fourth

are

that

of

in existence

been

that 'the

harmonics

interval of

among

the

fourth.

subdominant.

the chords

the fundamental

and

The

degrees of
As long as

the dominant

on

fifth
the

which
assumes

scale and

harmony
and

has

nant
subdomi-

been

have
the chord

83

recognized as bearing the closest relation to


the tonic,but it was
on
not until Rameau, in 1722,
explanationof this custom
involvingthe relation of
to their fundamental
advanced.
It is peculiar
was

that

these

the

scale.

three

chords

contain

Throughout

between

them

composition they

every

of

note

every

used

are

in preserving
frequentlythan any others and thus serve
unity and in firmly impressingthe key upon the mind of the

more

hearer.
A

at the

found

is the

cadence

close of

ending of a phrase in music


is composed of
a composition

and

that

the chord

tonic, which is always at the end of a composition,


ordinarilypreceded by the chord on the dominant or that on
That
the subdominant.
nant
containing the chord on the domiof

the

is termed

the authentic

cadence

frequentlythan that containingthe


called the plagalcadence.
The
chords

importance

shows

in what

of

the

is used

and

chord

laws

degree the

more

the subdominant

on

dominant

much

subdominant

and

of acoustics affect the

progressionsof chords although these progressionswere


recognizedby musicians before the study of acoustics became
a

that the
In

available*
second
a

Musicians

part of the study of music.

major

fifth.

chords

major
of each

member

third and

In order
must

to

bear

chords

three

scales

under

they

discussion
all

are

forming with the

the third member

produce
these

manded
deinstinctively

an

should

major triads,the
root

an

interval of

interval of

perfect

the desired effect the tones

relations, and

be

it

was

found

of the
that

all the authentic and


plagalchurch modes or the
among
and employed
ancient Greek modes
as arranged by Glareanus
by secular musicians only one of the latter group, the Ionian,

possessedintervals which allowed the degreesof

the scale to

be

arranged

in the proper

seekinga

when

the intervals of

with

the

obtainingvarietythat

of

minor

and

descended

has

as

in the

could be arranged

important chords

thus
perfectfifth,

strikingcontrast to those
preservinga strong degree

mode

^Eolian

doubtless discovered

was

of

most

still

and

It

manner.

means

these three

uiEolian mode

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

84

of

one

major scale,

the

of

ing
form-

similarity.The
modern

our

minor

scales.
These

relations which

must

considered

been

have

chords

them

exist between

all dissonances

word

cannot

old

preparedand resolved

grew

by

This

dissonance*

be inserted

in

the

way

the
very

appearing with

The

into existence

follow

must

intervals.

dissonant
be

must

brought

custom

of

introduction

in

are

of harmony
fundamental, the complications
the

and

consonant

rule

that

of

out

nance
feelingthat a consois perfectly
for
logical,

sentence

where

it has

no

robbing the sentence of all logicalvalue;


dissonant chord is generallyprecededby something
a
related to it and is always followed by something
specially
Students of harmony
else bearinga close relationship.

meaning
thus
very

without

learn this

as

one

of the rules to be observed

in

writingmusic,

and broader
a broader
composers have assumed
of the rule until they overlook it in so far as
interpretation

but modern
the

preparationis concerned

and

discord upon
a
precipitate
the ear of the hearer without havingestablished any previous
also often disregarding
natural relation,
the old custom
of
followingdissonances by consonances.
Even an untrained ear can observe the incomplete
effect
of a dissonant chord,and unconsciously
expects the following
but it is seldom that the reason
tion
consonance,
why the resoluof a dissonance has become customary is investigated.
that the reason
is purely
comes
Immediately the answer
for the phenomena of
as are
sesthetical,
nearlyall the reasons
music.
The physical
reason
why certain combinations of two
tones

are

consonant

and

others

are

dissonant in

no

sense

for the progression


of chords containing
these intervals. The mind derives real pleasure
only from
constitutes

reason

HARMONY

dwelling upon

agreeableimpressions,although it temporarily
which
are
disagreeablebecause it is the latter

tolerates those
which

85

produce excitement and tend to


impressions. We speak of a novel
when

it embodies

more

or

less

or

the able
agreedrama
esting
interas

accentuate
a

exciting situations,

'involvinganxiety
to
we
are
prone
which
does not
disparage one
carry these situations to a
settled close, in other words, to a proper
happy or more
resolution.
Our aesthetic sense
in nearlyall cases
requiresan
events.'
In like manner
the mind agrees
agreeablesequence of
and

to

dwell

how

momentarily

dissonant intervals,
but the unsettled
upon
which
thus arises must
last but must
not

condition

give place
are

distress,but

the

to

introduced
of the

for the

story

unconscious

or

demand

Dissonances

soothing consonance.

more

reasons

same

of

as

tions
situa-

the tense

are

the

drama, that is,to satisfythe


for excitement
or
change which is ever

present.

The

writer

of music

be followed

must

manner
particular
Counterpoint was

the

this branch

of the

must

by

not

realize that

but he must

consonance

in which

only

nance
disso-

understand

the

progressiontakes place.
the birthplace
of dissonances.
Strictly
with
and
deals
it
art
voice,
was
necessary

that the passage from the discord to the concord should


which
in the easiest way
made
was
by means
possible,

single diatonic steps. It


effort

required for

was

considered

was

voice

to

forming a discord with another


appeared, for it
preparationnow
from

tone
new

one,

and

the

to

preceding concord than to attack an


creatinga discord,so the voice which was

the discordant
chord.

It

tone

of

retain

entirely
to

duce
intro-

it in the ceding
prelaborious
likewise considered especially

tone

was

custom

far easier to

of

especial

an

properlypass

voice
was

that

be

was

allowed

to

have

discord,and the singlestep at once


fact
The
the most
simple method.
affected by discant than by
generally

for the voice to leave the


recommended

itself as

that resolution is

more

explainedby the impressionof increased effort


given by heightenedpitch. It requiresan exertion to reach
ascent

is

THE

86

higher
ones.

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

in
tones, which is not the case
the voice may
In the latter case

descending to lower
be

allowed

relax

to

somewhat.
chord

Beyond the two generalprinciplesthat a


relationshipwith
possess an easilyrecognizable
it,and

places

in

the

that dissonant
next

philosophycannot

the

should
one

ceding
pre-

pass to their proper


easiest method
possible,

should

notes

by the
assist in determining
chord

the

progression of

be
must
plished
accomchords, but the resolution of dissonances
There
are
by applyingthe most expedient means.
be applied in all cases, and it is the
various rules that may
composer's right to select that one best fitted to his purpose.
when
There
only one
was
a time in the historyof harmony
for
each
considered
resolution was
discord, but now
proper
allow his own
the composer
fancy to dictate the method
may
is being trained to accept the
he will employ and the world
unusual resolutions as satisfactory.
most
Modulation, the passing from one key to another, is one
of the most
important departments of music and to be
handled well requiresthorough musical education on the part

of the composer.
If a musical
but one
key there would result
material

written

in

effect,for the

monotonous

the disposalof the composer

at

afford

compositionwere
would

be too

limited

than one
refreshingvariety. Therefore, more
than a
key is used in compositionshaving a length of more
few measures
and the methods of passing from key to key
and eventually
returningto the first key in order that the
music may
end with the original
tonic,comprisesmuch that
is intricate and much
that requiresboth art and technique,
Certain
keys are more
closelyrelated than are others.
Hence, it is most natural to pass from one key to a nearly
related one.
Related major keys are those whose tonics are
the closer the
consonant; the more
perfectthe consonance
relationship.
Any major key is most
closelyrelated to its
to

dominant

and

subdominant

and

these three keys. Any minor


its dominant

and

these three keys*

subdominant

to

the

key is most
and

relative minors

of

closelyrelated to
the relative majors of

HARMONY
There

three methods

are

the diatonic,the chromatic


modulation

only

keys concerned
chords
situated
called

chords

of modulation
and

the

which

are

employed.

are

87

common

enharmonic.

use

It has

been

In diatonic

entirelydiatonic

in the

noticed that

tain
cer-

in tAvo

occur
keys although they will be
may
different degrees of the scale. Such chords are

on

chords

common

and

employed

are

key of C has been in use


dominant, G B D, is employed, it will
If the

this

in

chord

in diatonic modulation.

and

the triad

be

at

seen

the tonic of the

key

on

once

the

that

of

C, hence,
although only chords in the key of C have been used previous
to this chord, after its introduction chords of either the key
of C or the key of G may
follow,and in the case chords in
has taken place. It is only
the key of G are used modulation
to establish the new
key,which is done by observing
necessary
its tonalitythrough a progressionof several chords.
Passage
well as to related keys may be made by common
to remote
as
chords, although the process is less simple. It is done by
same

of

means

occurs

transition
be

on

intermediate

or

reached

modulations.

by passing through

The

new

other

keys which
more
are
closelyrelated to each other. The keys through
do not need to be stronglymarked,
which transition is made
of reaching
for they are of no importanceexcept as a means
the new
key.
key

must

modulation

Chromatic
does

as

does

chords
requirecommon
to the key of C it
diatonic,but by again referring
not

the superwill be perceivedthat the triads D F A occur


on
tonic and by studying the triads of the key of G it will be
that the combination

found

of the

the dominant
from

to

sharpingF
it

were

new

the chord

the chord

similar is D

most

key.
D

of

of the

desirable to pass to

sharp A

on

Were

it desired to modulate

could be used

and

by

key would appear. In case


sharps or
key employingmore

new
a

of the triad might be


than one
member
flats,more
changed. In fact,the alteration of triads may be made in
several

any

manner.

tempered scale

It is evident that
a

key

in which

owing

to

the

use

certain degrees are

of

the

sharps

equivalentof

the

be

may

flats,because
For
used in both cases.
flat

chromatic

same

other

tones

grees
debe

must

instance, the keys of C sharp and D


equivalentsand if it should be desirable

enharmonic

are

certain

key in which

the

are

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

88

the

only change necessary


be to change the
or
would
sharps as the case
be to their enharmonic
equivalents,sharps if they be
may
is very serviceable
flats or flats if they be sharps. A chord which
from

to modulate

the other

to

one

originalflats

seventh, which

dominant

is the

modulation

in

capable of irregularresolution. Consequently it


as
a medium
through which passage may be made
key to any other key.
Pivot

also

notes

modulation
the

of

chord

the

possess

but

note,

smooth

originalkey
note

one

and

modulation

the
to

common

may

from

In

originalkey
in

However,

claord.

common

the

that

serve

may

in modulation.

ease

it is necessary

have

key

new

afford

of

chord

each, and

the

is

any

tonic
diaand
the

case

key
pivot

new

termed

be effected.

of a
Modulation, well developed,enchances the charm
all the beauties
piece of music without limit* By its means
while
if
of every key are
at the disposalof a composer,

restricted to
to but

one

key throughouta piecehe would

one-thirtieth of them.

have

should

composer

but

not

access

change

as
key to key without any reason,
departments of music he must be governed by as clear logic
into
as
though he were
writing a treatise. Modulation
related keys is expressive
of candid and simple feelings,
but
the passage
is to remote
when
keys the effect is slightly
and should occur
this
abrupt and surprising,
only when

from

in all other

effect is desired.
At times

composer

wishes to remain

unusually long period,but fearingto


monotony

he

occupiesthe mind

with

distinct key thus refreshingit with


thoughtbefore resuming the firstkey.
draw

strong

contrast

between

two

in

create
a

one
an

key for

unpleasant

modulation
an

Or

entire

an

to

some

change of

he may

keys which

desire to
he

will

modulation
alternately
employ for long periods. Ordinarily
at
occurs
frequentintervals duringany pieceof music.

HARMONY

Its

through
until

is

use

many

Sixteenth

the

conceptions
would

been

have

recognized.
of

However,

of

modes,

notes

which

until the
extent

call

we

accidental

by

an

to

use

another

older

the
from

artistic

of

use

establish

musical

acute

another

use

to

was

of

closely related chords


which

chords
the

there

the

remains

an

of

tribution
the dis-

be

to

did

realized.

musicians

appear
the
the

until

been

to

and

measure

handling

was

him

and

to

have

by

the

so

notes

heed

no

and

wandered

another.

composers

was

tion,
modula-

aimlessly

Nevertheless, this

of modulation.
led them

to

The
for

search

last there

appeared groups of
the present day tonality. By
*

fine

very

decide

tonic.

foundation

at

introduced

likelyto

very

next

to

tial
essen-

in chords,

Nevertheless, there

was

He

very

perceptionof keys

corresponds to

accidentals

of

use

scale, were

accidentals

after it had

key

key.

composers

sense

the

Century

of

the composer
accidental
in the

accidentals

the systematic

or

method

modulation.

closely related key

one

the

harmony

modulation, but it became

no

trained

ears

which

his

the

merely as to their individual worth


paid to their relations to a common
To

introduced

key began

and

introduce

doing

of

used

were

such
method
a
possibilities
comprehension of single keys there

the

to

attempt

no

modes

of

tones

Seventeenth

grasp
a

be

the

importance

is in fact chromatic

which
was

the

course

church

impossible. First modes,

understand

to

without

Without

presented.
could

Greek

Then

great

any

Glareanus

the

intervals between

not

development extending

Only
Century when

the

of

successions

of

outgrowth

centuries.

of

to

the

89

effects

were

produced,

when
impressionof irregularity

but

judged by

moderns.
In
came

the

into

and
one
was
was

use.

most

early part
thorough
for

some

of the

Eighteenth Century composers


sisted,
pure tonalitycon-

realization of what
time

remained

content

to

continue

in

long spaces using modulation sparingly. This


It
least in evidence.
modulation
was
the period when
the turning pointfrom its unsystematicto its systematic
it was
When
employed passage was made only to the
No
closely related keys, sttch as to the dominant

key

for

90

THE

designseemed

to

unclerlythe use of keys, but


and
forth, fearingto go too

back

wavered

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

This

originalkey.
with the bold

is very

method

in which

manner

evident

modern

the composers
far from
the

when

compared
strike out

composers

one
key to another without regard to their
pass from
be made
if the passage
smoothly
may
degree of relationship
and gracefully.
They are upheld by a perfectconfidence in

and

in safety.
go where they will and to return
of the EighteenthCentury
say that all the composers
is too
in their employment of modulation
faltering

abilityto

their

To
were

for
comprehensive,
of

his time,

there

was

far that his

so

the wonderful

who

one

was

far in advance

contemporariescould

devices which

he

not

prehend
com-

introduced

The

so
prehension
beyond the comJohann Sebastian Bach were
of the periodthat other musicians failed to grasp
in their
he extended them, but continued
the suggestions
of a
puerilefashion,allowingit to remain for the composers

of

methods

hundred
others

had

years later to learn from


little by littleadvanced
who
at last

attained and

distributionwas

worked

After

him.
to

definite and

the

Bach

came

height which

he

clear system of

key

out,

Haydn and Mozart employed simplesuccessions of keys.


established each key which played an
portant
imThey distinctly

and left no doubt whatever


as
composition
to their intention,
followingout a logicalorder of changes.
Modulation may be considered as the openingof a comprehensive
key system of which the key systems restingupon
troduce
singletonics are integral
harmony was first inparts, When
there began an irregular
succession of discoveries
followed one
to chords which
The
another.
as
effectively
tion
varietywas limited to the scope of one key, but by modulakeys may be made to follow each other in a similar

part in

as

manner

every
more

did chords*
is

This

is

branch

of the art

which

beingdevelopedand which promises to be even


fruitful in the future than in the past in delightful

day

effects.

COUNTERPOINT

It

is

the

vocal.

originally
allowed

was

Later

the

relation

its

fourth,

probable

of

two

tones

of

Greeks

could

voices
were

established
allowed
made

to

sing

of
and

prominence
explained
themselves

music

more

not

and

whose

voices

apart.

entirely

giving
the

only

the

first

step

point.
counter-

or

idea

fourths

regard
which
had

consonance

that
which

tones

even

the

was

the

simultaneously

and
than

of

parts

entertained

fifths

fifth,
more

hand

many

did

rests

octave

constitutes

They

consonances

great
and

time

the

an

other

in

no

different

related
into

at

its

combination

and

is, music

allowed

be

obviously

closely

Greeks

tonality

combination

the

This

which

which

custom

of

the

on

tone.

that

polyphony,

interval

time.

on

octave,

the

pitches

others

upon

as

of

and

contrast,

the

chapter

considered

similar

one

by

be

the

at

very

but

the

its

to

introduction

the

of

recognized

The

which

are

effect

any

toward

came

for

tone

may

simultaneously

impression
one

law

this

and

by

law

voice

one

present

joined
In

was

various

the

at

physiological

the

fundamental

reason

singing

lacks

of

made

people

tone.

same

of

tones

doubtless

music

beginning-

very

succession

was

the

on

the

uncivilized

voice
it

is

mention

in

of

one

accompanied

The

sustain

manner

the

in

all

that

supposition

Probably

to

the

after

well-founded

the
later
been

by

Pythagoras,

The

Greeks,

ever,
how-

to

be

by

arbitrary

laws

of

hampered
science

than

an

art

and

dis-

any innovations. They


of music as
recognizedthe possibility

do not

that

their

erectlyrefrained
to

have

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

92

from

It is true

expressionof emotions.
chanted
long tales of love
the

and

appear
vehicle for

tales whose

war,

singers
beauties

but the music, owing to its monotonous


could not be excelled,
form, in no wise tended to draw the attention. It merely

overlymelodious succession of tones, the


which
lengthof each conformingto the lengthof the syllable
the meaning of the
it accompanied. The idea of emphasizing

consisted of

not

music did not suggest


them to appropriate
by setting
in realityof secondary
itself and the accompaniment was

words

consideration,
whereas,

it is not

has been used

music
exquisite

where

now

difficultto find instances


to

accompany

mediocre

words.

Christianity
broughtwith

it

new

impetus. Believers
of their
expression

of song for the


adaptability
exhorted
praises,and furthermore they were
to employ it
However, the conditions were
to improvement.

realized the

The
to

abstract
the

in the art

likewise
but was
spirit,
theory which was encouragedby
toward

directed

music

not

Bible

conducive

be

attributed

the

outgrowth

tirely
en-

of

the attention that


in

arranging the

ritual.

The

church

exerted

cal
musiinfluenceover
striking
after the death
of
beginning,
the converts possessed
consisted

most

development. In the
Christ,all the music which
of fragments borrowed from
music.

cannot

Christian

churchmen

church

made

advance

in the

Christ

the older Greek

and

Hebrew

had chanted a hymn of


disciples
praiseat the Last Supper and the apostleshad repeatedly
the chantingof certain psalms,but the music
recommended
was
undoubtedlyHebraic, and it is from this scanty seed
and

his

that the present system has grown,

Christ

associated with music, having even


closely
been represented
as Orpheus playing
and it was
upon a lyre,
in
very natural that the art was
regardedas indispensable
God.
praising
was

COUNTERPOINT
simultaneous

The

93

chantingof

the entire

congregationis
been superseded by antiphonal or
said to have
responsive
about
350.
A
more
chanting
legendary explanationof its
adoptionrelates to St. Ignatius,who is supposed to have lived
during the period from 49 to 107, and who died at Rome
as
a
martyr after having spent his life as a discipleto the
apostle,St. John. The story goes that St. Ignatiushad a
vision in which
the heavens
were
opened to him and within
the celestial choirs praisingthe Holy Trinity in
he heard
The vision so impressed him that he introalternate chants.
duced
this method
of chanting into the church
at Antioch.
it was
In reality,
undoubtedly the resurrection of an Hebraic
custom.

Many
they

died

are

the

continued

stories of
to

the

Christian

martyrs

their

sing praises to

who

God, the

as

domitab
in-

spiritthus exhibited winning many converts to the


St. Augustine is recorded
faith.
confession
to
by his own
have been converted
to Christianity
by the effect of beautiful
There

music.
records

also

are

of the custom

what

be

may

observed

considered

authentic

specialfeast days by the


rise
early Christian followers whereby they gathered before sunindicates the prominent
and
sang their praises,which
part music played in their worship.
During the Second Century the universal acceptance of
belief in the

the

necessityof

Christ

on

brought

catholic church

about

and

realization of

common

service.

the
All

efforts to

futile until during the


bring this about were
auspiciousreign of Constantine (306-337), Althought not
he ever
favored the church,
a Christian duringhis active life,
tions.
convicfor political
effect than from religious
perhaps more
In a vision justbefore an importantbattle he is said
to

have

seen

cross

and to have

received

an

intimation

that

symbol at the head of his forces victory would


he adopted it as his insignia
be gained* As a consequence
and always retained it. He was
extremelyjust ruler,and
an
shortlybefore his death declared his intention of becoming
and
Christian and was
a
baptized. During his reign new
with

this

94

magnificentchurches
formal

more

Hitherto

edifices.
but

the

be in

keeping

chantinghad

choirs of trained

now

by

although hymns

the

only such

reached

that

sing in

Christian
the

as

had

the

been

entirelycongregational

more

splendid

instituted and

singers were
not

immediately

the decision

of Laodocea,
been

on

with

congregationwere

at the Council

excluded, in 367

About

to

aspect

the service took

and

erected

were

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

was

properlyappointedshould

churches.

beginning of

Century, during the

the Fourth

period of church freedom under Constantino, a school


founded
in Rome
for the trainingof church singerswas
by
Pope Sylvesterand soon after there ensued the introduction
into the church service of hymns which were
strictly
original
the past.
founded
in that they were
upon no traditions from

new

They

from

the first breakingaway

mark

constitute the first effort to

and

of the Greeks

the mother

music
the

overcome

ished
bindingtheory of the Greeks. A periodof productionflouruntil the beginningof the next century, when originality
threatened with suppression
claring
was
by a part of the clergydemusic
into the
against the introduction of new
their opinionwas
ritual,but fortunately

church

overruled,

During the Fourth Century the church passed through


an
exceedinglydark period,caused by the strong reaction
the land.
against the belief which swept over
Emperor
the
361
who
from
to 363, strongly
Julian
Apostate,
reigned
advocated

the pagan
forms of worship and his
the pure religious
music that had been

return

to

influence threatened
the

outgrowth

of

When
Christianity,

instructed in the articles of


with
was

all of which
of

and studious
philosophic

nature

hesitation.
and

But

later as

he

he became
the

between

he

surrounded

Homer

complied without

familiar with
contrast
was

he

youth, Julianwas
faith and practisethen prevalent,
a

and

the great writers of ancient Hellas


the grovelingsuperstition
with which

and

other

the admiration

he

felt for the works

and
poets,the veneration for antiquity

of
the

vested,
poeticatmosphere with which the Olympic writers stood inhe became

believer in the

theologyof Homer

and

COUNTERFOIL

Hesiod.

With

beautiful

ys

another

of his time he failed to find the


of the Christian religionand confounded
simplicity
many

intricate

the

it with

prevailed for

metaphysics and

time

in the church.

his

According to

which
abjectsuperstition
he

account

own

Christian

was

until his

year, though he did not openly proclaim himself a


of the ancient gods until he was
Emperor, when he

twentieth

votary

known

become

Julian the Apostate. He


to open their temples and offer victims
pagans
and though very tolerant,even
returningto
Catholic

the

prelatesand

clergy whom

banished, he attempted

tius had

directed

as

the

Christian

the

development of

Of

Church.

church

the

introduce

to

this meant

course,

music.

The

as

the

heretofore,

their churches

Arian
pagan

Constanritual into

retardingof
Greek philosophyof
a

not the charming poeticcreed of the early and


day was
best days of Hellas,but in it had crept tasteless,
unsubstantial
had quite absorbed the
vagaries,mysticism and superstition

his

So

elements.

purer

reign was
of

pagan

of

the

brief

them

would

much

that

for

allowed

eventuallythe
lost its control

church

that

his

degrading songs

supersede the chants


religionwhich engendered
the people. As it was
over
to

in
strictly
religious

not

the

that the wanton,

not

were

or

have
was

well

was

and

one

worship

church

it

character

crept into

ritual,and St. Ambrose


(339-397) found ready the task
of selectingsuch music as was
worthy of the use to which
form
it had
of
been
a
common
put and of establishing
worship,
the

In
assumed

374
the

task

Bishop of Milan and at


defending the church againstthe
became

Ambrose
of

once

posed
pro-

worship by Empress Justina.


and theological
He lived during a time of political
unrest, for
while the barbarians pressedin upon the Roman
Empire, even
the
itself and threateningtemporal power,
sacking Rome
With
threatened by heresy and by schism.
daunted
unchurch was
in the face of many
opposing forces, he
courage,
introduction

of

Arian

He broughtback to the faith and


foughthis fightand won.
to publicpenance the Emperor Theodosius, assuringtemporal

OF

THEORY

THE

96

MUSIC

support for the church, firmlyreinstated the Christian form


of

worship and established


hundred

for two

There

of St.

are

Augustine when

the Ambrosian
He

years.
in existence

system, but

Ambrosian

chant

affirms that he

we

he

standard

melodies

no

may

the

speaks of

which

based

quote from

exclaimed, "O

upon

impressionmade
When

God!

my

lasted
the

the Confessions

it in the church

he heard

as

of music

at

by

Milan,

the sweet

congregationbroke upon my ears how 1 wept


over
Thy hymns of praise. The sound poured into mine
heart.
Then
and
glowed
Thy truth entered
my
ears,
the spirit
within me
of devotion,tears poured forth and I
rejoiced."
in truth through the influence of Ambrose
It was
that
Augustine was brought back to the faith and was made
Bishop of Hippo, North Africa. He had been swayed by
of the times and
hacl rejectedthe
the general incredulity
convinced him, partly
orthodox Christian teachings.Ambrose
through the power of music, that he had strayedfrom the
and then from a sense of duty he threw himself
true religion,
into the conflict and
against unbelievers with
waged war
His influence was very great,and in carrying
voice and pen.
he carried the form of
the teachings
of the Catholic religion
voice

of the

worshipas
pure

established

by

Ambrose

and

as

part of it the

music.
religious
The

progress

of music between the time of Ambrose

and

of the
retarded because of misinterpretation
Gregory was
meaning of Greek treatiseson musical construction. Boetitts,
and
not a
musician,had about the year 500
a statesman
attempted to compilea work on the theoryof music as set
forth by the Greeks, but treated it simply in the lightof
mathematical

science and

not

as

an

art.

Students

seem

to

tative
acceptedhis work, De Institutione Musica, as authoriand blindlyfollowed it for years, and their music consequently
in beauty
formal, unreal and failed entirely
was
and when Gregorybecame Pope
from the aestheticstandpoint,

have

in 590 he found the church service in

deterioratedcondition.

COUNTERPOINT
Few

pontiffshave

equaled and

97

hardly one

surpassed him as
of the concerns
of the vast Papal charge. He
student of life and realized the
ment
necessityfor advance-

administrator
a

was

of culture in the church


He

knew

the

awaken

is indebted

publicservice

visible

highestand

for the

and

and

details of

systematizationof

desire for music

order

in the service he

which

was

that

was

in

He

saw

anywhere in
unseemly or worthless.
and

arranged

copiedinto

the

church

the music

discard any

and

This he did with

which

ing
grow-

crept into use songs which


that to again bringabout

gather togetherall

must

the chants

the church

satisfied the
entirely

not

use

caused

zeal and

him

consistent

there had

place.

To

man.

organizationof its
its ritual,and for the regulation
its sacred chants.
The severely

had

and

of

entirelyout

were

best in

complete and

chants of Ambrose

formal

of

society.
symbols of the spiritual
teachings
Catholic religion,
be
must
such as to appealto

that the

of the Roman
and

the demands

to meet

he had

untiring

decided upon

compact form

to

the

that this form


Rome, thus signifying
worship should remain unchanged during all time.

of

and

chained

be

to

altar of St. Peter's in

In the chant of Ambrose


and
hi that

it

was

the

abolished

had

greatlyresembled
recited than

more
more

the
upon
accompanied,and the new

melodies
was

the

termed

chant,

been

the ancient

regarded
largelydisGreek

form

Gregory,however,

sung,

style in which the value of the


which
length of the syllables
they
chant consisted of

value of whose

notes

planus,

cantus

the

The

being used.

now

had

ancient

rested

notes

the music

but

varied
literal

slightly.It

translation,plain

referred

name

of

succession

to

the

even

melody. Gregory decreed that


the chant should in a large degree be sung by the appointed
chorus,althoughthe congregationassisted to a limited extent.
laws firmlygoverned it
in which the church
The
manner
of cantus firmus (fixedchant).
brought it the name
measured

movement

of the

Gregory, in order
established

school

to

propagate his

of music

and
imposing proportions

at

became

Rome.
very

system of song,

new

The

school

was

popular, its

of
fame

98

all lands.

spreadingto
conducted

classes in

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

Gregory personally

that

It is said

singingand always kept

hand

at

lash

Singers who had been


negligentscholars.
sent
to England in
Gregorian chant were
grounded
604, and when, during the reign of Gregory's successor, the
Pope was generallyacknowledged as head of the church the
extensively. The temporal rulers of
system spread stillmore
various lands sent requests to the Pope that instructors be
music
their people,
to
the approved church
to teach
sent
and
father of
them
Pepin, King of the Franks
among
Charlemagne. He was so impressed by Gregory's form of
to

be used

upon
in the

service that he remodeled


that of the church

at

the Gallic service to conform

Rome,

in 757

and

him
Emperor Constantine,requesting

France, which

he

sent

to

placed in the Church

send

thus his music

similar to

schools

numerous

spreadin France

Beginningwith the

and

an

more

system of music.
Previous to this there had

to

or^an

St

those

of

Gregory;

Germany.

latter part of the Ninth

musical historian is enabled to


of

in

deputationto

Corneille at
enthusiastic and

of

Compiegne. Charlemagne also became


established

with

Century the

closelytrace the development

been

no

the subjectand
for our
concerning
largelydependentupon the historyof

theoretical
information

writings
we

are

church, but this


period ushers in one of the three learned writers, Hucbald,
Guido of Arezzo, and Franco, who have given us a knowledge
of the conditions of music during-the Middle Ages,
Hucbald

was

born in 840 in Flanders,

the

Only

one

of his works

De Harmonica
Institut tone, in which he
preserved,
describes under the name
form of part
Symphonia the primitive
writing.Of this Symphonia he mentions three kinds,Diatessaron, Diapente and Diapason Symphonia, in other words,
So it is
Harmony in the fourth,the fifth and the octave.
has been

evident
at

this

that
time

introduction

the

intervals of

the

fourth

and

fifth were

recognizedin part
of

tones

singing and with


less closely related than

the unison of the octave, the voices which

before had

the
were

not

COUNTERPOINT

enjoyed
amount

any independence, had


and music had assumed
a

Instrumental

develop

begun

crude

so

that it

improvement

vocal

music

had

the organ

than

in church

used

was

assist it.

hundred

two

to

of the instruments

services

It

is known
666

earlyas

as

during Pope Vitalian's reign,and indications


used

begun

impossiblethat they did

seems

rather

certain

intricateform.

more

as

displaya

to

this time, althoughthe construction

at

was

retard

well

as

99

not

that
A.

D.,

that it

are

was

earlier in Spain.

years

The

ment
undoubtedlyselected as the church instruorgan was
because of the volume
of sound to be obtained from it.

Size,bigness,in anythingcreates
of the

with

spectator and

When

began by

man

the

of
created

which

admiration

and

feelingof

unknown

the wonder
indeed

wonder

and

makes

evolution

The

of the first organ


for a tone seemed
that in

it

way

seldom

of

of

men

and

himself

and

of music

be about

to
a

of more
compass
several inches in breadth and
was

alone

have

him

he

held

the

always

the

with

comes

the

and

construction

volume

and

of sound

accomplished,so

was

to the art of music.

than

ings
question-

confronted

importance is small
worships.

all that

detriment

the

own

slow

was

reverence.

all ages, and


of mysticism

extremely crude

was

was

size

feel his

man

and

express

which

their

by

power

he humbles

and

life

of

to

in the mind

awe

wonder

comes

architecture

meaning

structures

it

feelingof

an

There

octave, the keys

were

long in proportion.They were


gloves
compelledto wear
so
heavy that the performer was
well termed
and to strike the keys with his fists. He was
(smiter of the organ). Rapid playing
pulsatororganorum
and the
and because of the compass
out of the question,
was
knowledge of
accompaniment only played

absence

of the

harmony
such

notes

the

organist for

as

the

choir

an

sang.

be
could
discovered that certain tones
Gradually it was
tions
and such combinasounded togetherwith a pleasanteffect,
were
employed at the conclusion of musical sentences.
tones
Later the singersbegan to imitate the simultaneous

and

it

was

very

natural

for

the

name

of the instrument

THE

100

THEORY

OF

the custom

to

which

had

introduced

music

thus

developed and
which

intervals

The

diaphony

it

as

be at

could

one

The

time

method

of

its

beautiful

it

as

appears
effects

the

all his harmonies

or

fifth and

recognized the

from
equidistant
these

of

the

from

intervals

the
or

and
principal,

unspeakablyharsh, but at
considered
produced were

for music
possible

was

of

interval.

now

use

either

acceptedinterval

one

at another

the other

of

organum,

octave,

were

be either

could

the extent

to

the

voices

the form

organum.

recognized by

were

also called, were

was

accompanying voices

principalvoice

appliedto

be

the term

rose

If, for instance, three

fourth.
two

so

MUSIC

on

Hucbald

to be,

these intervals and

commends

the
as

based

the system

"

If two
He says :
or
more
only proper one,
sing accordingto my system, the blending
persons fervently
of the voices will be most
agreeable/'Although modern
opinionsdo not coincide with Hucbald '$,his words give us a
most
comprehensiveidea of the contrast between the element
the

as

in music
years

satisfied the aesthetic

which
and

ago

of six hundred

that of today. Furthermore, musicians were


to displayartistic sense, for the
opportunity

not

afforded

law

of the church

an

sense

severelybound

within the limits of

them

established rules.
Hucbald

was

in the church.
to the rule which

fifth and

use

of organizing

Ecclesiasticalmusicians strictly
adhered
allowed only the use of the intervals of a

fourth,but in secular music there had appeared

changes. The
been

of the first to favor the

one

extended

limits governing
the
until the intervals of

sacred
a

had
organum
third and a second

termed
recognized. However, the latter system was
artisticin effect,
profaneby the churchmen and though more
was
severelydecried.
were

Not

until another

the second writer who


to

musical

growth of

century has elapseddo


has left us

this time,

we

come

to

anythingdefinitein regard
Guido

of Arezzo, an Italian
the first half of the

Benedictine monk
lived during
who
Eleventh Century,considered consecutive fifthstoo harsh for

COUNTERPOINT

beauty and greatlyfavored the


of the first to look
than
him

in

the

way

be

He

in
originality

of

in the

lightof

upon
the subsequentadvance

large degree.

of fourths.

use

music

science and

101

has

been

methods

one

was

rather

art

an

doubtless is due

credited

of

He

with

to

in

much

teachingwhich

cannot

justlyclaimed for him.


It is difficult to ascertain
musical

to

language,

and

his

and

rapidly
was

years
which

partlybecause

of his

world

he

at

after

lived most

large
his

had

to his contributions

ambiguous

of his life in

little knowledge of

death

his

almost

fame

discoveryduring
every
To the form
attributed to him.
of

Hucbald

phonia or

the

However,

work.

regard

partly because

and

monastery

science

the truth in

spread
next
fifty
part writing

the

called

Symphonia

he

the

gave

of dia-

name

organum.
Benedict

VIII, hearingthat he had invented a new


method
of teaching,invited him to Rome
in order to question
him concerningit,and later when
to
Pope John XIX. came
Pope

the

bring
the

he induced

Papal throne
with

him

system

new

Guido

Antiphonarium

an

of

So

although

inventor of

the

been

time

we

credited

to

he is

and

to

with

insisted upon Guido


learned to sing from it

him,

now

had
know

Guido

now

could

we

have

not

terpoint
coun-

nor

lined stave, all of which was


at one
that he influenced largely
do know

through his association with the Papal church


time, and

Rome

in accordance

diaphonia,discant,organum

of the four

nor

written

to

part writing and

remaining until he, Pope John,


himself.

to return

credited

with

the music

the invention

of his

of the

of the stave is based


the construction
which
upon
of the F and C clef but not of the stave itself.

ciple
prinand

diaphony for
or
chantingorganum
ing
that is,both ascendin parallel
directions,
the voices to move
the ease with which
both descending,therebyincreasing
or
During the Twelfth
all the musicians could keep in tune.
Century a change occurred and a systenj termed discantus
It

began

was

the custom

in

in France
prominently
appear most
extreme
other
The
began to be

to

and

lands.
the Nether-

sought

and

the

of the

notes

highestpart

The
voice the

church

had

the

firmus

cantus

"

the Latin

from

this

in

sometimes

turbulent

and

in
spirits

which

the

tenore,"
laws

their songs.

to

second
hold.

to

which
in

were

free

were

more

voice

pave

established canonical

manner

ments.
orna-

of the entire structure.

but secular musicians


disregarded,

be

hampered
we

of

of tenor

name

The
not

carrying

many
much

lower

or

firmus, the foundation

carried the cantus

with

acquireda

it carried

that of the second

than

rapid movement

embellished

were

melody which

The

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

102

could
wise

no

their

express
it is to

So

them

studyof the artisticgrowth of music.


Folk-music had been constantlyimproving. There

turn

for

legends,stories
been

had

of

serenades

whose

music

thought of science but only with


dictates of the people, Secular instrumental

arranged with

regard to

the

music

also advanced

had

ballads and

war,

were

the progress
the lute and the

no

and

of vocal
had
flute,

served

effort.
no

as

for increasing

means

instruments, such

The

connection

with the church

as

but

superiorto the heavy organ in attainingspecial


effects* The portability
and generalcharacter of these instruments
brought them into generaluse and this insured for
them
improvements suggestedto the performersas they
far

were

handled

On

them.

the other hand

understood, and

the organ

helpfulimprovements

was

rested

not

erally
gen-

entirely

with the makers.


The

knowledge of music

was

very

largelytransmitted

orallybecause of the crude and laborious method


This

was

notes

and

of

as

very

manner
precarious

the words

consequence
between
the Sixth "nd
period

in which
of many

of notation,
to

preserve
secular songs

Fourteenth Centuries are


extant, but the music has been lost The oldest specimens
of such music which are worthy of beingconsidered authentic
a

those contained

in the

Locicheimer
song-book,a

collection
of Volkslieder which dates from a period not later than the
Fifteenth Century. The
preceding unrecorded period is
great, but an estimate of the lengthof time consumed
by
are

COUNTERPOINT

103

the

development,of which these melodies are the culmination,


be reached by their comparison with the original
may
cantus
planus.
The propagationof these songs is romantic and interesting.
carried from placeto placeby the hordes of
They were
strollingmusicians who traversed the country in the north
and in the south.
To gain success
it was
necessary that they
be proficient
in many
thingsand extremelyversatile. They
task
were
compelled to sing and play many
selections,
a
which, was
easier by the fact that there were
not made
no
musical scores
to which they might refer. They must
stand
underhow
to play upon
various instruments which they carried
with

them.

They

be able to compose
which
verses
petent
subject,and they must be com-

must

suit any occasion or


leaders in any merry-mgking. They either traveled
often the master
alone, in small groups, of whom
was
one

would

and

the

others his assistants,


or
children

and

women

singersor

dancers.

castle to castle and


either social

or

took

companies containing

part in the performancesas

people traveled from


strolling
to town, governedby no law,
town
acquiredthe wild and questionable

These
from

and
civil,

bred

customs

who

in

by such
the
assisting

life.

Nevertheless,
they accomplished
'

They carried that


edge
of one
a generalknowlcountry into another,so establishing
of the art
composed and, as a matter
They continually
beauties and the credit of nearlyall
of course, discovered new
the artistic developmentbelongsto them.
Although they had at firstbeen outcasts from the church
and had been severelyfrowned
upon, throughtheir assistance
selves
of the sacred playsthey established themin the production
in the good graces of the church.
During the first
part of the Twelfth Century these Easter or Passion Plays
conducted
variouslytermed were
or
Mysteriesas they were
by the clergyalone and were givensolelyin the Latin tongue.
to a largedegree meaningless
As a consequence
they were
much

in

Century

and

of music.

people. In the latter part of the Twelfth


during the Thirteenth the language of the

of the

to the mass

progress

OF

THEORY

THE

104

MUSIC

peoplesupersededthe Latin, and others beside the clergywere


capable of assistingin the performance. This offered an
allowed
to take
for the minstrels and
they were
opening
in the art of
making them proficient
parts, their versatility
portrayingthe characters in the plays. Their great native
the fact that for

wit and

all influence which


them

over

did not

long they had been

so

the

societyor

have

off from
exerted

with

them

imbue

might

church

cut

reverence
any too much
allusions which,
humorous

they began to introduce


although they detracted from the original religious
purpose
of the plays,greatlyenhanced their interest for the people.
a
Not only did the lowly strollers make
professionof
music but gentlemen of the courts adopted it* The Troubadours
and

Minnesingersin Germany and the


nobles and knightsclaiming
England who were

in the south

Minstrels

in

and the

for art's sake alone, employed the


sing and compose
musicians as accompanists
and assistants who
did
strolling
did not care
to "lofor
anything which their masters
imposed
to

increase their

To

them.

upon

means

these assistants became

instructors in the art, givinglessons at the placeswhich they


visited,thus engaging in an untold degree in disseminating
a

knowledge of it
and

masters

in

They were
performingthe

often infused touches which

giftedthan their
music composed by the latter

made

often

more

it much

more

the music

of

the people and gave it


The popularelement thus

leadingthe
The

as

masses

to

which
qualities
appealed to them.
gained was largelyinstrumental in
adopt the art and thus perpetuate it,

nobles disdained to demand

pay for their services


it beneath their station and a
entertainers,
considering

practiseonly worthy of their lowly assistants. However,


they were nothingloath to accept giftsfrom the princes and
ladies before whom
noble

they performed

traditions and

dignitywhich

would

gave

have

the music a refinement and


been entirely
lackinghad their

to

the jongleurs,
absorbed It as
assistants,
art*

Three

forces

The

severe,

were

at

They clung to their

work

in the

profession.

developmentof

unprogressive
system of

the

the church, the

COUNTERPOINT
refinement

and

and

delicacyof

the

people. They were


perfectdevelopment.

'would

have

been

the

lost.

The

church

The

The

touches

Crusaders

had

East.

the

carried

were

from

brought

new

country

until

as

marked

very

returning Crusaders

from

beautiful music

they traveled
many-sided beauty.

intricate and

an

times

singers,
Minne-

equallynecessary for
either an essential quality
preservedits pure, dignified

Without

new
country, receiving

assumed

at

and

three forces

music, but the secular songs


to

Troubadours

uncouth, wild, yet

of the
its

105

influence upon
musical

they

music.

knowledge

The

of
surge
these movements
added

which
religiousenthusiasm
effect as did the
a refining
prompted
improved morality of the times, and secular music assumed
it is seen
that the folka
song
greater artistic perfection. Thus
birth to artistic music, but during the Middle
gave

music

Ages church

assumed

the character

of

whose

art

an

continued
progress
noticed that this was

be
freely and uninterruptedly.It may
in all the
a
period of increased activity
developed form at the same
Paintingacquired a more

arts.

time

reached
into

polyphony

that

western

the

point where

sudden

Europe

acquiredthe
come

and

arts

into existence.

came

preparationof

the

The

centuries

development. The
astonishing
had
of

become

civilized and

for
civilization,

world

culture is

merged

nations

of the

Fifteenth.

purely national

school

Here

the Twelfth
was

of music

gradually
always last to

Century to

the foundation
and

was

of

had

into evidence in the progress of a people.


Paris is to be regardedas the seat of great musical

during the periodfrom

had

ing
learn-

the middle

of

followed by

the first
ous
numer-

the German, and


others,the Netherlands,the Neapolitan,
the

English. About

this time

there

appeared among

the

musicians, that is,those who composed and taught and


of
who
not
were
treatises on theoretical music, men
wrote
ushered in a more
"he church ; and with them was
interesting
period in musical history.
toward
advanced
As discant and organum
perfectionit
to regulatethe lengthof notes employed
became
necessary
active

THIS

106

and

thus

arose

Thirteenth

subject

of music

form

new

MUSIC
called

chant.

measured

Cologne, a most noteworthy theorist of the early


writer on
the earliest known
this
Century, was

of

Franco

OF

THRORY

In

his treatise, Ars

C'antus

Mensnmhilis,

double

long

he

tions
men-

large, the
Of the large,l"m";,
breve and
the breve and semibreve.
long-,
two
semibrcvc
kinds, the perfect so named
there were
by
and
the
Blessed
Ever
in honor
of the
Franco
Trinity,
fect.
imperthree
of
the next
notes
Every perfectnote was equal to
iM'om
this
lesser denomination; every imperfect to but two,
called perfect and
the rhythmic forms
arrangement
sprang
modern
Perfect time corresponds with our
imperfect time.
to the common
or
tripletime, while the imperfect answers
music.
duple or quadrupletime of modern
dealt with ligatures and
The other chaptersof his work
his system
in instituting
of
Franco
succeeded
and
rests
the observance of which occupiedmusicians for
measurement,
aid in
It was
an
a
by no means
comparativelyshort time.
the production of beauty, but rules which
were
complicated
kinds

four

in the
bears

extreme
no

of

are

relation to

notes,

found
the

the

in all treatises of
advance

of

nr

the

time,

counterpoint,but

to

It
a

large extent occupies the attention of the musical historians


during the firsthalf of the Thirteenth Century,
The
discantus had been used to designatethe ornaterm
mental
variation
main
the
the
of
of
it was
subject
song;
really a counterpoint above the plain-song,but until the
middle of the Thirteenth Century the term contrapunctus had
characters used in the notation of music
not appeared. The
had in the early stages of musical historybeen called points
afid the new
which
name
supplanted that of discant was
derived from the expressionpunctus contra
(point
punctum
two
-against
point),and signified
parts progressing
by means
of notes
of equal value. The
of one
note
part sounded
with the correspondingnote of the other part,
simultaneously
the effect of one
being set againstthe effect of the other.
About this time there appeared a reaction against the
Franconitn

system of

measurement

Several

new

musical

COUNTERPOINT
theorists

into existence

came

An

107
effected

and

complete

lution.
revo-

(new art) sprang up in contradistinction


to the ars
antiqua (antiqueart) of Franco.
Innovations had
been recognized in regard to the measured
discant which did
not add to its development but rather covered it with a cloak
of intricacies which
completely hid its reallygood qualities.
had
been
Musicians
strivingafter perfection,but in their
experimentshad been led through devious paths which only
led

ars

farther

them

radical

change

The

which

nova

was

writers

from

away

composing

bring about

to

necessary
of measured

difficultand

were

their desire.

discant

advance.

an

employed

in the extreme.

unusual

firmus

originalcantus

an

had

Consequentlya

and

Instead of

upper
of

into the custom


discant, they had grown
already existingsongs, using one for the cantus
one

or

adopted

for

others

more

upper
generallywritten in

were

rhythms,
stronglymarked
the triple
measure
was
then

the

the

and

methods

part

or

combining

firmus

and

parts. The

songs
totallydissimilar

so

but

istic
characteronly common
all music was
practically

in which

written.
One

of

of
significant

changes

reaction

the

which

measure

first

the

had

to

was

be

the

introduced
return

graduallyceased

to

to

be

which

was

of

use

duple

employed, triple

being favored because of its fancied relation to the


became
antly
unpleasHoly Trinity. However, the one measure

measure

and

monotonous

brought

about

important innovation

Another

time.

thus

was

revival of
the

duple

introduction

of smaller time value


tones
signs representing
been in use previously.The semibreve,equal to

than

of

our

whole

divided into
smallest,but this was
of minim.
In
smaller notes which were
given the name
the crotchet was
equal to
introduced,two of which were
been

note, had

The

minim.
movement
more

and
notes

notes
even

the

smaller notes

made

parts and one


than the others,in some

of

nine

of other

the

semibreves
values

were

had

two
turn
one

accelerated
possiblemore
part might contain many

instances four,six,seven

againstone

set

being used in

similar

breve, the

manner.

This

THE

accommodated

the combination

would

which

employing

have

not
notes

of

been

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

108

of different

of songs

with
possible
but

equal length and

lengths

the old custom


one

of

syllableto

note.

especialnote

of

composer

musical

and

mathematical

lived

during the first


not
Century was
only a
but also a superiorphilosopher,
who

Jean de Muris of Normandy


seventy years of the Fourteenth

theorist, has

by

his

historical

into
writinggiven a clear and valuable insight
He
has
called
conditions existing during his time.

and theoretical
the

attention

to

several

attempted tasks

instances in which

of extreme

the

have

composers

in combining songs
difficulty

of

firmus consisted
the cantus
very dissimilar lengths. In one
of eighteenbreves, the discantus accompanied nine syllables
of text

and

the discantus

third voice just above

was

nished
fur-

of text, the melody allowing


syllables
thirty-eight
The manipsemibreves for eleven of the syllables,
ulation
thirty-two

with

necessary

allot the

to

write

melodies and

the two

to the
syllables

notes

resembles the

to

fully
success-

solvingof

problem in mathematics rather than the expressionof an


of procedure the most
absurd
art
Through this method
and
Muris
variations appeared
De
in a
inappropriate
of vexation addresses his contemporaries thus:
moment
"You
throw
tones
by chance like boys throwing stones,
a

scarcelyone in a hundred
givingpleasure you cause
gross barbarism I"
to revelers who, *'

the mark, and


hitting
anger

and

ill-humor*

instead of

Oh, what

John Cotton pointedlycompared them


tell how
cannot
or
reachinghome safely,

by what way theycame/'


The changes here recorded led
departure, Completeornate

tant
extremelyimporof various portions
settings
to one

of the

Ordinary of the Mass were


composed for the first
time, The Antiphonaland the Gradual had been treated in
this manner,
but the Ordinary appears to have retained its
form of organum
until this periodat the close of the
original
Thirteenth Century,when
the music
of the cHurch had
entered

new

era, one

which led to the Introductionof forms

COUNTERPOINT
that

were

been

put aside

frivolous in the
and

new

ones

rhythm, measure
for a period in

musical

greatest advances

in

comprises.
where

The

musical
noted

were

assumed
of

and

The

extreme.

accustomingthemselves

were

109

methods

were

to

of

being raised. Composers


radical changes in notation,
writingand were
preparing

historywhich deals with


theory and practicethat any

changes
activity seemed
which

had

been
to

and

in the

the

earliest

actual

to

of the

one

period
France,
Paris,

occurringin
around

center

appealedto

use

the

newer

exhibit

an

inclination

is evident

duple measure

Italian composers
early mastered
rhythms, and syncopation. They were

The

free of movement

was

syncopationwas

employed this

method

their laborious and

more

such

to

the French

effective

the

hear.

the

music
Their

French

that combined

extent

of

use

able to create

sparing than
an

the Italians

triplemeasure.

pleasantto

and

return

strongly
schools during

while

older

the

clingto

to

now

them

specimensof music from the two


Fourteenth Century the tendencyof

toward

of

one

apparent interest by the Italians who


importantpart in the development. The

imperfectmeasure

use

ideals had

with

an

which

older

who
with

rhythms it caused their music


to
assume
an
Frequent changes of'
irregularappearance.
rhythm are indeed acceptableto the ear, but nothingis gained
other
by too often removing the accent from the firstto some
beat of

The

monotonous

measure.

Italians

instrumental

were

important device,the
but

without

the

The

canon.

which

success

in

developing a very
French
had employed it,

school

newer

written in only
was
Italycanon
nearly all compositions.Three parts were

In

parts

were

indeed

rare.

however, and
four

the

the efforts of

attended

The

two

knowledge

both the French

and

not

of

parts, as
usual and
canon

was

were

four
versal,
uni-

English wrote

parts during the first of the Fourteenth

Century.

in
In

melody and each successive voice


point after
melody, beginningat some
was
given the same
relation throughthe same
the precedingvoice and retaining
canon

one

voice led out in

out

composition. All of

the

OF

MUSIC

the

parts

THEORY

THE

110

written,but the melody for the first voice would


full and
the second

voice

that

received

canon

be used

would

cross

to

was

to

take it up.
The

its name.

be notated

in

indicate the
It

point where
during this period

was

firstreferred to the

term

governing its performancebut graduallycame

rules

always

not

were

to

mean

itself.

the device

this time

About

there

were

of intervals which
five species

recognizedas consonant by musicians. They were three


which were
perfect the octave, the fifth and the unison;
which
and two
were
imperfect the major sixth and the
were

"

"

considered
were
progressions
perfectto imperfectintervals and vice versa.

third,the
from

The

natural

most

of the church had been affected to

music

changes which

the

degree by

had

been

an

introduced

to

be

extreme

in

posing.
com-

of Gregory had lost favor in


plain-song
comparison with the freer stylein which the various voices
strict

The

furnished with

were

equallycharacteristic

movements.

This

the church's

traditions very naturally


to the ecclesiastics. The
was
newer
extremely unsatisfactory
of compositionhad at first only been employed for
method

drawing

away

from

music of this stylehad come


secular music, but eventually
into use at gatheringsheld on the feast days of the church

placein the church service. The


introduction had been so very gradual that the officials
of the
church
did not fullyrealize what was
occurringand with
which was
entirely
open eyes allowed the entrance of much
in which the
oppositeto the simple and flowingorganum
voices remained
the same
interval apart throughout a composition.
and

graduallyit found

Furthermore, the choristers were


their parts, and althoughthe music
service remained
was

The

in appearance when sung the effect


totallydifferent from that designedby the composer*
of
practiseof extempore discant allowed all*manner
same

variations to be introduced.

unusual

music

the

provise
allowed to imin the books of

to

The

character of the

large degree depended upon the mood of the


were
happy his music would contain more

singer.If he

COUNTERPOINT
and

would

sing with more


spiritthan if he
depressed. The practisealso requireda musical knowledge
of the choristers possessed and those
greater than many
not
were
were
sonances
properlyqualified
likelyto introduce diswhere
they should not be and to exaggerate in
Writers
favor
possiblemanner.
began to express their disof the methods
employed in the service and in time

ornaments
were

who

every

attention

the

he

111

which

of

the

authorities

being perpetrated. One

were

the songs of Sirens and


service of religion.Another

chants

the

to

remark

strikingresemblance

choristers and

of the

drawn

was

writer

declared
became

between

the

to

likened

that music
so

abuses
the

defiled

sarcastic

as

to

the facial contortions

the

agonies of a dying man.


Jean de
cated
Muris, who has been quoted before, declared that the unedusingers performed "their leaps and other vocal antics
at inopportune moments.
They bark and bay in the manner
of dogs, and like lunatics delightin disorderlyand aimless
hurryings to and fro."
With
music
This

in

the

more

general had

qualitywas

music

and

was

service

may

choir,

Gregory had

as

this rule

for the

was

assumed

an

considered

for the

should

use

found

of

in the
decreed

be allowed
adhered

to
to

of smaller

value

Another

in the extreme.

wanton

introduction

of notes

effect of greater rapidity.


entirelyunsuited for sacred

regarded as

reason

be

extensive

music
inappropriate

admittance
that

none

sing in
abuses

of

laymen

but

those

the church

were

not

and

into the
into the

duly appointed
as
long

liable to occur,
lifetime and the

positionwas retained throughouta


singerswere always under the surveillance of the church.
The church officials attempted to bring about a change
and admonitions,
of remonstrances
better by means
isters
but their efforts proved futile. The composers and the chor-

for the

ignored their requests and it requireddrastic measures


1322,
to accomplish their object. Therefore, in the year
Pope John XXII. issued an edict in which he forbade the use
of discant,even
of the most
elementary kind, in the church
to the pointand it required
services. The edict was
strictly

that

again should

never

with

that

discants, nor
voices

upper
music

the

He

celebration of the mass,


and observe
strict plain-song

fourth, which

any

office for

forego the

to

intervals

consonant

case

in the solemn

on

such

its

new

in

during

from

feast claysor
it would be correct

as
eightdays. Occasionally,

the

thai

diseant

suspended

culpritbe

the

depraved

described

demanded

intoxicatingto the ear


found
was
guiltyof singing in
service

be

counterpointbe stuffed in

secular songs.

with

MUSIC

of the church

the music

and

as

any one
church

OF

THEORY

THE

112

the

as

Pope acknowledged as
heighteningthe beauty of melody. Voices might sing at
in such a way
these intervals above the plainchant, but never
eighth,fifth

as

and

divert the attention from

to

the

the cantus

firmus itself.

It is also interesting
to note that at this time the church
of
authorities with great freedom
expressedtheir disapproval
the

Ionian mode

mode

and

whose

corresponds with the modem


of
production

tended to the

use

strikingresemblance

more

which

this mode
fact,they stigmati2ed

to
as

major
ing
bear-

music

present ideal. Tn
lascivious together with
our

and the use of the intervals of thirds


counterpoint
in the course
of five centuand sixths,
all of which practises
ries
became absolute necessities to the writingof music which
would meet with approval,
The desires of the Pope were
heeded and the
strictly
the freer

florid diseant

was

silenced in the church.

edict did not

disappearduring the
entirely

The

effects of the

Fourteenth

tury.
Cen-

However, the forbidden fruit had been tasted


was

in

no

wise

an

easy matter

to

and

it

eradicate the desire for

freer music.

Gradually there grew into use a method


by
which it was
to obey Pope John's edict in the letter
possible
if not in the spirit.The device originated
in France
and
termed faux bourdon
false tenon
was
It was
or
designed
to be sung by three voices,and when
written consisted of a
strictorganum
voice

in two

parts a fifth apart with


half-way between, making thirds with

Accordingto
doubled

one

the

Pope'sedict

an

additional
the

others.

the third voice should

of the other voices in its octave

or

have

else sung

in

COUNTERPOINT
unison

with

of them

one

irregularin

was

singers to

three

whom

the upper two


parts
the lowest part, the

highest voice
as

its

positionas a third to each


However, the singerscomplicated

the extreme.

in their

matters

and

as

113

of
interpretation

the notes.

firmus

cantus

of the three

of

that

effect

The

thirds.

was

composed

was

flowingand

carried
left

was

reading the

singthem transposed to an
singingvoices did not follow
the organum

the

tenor, possessedthe

or

instead

and

written he would

Consequently the
but
parallelfifths,

Of

the parts were


allotted,two
written,but a third to whom

much

notes

above.

octave

the

prescribed

of sixths and

artisticthan

more

produced by

the strict organum,


and, although this was
element
which
the church
been
authorities had

the

very
desirous
of

that

meager

with

do

exterminating,their
they did not realize

the written notes

musical
that

in such

knowledge was
so
the singerswere
juggling
manner

to

as

pletely
com-

required interval of a fifth and to


of the church.
disregard most audaciouslythe canons
ing
Nevertheless,the faux bourdon adapted itself to chantthe
with exceeding grace and in time openly assumed
instituted

the

the falsity
of
signified

which

name

with

away

proper

as

device is stillused

music

in the

for

its

use

became

renderingand
in

church, under

the
the

The

services.
of

name

falso-

of chantingthe psalms
bordone, in the polyphonicmethod
have
it in
used
The
and
greatest composers
responses.
thirds
obtaining certain effects. For example, progressive
chorus
sixths are
and
employed by Mozart in the priests'
in his grand Mass
in his Magic Flute and by Beethoven

inC.

English adopted the method givingit


name.
fa-burden, thus anglicizingthe French
The

it to

and

common

is of

voices

were

of

name

They

sorbed
ab-

greater degree than had the French


fluence
their music of the period displaysits in-

much

originatorsand
A

the

English

enough

method

interest to

of
typical

this

was

warrant

discant supra

librum

attention.

Three

our

form, the tenor, the

contratenor

114

THE

and

the supranus.
before a book
sounded

the tenor

with

the

beat

the

the tone

plain-song.The
time

while

plain-song.The

of the

the first note

By this

the octave.

from

varied, gathered
singers,whose number
containingthe requiredcantiis linnus and
The

repliedwith

tratenor

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

and

fifth above

the supranus
established his distance

each

means

tenor

eon-

the

led with

plain-songand
accompanied him, note

the contratonor

againstnote, with perfectconcords, almost entirelyin contrary


motion, however, and keeping within his
from

supranus

fourth above

he

was

and

end

accompany

watch

it note

the

which

plain-songbut

for note.

On

which

to

he would

have

sung

had

The
not

was

the other

bring in such notes


only requirementbeing that each measure

with the note

was

his initial note.

fifth below

all freedom

allowed

desired*the

supposedto

was

requiredto

to

range,

hand,
as

he

begin
not

he

The
followingthe rules of the ancient plainorganum.
also see to it that all the principal
of
notes
must
supranus
This styleof
each measure
concordant with the tenor.
were
is hard to appreciateat this age.
Any
extempore music
been

allowed in each of the parts, and


singerswere
the rules which
althoughthey might thoroughlyunderstand
that each one
would
they were to follow,it is hardlypossible
notes
throughout the ornamental
attempt exactlythe same
supranus and the effect must surelyhave been curious when
number

such

was

of

the

case*

Thomas

Merely, who is said to have been intimately


connected with Shakespearein literary
work, in 1597 said
that it caused him to marvel "how
men
acquaintedwith
music can delight
to hear such confusion as of force must
be
extempore/* And indeed such is
amongst so many singing
the

case.

An

account

of discant supra

Tunstide in his treatiseas


the Fourteenth

librurn

given by Simon

measurable

Century pointsto

music at the close of


influence
very perceptible

exerted upon it by faux bourdon*


Theorists had previously
thoughtit necessary for the suprantts, or voice carryingthe
ornamental variation,to introduce concordant
tones, but

COUNTERPOINT
Tunstide
thirds
as

insisted upon

and

the

sixths,and

115

of

use

advised

such
imperfectintervals,

the

possibleall perfect concords.

three

voices

that two

allowed

were

of them

discant

allotted the

were

this time

By

in the

avoid

to

supranus

of

duty

far

as

than

more

it is

and

as

probable

mental
ornaintroducing

parts while the other voices carried the strict organum.

Therefore, it would

freelymoving
sixths

with

bourdon.

singing

have

voices to

the

was

avoid

to

observe

all in

However,

extremely easy for the


only intervals of thirds

firmus

cantus

indeed

been

in accordance

all, this method

dangerous,
of

some

with

the

for it

of

two

and

the

faux

extempore

practically
impossible

was

things which

deemed

were

as

strictlycontrary to good counterpoint,such as consecutive


perfect intervals. For a chorus to sing successfullytheir
be mapped out for them by the composer
work
must
and the
members

of

that

may
That

each

they

groups.

group

produce

of voices
the

desired
of

member

every

sing in unison,

must

effect with

some

groups

the

could

regard for his associates is


extemporize without
beyond comprehension and their united efforts must
resulted in a hodge-podge of sound overwhelming to
Century ears.
various

The
were

The

innovations

steadily increasingthe

originalintervals of

longeroccupiedthe

have

limits

of

octave, a
of musicians

an

minds

consideration.

claimed

which

Thirds

had

been

so

other

freely
almost
have
tieth
Twen-

remarked

good counterpoint.

fifth and

fourth

but thirds and


attained

no

sixths

prominence
that a device called gymel had appeared,although it
of
attained any great importance. This was
a method
never
writing for two parts so that they remained an interval of a
had

obtained

third apart. Variety was


each other by which
cross
assume

the relation of

form
omitted.

of

faux

positionbelow
third.

it became

rather

by allowingthe parts

the upper
the

Gymel

bourdon, with

Its effect was

parent, and

means

such

voice would

to

porarily
tem-

ing
lower, although retain-

was

the

meager
the ambition of

doubtless

an

ated
abbrevi-

highest or third part


as
compared with its
to remedy
composers

116

the

defect.

faux

This

bourdon

tenor, but

or

by adding

new

thirds.

in fifths and

tenor

thirds

sixths

and

the

older

above

the

by introducingsomething entirely
bassus, descendingbelow

contratenor

by returning to

not

conservative

of

firmus

cantus

they did,

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

of the Fourteenth

at the end

Thus

the

firm foundation

upon which
to build their art.
They had invented a system of polyphony
which
recognized a varietyof intervals. They had broken

Century

musicians

from

away

the

had

created

with

of the church

canons

such

of

assurance

that the severingwas


permanent and the pursuance
purpose
such an
of the art of music for art's sake alone had become
established

fact that it refused

rules established

Gregory
Seventh

by

had

those who

done
he

Century

to

untold

again

ever

without

were

things for

established

schools

be

musical

music
for

governed by

the

when

edge.
knowlin the

trainingof

but the active value of these schools in regard


choristers,
music

in

Fifteenth

general had worn


Century. The
the

methods, and
musicians

out

world's

by

the

beginning of

progress

demanded

to

the
new

institution of

of
chapels or organizations
adjuncts to the principalcourts of

as

necessary
the
Europe
necessary effect. These institutions formed
to which
a part of the household
they belonged,be it king's,
of the lesser nobility.
The members
ient
subservor
were
prince's,
had

the

only to their employers and it was their duty to pleasein


highestdegreeeither with compositionor with tion
interpretaof music.

Not

only

was

of honor

but

On

the

and

were

to it

Secular music

wonderful

impetus.

positionof singerin a chapel royal one


there were
liberal compensationsappertaining
other hand the choristers were
underpaid
generally
the

under

beingrequiredto
between
caused

received

the most

strict church

instances
rules,in many
be ecclesiastics. Naturallythe strong comparison

the

old and

the

new

institutions of music

and gifted
musicians to seek admittance
energetic
into the chapels,and here they competed with one
another to produce original
and artistic compositions.Special
obtain
to
knowledge or inclinations were
necessary

COUNTERPOINT
and

admittance
to insure

117

great effort toward

perfectionwas

required

position.
The
composition was
past and the
age of extempore
had
rules which
governed that rather haphazard method
serious composition,
transferred to the more
which was
were
which
notated
had
throughout. Successive faux bourdon
previouslybeen so very popular found littlefavor under the
the outgrowth of a childish
conditions. It was
more
^new
beginningthan a proper implement with which to advance an
At
first the church
modes
adhered
art.
were
strictly
to,
thereby greatly limitingthe range of available notes, and,
although during the first part of the Fifteenth Century,there
remarkable
in the beauty and flow of melody,
advance
a
was
the

permanent

had

composers

yet rid themselves

not

rules
arbitrary

and

gracefulmusic

all progress

retarded

aimless discords

so

that

instead of

which

by

all the

of

fining
con-

in writing
assisting

led composers
combiningthe melodies their
and

into

good

were
sadly weakened.
qualities
During the first half of the Fifteenth Century England
who served greatlyin advancing the
possesseda contrapuntist
This was
art.
John of Dunstable, who died in 1453. He
life and
vigor to the science of counterpointand
gave
cords
possessedenough geniusto sever the bonds of arbitrarydis-

similar unnatural

and

stable's music

may

secular, which

or

be
are

judged by

and

scored.

The

features. Dununnecessary
several compositions,
sacred

However,

extant.

of Dunstable's

few

and

have
compositions
obscurityof his

personalcharacteristics which
allowed
the world only a meager

only
as

comparatively
ciphered
yet been de-

notation

and

the

many

he allowed

it

knowledge of him for


beauty and in sweetness

some

time.

His

music

excelled

purityof sound, but at no


to the sentiment
adaptability
and

He

understood

in

to

creep

into

time did it possess any decided


of the words
which
it accompanied.

the art of

followingan

effective

plan

using contrivances which enabled him to introduce


tion.
varietyand yet bring his musical plan to a desirable compleinnovation as compared
This was
most
a
acceptable
and

of

with

proceedingsof

Duncomposers.
reflected in the compositions of

aimless

hitherto

the

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

118

were
good qualities
that there grew
his contemporaries and followers
so
up a
placed
disstyleof counterpointin which the older plain-songwas
neously
occurring simultaby a system of different metres
and
inexpressive
by which the otherwise monotonous
duced,
introand canon
material was
was
effectively
presentedmore
extensivelyin the lighted
although it figured more
the
alone in inaugurating
music.
Dunstable was
not entirely
lands
and the Nethermethods
which
he did, but both in France
there existed contemporaneouslythose who
displayed
ideas, thus indicatingthat the time had
equally advanced

stable's

indeed
was

allotted to

typicalcomposers

Dunstable

is dear

He

of music.
of the

as

from

English historian

of the

obscure

an

boy, distinctly

the country mourned


not
He
received
good, true man.

for whom

man

but
composer
false honor
at the hands

only

the heart

to

raised himself

people,to

that the power


to progress
of distinct countries.

and

for advancement

come

as

Lustig,a Dutch historian,who


discovered
in him a saint,although it is certain that Lustig
with St. Dustin, an English
have confused the musician
must
ecclesiast livingduring the Tenth Century.
tion
Despitethe strides which Dunstable made in the realizaof artistic propriety and
improved construction there
cords
clung tenaciouslyto musical minds the idea of arbitrarydiswithout any consideration as to their value in increasing
the beauty of the compositionor in introducing
and making
more

have

acceptablecertain
that

even

who

composers

With

the

successors,

as
were

late

as

not

passingof

the musical

its first appearance.


noticeable and fulness and
usual

firm

So

the Sixteenth

Century

hold

qualityof music;

did

it

there

existed

less

worthy

rid of it.
Dunstable

and

and

to

the Low

few

The

old

and

Countries.

change in the methods


perceptible

made

concords.

glory of England declined

is directed to France

1435

of

of

harshness

impressivenessof

tone

tion
atten-

About

composition
became
grew

less
to

be

COUNTERPOINT
the French

Among

progress and worthy


lived from
1400
who
age he became
included
which
It

time.

the

Venice

and

were

in

remained

his

to

the notable

with
to

so

to show

soon

choir

learn

the

denote

from

of the

of the School

each

other

the

While

themselves.

his

of the

composers
of France
and

the musicians

enabled

characteristics which
was

twenty-eightyears of
Pope's choir,an organization

that the musicians

Papal

the

When

of the

mingled

were

ideals which

1474.

to

majority of

there

was

which
stands for
a
name
composers
achievement
is that of Guillaume Dufay,

member

Countries

Low

119

of

the

new

Dufay

compositions possess
powers

of

few

writer.

It

until after his

appointment as Canon of Cambrai that


not
pose
specialstyledeveloped. He was
only able to comin such a way
them
as
flowing melodies but combined
their best qualitiesand
beautiful
accentuate
to erect
a
not

whole.

He

his best efforts to the Mass

devoted

differed

and

his

English contemporariesin making extensive


He
in this connection.
also developed canon

from
canon

employed it freelyand
of the leading device.

use

of
and

brought it into the prominence


He
was
cunning in combining this
for instance,introducinga
with
the unequal measures,
as
in the two upper voices accordingto the perfectmeastheme
ure
and later repeating it in the tenor
fect
according to imperHe

measure.

as

purpose

Dufay

even

sweet

use

hands

it was,

employing the

ornamented

point
counter-

choosing a definite
compositionsand the music,
did not

grasp the mind

and

thought.
came

and

canon

and

in

fell short in

for his

though

insistently
express some
Following Dufay
in whose

bourdon

faux

framework

flowingand

equallysuccessful

was

originallysimple
However,

even

transitional school of musicians

imitation

received

effective treatment

Although the ancient writers called the device then in


with the present idea of what
it hardly conforms
canon

the term
should

Now

means.

it

the
repeat entirely

after another.
be termed

The

older

for
imitation,

requiresthat one
progressionof the
device

to modern

would

now

or

more

voices

first voice, one


more

it was
conceptions

properly
nothing

120

THEORY

THE

MUSIC

OF

tation
prolonged imitation. Musicians had treated imiOnly casually did they seize
ineffectively.
very
voice a progression
of repeatingin one
opportunities
upon
The theme with
which had previouslyappeared in another.
three times during
its imitation would
or
appear only two
Often
be abandoned.
several
then
the composition and
There now
themes were
treated in this manner.
appeared in
the last of the Fifteenth Century a growing realization of the
possiblebeauties which could be derived from methodical
than

more

of imitation.

treatment

Imitation

and

canon

to
belongingstrictly

devices

are

counterpointand, during this period when the musical minds


were
entirelyoccupied with that branch of music, it seems
value.
Imitation
that musicians
at last grasped their true
voices as before, but appeared in
limited to two
not
was
every part. Formerly the voices had taken up the theme to
be repeatedonly in the unison or at the interval of an octave,
but now
the fifth began to be considered a proper interval to
be used.
As the Fifteenth Century was
ending composition
improved noticeably.The gropingsof musicians were being
rewarded, and they were
approaching the highestdevelopment
of counterpoint. Their efforts to find a proper outlet
their musical

for

methods

which

but valuable in

to

expend

Dufay

was

his time and

furnished
of

devices,some

and

progress

ideas had

worthless

having served

efforts which

considered

well fillsthe

them

with

them

as

positionof

in

aiding

foundation

in truth led to

the most

various

upon
valuable discoveries

prominent composer
leader of what

of

is known

After his death, Johannes


Gallo-BelgicSchool.
ship
Okeghem, a native of East Flanders,succeeded to the leaderand from this dates the beginningsof the Netherlands
School.
Okeghem was between fortyand fiftyyears of age
of his life in the chapelof
at this time and had spent much
as

the

the

King

of

France,

to

the head

It Is

that
rather,
surprising

in

country
foEiefgn

and

who

man

of which
who

he had

attained.

had lived for

held the state

so

long

positionwhich

COUNTERPOINT
he did should
the

have

musicians

doubt,

of them

many

such

his mother

of

attention

their

exerted

remarkable

his associates

were

him

to

influence upon

However,

country.

drawn

was

121

without

in the

because

of

chapel and

the

bond

of

brotherhood.

Okeghem, great

his music

styleand

He
superfluities.
imitation

encumbered

continued

of the device

possessed a

was,

was

it descended

as

use

he

as

the

him

somewhat

demic
aca-

with

tic
inartis-

many
development of

canonic

from

quent
freDufay and made
metres
simultaneouslyintroducing

to

of

proportions. It may be said that he attained the


He
highestpoint of subtle ingenuityin handling the canon.
contrivances
then in the possession
brought the mechanical
of various

of musicians

condition

fundamental

the

and

to

remained

be deemed
may
conception which he had of

unchanged

he

of

monument

as

which

inartistic touches

which

his

unfortunatelyadded

classical
canon

has

ability.The
were
readily

and it may
be asserted that
even
dropped by his successors
stands for perfectionin
Johann Sebastian Bach, whose name
counterpoint,merely employed Okeghem's style of canon.
Furthermore, his shortcomingsas to artistic developmentare
than
overshadowed
in other
more
by his achievements

respects. His
he

proper

had

the scientific bent

overcame

for his work

Okeghem,
a

more

in

and

regard to

that it is to

value

very

step
most

easily

that Glareanus,renowned

modes, was a contemporary of


indebted
his writingsthat we
are

the

of the composer.
whose
use
Okeghem

devices
the many
augmentation and diminution.

canon

was

complete knowledge

Among
in

one

of their master.

of interest to note

It is indeed

were

the

advanced

failed,they discovered that music


vehicle for the expressionof emotions and

which

for

imitators

and

successors

By

ipeans

mastered

of diminution

the passage repeatedwas


written in notes of smaller
it appeared originally
and consethan those in which
quently

rapid pace. Since the repetition


and because of
after the original,
began only a few measures
its leader and soon
it gained upon
its greater agility,
they
moved

at

more

122

THE

THEORY

MUSIC

OF

simultaneouslyand further repetition


the opposite
would
be impossible.Augmentation was
of diminution
and by its use the notes of the repetition
were
those of the original
and the
of greater time value than were
tendency of the first part was to so far outdistance the voices

would

sound

the

note

same

the imitation occurred

in which

the

imitation

take away

to

having time

of the device,the hearer


before

as

occurred.

to

forgetthe original

written

The

all the effect

notes

not

were

changed to indicate the change in value but the lengthening


crescit or decrescit
indicated by the words
or
shorteningwas
desired.
the composer
in duplo,triplo,
whatever
or
device

Another

one

was

termed

inversion

In

canon.

originalappeared inverted in the


that a passage which had been ascendingbecame
so
repetition
also popular.
was
descending. A retrogradeform of canon
firmus was
In this the cantus
repeatedinterval for interval,
but instead of the repetition
beginningwith the initial note
of the cantus
and
firmus it began with the last note
was
could
backward.
who
The
employ the
composer
sung
less important
largestnumber of these devices and numerous
in a single compositionwas
considered
most
ones
worthy.
praiseOkeghem was
extremely cunning in this respect,
but he "alsowas
devices.
capableof creatingnew
It is more
how
these purely
than easy to understand
mechanical devices were
capableof occupying the minds of
but for all this
musicians
to the exclusion of real beauties,
The
Okeghem's compositionsshow the work of a master.
melodies,in spiteof the rules which they observe,are flowing
intervals of

this the

and

the work

mars

of

and

sweet

canon

which

the

his music

is without

that awkwardness

of many
of his contemporaries. The
forms
have been mentioned
have proved themselves

importancewith which they were


their originators
in that they remained
in use to
There were, however,
a higher plane by Bach.

worthy

which

One
with

of the

soon

assumed

demanded
the second

which

the

the

character

of

musical

viewed

by

be raised to

other forms
curiosities.

of the cantus firmus beginning


repetition
of the melody and ending with what
note

COUNTERPOINT
had

the initial note.

been

firmus

in the cantus
the shortest

In another
omitted.

were

of

notes

the

in

of
but

riddle

which

manner

The

canons.

all the rests

the

has since

various

not

Middle

parts

escape

Ages;

the

spirit
were

the

name

written

not

were

the

canons

for them

won

all

ignored in

were

did

music

contained

in still another

And

firmus

cantus

repetition.
During Okeghem's time
of mystery which
permeated
written

123

out,

the entire

composition consisted of a formula containing


only a few notes superscribedwith a Latin phrase whose
limited to the initiated few and
which
was
interpretation
indicated

the

is the

that

specialdevice
considerable

in which

manner

point
be

to

was

where

size could be notated in

of

mannerisms
the

be

to

were

the

worthless

usual

the

canon

from

master

his

Conde, Hennegau, about


in

1521.

Music"

His
and

upon
He

as
was

was

written

one

unnecessary
but
were
into

use

Depres

apparent,
1450

and

music

died

at

him

the

in

was

touches
born

his native
the

"

greatly honored

them.
among
in the manner
shown

in

place

Prince

acknowledged genius is somewhat


which
Germany, France and Italyfor years contended
the honor
of being his birthplace.
Depres took a most
course

part

pre-eminentis that
the most
giftedof

whose

contemporariestermed
he

"

una

ex

in relation to the

specialwork

is looked

most

are

the

seemingly
Century composers
that always comes

Josquin Depres, or Despres.


Okeghem's pupilsand the one in
the

Plures

These

of

of

"

movement.

and

which

name

that

material

Okeghem

After

an

marked

Fifteenth

tate;
imi-

to

were

began and the


Thus
a
composition of
ordinaryline of music.

was

evolved.

the development of any

parts

imitation

the

observed.

Generally the riddle canon


(many from one), meaning
several

the other

of
His
in
for

prehensive
com-

of instruction in order to fithimself for the

It was
positionof singer in the Papal chapel at Rome.
during this course that he studied under Okeghem. In Rome,
and the people became
Depres displayedhis superiorqualities
he
and genius* Later
enthusiastic over
his learnfegf
most

124

OF

THEORY

THE

MUSIC

royal chapelof Louis XII. of France.


The
king at one time desired that a popular French melody
be arranged in such a way that he should have a specialpart.
with a task, for the king had
indeed confronted
Depres was
almost no musical knowledge and an extremely feeble voice.
was
However, the composer
equal to the occasion and
arranged the chanson for two boys* voices,adding a special
part consistingof a singlenote running throughout the piece.
This he reserved for the king and sang the bass and principal
became

the head

of the

part himself.
himself

Depres devoted
the Ordinary of

for

deemed

was

the

of

use

the

as

did

for
fitting

various

devices.

the words

While

it

the

This

Mass.

very

perceptiblestrain of
It attempted to
music.

largely to

displayingskill

in

the

Nevertheless, there is a very


real beauty running throughout his
express

somewhat

the

same

sentiment

accompanied.

Netherlands, the

the several other

in

use

was

arranging settings
a
subject which

French, the Germans

schools

of composers
on
with creatingand

and

the Continent

were

working out difficult


contentingthemselves
in
problems involvingthe use of intricate canonic repetitions,
England there was
forming a reactionary school. The
attention of the Englishmusicians reverted to the older plain
form

of

counterpointand they

felt convinced

perhaps an occasional use of imitation as


supply the necessary and proper interest of
However, the activitythat draws the

that this with

adornment
a

could

composition.

attention

of

the

England received a setback at a very early


from
church
the
Rome
at
period. The
breaking away
entire change in church
created a necessityfor an
music.
Composers were
requiredto handle new subjectmaterial and
historian

they

were

the work
the

new

to

confronted
which
church

with

the

unpleasant realization

they had previouslydone

"was

that all

worthless

for

forms.

Tye and Tallis were perhapsthe most noteworthy members


of the English School. Tye was
the elder by nearlyten
about
1500.
Both
members
were
years, having been born

COUNTERPOINT

125

of the

royal chapel,Tallis ending

Queen

Elizabeth

in 1585.

He

plain counterpoint without


values

of imitations.

his life in the

was

service of

strict in his

very

simultaneous

notes

of

of

use

various

He

tion
displayedhis skill in this direcin his settingof the new
Litany of the English church
directions that absolutely
in 1544, done according to explicit
be observed.
Tye did not observe as strict
plain treatment
rules in his counterpointas did Tallis,but the sternness
was
relieved by its dissolution toward
the close of every composition
or

running

into

left

Tallis has
in

motet

ornamental

effects.

of his abilities in

strikingmonument

most

It consists of

eightindividual trebles,
eight contratenors, eight tenors and

forty parts.

eight mezzosopranos,
eight basses. Each

various

and

notes

of the

forty parts was treated carefully


and the whole
ture
strucdisplaysindividual characteristics,
fulfils all the demands
of good counterpoint.

and

The

attention

of the church

English church

at

Rome

well

as

as

that of

again being turned to the qualityof


in use in the service.
The
music
meaning of the words had
almost extinct because of the running notes and overbecome
lapping
of phrases. The service was
made
repetitions
up of
intricate music and the sentiments
it was
supposed to express
had entirelydisappeared.Some
so
rapid that
passages were
it was
impossible for the singers to properly enunciate the
distinct syllables
and in others the words
were
dragged out
the

to

such

an

that all

extent

the

was

of

attention

was

sense

lost

church

the

during the

bore

pauses.
fruit in many
appeared. The

However,
examples of plainercompositionswhich now
collection
psalms received an entirelynew
treatment, one
"The
Psalmes
of David
in English
bearingthe inscription,
Meter, with Notes of four parts set unto them by Gulielmo
Damon, for John Bull, to the use of the godly Christians
fore recreating
themselves
lades."
instede of fond and unseemly balIn
born

1520

at

Orlandus

Netherlands

the

town

Lassus

School

in

assumed

Mons

of

whose
a

in

hands

Holland, there
the

work

of

higher importance than

was

the
that

by

attained

had

this

change

life. His

and

Delattre

Roland

of

when

father

incident

the

which

he

brought

had a great influence upon


his
of name
had
been apprehended in counterfeiting

the
made
and was
to walk three times around
money
into a collar
made
scaffold with the spuriousmoney
The

his neck.

about

as

the age of eight,at which


early time he
He is known
also by the
serious study of his art.

began a
about

in Mons

reached

only

name

admitted

was

St. Nicholas

of

Church

in the

chorister

Lassus

English School.

the

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

126

young
his name

son

was

mortified

so

public
worn

that

he

from Delattre to Lassus, and


immediatelychanged
which later influenced him
this unpleasantoccurrence
it was
sixteen. Lassus has received unstinted
to go to Italywhen
pressiv
impraise for his ecclesiastical compositions. They are
and exhibit the breadth of the composer's musical
his counterpointis made
The
melodies of which
powers.
handled so as to produce beauty and artistic perfection
up were
of
them
from
the
and he was
equallycapable regarding
harmonic
standpoint. Formerly composers either could only
view their polyphoniccompositionsfrom
the melodic standpoint
or
only from the harmonic, but Lassus combined the
of both.
He
and his versatility
was
qualities
very prolific
He received many
honors during his life and
extreme.
was
was

intimate

an

after the

remorse

feverish

to

King

talent

for

his associates and

purpose

made

did not

even

it

wide

did

about

at

in

directed Lassus

for
possible
which
no

knowledge of
From

he

him

music

to

found

creation

time

same

he served

His

successors.

littleor

sttfficehim.

the

unusual and

more

the materials
he

and

eve

realized all the promisesof the

who

His

judgment

severe

for the Penitential Psalms.

composer

was

his emotion

overcome

Palestrina,born

was

seized with

was

Paris.

stayingin

of St. Bartholomew's

massacre

effort to

write music

The

had

Charles IX. while

story is told that the king

The

of

Lassus.

as
as

period

model

superiortaste
use

to

ready
of

the very
for him.

and
best
though
Al-

devices,Palestrina

that of his countrymen


the specimenswhich he studied
and

COUNTERPOINT
he

127

loath to gather
way
utilized in his best efforts.
in

was

found

no

Palestrina

parallelmovement
changing the value
intervals

of

of

contrary

close and
been

closes had
We

have

purity of

to be

are

old

plain counterpointand the


parts. He derived varietyby
and by introducing
notes
short

of all the

expressiveand
toward

the

favored

suggestionswhich

very

learned

the

His

movement.

he discovered

more

were

cially
espe-

pleasingapproach

successful close itself. Heretofore

more

awkward
in the

Palestrina

melodies

was

affairs.

precedingchapterhow
instrumental

in

the artistic

saving

church

threatened
extinction,a fate with which it was
form it had assumed.
because of the non-religious
Palestrina
discovered
the secret of writing music which was
both simple
construction
and
and
to
as
expressive of religious
pure
and Gregory and later in
thought In the days of Ambrose
the Fourteenth
Century, at the time of the edict of Pope
hands
John XXIL, when the church held matters in its own
iron-clad
its music
with
surrounded
and
rules, it was
by a conviction that the church should have
prompted more
absolute sway
over
everything connected with it than by any
knowledge of the artistic fitness of that which it enforced.
Palestrina,however, established a standard which has since
music
of church
cause
been observed
not
only beby composers
the church
approved of it but because it perfectly
fulfilledall requirementsby being strictly
religious.
music

from

Bach

stands

at the

head

of

No
contrapuntists.

one

has

appeared who can supersede him and consequentlythe


He
history of contrapuntaldevelopment ends with him.
if any
made
few
innovations, but employed the material
with an artistic touch.
which
he found already in use
in his youth encountered
Bach
a
was
poor boy who
of the proverbial
hardshipsall geniusesmust overcome.
many
to easilysupply a
Not only was
he without sufficientmeans
extent
to some
dependent
thorough education but he was
the assistance of an elder brother, Johann Christopher,
upon
who
gifted
developed an unpleasantjealousy of the more
since

128

THEORY

THE

OF

MUSIC

Johann Sebastian, Both brothers were


musical, and although
both were
in organ
proficient
especially
playing the story
goes
had
the

that

tion
Johann Christopherhad in his possessiona collecof organ
which
he himself
compositionsby the masters
copied. Prompted by his jealousy he refused to allow
them.
brother
to
However, Johann
younger
copy

secured
Sebastian, nothing daunted, surreptitiously
and, it is said,copied them by moonlight.
Bach
musical

of

was

sixth

the

instincts had

first

them,

generation of a familywhose
found
expression in the zither

the
Johann Sebastian was
originalBach.
culmination, and succeedinghim the glory of the family

playing of

declined.

the

He

exhibited

evinced

any

of

need

elementary teachings of
His powers
he

often

himself
The

allowed

unusual

musical

rapidlyin his classical studies.

but advanced
never

only

not

an

his

of concentration

instructor

In

capacities
music

he

supplementthe
brother, Johann Christopher.
marked

were

to

in the extreme

and

night in order to satisfy


line of knowledge.
in some
of any great importancewhich he held
first position
worked

him

the

all

through

the

munificent remuneration

of

dollars
fifty-seven

of the artists of the


one
per year, but althoughhe was
time and had only reached
the indiscreet age of eighteen,
this so amply provided for his wants
that after only a few
years

he

was

able to afford

an

extended

journey and

tary
mone-

indigentcousin.
Bach's artistic ability
was
trulypeculiarto himself. He
delightedin allowing himself to be entirelyinfluenced by
the spiritof the words which
he was
accompanying and to
sensations produced. He
attempt to carry out the particular
beautiful effects when
was
reproducing
capableof especially
assistance to

ideas of

an

visions,and

a* choral, From
"

Heaven

came

the

angelhost," is typicalof his skill The cantus firmus moves


in a simplestyleadaptable
to congregaon
uninterruptedly
tional
but the accompanying parts are so artistically
singing,
interwoven,one ascetklmgand another descending,that the

COUNTERPOINT

impressionof
is clear to

One

the hearer.
of

The

his work

vocal
almost

freer

stylewas

Bach's

genius so that
his careful study of Italian
which this exerted imparted

clearness of purpose and


German
School had never

delicate finish which

accomplished.

Bach's

compositionswhich were
designedfor choir work
totallyignored during his lifetime and remained

the

time

some

"

Passion

Matthew
realization

marked

at

last discovered
for

vainly groping
"

it is called.

as

acter
char-

considered

be

seventy-five

beginning of

"

his

the

accustomed
a

and

The

he

what

his

St.

world's

opened

predecessorshad

to the new
sea

new

bearings. They

and

it was

new

in this

of composers

first work

They

necessary

for them
an

not

were

conditions.

enthusiastic with

were

"

of

era

an

noteworthy, for they


particularly

not

in

gotten
for-

of their excellence.

had

field was

the

were

unusual

composer's death, the production of

after the

He

Their

of performance must
difficulty
for this neglect,
but in 1829, over

reason

years

after his death.

their

and

music

unlocked

for

been

which

keys

broadeninginfluence

the heavier

as

the

accomplished a

music.
to

the

to the shepherds on
angels coming down
first Christmas
morning and then soaring upward again,

the

he

129

as

were

to

tirely
en-

gators
navi-

get their

enthusiasm

which

rebuffs due to unjust criticism of their work because


it did not conform
of right and
to established conceptions

knew

no

wrong.
methods

by

realize,but they

They did

not

and

which

forms

which

began
Century was
this branch

future

in time

were

creatingnew

to become

were

compositionswould

be

the standard

judged.

mony
Har-

their attention and the Seventeenth


occupy
devoted
almost entirelyto the development of

to

of the art

the
beginningof the EighteenthCentury came
His effect
opening of the era of Johann Sebastian Bach.
left
He
polyphonicmusic was
great in the extreme.
upon
it changed in every particular
from the condition in which
into life during
he found
it. The
music which came
new
freer character. Contrapuntists
of a much
this period was

With

the

OF

THEORY

THE

130

MUSIC

previousto him were prone to regard their music only as to


of its melodies,that is,they regarded it from
the progressions
his successors
Bach
and
the horizontal
garded
repoint of view.
vertical

the simultaneous

but
gracefully,

and

had

the

become

the melodies

only must

Not

intricate.

more

melodic

or

standpoint.Counterpoint

harmonic

or

horizontal

the

from

it both

flow purely and


of the several melodies

tones

be subservient to the rules of

must

The

growth

of

harmony as well.
counterpointhas proved itself to have

been reached when


it
slow, but the pointhas now
studied and written.
is possibleto consider it as it is now
Counterpointis the art of adding to one melody which

been

very

serves

as

such

that

manner

when
be

shall

harmony

correct

for other melodies

foundation

the composer
must
their relations to

they

above

it in

sounded

are

In

produced.

simultaneously
writing harmony

the construction

deal with

below

or

of chords

and

although the melody of


each part is considered
to a slightdegree when
determining
from
chord
the manner
in which the progressions
to chord
be made, it is subordinate in importance to the harmonic
construction

harmonic

simple

On

the chords.

of

the

other

hand, although
is by no means
ficient.
suf-

purityis absolutelynecessary it
Each part of melody must
progress

the others

We

another, and

one

and

possess

of

under

melody which
the counterpointis termed

double.

and

of its

distinctive features

treated
counterpoint

find

foundation

must

independentof

The

generalheads,

two

constitute the

is to
the

own.

subject. If

one

that it
melody is added to the subjectin such a manner
be used only in its original
above or below, it is
can
position,
called a simple counterpoint. If instead it is constructed so
that the two
parts or melodies can be inverted with regard to
other

one

another

it is called double

the word
counterpoint,

having the meaning invertible. The inversion


the
interval,
next

the

most

be at any
beingthat of the octave and the

common

those of the tenth and


interval of

fifth

inversion it becomes

double

twelfth.

may

In double

counterpoint

requiresspecialtreatment,
fourth,an

for

upon

interval which is.forbidden

COUNTERPOINT

in

131

counterpointunless approached

left

and

by

step. The

for double

counterpointappears rather obscure to the


but its need will be explainedin the treatment
of
uninitiated,
fugue in the next chapter.
Triple counterpointis that in which three melodies are
written in such a way
to be capable of inversion between
as
be either the highest,
can
themselves, that is,that each one
When
four
the middle, or the lowest part of the harmony.
in this manner
have
treated
melodies
are
we
quadruple
much
varieties than
rarer
are
are
counterpoint. These
ber
singleor double.
Counterpointmay be written in any numreason

any

be of
of parts from two
and may
up to twelve or more,
of five speciesaccording to the number
and arrangement

pared
accompanying melody or melodies as comwith those of the given subject.
The
first speciesrequiresnote .againstnote, that is,one
of the accompanying melodies
is caused to sound with a
note
of similar value in the subjector principal
note
melody.
In the second specieseach note of the subjectmust
be
accompanied by two notes of equal value in each of the

of the notes

other

of the

melodies.
In

the

third

accompanied by
of the other

The

specieseach
than

more

note

two

of

notes

the

subject must
equal value in

of

be
each

melodies.

fourth

accompanied by two
syncopations. This
unaccented
b^at of
beat of the flext

of each

speciesconsists
means
measure

of

notes

more

or

that

the

note

is tied

of the

subject
equal length with
occurring on an

note

over

to

the

accented

measure.

In the first four

speciesthe accompanying notes of each


be equal,but in the fifth species,
florid counmust
measure
or
terpoint
be accomit is sometimes called,the subject
panied
as
may
by notes of various lengths.
various ornamental
devices which
There
are
are
strictly
Canon
contrapuntaland which have been noticed historically.
may

be differentiated

as

strict and

free.

When

strict the first

part is exactlyrepeatedin the succeedingparts, each

repeti-

132

tion

beginning

and

the
in

progression

repeated
the

or

which
first

can

be

worthy
of

is

ancient

writers,

full

is

Counterpoint

the

theory

advanced

in

of

itself

information,
and

even

affected

his

is

humorous,

counterpoint

does

that

growth

appeal
there

and

the

great

or

have

been

the

at
to

is

much

interests
affected

ough
thor-

more

student

when

well

advise

the

time.

same

seeker

the

ments
embellish-

the

subject

the

the

rules.

theorists

some

of

its

and

this

counterpoint
will

its

requiring

with

in

scandalize

arbitrary

harmony

although

and

in

write,

to

grapples

course,

little
but

than

music

of

harmony

there

difficult

to

allowed

sense

all

many

is

which

upon

indeed

which
rules

laxity

underneath

observes

education

musical

would

play

edge
knowl-

that

or

artistic

the

most

as

study.

built

modern

which

nevertheless,

but

counterpoint

good

in

that

or

allowed

from

stringent

be

The

devices.

parts

progression

itself

less

may

The

the

counterpoint

structure

should

interval

any

of

or

though

notes.

purpose

more

mately
approxi-

Even

part.

only

the

strict

of

proper

counterpoint

composer

the

to

ornamental

the

for

least

parts

recommends

counterpoint

repeated
noticeable

other

at

that

necessarily

not

subservient
a

be

evident

is

at

first

the

may

be

voices.
the

of

occurs

peculiarities

that

that

to

it

be

repeated

not

useful

most

entirely

study

is

plain

the

necessary

of

other

and

repeated

and

free

in

hence,

part;

Perfectly

place

imitated

repetition

the

the

is

melody,

one

imitation,

need

especially

some

should

the

the

termed

is

idea

which

similar

effect

an

it

free

musical

after

measures

possesses

progression

exact

produce
in

part

the

is

of

MUSIC

two

canon

beginning

the
when

except

the

When

only

than

later

not

preceding.

OF

THEORY

THE

after
is

that

of

the

by

it.

In

general
romantic

ages

have

FUGUE

is

Fugue

in

of

art

centuries,

musical

among

For

this

only
and

delve

of

deeply

so

judges

in

subject

What

minds

The

much

hold

listener

who

to

holding

rule

fails
music

to

enjoy

really
is

to

readers
the

present

larger

any

chapter
our

to

measure

creative

great

intelligent

the

only
share

his

be

rather

plan

of

fragmentary

of

of

such

greatest

comprehension,
difficulty

of

the

with
the

throughout

mind

previous
the

grasp

difficult

education,

or

in

Without

to

not

the

nature

essentials

composition.

the

is

presents

by

gifted,
the

and

fugue
heard

as

it

and

us,

is

to

fugue.

as

fugue
those

of

allotted

purpose

our

this

gain

may
of

appropriate

Theoretically,
but

each

is

of

desire

masterworks

for

can

composition

they

that

way

appreciation.

of

do

we

not

make

to

standing
under-

than

make

to

as

nor

composer,

young

such

intricacies

is

or

of

space

devices
it

place

art.

difficulty

larger

fugal

and

of

the

However,

its

critics.

or

of

puntal
contra-

historically

product

many,

music.

into

the

for

text

the

fugue

of

form

one

finished

the

important

most

considered

because

to

presents

treatment

other

of

all

of

whether

reason,

it
the

to

culmination
holds

and

forms,

standpoint

the

from

the

sense

study,
construction,
or

except

course

and

disjointed

the

of

listener

the

of

power

as

often
and

feels

even

134

THEORY

THE

lackingin melody.
highest example
the

of

of

will

we

The

contrapuntal composition,so

classes of

clear the

make

again explainthem
themselves

terms

polyphonic,many

sense,

polyphonicmusic, and

general

two

monophonic, will
work

is

Fugue

MUSIC

its chief characteristic is that of melody.

know

we

OF

ing
understand-

an

as

It is the

forms, polyphonic and

later

development of

this

briefly.
their

convey

in

use

general

voiced; monophonic, singlevoiced.

Polyphonic music is a combining of two or more


parts of
melodic
The
individuality.
monophonic system, whose
equal
within the
simplestform is the song, makes its repetitions
limits of a single voiced melody having an
accompaniment
is

which

to
ancillary

found
chords

in the

it.

This
and

song

accompaniment is
consists

otherwise.
or
figuration

in

of

that

monly
com-

succession of

In the polyphonic form,

the parts support one


another and hence
through repetition,
other accompaniment is necessary.
no
With
an
understanding of the nature of the polyphonic
dies
stylewe are prepared to look for an interweavingof melocarried by several parts, and subjectto rules of musical
melody in a contrapuntalcomposicomposition. The same
tion
the
different
is not necessarily
repeated by
parts, two
melodies
be heard at once.
more
When, however,
or
may
the

canonic

form

In the

repeatedby the various parts we have a


of which the fugue is the highestdevelopment.
the laws for the entry of the parts are rigidly

melody

same

canon

is

the second part follows the first


If, for instance,
the third part conforms
and
lapse of one measure

laid down.
after
enters

exactlyone

They

after the second.

measure

must

also

if the second part


preserve the first difference of intervals;
follow out
takes up the melody a fifth above the firstit must
the

melody

in that interval.

in which

the

Another

fugue differs

from

pointsof

canon

struction
con-

is in the

principal
part is imitated
in a fugue,
by all the other parts throughoutthe composition;
of the
or
more
while the subjectis imitated,and often one
to the various imitations of the
accompanying counterpoints
matter

of imitation.

In

canon

the

of the

FUGUE

subject are

themselves

and
imitated, the continuous
part by another throughout the whole

of one
repetition
is rarely found.
As
we
proceed
certain

features

only

to

In

135

in

with

the

study

with

common

of

the

fugue

canon

work

shall find

we

but

exact

worked

out

brief extent.
few

will now
paragraphs as possiblewe
try to
give a conception of the meaning of fugue as applied to
musical
composition,with a general idea of its construction.
Fugue is a French word derived from the Latin, fugare,
and that from the Greek, fugere,meaning to
to put to flight,
flee. The
of the title becomes
clear to us as we
significance
of a fugal composition.
follow the construction
It is a flightof melodies, one
part entering,a second
takingup the theme, another and another followinguntil all
have entered.
Through the skilful handling of the subject

by

as

the

composer

you

hold

in mind

the central theme.

You

through this chase of melody, with its many


seeming
of the composition is becoming
divergencies,that the wholeness
stronger by the devices used, and you are finally
prepared
feel all

for the climax.

Any
follow

or

subjectto
treatment

voice
pursue

part may
one

begin a fugue

another

the rules of imitation


upon

the

character

certain

at

and
of

are

the

and

the

other

parts

distances;they are
dependent for their
subject or principal

theme.
The

subjectis a definite theme, consisting


generallyof a
short melody given in the principal
key by the part beginning
the composition. Throughout the fugue the subjectis reproduced
the
the
After
each
of
four
or
more
by
two, three,
parts.
the second voice repeats it,usuallya fifth
subjectis announced
above or a fourth below, and this constitutes the answer.
While
.

the second

part is givingthe

answer

the

original

becomes
which
subjectproceedswith a counterpoint
the
the counter-subject,
does every successive part upon
as
The third part follows with
completion of the fugue theme.
the subjectagain in the principal
key but an octave higher or

part

or

THEORY

THE

136

lower

the firstpart.

than

called

The

MUSIC

of the

announcement

subject,

the entry of all the parts is


fugue and the first section or

or
counter-subject,

and

answer

OF

expositionof

the

the

completed. After the exposition,


the development of all the
which
be very short, comes
may
of melodic
tion
musical
in the way
ideas,free imitapossibilities
and
double counterpoint
according to the ingenuity of
in order to give varietyand still preserve the
the composer,
unity of the fugue.

development

One

is said to be

of

method
An

episodes.

varying

episode

consists

the

work

is in

generallyof

the

use

number

of
of

part previouslyheard, and is usually


developed from parts of the subject or counter-subject It
is often of modulatory style,thus preventingthe weariness

measures,

which

in form

of the principal
theme
repetition
might
No
rigidrules place any limit upon the

incessant

the

otherwise

like

cause.

construction

of

his art

these

episodes and

in

them

the

composer

One
individuality.

follow
episode may
the use of short episodesmay
be employed
another, and even
between
the different parts of the fugue as well as between
the developed sections,so there is every
opportunity in a
fugal work for originalemployment of the several musical
devices and
for the making of an
otherwise
position
pedantic comtake its place as a
into one
of beauty,that it may
truly artistic creation.
shows

and

Following the episodeor episodeswe have the entry of


another
are
exposition. The
subject and answer
again
different
order from that of the
brought forward but follow a
first

takes up
section;the part which gave the subjectnow
the answer,
the subjectbeing given to the part which
before
of course
and the counter-subject
is formed
gave the answer
continued and in some
as before explained. All the parts are
the original
counterpointappears either simply or inverted,
the subject and
answer
forming the predominating idea

lowed
throughoutthe whole fugue. This expositionis again folby an episode. The greater the number of parts the
and episodes.
greater will be the number of expositions

FUGUE

137

An

analysisof a short two-voice fugue (No. 10 in the


make
the fugal structure
Well-tempered Clavichord),may
In measures
1-4 we
clearer.
have the expositionof subject
and answer
5-10
beginningin the tonic minor; in measures
an
of subject and
episode; in 11-14, a second statement
this time in the relative major; in 15-16,another
answer,
extended
episode; from 20 to the end, the third and more
this
time in the minor
statement,
again, broken by various
episodes.
the

Finally comes

unifying of parts,

the

gether
bringingto-

the

This
originalthemes for the grand climax.
is accomplishedby a stretto,a hurryingtogetherof the subject
and answer
of a shortened
distance between
them.
by means
Usually at least one stretto is found and there may be several
in the course
of a fugue. This interruption
strettos
lapping
overor
of

of parts heightens
the interest and the listener feels the
has graduallyincreased in power
work
through the successive
flightsand he is now
ready for the point of greatest interest,
the

culmination,or climax.

Often

is added

coda

The

and

finish we
find the
very
double pedal point. A cadence
The

is cleared for the close.

strengthenthe tonalityat
employment of a pedal or
either perfector plagalcompletes

to

the

the

way

fugue.
and

name

fame

of

Johann Sebastian

Bach

are

so

closelyassociated with the form of compositionwe are now


without the
to write of one
considering,that it is impossible
the greatest of all contrapuntalcomThat
Bach was
other.
posers,
shall soon
read in the precedingchapter,and we
we
its present perfection.
that to him fugue owes
However,
see
no

art

reaches

such

climax

without

showing

traces

of all

foreshadowing all that is to be.


We
have followed the development of this great art from the
earliest crude
beginnings, from simplestrhythmic motion
mony.
through the stages of growth of melody, tonalityand harthat

before

came

as

well

as

knowledge of
ever-increasing
of the various
the basic principles,
through the application
devices,has brought polyphonic compositionto the point
We

have

seen

how

the

138

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

genius was needed to give to


perfectedform, capableof appealingto

where

us, not

Bach

that

was

genius; but

shall

we

the

new

but

highest intellect.

trace

now

little more

minutely than has been done the history of composition as


it bears directlyupon the development of fugue.
For
a
thorough understanding of each step in the
look to the growth of polyphonic
must
development one
1100
the year
and the death
time nothing has been added

interval between

in the

forms

1750, since which


musical forms at
to the laws of fugue. Of all instrumental
present in use fugue ranks as the oldest,though vocal fugues
must
yieldthe rightof seniorityto the chant, which at least
of Bach

in its

in

Gregorian guise is

It

is

the

merely

is

Guillaume

fugue as we
find
Sixteenth Century we
form

call canon,

today

we

form

contrasted

fugue accordingto
To

that the

canon

During the
fuga for the

it grew.
the term
truth

from

was

the older.

much

of

"

fuga

per

now

the

know
use

of

which

in

canonem,"

rule.

Dufay,

usually given

Belgian of

the

the Fourteenth

credit for the

invention

tury,
Cenof

the

canon.

The

canon

as

it

was

then

written

was

the strictest kind

of musical

composition,the counterpointbeing very formal


time it
and as has been pointed out, for some
and severe,
the aim of the old contrapuntists
seemed
to produce works
as
as
incomprehensible
possible.There is a lack of beauty
of the early composers
in the canons
fail
them
that makes
of aim as works
of art; but they do evince great labor and
and we
stand
undercan
composition,
what placethey fulfilledin the developmentof instrumental
It was
music.
in fact by the correct
ordering of
of comintervals and through the experiments in the matter
binations

study of

the technical side of

of melodies

known, and

upon

that the relations of tones

which

knowledge

more

modern

were

made

composers

built their works.


Under

Joannes Okeghem, a pupilof Dufay's,imitative


counterpointreached its zenith. He may be considered the

FUGUE

139

master

of the

teacher

occupiesan unique place in

be

must
to

the

art was

It

that

the

received

had

Okeghem,

whose
Between

Papal

second

or

Netherlands
the

School, and
historyof music.

as

He

regarded as the founder of all schools from his own


through his pupilsthat the
present time, for it was
transplantedinto all countries.
was
by Josquin Depres, or Despres as he is sometimes

known,
He

new

court

of

new

Netherlands

instruction
successor

and

art

carried to

was

inspirationfrom

the

Italy.
great

he became

the years 1471


Sixtus IV., and

in the school he sented.


repreand 1484, he was
at the

was

then

called the

most

world
musician, the greatest composer, the modern
had
the title given
was
yet produced. Prince of Music
him by his contemporariesand for a period of sixtyyears he
could claim this title undisputed. Then
came
a
period with
and
tastes
understood.
not
new
stylesand his works were
still jealouslypreserved in the Sistine
are
Depres' masses
chapel.
the first of the contrapuntists
Depres was
accordingto
brilliant

Luther

become

to

master

of notes

instead

of

being mastered

of
by them, as had been his predecessorsand as were
many
realized that mere
his contemporaries.He
technique is not
that "music," quoting his own
art and
words, "has a speech
and a capacityfor the expression of the pain and pleasure
of the human

heart."

Depres had earlier served as chapelmasterto Louis


XII. of France, and when
first admitted to this service had
gotten
been promised a benefice. The
promise,however, was forand Depres, being inconvenienced
by the shortness of
took the libertyof remindinghim of his
the king's memory,
commanded
When
to compose
:
promise in the followingmanner
for the royal chapel,he chose part of the 119th
a motet
think upon
Psalm
as
for his subject: "Oh!
thy servant
concerningthy word I" This he set in so exquisiteand supplicating

king took the words to heart


the promised preferment. For this act
bestowed
soon
composed, as a
generosityDepres with equal felicity,
a

and
of

manner

that

the

140

OF

THEORY

THE

MUSIC

O
psalm :
gratitude,another part of the same
Lord
thou hast dealt graciouslywith thy servant."
made
an
sary,
appeal necesAgain when royal procrastination
friend
his
at court
to use
influence
Depres appliedto a
but never
friend was
The
in his behalf.
seemed
to
willing,
find a favorable opportunity,
quently.
though Depres urged him freBeing annoyed by Depres' persistencyhe finally
"

replied
At
took

"

of

hymn

business,let me alone."
length Depres, tired of this vain, fruitless pledge,
words of his friend, laissez moi iaire
oft-repeated
I shall take

of this

care

"

the

by

which
(lais-se-fai-re-moi)
the

he

did

We

the
That

know

to

and

from

we

the

so

made

may

is indeed
Bach

for

an

he

master.

been

was

to

as

his musical
purpose
his finest.

he

his

the

he

their

was

fills in the

of

works

came
beset

that

prove

inspiration.
but

we

could teach

Okeghem

apparent from

study of

conclude

place

of the Netherlands
had

Rome
a

mi, and

re,

accomplishedhis

among
learned all

had

went

Palestrina

Like

for

compositionranks
Depres

before he

music

upon
that he

admirable

so

was

words

depend

not

do not

know

result

The

to music.

them

slightfacetious alteration

scale,la, sol, fa,

the

syllablesto

"

do

him

positions,
early com-

Lassus

and

immediate

growth

of

predecessor,
polyphonic

importantone.
the way
lived in a periodwhen
had been
Dufay had already carried the learning
School to Rome
written*

In

where

masses

with

terpoint
coun-

truth, in 1380, Dufay

had

Papal church that Depres held


hundred
one
simple
years later. Though Dufay's work was
it was
of sufficient contrapuntal
importanceto be quoted as
authoritative by theorists of much
Between
later date.
to
no
Dufay and Okeghem there were
practically
composers
be classed with Depres. Their genius was
expended on the
invention of counterpointrather than its application
a
as
to a higherend.
means
Dufay had opened the way, the many
technical composers
the possibilities
had shown
of counterpoint,
Okeghem had put the stamp of his art upon it and
inspiredhis pupilsto seek for somethinghigherthan mere
held the

same

positionin

the

FUGUE

skill,and

mechanical
them
He

and

used

into

the devices

wove

to be classed among

deserves

the

knowledge stored by

reallyartistic compositions.
the greatest musical geniuses

period.

of any
We

in the

read

previous chapter how the Netherlands


velopmen
brought contrapuntaltechnics to a high state of deWillaert introduced
antiphonalwriting and some

School

of

Depres

141

his

sacred

grand

works

for

were

choruses

two

four

of

answering the other.


In the historyof musical development in Venice we
find
of
during the middle of the Sixteenth Century the names
Gabrieli. They realized that the organ
Giovanni and Andrea
had a larger function than that of occasionally
aiding the
voices and through their experiments with independentperformances
the
mastered
and
secrets of medieval
counterpoint,
devised by the school of Venice.
of its specialapplications
as
parts each,

To

chorus

one

Willaert's chorus

Gabrieli

choir

alternate

added

singing with

combinations

In truth

of all parts in
Giovanni Gabrieli ranks

founders

of modern

and

instrumental

third choir

the

massing

freer and

and

voices

of

grander

manner.

of the

the foremost

among

ployed
em-

art.

Frescobaldi,a contemporary and fellow countryman of


Gabrieli's,and organistof St. Peter's,evolved the canzona,
which

the

taken

was

style,and
in

written
in which
or

more

more

voices.

and

because

for

of

time

poem
from

the stricter

to

vocal

set to music

were

name

Italian
were

works
for

one

the

sponded
folk-songand correit held possibilities
Because

polyphonicmusic

of its time,

was
appeal to the emotions, the canzona
popular style of composition. In the vocal

the
that

and
imitation,

It sprang
Lied.
the German
than

the

of its

stanzas

the

the melodies

short.

of such

the words

for freer work

order

less strict

or

with

canzonas

direct

forerunner

fugue. The
from a particular
varietyof lyricpoetry in
applied to instrumental compositionswhich

was

music

were

of short lines and

usually consisted
should

to

answer

sharplydefined

and

rhyme positions
developedperiods

the

the

in

142

THEORY

THE
In

the Venetian

present form

our

the

growth

then

School

fugue, but

of

its further

owes

OF

of

name

Orlandus

find the

we

In

beginningsof

Netherlands

the

to

development.

MUSIC

the

Lassus

School

historyof
rather

it

musical

overshadows

that of his lesser contemporary, Jan Pieters Sweelinck,born


in 1562; but in the record of the development
in Amsterdam
of the

which

form

holds

now

will doubtless always

keep

attention

our

for him

Sweelinck's work

place in

the

mind

of

the student.
We

find

can

early education
of Zarlino

though

influenced

his

music

there

proud
Dutch

of

of organ
of his time and

world

have

wonderful

known,

"When

him.

of

wrote

of

concourse

seen,

instrumental

compositionshardlybear
interest.

He

piece in which

but

school

he

every

heard

played the

day;

was
a

out

music,

the man,"

Vondel,

real part

was

known

thusiasts
enwas

but

this claim

the firstone

one

every

poet, called him the Phoenix of Music and


made
have even
the claim for Sweelinck that he

founder

the

was

to

pupil
only

felt especially
through Germany.

was

contemporary

organ

probablyis

organistat Amsterdam,

was

as

his influence

organistand as a founder
spread throughout the musical

his fame

the

This

was

his
statement; it was
rather than their instruction which

He

own.

concerning his

has it that he

verifysuch

not

study of their works

close

was

tradition

record

of Gabrieli in Venice.

and

tradition,for dates do
so

authoritative

no

though his organ


they are of historical

to

compose

an

organ
intrusted to the pedal,and it

given the glory of having written


generally
the first completely
developedorgan fugue.
vocal
While most
of his publishedworks
were
entirely
is true

it is
music

to

on

him

is

his manuscript collection of organ


We
know
that his fame
he
rests.

works

of sacred

hailed

was

as

the
geniusduring his life,the musical world and especially
students of polyphonic
compositionrecognizedthe fact that
of a styleof music for
the perfection
he had brought nearer
which
of

so

many

had striven.

He

stood

peer among

fugue not only during his lifebut until

we

come

composers
to

Bach,

FUGUE
His

pupilscarried

musical

143

his methods
another

and

and

his

learningfrom

one

in the

generationwhich succeeded
him nearly all of the leadingorganistswere
either his
influenced by a study of his works.
pupilsor were
Scheidemann
a
was
pupil of Sweelinck's and handed
down

center

to

learningof

the

Reinicke, who

was

one

his master

to

of the chief

of
representatives

the

great Reinken

playing in northern Germany. Bach


organ
from
Liineburg to Hamburg to hear Reinicke's

of

After

no

the art

often

went

organ

formances
per-

exhaustive

it is believed

composers

or

really lastingway

analysisof the works of these


that the fugue of Sweelinck was
in
further developed until it found
its

in Bach.

consummation

of

Another

Sweelinck's

Samuel

pupils was

Scheidt, a

the first to treat the working out of the


German, who was
choral artistically
and in true organ
style;he has also left
us
name
so

some

very

from

excellent

The

toccata

derives

its

the Italian word

a touch
signifies

toccare, meaning to touch, and


piece. It is reallya compositionintended

performer and in
in 1620,
this is much
like the preludeor fantasia. Prsetorius,
free prelude or introduction,
in fact defines the toccata
a
as
this was
oldest
and
doubtless the originalmeaning. The
examples are found in the works of Gabrieli and Merulo, and
in them
full harmonies, but
the toccata
begins with some
to

exhibit

toccatas.

the

touch

and

execution

graduallyrunning passage work


and

interspersedwith

small

of the

is more

passages

and

more

of imitation.

introduced
ally
Occasion-

throughout; this is not a decided


is
and the feeling
subject which is made such by repetition,
of a showy improvisation
than of a carefullyplanned
more
composition. One of its characteristics lies in the flowing
of notes of equal lengthand like character.
movement
that
about the toccata
There
a lack of individuality
was
kept it from taking its place as a definite form, but Bach
of his
raised it beyond all previous writers and a number
fugues are precededby toccatas in which he has employed
short movements
of markedly different styles.
but

one

part is found

Coming

and.

chaconnes
very

helm

chorales

MUSIC

of Bach

the time

to

now

OF

THEORY

THE

144

Johann

of

we

find the toccatas,

Pachelbel

approaching
(Wil-

closelythose of the great master, and in his son's


Hieronymus Pachelbel)fugue for clavier another

stride

perfectedform.
read of
In each biography of Johann Sebastian Bach we
to Liibeck, a distance
foot from Arnstadt
his pilgrimage on
he forgot to
of fiftymiles, to hear Buxtehude, and of how
of the leave of absence
at the end
return
granted him.
Dietrich Buxtehude
celebrated as
a native of Denmark,
was
for the inspiration
and
an
organistand today remembered
the

toward

In 1673 Buxtehude
to Bach.
established
gave
the Abendmusiken, a series of grand sacred concerts

insighthe
in Liibeck

following the

His

Christmas.

before

afternoon

of

'excellent organ

the

and

his

fame

and

attracted

the

five

Sundays
compositionsfor

splendidperformance of

these concerts
abroad

services

them

attention and

him

won

admiration

of

contrapuntalcomposition.
strength of his work lay chieflyin his free organ
chorals as had
not founded
on
compositions. These were
but were
been most
of those of his predecessors,
remarkable
students

of

The

the earliest assertion of the

of pure instrumental
principle
music
later so fully developed by Bach.
which
His
was
famous
Abendmusiken, for 1678-1687, is included in the
volumes
of his organ works edited by Spitta.
two
At
Weimar
who
Bach
had
met
Kuhnau,
acquired
for his compositions
of fugue and double fugue,and
celebrity
as

cioubtless the

with which

success

these works

them

influenced Bach, who

artist to

glean

from

best and

to

study

of

the

was

experienceof

had

met

and

great enough
others

all that

a
an

was

they had made.


Johann Josef Fux, 1660-1741, made his fame by his
Gradus ad Parnassum.
Latin treatise,
It is a work ing
embodyavoid

the mistakes

all the rules for the treatment


in

of the ancient modes

and

generalof the whole subjectof counterpoint.Its value


as
a practical
explanationand manual of compositionlasted
line. It
special
many
years and today equalsany In its own

AMADEUS

WOLFGANG

^JS
of

or

and

struggle
did

very

four

not

death.

Of

and

''The

Magic
his

of

are

he

buried

was

is

unknown.

was

lived

he

masses,

His

unfinished

left

was

the

that

fifteen

"Don

"Figaro,"

operas,

He

compositions.

vocal

sacred

Flute"

which

time

one

ciation
appre-

death.

them

"Requiem/'

his

death

short

was

thorough

his

among-

the

his

location

the

in

other

and

mass,

At

after

compositions,

litanies

greatest

the

come

life

for

until

and

many

Mozart's

disappointment,

industrious

\vrote

Austria.

Salzburg*,

at

11*

1756-1791

MOZART.

at

Giovanni"

important.

most

in

pattper*s

grave,

FUGUE

appeared
In

it

in

1725

and

145

translated into German

was

polyphoniccompositionwas

placed on

in 1742.

its present basis,


it as set forth in

Bach
took
though in a very simple form.
1
this book, applie to it the new
key system of tempered
and
unlimited possibilities
of modulation, and
us
gave
highest development of this form of music.
We

the

how

see

Handel, for
fugues are among
and

Handel's

for the masters, Bach


be forgottenthat Handel's vocal

not

the greatest in existence.


oratorios are
in their style as

today as they were


1uringhis own
brought the oratorio to a state
failed to
has

Bach

exert

done.
but

the

influence

He

founded

as

vocal

the

made

was

way

it must

scale

time.
of

no

and

to

seems

perfection,but

the

over

He

unapproached

school
above

have

he

has

composers
did his great

as

modern
as

all

choral

temporary,
con-

writer

he

early instruction in compositionunder


in the form
Zachau, organistof the cathedral at Halle,was
of canon,
counterpointand fugue, and we find fugue used
in some
of his grandest conceptions,includinghis greatest
known
and
del
Hanmost
oratorio,the Messiah.
universally
of his fugal themes for his choruses from
borrowed
many
other masters
but made them his own, as he further developed
them.
Bach, however, invented a great majority of his
subjects. His fertilityin this line seemed inexhaustible.
traced ideas to their source
He was
and an idealist,
a thinker
sake.
and
Quite as
worshiped abstract truth for its own
complex, so
complete are his works as Handel's,but far more
the popular applause that Handel
he never
enjoyed.
won
rich
and
Handel's
are
fugues show breadth of understanding
in their flow of melody and picturesqueness.
musiIn the development of fugue and of instrumental
the organ is of particular
importance. Organ music reached
than any other branch
a
high plane of development sooner
of instrumental
music, doubtless because organistsfound so
stands

supreme.

His

for
opportunities
many
services.
For this reason

and

composers

experimentin

of organ

we

have

solo

work

considered the

in church

organists

piecesin this chapter, It

was

146

their imitation

through
known

fugue

as

We

find

in

method

of choral

the

definite than

more
weave

works

that the elastic form

choral

of

fugue.

adopted for instrumental

was

MUSIC

where
movements,
one
the real source
at different pitches,

construction

of

OF

into existence.

came

after another

enters

to

THEORY

THE

music

in the

together tlie parts

of the entire work.

so

When

the

same

voice
of the
process

the

came
principaltheme bechoral, and composers
began
that

this theme

became

the

Further

experiment showed them


the advantage gained by varying the pitch of the principal
it with contrasting,
theme
and then by associating
subordinate
the processes
of modulation,and
phrases. Next came
the parts were
in new
presentedas it were
garb and more
intricate it became.
and more
Every device was appliedthat
and explain the central theme, and
could elaborate,extend
with completenessby
then the whole movement
rounded
was
back to the original
of the progressions
bringingthe course
the first phrases prominently. The
key and recapitulating
the law of greater unity in
fullydevelopedfugue exemplifies
greater variety.
There
is such large opportunityfor artificialwork, for
curious variations of parts and for displayof ingenuitythat
failed to get beyond the mechanism
have
composers
many
for tryingtheir
of fugue. They have found the opportunities
that they seem
to have forgottenthat the technical
skillso inviting
text

side of
a

means

the

nothing except as it is
compositionmeans
ever,
howof expressingsomethinghigher. Fortunately,
of fugal work attracted
almost unlimited capabilities
a

of the greatestcomposers
and, as we have
were
adapted for toccatas, movements
passages
many

and choruses

even

before the

noted,fugal

fullydeveloped fugue

of

sonatas

came

into

existence.

distinctive for theorists to


sufficiently
analyze,and they attemptedto devise a set of rules for its
composition. As we stated in the beginningof the chapter,
fugue is easy to comprehend, but the truth is
theoretically,
The

tbat

form

one
scarcely

became

in accor4anc#
of ths finestfuguesis strictly

FUGUE

147

with the directions of the writers


almost

other

any
intellect of

both

this

on

form

of music

composer

and

does

subject.More than
fugue appeal to the

audience

these

and

theorists

they thought,a form which could be regulatedby


rules.
numberless
They tried to evolve an artistic scheme
as
by mere
speculationuntil it seemed
though fugue was
found, as

invented
failed to
reduce

enable

pedants to exhibit their ingenuity.They


consider the existingfacts of art in their effort to
least one
form to scientifictreatment.
Fortunately

to

at

for the world

of art the great masters


saved the fugue with
all its wonderful
from a mere
dead formality.
possibilities
Music

Rules

art.

the
of

nameless

And

which

methods

and

remained

resembles

Are

graces,

which

master's

hand

there

for Bach

to

in each

poetry:

alone

can

without

were

make

method

no

them

teach
reach.

number,

but

it

subservient to the soul of

of a freer handling of
largerpossibilities
laws of compositionin polyphonicstyle,
and his mastery
his wonderful
and apparentlyunto
bounded
technique added
for him
imagination for melody and harmony won
He

saw

title of

the

world

very

Pedantic

the

"Father

of

definite musical

had

Venetian

passages

with

with

to

gave

had

masters

form

it

to

the

fugue.

beauty

endeavored

scale passages,

to bring out
brilliancy,

instrument.

in

gave

justlyappliedto the earlier works

been

in this form, but Bach


The

Music," and

Modern

contrast

the

and

expressiveness.

by contrast of chord
of dignityand majesty

power

and

variety of

the

producing variety while


definite subjectand working gradually
a
developinglogically
He emphasizedthe character of the musical
up to a climax.
Bach

succeeded

in

harmonies, modulations, entry and re-entries of


the imitative passages
not
are
only wonderful in point of
technical skill but they support and
explainthe principal
To put all in a few words, Bach was
theme.
the possessor
mqod.

of

an

law of

His

intellectwhich
and
unity,

was

of the

capableof understandingthe great


to reatfi\ into his artt
ability

148

THE
There

is

THEORY

perhaps no

OF

man

one

MUSIC
who

has left

so

deep a

of music as Johann Sebastian Bach.


His
history
influence upon
the subsequentdevelopment of the art has
been far-reaching
and in this Bach's work
differs widely
from Handel's,whose influence in comparison was
and
slight
confined mostly to England. For a number
of years after
studied but littleby great composers,
Bach's death he was
his works being for the most
and hard to
part unpublished
mark

in the

obtain,but since the time of Beethoven


musicians
serious

who

study.

have

not

In them

there

are

few notable

made

his compositionsobjectsof
is found the germ of almost everything

great that has been done in music since his day.


It

in the freer

the
polyphonicforms and especially
itselfmost confugue that Bach's technical mastery displays
vincingly.
musical
form the most
Fugue representsas a
which
highlyorganizeddevelopmentof the generalprinciples
and it was
in the fugue
underlie all of Bach's compositions,
that they found their highest
expression.For these reasons
and a study of
fugue is considered characteristicof his style,
than any other of his compositions
his fugues more
givesus
and as artist and
an
insightinto the nature of the man
was

musician.
His collectionof

and fuguesknown in England


preludes
the Forty-eight
Pianoforte Fugues, and in Germany as
as
Das wohltemperirte
Clavier,has enriched the musical world
for all time. The two volumes of this work contain fugues
which belong to various periodsof Bach's life and illustrate
and of mind as can be expressedin
such states of feeling
terest,
musical language. They are then not only of technical inbut whether sad, pathetic,
reposeful,
merry, confident
and of the most perin pure instrumental style
or serene, are
fect
and finished art.
and fugueshave for the greaterpart of
preludes
berless
century been under the most exactingcriticisms of numThese

musicians,and
men

$nd

know

them

the

inspiration,

stood
more

the test

theyturn

so

well that the better

to them

for

knowledge

FUGUE
Bach

in his time

not

was

He
popular composer.
highest creative powers
and
to

rarest

satisfaction

is he

nor

reverenced
of

and

man

the

masses

but

of his

own

refined

classed

today

his art,

his innermost

manner

appeal to

149

true

was

expressed in

emotions.

voiced

his

the

to

the choicest

He

did

not

try

feelingsto

own

the

cal
keenlycritical musi-

and

taste

as

sensibilities.
works

His

give
and

make

great demand

of
intelligent
interpretation

an

in the minds

create

to

of the

his

for

time

some

and

reputationwent
Modern

are

fugues

of Bach

in their

Bach

and

working

seemed
and

he

so

some

the

he used

his

but rather
and

catered

of

school

Only a
Fugue,

was

few

not

with

the

of

than

genius

forceful.

his natural

greatest of freedom.

pliablethat

so

formal

convincing and

as

it was
polyphonically,

it could

be

guage
lanHe

molded

followed, and it is true they have

to the taste

conventional

him

and

given

was
fugal compositions. His son
sincerest composer
of the generationafter Bach,
in working up the details
father's artistic manner

formulas

superficial.However,
after

popularity

masterful

very

perhaps

seemed

Bach

lack the freedom

They
are

material
who

and

resources

Handel's

constrained

more

created

the composers

underlying

in hand.

and

think

to

their

technical

figurewhile

Handel.
out

musical

rendered

us

isolated

an

To

difficult works

explanationof why

one

hand

those

by

is

performer.

more

audience

requiresunlimited

spiritualmeaning
artistic ability. This

the

upon

which

Bach's

composers

of the time and

who

his work

made

influence
came

included

upon
a

empty

somewhat

trian
the great Aus-

generation or

two

this son, PhilippEmanueL


Art of
at that time obtainable,The

directlythrough

works

were

and
Fugues and a few
Forty-eight Preludes
and carefullystudied,
works
were
fairlywell known
organ
in the
but until Mendelssohn's
not
were
day his works
possession of the musical world at large, Haydn, Mozart
it is true, stronglyinfluenced by Bach's
and Beethoven
were,
of this
Beethoven's
work.
work
traces
especiallyshows
influence. He had a largeropportunityto study Bach's comthe

150

THE

positionsthan

his
to

great composer
the master's

works

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

contemporariesand was
delve deep enough into
to

be able to draw

from

in truth
the
them

the

first

meaning of
something

import than their technical side. While in some


feelingso nobly
greatest works we find religious
expressed,in Beethoven's compositionsthere is pure human
which
appeals to us with the language of
joy and sorrow
of greater
of Bach's

passion.
Near

the end

but often
works

those best

fugue

few

completefugues,

fugal passages to introduce his earlier


his contrapuntaleffects are
happy ones.
Among
for
his
the
known
are
strings,
great quartet fugue

he had

and

of his life he wrote

in the

used

finale of the Eroica

Symphony, the finales

Rasoumowsky Quartet,the Cello Sonata, and


formed
in B flat,which originally
movement
enormous
termination
to the great stringquartet. In Beethoven
the third

to

the
the
we

since Bach.
greatest instrumental composer
In one
of Mozart's
fugues with a fantasia as a prelude
find the Bach
we
styleand in fact in all of his best piano
for his polyphonic
fugues. He had laid the foundation
and by his
writingby the study of Fux's Gradus Parnassum
then he was
led to Bach whose
early practisein technique,
works in Leipsic
It is,of course,
treasure.
a new-found
were
honor

the

Mozart's

sonatas

his other

forms

which his fame chiefly


rests, but in
upon
he shows mastery of techniqueand creative

geniusand his fuguesare of value and interest.


In ItalyCherubini had acquired the old Italian and the
Netherlands contrapuntal
in
styleand gained that proficiency
polyphonicwritingin which scarcelyany composer since his
He thoroughlymastered
time has equaled him.
the styleof
Palestrina and adapted it perfectly
ideas. His
to his own
Credo for eight voices is a remarkable instance of his thorough
and his fugues though rather
mastery of counterpoint
dry and formal are of great technical interest,
These
after the

three composers were


death of Bach, and

Mendelssohn, to whom

we

all born within twenty years

closelyfollowingthem came
must
give the glory of having

FUGUE
the real Bach.

revived

he

had

that

works

brought

out

before

He

first edited

been

accessible

Bach's Passion

since Bach's

the first time

151

some

only

accordingto

death.

of Bach's organ
to the few; and
St. Matthew

for

This performance showed

thoroughness of Mendelssohn's musical training.It took


11, 1829, in the Singakademie,Leipsic,and
place March
the initial impulse to the successful Bach
gave
propaganda
in which Mendelssohn
was
a leadingfigure.
the

This

understandingof

of Mendelssohn's
his

hearers

classical composers
greatness and his works

own

they

as

did

half

presented to Goethe

when

today

century ago.

asked to

evidence

was

play a

enchant

Mendelssohn
Bach

fugue.
He
failed him.
Without
the slightest
complied but memory
hesitation,however, he extemporized the forgottendevelopment
and his audience
was
delightedwith his performance.
he thought in counterpointand his quick wit and
Like Bach
thorough understanding of musical terms made him famous
for his extemporizing.
His study of and devotion to Bach influenced his works
and like most
tive
great musicians he found the fugue an attracand has left us some
excellent preludesand fugues
form
them
for piano; of interest are his fugues for strings,
among
well-known

one

in

one

was

flat, and

number

of

organ

fugues.

Among

recent

first.

stands

His

worthy of

great fugal writers

Rheinberger perhaps

his organ

fugal work-in

sonatas

is especially

mention.

of merit who
is scarcelyan instrumental composer
shall
but we
tried his skill in fugal compositions,
has not
it would be
carry the historyof fugue no farther,for in fact
There

but
of

the

modern

narrative

greater
world

of the
masters

has

successes
we

evolved

and
have

failures of the followers

already considered.

nothing farther

in the

way

The
of

given us over a century and a quarter


fugue than was
in the kind
details and especially
though in minor
ago,
of themes
used, the artists of today show their individual
the

taste.

152

OF

THEORY

THE

MUSIC

very generalidea of fugalcompositionand of its


historical and chronological
development we conie
now
to

With

into
specifically

inquiremore
We

its construction.

shall infer that the reader

foregoing chapters and


terminology which we

has

has

made

knowledge

of

perforce use

must

in

study of
the
the

the

musical

following

explanations.

SUBJECT
the essential parts of the fugue
considering
separately
shall begin with the all important subjector theme. On
we
this the entire composition
ing
depends;it is the central or leadIn

subservient to it.

idea and all other parts are


The
subjectis announced

part

Except in the

it.

enunciate
clearly

by

or

of

by parts

which

accompanied
than one
the subject is
fugue, or fugue with more
subject,
entirelyunaccompanied though the melody is capable of
case

an

and the harmony is implied. In the


being harmonized
is heard simultaneously
accompaniedfugue the announcement
with a full harmonic accompaniment.
The
but that does not
subjectis announced by itself,
that but one
voice or part only is heard
mean
necessarily
during the opening measures, for fugue is written in from
two

to

and

eight parts

where

two, three
the subjector the

there

are

four

or

answer
beginseither with
and the subjectis often then described as double, triple
or
authorities refuse to consider
quadruple. However, most

parts, each

these
of

more

one

terms

the

as

than

one

one, two

to better preserve

Owing
fugue forms

to

of

fugue

does

permit

not

such

theme, and Cherubini calls


principal

fugues,fugues with
seems

nature

very

the

use

lacked

or

which
three counter-subjects,

the idea of
of

the old churdh

clearness

in the

modes

subjectand

the

early

left

one

belonged. In its
is clear, it complies
perfectedform, however, the tonality
with the laws of musical phrasingand the impliedharmony
rather in doubt

as

to

the

unity.

key

in which

it

FUGUE

is at

felt.

The

153

harmonic

progressionsthroughout the
of the composition elaborate,explain,and never
course
allow
the listener to lose the distinct feelingof the key of the
from
the subject
subject. Though there are modulations
key the relation to it is close; when, for instance,we find
the subject in a minor key the modulation
is to the dominant
minor
not
to the major key. The
subjectgenerallyremains
in the originalkey but it may
begin in the tonic,modulate
and

once

in the

end

in the

key

tonic.

to

of

Aside

in the

the tonic.
in the

the

dominant

from

these

rare

tonic

ends

of

fugue

key of

in the

cited

key

others
where

the dominant

in E

beginning

minor

of
are

and

the
not

subject
returns

begins the

ject
sub-

in the

subdominant, and Prout


which
the entire subjectis in

in

the subdominant.

explanation is

the

definite rule

the

imagination and
in the

above

the

study

can

nature

purpose
of his

technical but

of the character

be laid down

No

shown

be

to

greater interest than

Of

ending

can

of Bach

and

find it

we

modulations

two

cases

fugue

often

and

tonic,modulates

examples

gives us

Less

the

though

common,

begins

dominant

sary
neces-

of the theme.

for this construction

of

the

and

clearly
subject. Generallyspeaking,a
a
complete musical phrase,that
composer

are

good fugue subjectcontains


with
distinct idea and finishing
is,a passage containingsome
a
ness
cadence, so giving that feelingof wholeness or completein itself.
this

It is not

phrase though

one

necessary that a full cadence finish


is often employed, but the final notes

capable of being harmonized.


text-books
The student of composition will find in most
be moderate
that the subjectmust
fugue the statement
upon
have
of the greatest fugal works
in length, and yet, some
subjectsof considerable length and again others contain a
It is not difficult,
however, to understand
very few notes.
why the subjectof moderate lengthis considered best. It is
must

be

recognizesuch
be a long drawn
in its entirety.On

easier to
would
hold

an

one

out

one

when

which

the other

hand

it reappears than it
the mind
might not
the very

short

one,

154

THEORY

THE

unless

of

would

not

OF

peculiarlydistinct

the attention

hold

is necessary

MUSIC
remarkable

and
make

nor

and
appreciation

for the

character,

impression that
enjoyment of a fugal
the

composition.
In

least

at

obvious

of

needs

further

no

considered

course,

either

cover

complete member

and

is,of

text

subjectis designed to

the
or

subjectsthe

vocal

the

entire

sentence,

the

and

sentence

is

reason

comment.

important factor in a good fugue subjectis that


of the compass
employed. As we proceed with the further
study of the parts the reader will readily see why a range
Another

of

than

more

work

It

keys.

where

not

liable to pass or
less clear. Bach
to

necessary

finest

numbers

Fugues,

numbers

subjectdoes
For

not

the

subjectswe
are

make

the

has

exceed

shown

such

that

us

large compass

perfectfugue,

for in two

is

of his

well-known

the

Forty-eightPiano
and thirty-three,
the compass
of the
a

who
and

will here

appliedto

each

cross

among
four

reader

is that the parts


compass
other and make
the composition

using a great

produce

andarnentos

terms

fugue would

it is carried into
through modulation
is true there are
fugues,and good fugues,
is used.
of even
The difficulty
in
a tenth

a
compass
instrumental
fugue in

are

vocal

difficultwhen

too

other

for

octave

an

fourth.
time

some

may

chance

soggettos in connection

explaintheir

as
subjects

are

upon

with

the

fugue

Andamentos
significance.

in themselves

complete and

rhythmicalmelodies,which hold the interest throughout


intrinsic beauty. While
a
fugue by their own
subject
hold the interest and in a sense
be complete it is not in
must
itself necessarily
beautiful,
though it becomes so when supported

very
the

and

developedin

the

subjectsusually consist of
characteristic interval,and
soggettos.

short
to

them

with

perhaps a
applied the term

passage
is

Such

the essentials and


relation of the
considering
in mind justwhat we
let us have clearly
to look
are
good subjectof a good fugue. First,we will listen

Before
answer,
for in

of the movement.

course

FUGUE

155

for the

melody, and hope to find it simple and yet striking,


moderate
We
shall expect
length and moderate
compass.
feel the possibility
of harmonies, the clearness of tonality

of
to

distinctness

and

various

of

form, and

as

follow

it

through the
beauty as a whole

we

be

impressed with its


the foregoingare essential parts.
of which
We
shall hear the subject once
absolutelyalone and
of the fugue, many
times with
again, through the course
counterpoint,so it should be a reasonablyeasy task to fix it
and recognizeit whenever
it recurs.
in mind
movements

ANSWER.

all other

As

subject we
reply or answer.
the

that the
dominant.
the

elaboration

an

We

have

the

answer;

in

its treatment

to

or

outgrowth of
consideringthe

alreadymade the broad statement


is the subjecttransferred to the degree of the
answer
of this transposition
Upon the nature
depends

which

of

When

there

of

the

subject,but
real

are

look

must

character

have

parts

two

pure

which

classic types

and

determines

in turn
a

fugue belongs.

a
mere
transposition,
copy of
given a fifth higher or a fourth lower, then
is a
and the fugue in which it occurs
answer

is

an

to

exact

the
we

real

fugue.
If the
does

and

subjectbegins and
modulate

not

possible. Again
skips to any note

the

when
other

the dominant,

to

to

or

ends

the

in the

dominant

key

the real

subjectbegins on

than
when

the dominant
it

of the

the

without

skipsthrough

tonic
is

answer

tonic and
tion
modula-

the second

or

is possiblebut
tonic to dominant, the real answer
the
It is usually real when
be used.
answer
may

sixth from
a

tonal

subjectbegins on
There

be

must

By impliedmodulation we mean
the leadingnote of the key is not reallypresent,
show
its last notes
of the melody and especially

requirea
that though
to

the

form

no

any note other than the tonic or dominant.


actual or impliedmodulation in the subject

real

answer.

156

THE

with greater

OF

THEORY

less distinctness that they

or

belongingto the key of


of being in that key.
exact

notes

are

transpositionof

the

altered in order

to

tonic and

dominant

and

within the confines of


When
it

in

of

tonal

answer.

modulate
from

both

as

the

to

the due

preserve

keep

so

both

or

more

relation of the

subject and

answer

scale.

back

to

and

tonic

point,usuallyat

same

subjectand
We

rather than

subject;that is, one

Themes

possiblein the answer.


dominant
requirean answer

dominant

the

at

modified

the effect

produce

subjectbegins or ends in the dominant, when


the tonic and
skips directlyor through the
the reply is
third,or when modulation
occurs,
The
of the subject is premelodic form
served

far

as

made

is

as

the

begins

medium

answer

looked upon

are

dominant, and

the

In the tonal fugue the


an

MUSIC

which

which

lates
modu-

modulation

the

is

of the theme, in

the end

answer.

find
occasionally

subjectanswered
semitone, though as a rule the

semitone

in the

by a tone, or a tone by a
transpositionto a fourth or fifth is
inversion is employed it is not always
the tonic and dominant
respond to one

Again

exact.

when

strict inversion

another

and

so

but
serve
pre-

of the tonal answer.


underlyingprinciple
diminution
The
devices of inversion,augmentation or
characteristic
not
are
occasionallyemployed in the answer
the

of

fugue

and

at the

seldom

beginningof

Everywhere
rules
the

as

reader

answer.

in

here

answers
answer

an

but the fundamental


exceptions,
acceptedby authorities and will give

are

understandingof the essentials of a fugal


that the answer,
to hold in mind
are
principles

character

the tonal

subject, that

tonic dominant, that

tonic and
determines

is like the

the nature

is a real,while
transposition
In

the

forming the stretto,but


composition.

will find

one

stated

The

melodic

oftenest used in

are

fugue

then

we

of the
an

the

dominant

fugue,and that

altered

find that

one

of the

nature

is a tonal

an

exact

answer.

its chief characteristic

FUGUE
lies in

the

altered

self, as

journeyingsback
at

answer

157

and

forth

distance of

of
a

subject and
fifth from

its
each

other.

COUNTER-SUBJECT.
In

consideringthe episodes in

the

early part

of

this

chapter we said that they depended for their material upon


the subject or
counter-subject.As the range of variety
throughout the fugue is largelydetermined
by the development
of the episodes,one
can
readilyunderstand why the
seeks for individuality
of and contrast
between
the
composer
able
subject and counter-subject.We shall expect then considerin the construction of this part of the fugue, as
freedom
find in it the first real suggestionof the later possibilities
we
in the way
of intricate interweaving
of melodies.
The
counter-subjectis a counterpointat the
the

accompanying
answer,
fugue as an accompaniment

and

beginning

is

employed throughout the


quent
subseto the second, third and
of the principaltheme, whether
given as
appearance
in rhythmic and melodic
While
ment
treatsubject or answer.
different as
it is as
possiblefrom the subject,the
thought of unity is everywhere preservedin the composition
is always thoroughlyconsistent and
and the counter-subject
is suited in character to the subject.
Double
counterpoint is employed in its construction,
usually in the octave, occasionallyin the tenth or twelfth.
The necessityfor this is evident from the fact that the counter-subject
somewhat
acts
an
as
accompaniment to two
slightlydifferent phrases and also because it is during the
various

developmentsnecessary

to

use

it above

or

below

the

subject.
One
and
between

ject
effectingthe variance between the subis in the employment of an episode
counter-subject
does not enter with
that the counter-subject
them
so

method

the first note


to

but

of

of the
a

answer

part of

it.

and

hence

acts

as

an

ment
accompani-

Diflfer^ce in the duration of notes

158

THEORY

THE

in the

OF

is
phrases sometimes
slightest
degree divergingfrom the
Again the ear is sometimes
key*of the counter-subject,
though
two

MUSIC
effective

without

real character

as

it must

know

the

of the subject.

left in doubt
we

in

to

the

be

the

it is not always clearlydefined


that of the answer,
in the subject and
until nearly the close. Rests may
occur
be found
in the counter-subject.
none
same

as

In

studying the

modulation

occurred

tonal
in the

answer

found

that

subject,a modification

it into the tonal

to make

we

answer

when

was

sary
neces-

; this modification

in the

is frequentlymade
because of the
counter-subject
unnecessary
of its entry, that is,it does
freedom employed in the matter
not
necessarilyhave to enter until after the modulation has

place,thus preventingtoo

taken

great

complexityat

the

start.

In

the

of

greater number

fugues we

find the counter-

subject appears during the first exposition in the manner


for it to enter later. In such a case,
stated,but it is possible
and perhaps
accompanies the answer
although a counterpoint
The
another
regular counterpart, it is not again used.
it does enter
subject when
accompanies every succeeding
of the subjectuntil the coda is reached.
appearance

Again

find that

we

troduce
be incounter-subject
may
togetherwith the subjectin

second

they then work


triplecounterpoint;or, the first counter-subjectmay appear
and subjectonly during
an
as
accompaniment to the answer
and its placebe taken on the next entry of the
the exposition
subjectby the new counter-subject.This employment of one
and

and

then

another

Bach

even

to

the

rare.

that

regular counterpointis

not

appliedthe various musical


of
subject itself and employed a number

fugues,for

essential to all

devices

is very
shows
us

he has

strettos.

We
the term
to

have

been concerned

but
counter-subject,

describe the two

subjectsin

with the
must
a

at the
Almost together

more

common

remember

double

fugue

of
beginning

use

of

it is also used
where
the

they are

exposition.

FUGUE

Equal importance is given to


of the double fugue, which

159

the

subjectand

we

will consider

counter-subject
later in this

chapter.
EPISODE.

The

purpose

of the

episode,or

previouslystated, is

called,as

the

relief to

essential

digressionas

for the

parts of

sake

it is often

of contrast

and

fugue. It is frequently
of a fugue are made.
through its use that the modulations
The
the subject and
the answer,
or
episode between
the re-entry of the subject,is by some
and
termed
answer
the codetta, and a close study often reveals it to be the later
It is very short, seldom
real episode in embryo.
exceeding
but
than
the
two
more
by retarding
measures,
reappearance
of the subjectand the entry of the counter-subject
causes
an
to the part
interestingdigression,gives greater individuality
retarded, and leaves the part it follows clearlydefined.
real episode follows the expositionand in it neithei
The
In this way
it makes
the subjectnor
need be found.
answer
a
complete diversion,and yet an episode usuallyoriginates
from a previousmotive found in some
part of the exposition,
The return
of the principalparts makes
a greater impression
because of their absence during this digressioa
motive
The
suggested,all the composer'sart is brought
vals,
to play upon
it,he employs canonic imitation in strict interor
freelyimitates it in any interval,he prolongs it by

repeatingit in
and

sequence,
treats it in any

then

it appears
of course,

augments

diminishes

or

it,or

until to the uninitiated


of these ways
entirelyforeign to the theme of the fugue. This,

of the laws of art


is contrary to one
kinshipof parts is felt by the student or musician.
It

is

possibleto

material, but

Occasionallyin
from

inverts

motive

It is ^ometim^

it is
one

form

always suited

fugue some

alreadyused

to

of the

while

others

ma"le consistentby

the

from

entirelynew
all that preceded it
are
developed
episodes

episode

an

and

are

of

new

into
weaviiig'

material.
it the

160

cipaltheme

with

OF

THEORY

THE

the

MUSIC

idea, but without

new

contrapuntaldevice.
Freedom
is also employed in
episodes;usually they are short, of
or

that

tion
fugal imita-

any

any

the

mind

basic theme, and

extend

length

two

carried too

be

not

may

the

of

three

or

far

away

the

real

measures,
from
the

fourteen
again they
great lengths,
and even
more
according to the composer's feeling
measures,
of proportionand balance.- While
fugues without even
one
of merely
episode are possiblethey are, in consequence,
to

any but the student


fail entirelyin emotional
character.

technical

interest and

We

have

their entrances
another

and

at

second

in the

entries at other
as

distance of

distances

of modulation

means

the distances

which

fourth

confine the work

so

keys, except

subject and

the

how

seen

lack charm

to

to

continue

answer
or

fifth from

the tonic and

exposition of

and

one

dominant

the

fugue, where
made.
The use of an episode
are
prevents the necessityof varying

would

cause

change

in the

form

of the

subject itself.
EXPOSITION.
After

study of the various parts


the expositionas a whole.
to deal with
us, just what
entry of parts first concerns

the first accompaniesit with

counterpointand

three-partfugue

highestor
the alto
other

announces

we

or

now

order
may
been

ready
of the

expect in

counter-subject
the exposition is completed. In the
part may begin with the subject.If the
begins,the alto generallytakes up the

tenor

last. The

subjectin its second entry.


subjectit is immaterial which

the

the

proceeds with

two

soprano
enters

any

soprano
and the tenor

answer

The

are

of the parts we
have
ing.
considertwo-part fugue this is a simplematter, either part
with the subject and the other follow with the

while

answer,
or

lead

may

we

of sequence

the matter

In

our

the

leads and

answer*

In

rare

When
of the

instances the

the other follows, while the alto

part which

enters

first givesthe counter-

FUGUE

subjectwhile
when

then

the second

161

enteringpart

the third enters

with

is

givingthe

answer,

the

subjectthe second which


has completed the answer
takes up the counter-subject,
which
is
fourth
now
transposed a
or fifth and possibly
modified,and
adds a secaccompanies the subject. The leading part now
ond
a
nd
the
three
written
in
are
counter-subject
triplecounterpoint.
make

To

this

order, which is in a general way carried


out in fugues with more
than, as well as, three parts, we will
here give the followingtable,the numerals
standingfor the
I
subject;II
parts accordingto their entries:
answer;
I
III
of
counter-subjectto II;
subject; II
re-entry
second
counter-subjectto III; I
counter-subjectto III.
This practically
completes the first expositionof a three-part
an
as
fugue, but in order to show the counter-subject
upper
in this first expositionthere may
and lower counterpoint
be
additional entry of subjector answer
an
by the first entering
part while the last suppliesthe counter-subject.Without
this,in case the highestor lowest part leads,the counterthemes
subject will always be above or below the principal
and
keep this relative position. This extra entry is not
the middle
needed
when
part leads, for the counter-subject
"

"

"

"

"

"

the first

positionbelow

the

will occupy

above

or

the

third

part.
of
alreadyspoken of the episodeas the means
of the subject and
the individuality
counterestablishing
-ve
again mention it
subject,and as a part of the exposition

We

here

have

explainits

and

further

use.

subjectand answer
entry of the subject. If

first entry of
the second
tonic
the

the first beat

on

will

answer

and

It may
between
come
the answer
between
or

as

come

the

of the
below

fourth

does

and

subjectbeginsin the
and ends in the tonic,

the

measure

in order
not

the

to

begin on
with

harmonize

the dominant,
the tonic

separation is necessary to defer the entry of the answer


until the fallowing measure,
epihence, the employment of sode.
a

Again, if
near

the

the close of the

subjectbegins on
measure

and

aids

an

on

unaccented
an

note

accented note

162

at

the

OF

THEORY

THE

beginning of
the feelingof

measure

an

unfinished

an

MUSIC

episode is
melody.

used

and

vents
pre-

subject begins with the tonic and ends on the


fifth of the tonic,the episode is generallynecessary,

If the
third
as

or

the last note

of the

of which

dominant, against both


Other

been

have

of

instances

will be the third

answer

the

tonic

is

be

cited

might

like nature

stated to show

the

uses

or
a

fifth of the

dissonance.
but

enough
episode.
parts is,of course, possible

of the

varietyin the entry of


in a four-part fugue. On
the entry of the fourth part
be added
free parts must
to subjectand counter-subject
two
instead of one
as in a three-part
fugue. There is no absolute
Greater

rule

for

these

others

the
When

one

When

entries.

in

usually appear
of

middle

the

highestor
ascending or

parts

announces

lowest

parts lead

descending order.
the subject it is

commonly followed by the one next above or below it and


will so
it and
that by the part nearest
close with
either
highest or lowest part. Letting I and IV represent highest
and lowest, the following
are
examples of entries : I-II-III-IV
IIIII-II-MV;
III-II-IV-I; IMII-MV;
orlV-IIUM;
Others
III-IV-L
are
possiblethough these are generally
considered

best.

Examples

of

fugue

be

found

the parts do

where

in the first exposition;three may


all appear
enter there
later by augmentation, and even
the fourth be added
a

not

and

fifth before
twice

enter

the

close of the

In succession

counter

or

dominant

keys

in the second

be used

or

fugue. Again,

before

second

first expositioneither at
and

can

the

answer

the
is

expositionsometimes

once

or

after

an

subjectmay

given,
follows

episode* The

the
tonic

keys found in the first will


but the part which gave the
exposition,
whatever

and answer
lead or subject
gives the answer,
may
follow subject,or answer
follow answer,
there is not
so
of the order of replynor
of
necessarily
any rigidobservance
tween
the relationof subjectand answer.
Another
difference be-

subjectnow

is that as a rule in
followingexpositions
the leadingpart is at once
accompanied
exposition

the first and


the second

by

free

counterpoint.

FUGUE

as

The

use

of

it is

not

an

for

in the matter

of modification

of

entries and

there

is

room

of the first entries

of inversion,
by means
it affords varietyand is frequentlyemployed.
This formulation
of the expositionis in accordance
with
older authorities on theory. The modern
ever,
tendency,howis to take great liberties with this part of the fugue.
use

the

So

exposition rests with the composer


essential of fugue, but because
it allows
counter

greater freedom

163

much

in fact that

so

of the

some

authorities,

recent

more

particularlyin
in the

America, do not consider that the exposition


fugue is reallysubjectto analysis.

newer

STRETTO.

find the term

We
in the

close,and
is to

in

fugue
each

heighten

listener.

and

is derived

follow

answer

find

of

sense

word

The

in many
increasingthe time or

the

Stretto

forms

stretto

from
it

the

Italian verb

the part
signifies

other

at

shortened

is not

hurrying of parts.
to draw
stringere,
which subjectand

the

Its purpose
attention of the

in

universal

fugue but as a
and in an elaborate compositionat least two
one
is possible.
a
larger number
The

intends

who

composer

to

used

intervals.

hold

interest and

in

of music

use

stretto

rule

we

strettos,

for
prepares
theme
which

writing his subject,that is,he uses a


intervals and several
will permit of combinations
at various
distances other than those first employed. Any interval may
of parts. The
be used and any number
general order and
of
of imitation usually characterize the relationship
method
section of a fugue, but occasionally
the repliesin the same
in the stretto it is impossiblefor the enteringparts to continue
after another part has entered.
the subjector answer
of strettos through
A subjectis often capableof a variety
it when

the

various

in the imitation.
the closest and
the

of

devices

interest may

augmentation,diminution

When
most

several

elaborate

increase

and

strettos

are

is reserved
the

used

inversion

or

in

fugue

for the close that

highestpitch be

reached

164
in the final one.
in this

tempered Clavichord.
find

material

the

subjectas well
originaltheme

for

as

may

MUSIC

excellent example of the

An

in

As
the

from

fugue
episode,we

the

drawn

stretto

be found

and

in the

Well-

occasionally

from

subject;again,but

the

of strettos

use

first

in Bach's

is found

manner

OF

THEORY

THE

the
a

counter-

part of the

the continuation

be of

new

material.
A

to

close

stretto,or

maestrale, as

stretto

it is

times
some-

called,is one in which each part continues the subject


the end, making a strict imitation. A slight
modification

is here

and
permissible
When, as we find

the entries

necessarily
regular.
it in rare instances,the firstexposition
is in stretto the answer
enteringbefore the completion of
the subject and often immediatelyafter it begins,and the
third and fourth entering
parts followingthe firstand second
with subjectand answer
distance and
usuallyat the same
interval of time, the fugue is called a close fugue.
It is not here possible
in which
to cite the many
ways
their ingenuity
use
composers
upon this part of fugue, but in
generalwe may expect the followingin a stretto: a gathering
togetheror hurrying togetherof principal
parts with either
tory
satisfacmost
subject or answer
leading;all parts entering,
when
interval of fourth or fifth,though any
at an
interval may be used; replies
made
tion
by augmentation,diminuif necessary a slightalteration
or
contrary movement;
in the subjectand a pedalor double pedal point employed
are

not

for the close.

CODA,
Often
climax

for

independent
passage
the purpose of givinga

an

close.
-

sometimes

It sometimes

also

on

contains

the tonic.

or

coda is added

more

determined

after the
or

orate
elab-

pedalon the dominant,


Occasionallythe entire coda
a

the last part of it is harmonic in structure rather than


ends his fugues with an
contrapuntal. Bach frequently
or

elaborate cadenza.

FUGUE
We
tonal

real

and
the

that
these

reader

study of the answer,


fugues, and again mention
have clearlyin mind
may

referred to

our

them
the

others

meaning

of

fugue is of older originthan the tonal fugue,


of the Sixteenth
perfectedby the polyphonic composers
Century was of two kinds, limited and unlimited. The

as

limited

real

the form

was

concerns

with

we

The

here.

us

It started

call

now

unlimited

very

short

and

canon

was

for

note

subject which,

became

short

distance and

free.

No

so

always

The
necessarilyadapted to the verbal text.
began before the end of the subjectwhich was
for

with

the

terms.

The
and

in

have

165

then

the

further

no

vocal

of

fugue.

course,

was

always
repeatednote
part giving the
answer

was
counter-subject
used, so a new
musical phrase, which
verbal text required a new
used
was
second
a
as
subject. Unlike our present form the opening
subject did not always reappear during a later development
which
the school of Palestrina perfected.
the form
This was

answer

When
church
The
and

modes

answer
as

soon

transformed
with

the

modern

there
had
as

came

scale

the first

substituted

be

fugue.

As

answer

before

for

departurefrom

adapted to conform
this* took place then the
to

and the modified

it the tonal

was

came

to

old

this form.

the

whole

the

new

fugue

into existence

stated,the tonal

answer

law,
was

and
is

subject under a new


aspect, and its effect corresponds
with that produced by the subjectitself.
The
ricercare or ricercata,a fugue with research, was
tion
strict fugue in which the various devices of canonic imitaa
We
also find this name
used.
appliedto fugues
were
without episodes.
The term
implies,is a fugue in
fughetta,as the name
ing
it is complete but there is a curtailAs to form
miniature.
of parts that prevents it from being a regularly
developed
fugue. It contains an expositionbut the middle section is
in which case
an
episode
very short or is omitted entirely,
follows
the expositionand leads to the final entry of the
there is not even
subjectin the tonic key. In some
fughettas
the

166

episode and

one

final entries.
even

The

followed

expositionis

the

term

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

regularlydeveloped fugues

some

by

once

the

vaguely applied and

rather

been

has

at

been

have

called

fughettas. In Bach's organ arrangement of chorals are many


examples of fughettasand number twenty-fourof Beethoven's
variations is written in this form.
thirty-three
fugued movement
Fugato is appliedto an irregularly
the same
in which
subject is
a movement
By this we mean
introduced
in the different parts but the entries
successively
or
answer
at the regularinterval of subjectand
are
not
are
ployed
employed so incidentally.Fugato passages are often emin orchestral music
has

are

in the firstand

them

used

and

very

effective.

last movements

Beethoven

of the Eroica

in his Italian Symphony, Haydn in


Symphony, Mendelssohn
his
in his
Creation," and Mozart
Requiem."
struction
Up to this point we have been concerned with the con"

"

of the

subject,but
or

shall

double

The

subjects. In
writers

the

double and

applying the

used

the

counterpointis
It is wiser

to

in which

the

announced
in the

two

subject has
two

are

As
do

brieflydescribe

now

fugue,that with

one

founded

two

those

on

rule

find them

the melodic

terms

to

name

the

term

counter-subjecteven

used

throughout to

restrict the

name

We

fugues themselves.
where

the

the
accompany
double fugue to the

same

subject.
fugues

subjectsappear at once, not necessarily


exactlytogether but after the second does come
proceed in unison; or, the fugue in which each
a
separate and complete expositionbefore the

heard
a

contains two
indicates,
the chapter we
spoke of the
subjectsand we find some
triple

fugue, as its
early part of

of the terms

have

of

subjects.

more

use

kind

common

more

two

in combination.
a

double

fugue

with but three.


and

contains
There

four parts, though

is usuallya contrast

we

in

of the two
rhythmic treatment
subjectsso
their individuality
is recognizedwhenever
The
they appear.
entry of the subjects,the second as accompaniment to the
the form
of expositiondifferent from
first,makes
that in

FUGUE
the

simplefugue.

pairs,two
the

give

answers,

their relative
This
where

is
of

one

and

answer

necessitates

When

there

167
are

four

parts they work

in

the

subjectsand the other two follow with


which
are
frequently inverted though often
positionsare retained.
the simpler arrangement, but we
find others
the parts givingthe subjectproceeds with an
new

part

enters

for the

other

answer.

This

elaborate

expositionand it is complete
only when each part has appeared as subjectand answer.
As
heard
a
rule, both subjects are
together in each
of the middle entries. The development of one
of the
group
subjectswithout the other frequentlytakes the place of the
strettos are
episode as used in the simple fugue. When
ployed
emwe
rarely find both subjects,and this development
be found
in place of a regularepisode.
may
When, as in the other rare varieties of double fugue, the
ent
expositionsthere is a differseparate subjectshave their own
in general is quitethe
The
treatment
followed.
course
of the
in the other, except that the combination
as
same
themes

more

is reserved

for

the

climax.

We

sometimes

find

for the first subjectand


regular exposition

only a partialone
and the two
for the second
separatedby an episode. Or,
there may
after the expositionof the first subjectand answer
with
entries in reverse
follow
order,
a
counter-exposition
at once
and this followed
by the expositionof the second
subject and answer.
of expositions,counter-expositions,
The
use
episodes,
strettos and isolated entries depends upon the taste and design
find examples of double fugue in -as
of the composer,
we
so
much
subject. However
great a varietyas in fugue in one
be developed the general rule of
the separate subjectsmay
treatingfirst one then the other and the combining of both
is carried

out

in all.

triplefugue is founded upon three different themes


which
together as a threefold subject Curing some
appear
nounced
portion of the composition.After the three parts have anthe three subjects,either togetheror
singly,the
The

168

fourth
other

or

free part.
and when

answers

the

answer

to

answer

of the

two
the first subject,

two

while

answers,

the

fourth

different parts take the


has given the themes
as

Then
each

The

is complete.
exposition
in succession in the

twice

heard

not

the

parts giving the other


add

may
and

with

enters

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

subjects
subject
subject is

same

part.

same

quadruple and quintuplefugues, or those based


plex
four or five subjects,
They are so comare
on
very rare.
effectiveness that their study
and of so little practical
be of interest only to the student of technique.
would
The

The

fugue

other

on

Of

two

choral

of this form

variants
and

the first there

of music

the

are

accompanied fugue.

the

kinds.

One

where

the

fugue
in during
while the choral is woven
its usual course
pursues
its development as a kind of cantus firmus,or as an episode.
An
independentsubjectis used, in no way suggested by the
itself and

choral
this

as

strict.

The

two

the lines of the

cantus

are

number

firmus.

The

choral
order

of modulations

are

of

introduced
entries

is somewhat

with

is seldom

limited

as

of the

phrases of the cantus firmus can be transposed


into other keys, though between
the different lines of the
choral there are
little digressionswhich
afford opportunity
none

for variations.
The

speciesis that in which each of the choral


melodies
is treated as a subject. Usually there is a separate
expositionfor each subjector each line of the choral and
as

other

in the other

of entries.

there is much

In the

freedom

allowed

in the matter

find the
we
counter-expositions
frequently
first voice enteringalone,but it may be accompanied as in the
double
fugue. In the longer compositions there will be
of the different lines
greater variety because the harmonies
be varied, and in fact the manner
of development of the
may
of modulation
of the choral
fugue depends upon the course
itself. There is comparatively
littlemodulation in the simple
chorals and that only to nearly related keys.
We
have
an
besides the
accompanied fugue when
regular ftigalexpositionsand developmentsthere are inde-

FUGUE

pendent parts
form

for

other

voices

is that in which

169
instruments.

or

The

most

the

regular fugue is sung by


choir of voices while an orchestra plays a partlyindependa
ent
the
of
accompaniment. Again,
exposition a fugue riiay be
by one choir and accompanied with full harmony by
sung
common

the

other.

We

frequentlyfind parts of

variations of the voice parts and


and

new

the

orchestra

givingfree

the

harmony being filled by


tra
independentfiguresof accompaniment or the orchessupply a counterpointwhich is quite independent of

may
the voice parts.
It has been

"

said of Bach's

fugues they have no end ;


when
through you have not played
you have played them
out."
The
them
same
might be said of the study of this
of polyphonic music:
there can
be
most
important form
exhaustive
of fugue,a form so definite and yet
no
description
so
so
indefinite,
completeand yet so incomplete. Definite in
and scheme
of development;
generaloutline,in progressions
of developments; complete
indefinite in variety and number
in that each

part is

finished from

so

an

artisticand

technical

standpoint and yet never


quite complete,for it leads on to
clearer the theme
another development which
makes
explains,
be sustained,still varied, still preserved on
that can
and on
It is the

end.

without
the theme

lies all the

unfoldingof a musical germ, for in


latent possibilities,
and the first phrase

prophesies and contains all the steps that follow, while the
for the beginning,it presuplast development is the reason
poses,
all
before.
that
went
Every
comprehends and justifies
is
of which
it
variation belongs to the whole
a
part, not
simply followingin succession one after another as separate
parts but as a process of development, one growing out of
"To
element
know
another.
one
explore another and the
second

appears

in the first"

Fugue perhaps
music
it

lends

itself to

exemplifiesthe

than any
perfectly
comparison with other

more

laws

of

other
'arts.

growth, of development,as

it in nature, art, historyor

philosophy.

form
In
we

of

truth
find

170
We

have

MUSIC

THE

THEORY

traced

the evolution of

OF

fugue

have

the scheme

of

growth.

at the time

reached

passed after

years

shows

crudest

the

how

seen

us

efforts of

this form
Bach's

that he

was

his music

before

death

was

was

appreciated
beyond his

far advanced

man

to

the fact that

perfectedand

was

crisis

musical

and

belong

musicians

that

know

We

early

works

in Bach's

stage of part writingto its culmination

the

from

age.

Today the trend of publicopinion is away from things


purely artistic and, as musical history shows us, composers
This
fields wherein to develop their ideas.
have sought new
find the utilitarian comis quiteas true of other arts and we
bined
find paintingand drawing devoted
with the artistic;
we
largely to illustration of a definite kind; and literature to
illustrative stories full of human
crete
interest,varied and conin treatment
a

sake

and

characterization.

feelingthat the adoration

is sometimes

sapped by

art

unwholesome

rather than

of
and

nourished

mere

There

beauty

that human

by

seems

to

for its

vail
preown

energiesare

it

delight in
tendency to lead away from mere
design and abstract beauty of form we are apt for a time to
lose sightof much
that is trulygreat in art.
Popular opinion
form, of interest only
Jong classed fugue as an unintelligible
of technique. As we
this
have earlier shown
to a student
of the polyphonicmusic duringthose necestrue of much
was
sary
stages of growth before Bach's time, but though a fugal
compositionrequiresstudy on the part of the listener as well
as
have
performer, fugue as Bach and his successors
given
it to us contains not only beauty of designbut holds as great
interest as any of the more
a human
popular forms of music ;
With

and

long

they

have

this

after others
led to

have

ceased

something more

to

be

of value

except

as

perfect,the splendidfugal
will hold their place; in them
the
writingsof the masters
of
is
found and though seeminglyintricate
art
very essence
and complex compositionsthey are
complex only as we fail
lack imaginationto think
t^ grasp the plan of the whole
or
m

t"e

language of the musician.

FORM
As

increase

to

of any branch
of human
tends
endeavor
interest and
underpleasure in life, so an standing

knowledge

our

music

aid

the

the

subject, to

larger
simply hear

pleasures,how

of

the

is

To

more

will

proportion to
chapter;
and

but

come

for

such

give

such

is

no

the

of

of

returns

wide

in any way,
the
music-lover,

in

which

distinction

to

he

is

study

is there

of
than

any

profit,in

outlined

insight into music


longer and
except by much

of

greatest

whose

range

keener

of

the pleasure

nor

that

will

enjoyment

pleasure and

it, as
a

to

music

form,

in

the

be

is added

sense

study

to

of the

one

must

branch

spent upon

is

composition

of the

stimulates

study

develops

the

great

time

the

music

intense

pleasure
There

more

good

more

fascinatingthan

which

to

the

intellect.

the

and

understands

who

one

listening.
of

much

composition
technical knowledge
thorough enjoyment

is without

of

musical

principlesof

lover, who

If to

music.

basic

the

of

in this
tion
observais

likely
deeper study ;

the

student

or

gain an understanding of music


With
the understanding
comparable to the abilityto analyze fofm.
of the composer's intentions
of form
a
comes
grasp
this general
and
other
that
be gained in any
cannot
way,
be gained by the careful reader
can
understanding of form
teacher, there

without

unusual

is

no

way

mental

to

effort.

is

All art
a

subjectto

genius arises

and

we

closer

is

he

say

so

grounded

certain

upon

governed by

laws
that

the

laws

into the

reach

to

the

of

Goethe

art-forms

write

all laws

himself,but

unto

product of his
principles.While

composer
compositionwithout a

his

own

future, he is

Speaking of the
"genius,natural talent,

would

intellect is

past.

says, it is
is the first to understand
them, and
of

readiest obedience."
to

the

basic

force him

individuality
may
ever

that

law

then

and

apparentlybeyond

are

great that he is

scrutiny shows

Now

of the past.

laws

works

whose

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

172

plan or

them

that pays

undertake

more

no

the

design to

which

he

proposed to conform, than would an architect undertake to


definite plan. Neither
he
build a building without
can
a
build great structures
work
or
piece-work. He
by random
details and
add many
would
very probably change many
embellishments
during the construction of his building,but
these would
he
of necessity,
conform
to his general plan or
would
be startingfrom nowhere
and could expect to arrive
definite artistic conclusion.
This plan or
at no
design, in
conformity to which a pieceof music is written,is called its
form.
Music
mixed.

is either
The

restraint than
he is in

composer

the

purely instrumental, purely vocal,


of instrumental

composer*

music

of either vocal

wise

forms

no

of instrumental

is freer from
mixed

music,

the limitations of the voice

hampered by
or
by the necessityof adapting the music to
In this chapter we
treat largelyof
sung.
as

or

or

music.

The

the words
the

to be

monophonic
phonic
poly-

difference between

and

monophonic forms has alreadybeen explainedin


the chapteron
fugue. The word monophonic is derived from
the Greek
mono,
meaning one, phonic, sound or tone, the
entire word
signifyingthe importance of one sound or series
of tones.
In fugue, or the polyphonic form, melodies
are
introduced
in

for the different voices

harmony,

the

same

or

instruments

melody actingas

accompaniment

even
three, four and sometimes
wfa3e in monophonic compositionsone
melody

itselfin two,

to carry

more

on

to

parts,

is introduced

FORM

at

173

time, its accompaniment being harmonious

come

forms

The

melody.

any
of

agreeing on

nearer

music

critics and

than

analystsof

but

not

music

the divisions and

sarily
neces-

have

not

of the

names

other subjectsconnected with


many
the art, except that there is a very general agreement
the
on
definitions of polyphonic and monophonic music.
titles and
on

the latter form

Under

writers have

ent
pointedout many differdivisions
such
the
as
classical,romantic, operatic,
dance, popular and sacred forms, but it can be shown
that
the first three of these can
be reasonablyand logically
said
include
all
forms
of
to
monophonic music, and as a consequence
shall here consider the first three only. While
we
all monophonic yet in all of them
these forms
short
are
be contrapuntal,
polyphonicor fugal in style,
passages
may
these

but

are

predominant, or

not

of

sufficient

length to

their

make

form

ture
conspicuous,in proportionto the strucof the entire composition. We
will first consider the
then the romantic
and operaticforms, giving definitions
classical,
and explanationsas we take them up.
in music
in a general way
Form
stands for clearness,
attractiveness or order, order being as necessary and ever
present in good music as in good architecture. In fact,order
ing
of good music, as every thinkform is the prime requisite
or
by disorder. The
being is attracted by order and repelled
unsubstantial and transient,
in music are
a
tones
singletone
the pleasantsounds
chord cannot
or
give a lastingimpression,
appeal only to the sense, but adherence to a definite form
gives stability.Truly artistic music appeals,because of its
and through the intellect to the emotions.
form, to the intellect,
even

it is for this very reason


and be able to
understand

that every

And

should

analyze form, as it
intellectual appeal.
present necessityof

gain
are

extent

some

form

of

by

In

keeping constantlyin

form

in

music

the

the idea that it leads to monotony,

at

mind

reader

least to

makes

music

is

means

music-lover

the

should

its
ever

not

for the first requirements

of good form
are
unityand variety,both of which
when evenly balnecessary to insure interest and which

174

anced

together,the

details,in the

the

of the

oneness

MUSIC

is apparent in the holding


entire composition;
variety,in

Unity

form.

good

assure

OF

THEORY

THE

differences

various

in

and

key, tempo

The necessary presence of unity


of the passages.
kind is emphasized
varietyin every art work of whatever

structure

and

all critics in

by

branch

every

of

art.

In

painting

varietyin drawing, texture, color and form, or


be
must
interest would
be lacking,but all these qualities
of completeunited by the artist in order to produce a sense
ness
entire satisfaction. This is so generallyunderstood
or
and accepted and is set out at such length in every treatise
there must

on

be

aesthetics that it is not necessary to enter into it here.


in music
the presence
of form
The
evidences
are

rhythm

beats, measures,

visible to

are

and

the

melody.

music

reader

The
and

beats and

of

ures
meas-

performer,the

learning of their presence because of the accent,


music is properlyperformed
which
is always noticeable when
instrument, greater stress or accent being usually
on
any
than on any other
placed upon the first beat in each measure
listener

The

beat.
in

used

same

system of grouping beats into

gatheringmeasures

will be

and

by

control

and

the

is

cession
regularsuc-

tone-impulsesdetermines the rhythm,


explainedlater. The fourth evidence of form

of accents
which

into groups

measures

or

far the most

importantone,

in fact it may
be said to
From
the melody the form

the form, is the

melody.
is defined and recognized. The notes of the principal
melody
are
usuallyplaced above the other notes and rendered by the
instruments
voices of the highest pitch, as
these notes
or
with
strike the ear
the greatest emphasis. The melody is
God-given. While, as has already been stated in a previous
certain rules governing the writingof
chapter,there are
the composer's heart.
from
The rules for
melody it comes
harmony and form may be learned and followed absolutely;
the

be inspired
than will
compositionwill no more
of the English grammar-school boy, which
verses

resultant

the Latin

conform

to

all the

real poetry. The

rules of Latin

poet and

and prosody^ be
grammar
the musician must
both be born

FORM
the

with

heart; then having learned the rules of


put his inspirationinto permanent, lasting
will make
its appeal to his fellows,
and the more
the stronger and more
form
lastingwill be the

which

form

in his

song
he can

his art

that

correct

175

appeal.
motive

The
or

musical

be

not

confounded

with

motive, and

translated

often

musical

from
thought,and ultimately
of the composition. The
use

structure

should

is the smallest

the

which

unit; it is the idea


it developsthe entire
of the

German
is

word

motive

"motif,"

word

appliedto

passages

of

varying length made to represent or signifyvarious persons,


The
objects or emotions.
Wagner in his operas,
composer
especiallyin those of the Ring, brought these passages into
very great prominence. The motive he used varied in length
from

few

thematic

the

the

lyricmusic
theme

melody

musical

or

several

to

notes

Here

measures.

we

music

in

distinction from

flows

on,

while

expressionis

used

are

lyric.In

in thematic

again

music

composition. The motive we are


is usuallyshort,but in order to render the metre
of
it is necessary that
to the ear
thought intelligible
a
so
section,with
constituting
beyond one measure,
of two

extent

We
our

are

the

ready

now

consider

to

process, the
idea to
musical

and

complete
as

and

to

The

extra

the hearer

is

reallyan

sion
exten-

cover

sense.

all the

phrase

in

veying
language, con-

the distinct consciousness


a

of the

ning
begin-

musical

musician

which

the

form

despitethe

classical music

measures

intact.

the

thought, but not necessarily


Although phrases are frequentlymodified
is never
form
lost,
originalmathematical
of

course

precisionmay
remain

usual

an

generallyfour measures,
sections,making it a fragment of

length,the
analyzationby
upon
in

it extend

definite part of

more

phrase,which

usually containing two


melody. It corresponds with
to

musical

measures.

buildingup
of

one

again in the
considering

and

of the

course

sidering
con-

they

are

not

to

and
be

be

ceived
per-

modifications.

deprive the phrase of

frequentlybe omitted

However,

can

its mathematical
the

melody

regarded as

THEORY

THE

176

OF

MUSIC

phrases in literature to
idea of the writer require words
the
taining
conexact
express
other
letters or syllablesthan
plete
equally commore
musical phrases to exactly express
the
phrases,so some
than
contain
other
more
notes
composer's thought must
composition. In like manner
phrases which appear in the same
they may be smaller than required by the particularform
To
in use.
distinguishthe length of phrases the terms
simple and composite are frequentlyemployed. The simple
posite
rhythm, while the comphrase is one consistingof but one
of the
two
or
more
rhythms. None
phrase covers
has held himself
absolutelybound
by rules
great masters
This is exemplifiedfor instance in one
sohn's
of Mendelsof form.
compositionswhere is to be found a phrase twenty-two
the other hand
in length. On
measures
general acceptance
be given to the statement, that the compositions which
may
been the most
which
have
lastingand 'the ones
today are
embellishments, but

looked

as

upon

the

just

as

some

greatest,are

those

which

have

made

been

closelyto the established rules of form.


The
phrase may begin either on an accented or unaccented
beat of a full measure
and it usuallyterminates
with
It is necessary
to emphasize the importance of
a cadence.
the phrase, for from
it all musical forms
are
built,and in all
or
productions of music, whether instrumental
vocal, the
proper accenting and phrasing is as vital as in the speaking
and reading of a language. That
the phrase may
guished
be distinby the listener it is necessary that an apparent change
in
the
made
be
rhythm; this is brought about by the
conform

to

usual

most

introduction

of the

cadence, which

is the

end

of

the

the

point of temporary repose between two phrases.


cadence
The
beat and its
accented
an
generallyoccurs
upon
made
known
by the lengtheningof the
presence is commonly
chord which
at that point;when
is sounded
this chord is built
is said to be a
up from the key-note of the phrase the pause

phrase or

ioB
a

cadence

; when

the

cord

cadence.
fejfo$ imperfect
e

is that
The

of

the

fifth it indicates

of
significance

will be apparent later in tMs

same

the full and

chapter.

The

FORM
is

cadence
to

commonly
knowledge of

the
of

the

177

very apparent, and rightfully


so, as next
the melody, the findingof the true tion
locais the most
important task in properly

cadence

music ; yet in many


analyzing or interpreting
the cadence
cases
is partiallyconcealed
by various technical devices which it is
to mention
here as we
are
strivingto gain only
unnecessary
of
a
generalunderstanding our subject; and in a few instances,
though rarely,the cadence is entirelyomitted by elision,one
with
the next
and the separating
phrase being combined
cadence
being entirelyabsent.
As the phrases in language are
combined
to make
tences
sentoo, the

so,

what
which
used

the

known

are

those who

music

here

combined

are
as

sentences,

it is the

as

to

periods,

or

modern

more

make

and

perhaps the best authorities.


The
of
great lack of unanimity in phraseology is one
rists.
by musical theogreatest difficultiesyet to be overcome
by

are

nomenclature
with

connected

growth

uneven

musical

of

students
These

in

authorities

musical

to

will be used

term

Musical

and

phrases

have

men

not

like the scale,notation

the art
and

been

has

evolution.

form

have

used

entire

their works

in

subjectto

and

irregular

an

The

greatest and

the

past been

unanimity in
translated

thing
every-

deepest

Germans.

their nomenclature
into

English by
their English speaking followers,there resulted an
annoying
lack of uniformity in terminology, different translators using
different meanings, and
to convey
the same
English words
different words
for the same
if possible,
worse
things.
still,
and

Some
own

when

writers

and
The

words.

words

or

gone so far as to coin their


titles used here are
those which
even

where
into general acceptance and
grown
difference in terminology it is indicated;but not

have

gradually

there

is

critics have

were

until musical

authorities of all nations

agree

upon

some

fixed

misunderstandings.
The
simple period is the outgrowth of the phrase, and
is made
by the addition of what is called a subsequentphrase
antecedent
the first or
to
phrase, the two being separated
progression
usuallyby a half-cadence which always signifies
nomenclature

can

we

hope

to avoid

the

and

entire

OF

THEORY

THE

178

MUSIC

period generallyterminating

in

perfect

keys. As a rule
tonic, dominant, or mediant
both in
the subsequent phrase is related to the antecedent
melody and in key, the melody in the subsequentphrase being
and intervals,
much
like that of the antecedent in movement
its key being one
and
easilyderived from the key of the
in

cadence

antecedent

simpleperiod may be enlarged or amplifiedin many


be repeated;three phrases
both phrases may
One
or
ways.
be used in placeof two; or a double or compound phrase
may
of four phrases,the second contrastingwith
be formed
may
the fourth
the first,the third agreeing with the first and
again contrastingwith the third and agreeingwith the second
in melody and key. All these modifications agree with the
full cadence
simple period in that they contain only one
which
terminates
the period,all the phrases are
separated
by an imperfect or half-cadence and all periods consist of
The

alternate

divisions
of

and

accented
of

full measures,

unaccented

musical
no

form

in what

matter

they begin; therefore, if


beat the unaccented

must

always

be

made

part of the first

period begins with

beat must

ent
differ-

The

measures.

be omitted

an

up
ure
meascented
unac-

the last

from

measure.

previouslymade in this chapter treat of


the elements, or parts and their connectinglinks,which
when
properlyjoined togethergo to make up the musical sentence
or
period as it is called in music. All larger compositions
are
simply a series of periodsgatheredtogetherin accordance
with certain fixed standards or rules which have been gradually
developedby the great masters.
The

The

statements

two-part form

seems

to

have

been

the natural

cal
musi-

and refrain being used


expressionof man, the statement
by solo and chorus, or by male and female voices,as is so
This form was
clearlyshown in the Psalms of David.
early
in
both
and
polyphonic
monophonic music.
apparent
It is the simplestof all musical forms and being a repe-

of. periods
or

rather

wioji of them

SQ

that

one

con-

FORM
stitutes the theme

and

with

synonymous
them.
use

the other

and is almost
counter-theme,
melody and tune as we commonly

the terms

German

The

179

Volkslieder

written

were

in

this form;

theorists

Lied-form
but we
give it the name
the
use
embraces so many
song-form. It now
English translation,
different kinds of musical composition,
both vocal and instrumental,
that the name
primary form is considered more
priate.
appro-

some

If the reader
form
in

synonymous,

and

presentingof

one

are

the

which

second

in the tonic

key, and

by

as

found

musical

the

then
but

in various

that

and

song

underlyingprinciple
rests
musical thought followed
by a
it and

closes with

half-cadence

to the

for a conoriginal
clusion,
little difficulty
in distinguishing
the
a

return

compositions,nor
it is later

terminologyas

described in this chapter. To

forms

primary

that the

with

contrasts

he will have
forms

will remember

the

will be confused

appliedto special
primary

form

the

tinction
binary is frequentlyapplied to make a readier disThe binaryform more
from the ternary form.
fully
exemplifiesthe idea of progressivegrowth than anything
previouslyconsidered,as the second part serves as a balance
and
complement to the first The firstpart consists of a
musical
period and usually closes with a perfectcadence.
name

The

second

part contains,

that

forms

one.

There

contrast

is usuallya

and

least at

at

affords

slightchange

the

the

start, material
balance to part

in the

in part
extended than

melody

elaborate and
frequentlyis more
the first period and closes with a half-cadence in the tonic
the return
to part one.
Simple compositions
key; then comes
written in the small two-part primary forms and
are
in the first period,four
find eight measures
in them
you
of four
material and a repetition
of contrasting
measures
and

two

it

'

while
of the first,

measures

under
of

the

more

elaborate works

come

ber
large two-part primary form in which the numlowed
doubled,sixteen for the first period,folare
measures
and a return to eigbtpf the firstpart
by eight,

the

OF

THEORY

THE

180

MUSIC

primary form is superiorto the two-part


three-part
which is a repetition
of the
in that a third period is added
whole.
rounded
The difference between
first,
making a more
the two
and three-part
primary forms lies in the length of
the repetition. In the simple
the subsequent phrase and
primary form, as before pointedout, the second contrasting
and the third
periodis never but half the length of the first,
while in the three-part
never
repeats the first in its entirety,
The

there

form

the

are

the

final

coda.

or

is

This

by
a

combination

expositionof

or

or

of

of the

introduction,
principalidea or

the

period is a distinct departurefrom the


subsequentphrase leadingup to the third
of the first and is followed by
a
repetition
three-partprimary form is subject to enlargement

the

of
repetition

of the

second

the

first part

or

by adding

third parts which


gives a
authorities going so
far as
to
and

five parts, some


this a separate division,callingit

total of
make

in each

measures

second

period,which
the

of

first period,preceded by the

three parts. The


is the statement

melody;
the
first,

number

same

form
five-part

of parts, but this is an


analysisas the enlargement is

group

three-partform,
in it each
form.

of

First

parts followed

and

is

the three
comes

by

a
a

on

refinement
unnecessary
directlybased upon the
larger and broader scale,as

parts consists of

principalsong

second

form

distinct primary
in two

or

three

subordinate

in some
song form
key of the subdominant,

key, perhapsin a relative minor


the subdominant, or the key a major third lower than the first
is derived from
part ; this is usuallycalled a trio,which name
a
piece played with three instruments.
Following the trio
the repetition
form
of the first song
in the original
comes
key. To this repetitionis sometimes
given the name
da capo, meaning "the head/' signifying
to the
return
a
that the older composers
did not
beginning,for the reason
of the last
go to the trouble of writing out the score
but used the words
"da capo" to indicate to the
njQfvement
should be repeated. The
performer that the first movement
form is the most
"fctee^
commonlyused fcnp a" in it are
other

FORM
dances

written

many
of
most

and

the

such

old

polonaise,gavotte,

as

dances.

modifications

or

181

All

later

either

of

forms

binary

or

minuet
are

tensions
ex-

ternary

forms.

be too

It cannot
that

of the rules

none

above

were

rules

The

all
arts

hope

who

for future

could look

we

development in

be dead.

would

the great minds


of the
that there will be great
farther modifications.
If

will make

for this belief

not

were

stronglyemphasized
compositionare inflexible
appeared composers who
for form
in composition.
too

general usage of
logicalto suppose

in the future

ones

it

the

it is but

past, and

of

the past have


beyond all rules

and
are

forms

or

or

In

unbreakable.

or

often stated

With

an

music

the past and


well as in other

only to
as

of
understanding

are
ready to consider
ternary forms we
forms and will begin with dance music.

and

the

primary
specialclassical

The

historyof dancing and dances enters prominently


into musical development and many
of the classical,
forms of
the music
of today found their originin dance music.
The
littlemore
than pantomimic action which
earliest dancingwas
told the story of adventure, or combat, by means
of more
or
A
rude
less rhythmicalgestures.
times
accompaniment was someused which did littlebut mark the time for the dancers,
and when
read of the dances in the Scriptures
find the
we
we
clapping of hands, rhythmic beating of the tambourine, or
clatter of the timbrel to guide the dancers and singers. Not
until we
to the dances of the Middle
come
Ages do we find
them and the modern
forms of music.
any connection between
and Minnesingers
there were
In the music of the Troubadours

"Tanzweisen," and in them we find the contrasted periodsof our present primary,or song form.
slow walkingdances,
The dances of the nobles,dignified,
forded
and the merry, wild, hilarious dances of the peasantry afcians
the contrast necessary to good musical form, and musidance-songs

soon

symmetry

"

or

began

to

combine

the two.

they not only interwove

but concluded

by

return

to

Then

the two

to preserve

the

dances
contrasting

the firstmovement,

and gave

rise

OF

THEORY

THE

182

MUSIC

classical
largelyused by modern
and Spanish dances lent their
French, German
composers.
find Italian composers
influence and in the Sixteenth Century we
combining three or four different dances and making
means
simplya set or
a compositionin the cycleform, which
in turn
called the partita,which
succession of movements
ten
writprogressedto the suite. The dance music is of course
and
to correspond to the regular steps of the dancer
hence the rhythm ns very regular,making this perhaps the
Much
of the
simplestand clearest of all musical forms.
to

form
tripartite

the

form, however, is

in dance

written

music

so

intended

not

as

an

regular
accompaniment to dancing and in it we commonly find irand can employ
rhythms,for the composer is not restricted,
when
variations impossible
obligedto consider the steps
of

the

As

dancer.

idealized

Mozart,

result of this freedom

forms, such

dance

importance in
which

we

find

in

have

the

the

works

of

Haydn, Schubert, Beethoven, Chopin

shall first consider

We

as

we

of

many

that
our

they

were

modern

Four

movements

suite

of

dances

those

which

are

parts of the

old

instrumental

were

Weber.

and
of

special

suite, from

forms

usuallyconsidered

were

veloped.
de-

necessary

regular form, the allemande, courante,


and gigue, all written in the same
saraband
key, though
often introduced usuallybetween
other dance forms were
the
saraband and the gigue.
The
allemande, a dance of German
origin,immediately
find
follows a prelude. Occasionally
this
a suite without
we
opening dance form, but generallyspeaking it is considered
At the time it was
a
adopted for the
necessary movement
suite it had long been forgottenas a dance and consequently
its construction is not as regular in rhythmic treatment
as
the three followingmovements.
It is written in 4-4 time,
tempo moderately rapid, and commences
usuallywith one
short ipte, a quaver
at the end of the measor
semi-quaver,
tfrfl TRe monophonfc rather t|$p the polyphonicstyleprein

every

and

but

the upper

without

part "r

is of
iiefody

uniform

stronglyflanked rhythms, ^nd

regular
occa-

FORM

183

sionallyrather fantastic in treatment, while the accompaniment


is comparativelysimple. The
parts usuallycontain
and
less frequently
eight, twelve or sixteen measures
ten
In
measures.
Magny's Chorigraphie,
Pecour, a celebrated
of

the opera under Louis


of the allemande
in 6-8 time, which

dancing
music
been

master

dance
fairlylively

allemande

German

suite it is
It is

the

name

Italian courante, or
meaning of the

staccato

rather
the

while

the

as

music

last bar

it underwent

it ceased
a

one

form

first movement

to

change, and

original

of the oldest French

courir,to

run,

to the

more

and

logical
etymo-

chieflyof running
is characterized
by

is written in 3-2 time with

with

part you

the

it consists

form

was

it to have

time.

answers

dance

movement

there

of each

signature. As

as

is the

the

somber, and in the

more

the French

name

us

duringthe Sixteenth Century.

corrente,

French

rapid running
measure

from

French

The

notes.

the old dance


the

and

fashionable

derived

was

passages,

of

slower

was

shows

days, though

always written in common


followed by the courante,

figuredances, very
The

in those

XIV., left

marked
find 6-4

short note

at the end

of the

suite.

In

in that
peculiarity
time in spiteof th

lose its connection

with the dance

in the suite the two

rliythmsare

frequentlymixed, and often,though the signatureis 3-2, the


the polyphonicstyle
6-4 time predominates throughout and
these features.
Italian
The
is used
to clearlybring out
time also,but is usuallyin 3-8 or 3-4 time
is in triple
corrente
and

There is a strong confaster.


the tempo is somewhat
trast
the allemande, with its
the first movement,
between

heavy character and the lighter,


simple tune and somewhat
form gives an
which
in the French
more
complex courante
while the running pasimpression of energy and "Vivacity,
sages
of the Italian form
suggest not quiteso energetica
dance
as
a light,
playfulone.
merry,
lous
At its close,the listener is brought back to a less frivoThis
seffotissaraband
state of mind
by the stately,
dance
France

was

of

Moorish

and England

as

origin,but was quiteas popular in


dancer origiin Spain.1 Only one
v

it

Later

saraband, and

the

nally performed

OF

THEORY

THE

184

into

transformed

was

voice

a
a

participated. Its time signature


3-2 or
3-4, and usually consists

MUSIC

accompanied

dance

is the

which

in

same

him.

several

the courante,

as

eight or twelve measure


for
its strongly accentuated
It is remarkable
divisions.
rhythm, which is simple and yet majestic, making it far more
than the two
preceding movements.
regular in construction
unwritten
It seems
law
been
of cycle music
to have
an
the

in

merry
the

should

final movement

that

mood

of

be such

leave

to

as

nothing could better serve


doubtless
hearty dance, which

and

the
the

listener
purpose

gigue, a
originated
it
in
and
known
in
no
one
no
one
was
people
country as
lands
the same
in slightlyvarying forms
time.
It
at
many
ture.
was
a
rollicking,rapid dance, very regular in rhythmic structime signaturesare
Various
used, as 3-8, 6-8, 3-4, 6-4
and
12-8, and in the more
even
pretentious suites the gigue
assumes
great complexity, owing to the rapid, continuous
Bach
movement.
occasionallytreated the gigue in free fugal
style.
than

with

The

It
of

Gap,

where

France,

rustic

dance

introduced

of

in the

It

is

after

in

form.

Often

first,and

the

tlte first.

There

when

in

of

the

and

second

it

in the

gavottes,

first contained

at

in

like

of

many

difficult steps

of

city

were

minuet

are

livelier nature.

the

minuet

is

in

immediately
performer repeated

gavotte followed

played

was

always

was

was
two, if one
the tonic major

the

and

figures used

time

duple

like

was,

ments.
move-

in the

called

It

name.

romp
all kinds

the

dance

gavotte, though the latter is of

written

ternary

many

last two

were

good-natured

later

found

women

its

only simple steps, but


and

the

mountaineer's

the

received

dances,

between

used

originallya

was

the

whence
the

is often

gavotte

the

in character

contrast

between

minor

follow
key the other would
relative major key.
This
or
combining
two
a
really makes
con-ternary form, though each
separately is a binary foim

'Other
at

dances

often

branje,

the

introduced

into

passepfed and

the
the

suite
minuet.

are

the
The

FORM
bourree

185

branle, the

The
passepied and the minuet.
nated in Auvergne, though some
authorities call it a Spanish
dance of Biscay,where
it is stillsaid to be performed. It is
binary in form, livelytempo, in duple time, is similar in
or

character

to the

used

when

as

begins on the
begins with
the

the gavotte, the bourree

there

is

of
repetition

usuallyfollows

the

first,
making

It differs from

form.

ternary

with

as

part of the suite;a second

then

the first and

with

gavotte, and

the gavotte in that it always


crotchet of the measure
while the gavotte

fourth
the

third.

The

rigadoon

in musical

bourree

form

is almost

identical

is characterized

but

by

time.
or
common
peculiarjumping step.
The
passepiedwhich, according to tradition,originated
in Brittanyis an old round dance which was
famous
in France
introduced
into
during the time of Louis XIV., when it was
the ballet. This dance was
used not only between
the last two
of the suite but by some
movements
was
placed
composers
It is written in 3-4 or 3-8 time,begins
before the saraband.
It is in 2-4

on

of the

the third note

usually ternary
Of

has
in

suite but

is of

lively
nature,

and

in form.

found

large

earlier mentioned

forms

It sprang

important.

and

name

and

measure

the idealized dance

is the most

in

from

instrumental

of the

dance

permanent place not

the minuet

only

classical works.

same

in the old

Its

origin

been settled upon, though it is said to have come


never
ancient dance, though the
Doubtless it was
Poitou.
from
an

has

or

3-8

In

XIV.

for Louis

3-8

signature,as

the

old

minuet
In

tempo

the

first

gives

more

makes

it

on

outgrowth

the

Handel

and

With

their works.

third beat
delicate
less

minuets

of the

became

touch

are

measure

|o

instead

of

less
the
of
the

the composition and

older
heavy,tl^tfce

minttet is the

the

Haydn

quitemerry;
innovation introduced by Haydn

modern

the

the whole
of

by

1662

in 3-4

is written

of its stateliness and

some

fact,many

is faster and

composed by Lully in

was

it is ternary and
preferred the former

is shown

lost

beginning on

form

Bach

time.

solemn.

music

minuet

earliest known

the
^ffefeo,

form.

name

An

derived

OF

THEORY

THE

186

MUSIC

scherzare,to joke. In form it is like the


denotes
merely the character of the
minuet, so the name
the minuet is always in 3-4 time the scherzo
While
music.
be in duple or tripletime, and in its more
developed
may
forms.
to belong to the dance
form almost ceases
the Italian

from

historic

The

that unlike

ancient

other

but stillholds

importanceof

its placeas

first introduced

Haydn

dances

the

lies in the

minuet

it has

not

become

obsolete

part of large instrumental

it into the

symphony

and

fact

works.

Beethoven

scherzo, since which time a large


have used the latter lightertreatment
majority of composers
in preferenceto the old minuet, as the quicker
of the form
varied rhythm are
time and
not
as
more
likelyto prove
transformed

monotonous.

it into

Mendelssohn

Symphony and
flat Symphony,
minuet

ended

the

Schumann
but

used

the older form

in the second

in his Italian
of the

movement

generally speaking the

historyof

E
the

with Beethoven.

bolero, a characteristic dance of Spain, is usually


written in 3-4 time, though there is a frequent change of time
The
dancer
accompanied the steps
during the movement.
and the rhythm of these instruments
with castanets
gradually
It generally consists of two
became
a
part of the music.
principalparts, each repeated and, a trio, making it of
frequently the castanet
rhythm is heard
ternary form;
before the melody begins.
or
more
measures
through one
The bolero is used in many
operas in its dance form complete
idealized it by usingirregular
and composers
rhythms though
retainingits chief characteristics.
The

Another

dance

form

in

favor

with

both

is the Polish

instrumental

polonaise. Bach, Handel,


and Wagner, Chopin,
Beethoven, Mozart, Schubert, Weber
Polish composers
and many
of less note than Chopin, have
used it in large and small works.
There are two
theories
in regard to the originof the polonaise. One
is
Gristingvocal composers

it was
tfa?at?

evolved

from

ancient Christmas

carols

such

as

aajb^eclay
sting in Poland, and it is true there is a likeness
f the dance music and, in the lines of the

FORM
old
was

187

also that at one


carols; and it is known
time the dance
accompanied by singing,though the only polonaisemusic

now

is purely instrumental.

in existence

The

accepted theory is that it sprang from an old


promenade. To celebrate his election to the
III. of

Henry

Anjou

more

court

generally
dance

or

Polish throne

1574, a grand receptionat


The
Cracow.
in statelyprocessionpast the
guests marched
the sound
throne
to
of solemn
music.
This
promenade
became
a
and it is thought that the
part of court ceremonies
used to
polonaisegradually developed from this and was
open

Polish

many

Today,

in

festivities.
dance

as

gave,

the

polonaise is of little interest;


procession,in which old and young take

it still consists

of

part, moving

^everal times

the

around

room

in

solemn

particularstep. In Germany court balls are


opened with this dance, and in some
places it has been
modified, robbed of its dignity,and used for the close of an
evening of dancing and called Der Auskehr, the turn-out.
themselves
The
with household
entire company
arm
ments,
implemarch
through the house singing in chorus "When
takes the Grandmother," a rollicking
old
the Grandfather
Although as a dance the polonaisedates back several
song.
centuries it was
not until the early Eighteenth Century that
examples of it in its present musical form began to appear.
order

Since

with

no

it has been

then

composers

and

parts of

Italian

is of march

has

even

operas.

favorite form

with

many

been

used

It is

usually written

by

tempo,, generallybegins on

vocal

instrumental

composers
in 3-4

the first beat

in

time,
of the

consists,as a rule, of two parts and a trio.


almost martial, and
Its rhythm is very marked, sometimes
choly
again it is so treated as to create a dreamy, rather melantrue
composition. These characteristics are especially
he depictsthe struggles,
of Chopin's polonaisesin which
the court
splendor,the triumphs of his country. In truth,
Chopin gives life and spiritto the old polonaiseform.
dances, the saltarello
Italy has given two well-known
The first is of Roman
originand the name
and tarantella.
measure

and

OF

THEORY

THE

188

MUSIC

of the dance
(saltare,to
something of the nature
jump). It was danced by one or two persons, with a quick
hopping step, time increasingas the dance proceeded. The
music is written in 3-4 or 6-8 time, is generallyin a minor
key, notes are staccato, and the hopping step is apparent in
the rhythm. In an idealized form the saltarello is found in
symphoniesand other instrumental classical works.
in his Italian Symphony
used in the finale
Mendelssohn
tells

the

both

The

tarantella.

the

saltarello and

tarantella

is

graduallyincreases in speed as the dancers


and
continue, and the music corresponds with the hilarity
tambourines
mirth of the performers. Song, castanets
or
are
it and you will find the melody even
in
used to accompany
in 6-8 time

and

the extended

rhythm, as
modern

derived
bite

was

bit of

cityof

and

marked

elaborate

by
use

from

form

well defined and

the instruments,a characteristic.

composers
There
works.
its

dance

this dance
is

very
tradition

Many

in instrumental
effectively
that

the

tarantella

the tarantula,the

huge spider whose


supposed to be cured by dancing. However, this is
fiction. The name
from Taranto,
undoubtedly came
where the dance may have originated.
southern Italy,
name

that the dance was


It is true, nevertheless,
used
that it cured a nervous
disorder known

of

the

tarantism

which

was

in the sition
suppothe
name
by

in
prevalent for many
years
epidemic was at its worst during
of strolling
musicians went
from

the
Italy. When
the Sixteenth Century bands
the dance music for those afflicted,
town
to town
furnishing
If forgettingone's illsand tiringone
is efficacious
physically
in the treatment
of hystericalsubjects,the tarantella as
at the present time
danced by the Italians even
certainly
should prove a cure.
Although it begins mildlyand gently
dancers seem
enough, in a few minutes the two, four or more
with
the music, and
to be entirelycarried away
heads,
and
used
in the wild gestures, the
body are
legs
afi",
stai33|)ijig,
dappii^,bodilycontortions,
hoppingand,
runmng,
eaches its height,even
the voices of the
io the gaiety. Different forms of taranftsslst
southern

FORM
tism

required different

cure, and

music

189

different steps for their

and

different tarantellas.
sprang up several slightly
Among the modern
societydances the waltz is one of
the most
important. The originsof many of the dances are
rather

so

obscure, but

that

difficult of all modern


least is German

from

of

the

dances

waltz

is

perhaps the

determine.

to

The

most
at

name

waltzen,to

have
turn, and the Germans
claimed
it
of their productions. They trace
one
as
generally
it back
to the old Drehtanz
or
turning dance which was
danced

by couples standing face


another by one
hand only,much
the
old English country dances.
The
evolved

been

from

and

Provence

the

introduced

that in the Sixteenth


the

then

name

old

volta

into Paris

Century it was

changed

to

to

face

or

as

was

same

French
which

done

claim

it to

have
in

Louis

VIL, and
Germany and

carried to
Then

in the

invented

was

under

Walzer.

holding one

when

they,the

again revived it they used the German* title with


French
spellingand called it valse. This sounds rather
questionablein that the old volta was
probably an Italian
would
think from
the Italian title.
so
dance, at least one
The generally
from theacceptedbelief is that it came
directly
in different places,
by different names
peasant dance known
and the one
usuallygiven as its ancestor is the Austrian and
it is
Tyrolese lander. Under this name, or that of Schleifer,
French,

stilldanced

rhythms

slow

festivals
village

at

in Austria

Mozart, Beethoven

which

and

Bavaria

and

Schubert

to

the

used

in their waltzes.

1675

About

to

which

it has

the modern

waltz

been

have

must

an

outgrowth

with the song.


is the
modern
not

with

date

which

,ofthe
spite

There

usually given

dance.

become

familiar "Ach

now

and

into existence

came

tune

the

It reached

popularenough
it met

an

is

no

older dance

proof of

the first

was

danced,and

was

of

said this

Augustin"

therefore
to

be

this and

it

temporary
con-

1780

of the
first appearance
England in 1797, though it did

for

to

the

call forth the

severe

criticism

early Nineteenth Century. In


upon thi$ "fien4of German birth/'

until the

Attacksmade

been

du lieber

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

190

propriety/'and of Lord
called'
of the subjectin his poem
Byron'ssavage treatment
all dancing
The Waltz, it continued to gain in favor and soon
waltz.
England became devotees to the wiles of the fascinating
other
the waltz is entirelydifferent from
In musical form
dances and is not as capableof high development, but works
have been written in waltz form.
of lastingcharm
the works
of Mozart
and
In its early form and among
of simple binary form, and seldom
the waltz was
Beethoven
it was
if so
modulation
occurred
or
always into a
any
nearly related key. Schubert enlarged this form, and the
delicacyand

"destitute of grace,

waltzes

modern

more

often

are

3-4 time, with but

always in
be

in

drawn

There

of waltzes.
which

four

are

sixteen

the third is

follow

the

or

measure,

material

five short

numbered

measure

the first.

as

waltzes
rule

These

sisting
con-

which

three,in

short waltzes

another, and while the bass and middle

one

is

waltz

the set, each


of
sentences
or

of
repetition

whose

frequentlyrepeatedin

are

of two
case

from

in

note

introduction

It

form.

and
not
proper
time, leadingdirectlyto the waltz or set

no

way
in
waltz
necessarily

may

accented

one

first;there is usuallyan

the

in

ternary

voices

tain
sus-

the dance

rhythm, the melody is unrestrained and affords


closes with an
orate
elabgreat varietyto the compositionwhich
coda or finale in waltz tempo, repeatingin part some
theme.
a new
subjects
alreadyheard and often introducing
Weber
waltz

form

bring

and

waltzes

will be found
Viennese

the

first composers
it into the list of

in his "Invitation

forms, as is shown
the

of

one

was

which

followed

in the works

tecribed;

absolute

to the Dance."

Among
the

best

of

we

short

now

have

the

members

Gungl

became

the

fixed

"

of

the

form

of

that

several waltzes
introduction,
of the be?t
repeating
parts?

the

musical

in this idealized form

dancing. It was
titles to waltzes
under
and
specific
Strauss family and
Tabitzky and
for

music

idealize

The
Chopin and Rubinstein.
excelled in the writing of waltz music
the elder Johann Strauss who first gave

composers

etenee waltz

to

is the
follow-

FORM
Other

modern

step with

measure

phrase
with

written

number

even

This

largelybased

are

of

the

galop, of

but

one

has

beat

two

in

measures

each

is necessary to conform
Among them are the polka,
form

same

the

to

the

and

on

number

even

steps of the dancer.


in two-part primary form, each

time:

which

an

period.

or

the

2-4

dances

191

part repeated and

but

of

quicker tempo

whereas

measure,

in

the

polka
three-part
three-part

galop may
composed in a
primary form: and the polka mazurka, usuallyin
from the waltz in
primary form in quick 3-4 time, differing
beats of the measure
that the weak
are
usuallyaccentuated.
The
polka, in spiteof its lack of real beauty, became
has

two,

it

popular wherever
of

much

later
be

be

date
the

supposed

to

countryman

fellow
and

music

Prague

of

invention

an

modern

waltz

and

is

girl of Bohemia.
Neruda
composed the

peasant

of

the nimra, which

as

it

descriptionof the

was

of

was

danced.

polka which

It
is

name

in

was

supposed

Czech

pulka, meaning half, and


used by the dancer.
given because of the short or half-steps
A regimentalband carried the polka from Bohemia
to Vienna
Paris had adopted it and five years
in 1859, the next
year
to

be

creation

It

the

even

by the name
known
originally

was

from

than

song to which
that it received the name

taken

was

it

introduced.

was

it reached

later

dance

so

London,

and

for many

years

in every
included.
was

of many
countries, otir own
program
forms
As
the dance
were
developed from

the march

forms

from

grew

the

dances

steps. The original


regularsteps and so was

march

designed to accompany
always written in duple or quadruple time, the rhythm
constructed on 'the simple binary
strongly marked, and was
repeated.
form, divided into two parts, each of which was
march

was

When,
followed

as

in

the

case

of

the march, the form

the

minuet,

became

or

one

ternary

or

more

rondo.

trios
The

simplestform of march, written in common


A more
time and is two-part primary or binaryin form.
pretentiousfprm is the festival march, an extension of the
militaryis

the

ternary,havinga second

trio addecj i# 4-4 time.

It consists

OF

THEORY

THE

192

MUSIC

subjectswith usuallyno transitions between, the


to the first subcharacteristicbeing a regular return
ject.
marked
first subject,second subject
The order is introduction,
first trio,first subject,third subject or second trio,first
or
The second and third subjectshave trio
subjectand coda.
the first subjectusually being in the same
relationship,
key
related
The
in
time
a
closely
key.
throughout or
very
entire
the
continues the same
composition. The best
during
Mendelssohn's
are
known
examples of the festival march
Night's Dream,"
"Wedding March," from the "Midsummer
The
of
and
Wagner's "Tannhauser."
tempo of marches
of the composition; the
the nature
depends upon
course
and Chopin are
of Handel, Beethoven
funeral marches
very
while
the
so-called
and
others
are
quicksteps
rapid,
slow,
very
slow
are
moderately rapid or
accordingto the use to which
they are put, but in form they vary but little and in the
majorityof cases can be classed as simplebinaryor ternary.
Following the ternary form in importance is the rondo,
old form, both the name
and form being derived from
a very
rondeau
the old French
or
round, meaning a returning,a
coming around, the word signifyingthe general structure of
class of Sixteenth Century French
a
songs, so arranged that
of

opening and closingtwo

the
H.

series of

C. Bunner's

verses

lines

the

were

same.

One

of

perfectlyillustratesthe form:

pitcherof mignonette
tenement's highest casement;
a
Queer sort of flower-pot yet
That
pitcher of mignonette
Is a garden in heaven set,
A

In

"

To
The
In

The

an

['

littlesick child in the basement

pitcherof

mignonette
highest

the tenement's

musical

form, and while


they form one
from

the

rondo

"

casement.

closely follows this literary


the parts are distinct and easilyrecognizable
continuous, concrete
whole, to quote a line

old French

Wrottgfctas

very

rondeau
a

it should be

ringwith

no

break In its

FORM
all the movements

Here

theme
principal

key

that

elaboration

determines
will

we

will

there

parts

always returningto

of which
and

or

are

subservient to

called the first subject,


found

of the rondo,
and

193

be

the

of

at

the

beginning

this first subject,


the

the character

one

of the entire

style
position,
com-

always rightfully
expect in this form
return
to
the first subject and
in

form

reiteration of

it

throughoutthe

composition.
first rondo

The

form

is

the simplestand
naturally

sists
con-

of the first

only
subjectand the repetition
of the first
subject in the same
ferent
key separatedby a passage in a difknown
key, technically
as
a
transition,
an
digression,
episode or intermezzo, an Italian word derived from the
Latin intermedius,meaning coming between, the same
word
being used for selections played between the acts in early
Italian tragedies;it is also at the present time given to independe
that
compositionof the same
generalcharacter,
so
the word
transition,
signifyingbeing in transit,
givesperhaps
unmistakable
the clearest,most
meaning.
second rondo
form
The
consists of a first subject,a
and a return
transition,a second subject,another transition,
to the first subject.
third rondo
consists of the first subject,a
The
form
the first subject,
transition,the second subject,a transition,
the third subject,
and a return
to the
a transition,
a transition,
first subject.In this long form the intermediate subjectsand
transitions
the

condensed

are

bounds

length.

of the entire

Some

episode instead

of

contains

more

rondo

reason

form
and

or

of

those

than

one

in order

writers
a

who

to

not

compositionbeyond

transition make

used

tend
ex-

able
reason-

the

term

that is,a
distinction,

and
episode,

the

name

mezzo
inter-

to find any
is applied
to the passages, but it is impossible
there is no difference in the
for this distinction,
as

of the
many

the subjects
different connecting links between
the words
writers use
episodeor intermezzo

interchangeablyin connection
word

shortened

transition

seems

to

with

the

be the most

rondo

so

'distinctand

that

the

definite.

THE

194

OF

THEORY

MUSIC

of the first rondo


forms the
longer and many
introduction
and
terminated
opened by an
composition was
by a coda, both of which may vary in length.

In

all of the

"sound"

is derived

word

The

sonata.

and

from

in

first used

was

classical form

the

of

culmination

The

pieceof execution merely. By


name
appliedto the best form
time

and

the

used

now

as

compositioncomprisingtwo
there

are

old suite and

upon

came

to

meaning
toccata, a

all composers
it has been the
of instrumental
music of the
stands

for

definite musical
Most

movements.

more

monly
com-

into

existence,though not in its present


perfectionof the violin by the Italian
The
violin places so
few
restrictions

the

makers.
musician

the

the

of these parts, often five and occasionally


The
is a direct outgrowth of the
sonata

classic form, with


instrument

word

in the

three

more.

even

Latin

distinction

name
or

is found

there

as

is

so

little mechanism

between

made
it was
so
perfect
player and instrument, that when
of the musician, he began to
to respond to every mood
as
experiment and to overcome,
by skill in stoppingand bowing,
the mechanical
difficulties which
had before prevented him
from
and
obtaining the finest,purest tone
fluency of
motion.

The

violin is

devices which
were
composers
made
to find a

the

correct

not
more

solo

had

been

instrument

occupying

fitted to this instrument


suitable

handling

simple harmonies,

of

rather

form

melodic

than

which

the

and
the

and

puntal
contra-

attention
an

effort

of
was

would

passages
interwoven

depend upon
accompanied by
melodies

which

accompaniment. As we have
had already been grouped and
tunes
seen, the purely dance
into one composition,
musicians felt the
several woven
but now
unified form, something that would
need of a more
admit of
melodic
expression,give an impression of definite tonality
and retain the rhythmic vitality
necessary to all instrumental
of form adopted in the dance
tipa$ie. They used the method
of the suites,but improved ttpon it by making
the divisions,
the subjectsused, by elaborating
key and making the parts balance each other
depend

upon

themselves

for

FORM
The

form

sonata

in

its present developedstate consists


For the first theme
has
no
name

been

principalparts.
agreed upon, the name

best

It determines

three

of

one.

is indeed

and
is

it

specialname

such
the
the

whom

to

man

following
diversityof

their

passage.

one

is

As

reallyconveys
development
the

free

every
and

novel
and

or

the

of

German
instances

another, and

as

term

clear idea of

of

here

what

of

working out, because in


of the expositionare
themes
the

in
were

first introduced.

the

upon

the

themes

are

call

free

next

by

here

it the

fantazie;

is the

workingconflictingterms,

each

of

the

terms

the division stands

and

drama

which

sonata

position
com-

is conferred

this

for:

portionof

the

usually the basis


the third division;
exercise

possibleway in displayingtechnical
passion. Like the development of

placed

the

as

theorists

toward
works
composer
fantazie,because here he is free to

which

from

in

American

in other

correct

as

there

the

English brothers, the

translation

out

being

as

unless

Some

terms.

development;

sonata

recognized

sonata,

form
grand division of the sonata
are
exposition we
again confronted

the

the

the

naming

of the first movement

the

title to

while

character

the

conveying an idea of its poeticalmeaning,


or
of
Moonlight; occasionallythe name
it is dedicated distinguishes
it. In giving

Pastoral

as

in

first movement,

key
a

expositionbeing perhaps

the whole

used

commonly

the

of

195

treated

his

genius
skill,imagination
the
as

plot

in

characters

all

and
relationships
possiblenew
ments
entanglethe
in no wise suspectedwhen
subjectswere
The

composer

here

uses

his utmost

fancy

becoming fantastic,and in this part in his power,


find the work
of the
contrivance
and suggestionwe
grasp,
As always where
master.
great opportunityis given there
will be discovered
of failure,a weakness
is the possibility
third part is a
The
here
sonata.
if anywhere in the
and unifying of the
repetitionof part one, a recapitulation
without

whole.
The
before

exposition is

explained,each

being somewhat

modified

development

of

the

from

of

parts of

the
the

binary

form

sonata

form

tfeose of the three-partsong

MUSIC

to the first period is in the


part corresponding

The

form.

OF

THEORY

THE

196

known
as
a rule
as the subject.This first subject
exposition
comprisessome
phraseformation and often closes with a halfcadence, being very much like the antecedent phrase of a
period. A second subjectfollows the first after a short
transition which, in major keys, leads to and modulates
erally
geninto the dominant
key, the usual key of the second
which is variable in lengthand has no definite form.
subject,
in styleand is therefore
This second theme is frequently
lyrical
often called the song group;
dominant
key and is followed by

to

comes

codetta

close in the

varying in length

There
is often
composer.
'double bar with repetition
marks at the end of the codetta

accordingto
a

it

the

design of
is

and

all of

the

development or

part

the first and

one

the

again repeated. Now

part two,

comes

The

working-outpassage.

motives

of

subjectsare used and developedin this


canonically
by inversion or other devices,according
fugally,
and it leads up to
to the genius and taste of the composer,
the return of part one, which is entirely
repeated;but now
the second subject,
instead of appearingas in part one, is
given in the tonic,the entire movement
closingin that key.
This practically
completesthe sonata form, and no matter
how
the

second

movements

many

compositionmay
found

always
The

sonata

as
description

where

there

the added

of

more

the sonata

ihdfcate the

as

or

simple

here noted

are

three

has been

movements

typicaland

most

movements

added

chosen

form, and

common

they are

form, and by many

for

all subservient

of the best critics

which
regarded as interpolations
the symmetry of the composition. The forms
usuallyhave Italian,titlesgiven them, which
tenspo with which they are to be played,and

movements

detract foom

be, the characteristics

it is the
are

elaborate

the basis of all sonatas.

this type

to

as

added, how

are

are

somethingof their clmsracfcer.Iq ;t"eplayingof


between
usuallyreto 4 *few m^""t$
.performer
,

these
into

fc^tikff
i0tei^|iij^
t^tidency
a

the;tt;tte'Somta

is

FORM

disjointedcollection
correct, and
this

we

have

be

written

noted,

chamber

music

music
the

for

with

away

is not

the

tirely
en-

danger

is demanded

limited

the

the

of

is

of each

was

movements

form

composition. In

instrument

the

secular

in

which,

as

old

sonata
one

or

more

in

somewhat

choral

written

as

these

three

the

solo

rivalrywith

forms

all music

of

the modern

group
sonata

described

not

now

works

were

other

but

of

in the

suite.

this stage,
and for wind
at

which

really

was

In it

symphony.

the violin in

with

of instruments.
was

dance

merely as
by playing

importance had depended upon

but
were

in connection

sonata

four

chamber

constituted

the concerto

polyphonicmusic,

for the

which

to

or

fugato or

prominence
other bowed,

contrastingparts,

ber
(cham-

three

into
for

de

serious in character

seen,

accompanying

or

"sonata

music; while the


simply a grouping

have

we

were

appeared

in

perfectly

camera"

there

the precursor
other instruments

now

them

developments

the

da

da camera,
of the stringquartet and the

accompaniment

the

composer

be

earliest

the "sonata

brought

being

instruments, such

unison,

the

and

either

as

styleand

was

The

known

were

from

also

was

and

the parts for


equallyinto prominence without

to

violin

the

While

in this form

that every detail must


it is extremely difficultto balance

derived

sonata

composition
other pieces of

in material

sonata

paniment
accom-

authorities considered

many
of musical

(church sonata), or
sonata). In the church
movements
quick and slow,
contrapuntalstyle,which were

music

by

the

may

this

trios,quartets and

chiesa"

and

If

orchestra

bring each
subordinatingthe others.

one

instrument,but

of the classical period are

instruments

any

the

solo

instruments.

for

intellectual form

much

for

more

or

string quartets

most

so

two

concerto;

adjusted,and

of

sections,which

do

to

evolved

written

becomes

the

in order

was

for
be

is

of unrelated

have
misunderstanding, later composers
indicated that
be played without
sonata
interruption.The sonata, as

the

so

197

bass
in

now

From

evolved.

Except
previouschapters,
words

produced in

this

standing,
for undernew

form

adapted to incomplete,well balanced, perfectly

THEORY

THE

198

MUSIC

OF

performance and capableof appealingto the


through the intellect as less perfectforms had

strumental

tions
emonever

done.
In all

cycleforms,

that

combined

to

movements

are

in which

is,works
form

two

or

more

whole, the

homogeneous

The composer
the same.
distribution of parts is very much
realizes that in order to convey his meaning to you he must
make
feel
aspects, he must
you
present his subjectin many
the

it

make

by making clear
he must
appeal to

of his work

wholeness

ring true

and

to

and

in other
intellectual sensibilities,

the

laws

balanced
and

words, it

must

abide

by

make

in every respect a perfectly


composition. First there must be somethingto call
and

all art

of

hold

for

the attention and

moment

for what

measure

its many
parts,
both emotional

is

follow; and

to

then

in a
prepare you
while the mind
is

made
either by
ready-the appeal to the intellect is at once
an
elaborate,even
heavy movement, or a slow, patheticone,
but is immediatelyfollowed by somethingpiquant,at least a
appealingto the emotions ; and
lighterand livelier movement

then, that

there

be
may
frivolous vein, there comes

serious part
in the finale

We

overabundance

no
as

contrast

of

and

the

more

rest, a slow,

with, in the classic form, a final rounding out


of part one
in the originalkey.
by a repetition

follow

this

rather

brief

descriptionof the all


form
hoven's
important sonata
by word picturesof four of Beetwell-known
sonatas
hoping they will aid the reader
not
fullyappreciatethese splendidworks, but
only to more
through an understandingof them we trust he will have a
definite idea of what is meant
clearer;more
by form or design
in music.

SONATA

PATHETIQUE,

This sonata

is in

cfcfflberatemovement,

minor
of

ten

OP.

13

(BEETHOVEN).

key (C minor)
measures,

with
,

"Grave,"

describes it. Its emotional feelingis of the


k

kind, almost

remindingone

in its

very
as

slow,
Beet-

deep,sorrhythm of some

FORM
funeral

march;

from

199

this the sonata

presumably derived its


title.
Its form
of course
is only introductory
to the first
of the sonata
movement
which
begins after the
proper,
introduction
half
to
comes
a
close;and after pausing on the
of its key, with the last tone
dominant
suspended,as it were,
withholding the expectant blow, the wild, tumultuous
onslaught of the first movement
begins,a "Molto Allegroe
con
brio," very rapid,and with fire.
As
before stated,this is a very rapid movement
in C
in double time (Alia breve in sonata
minor
form). Its first
theme
begins with a staccato upward flightof four measures
downward

and

of

movement

then

in full chords of the

number

same

repeated,but closingwith downward


the same
moving arpeggios, after which
principaltheme
in two
is used in modulatory ways
measure
to
repetitions
lead without
Its accompaniepisodeto its second theme.
ment
is throughout, with
the exception of four measures
measures,

all

in the

middle, made
in
that is, the octave
or

of its bass part in vibrato


up
the left hand is repeatedlike a

notes,
shake

trill.

theme, in the major key of the third step of

Its second
the

scale, or

flat

major,

is divided

into three

parts

or

divisions ; the first part a short theme of four notes, repeated


octave
an
higher,its last note held the second time like a call,

repeated. This four measure


phrase is repeated
Then
the fourth tone
of this key or its dominant.
on
using
builds up a sprightly,
short phrase the composer
this same
he moves
after which
measures,
flowery part of thirty-eight
into the second part of this theme of twelve measures,
a long
then
sudden
a
of nearly two
note
measures
upward
repeated,
the basis of the scale, with an
of the melody on
movement
orchestral chord vibrato as accompaniment, the bass moving
and in contrary motion, producinga very effective
downward
This is repeated,thereby coming to its third, or
climax.
closing part, consistingof a running figure. After this as
of the first
closingcoda or codetta are added four measures
with modulatory chords to the working-outpart.
theme
which

also is

200

THEORY

THE

OF

MUSIC

uses
development Beethoven
four measures
of the first mood, plaintive,
pathetic,
harking
back, then again its double time, but this time in an unusual
key, E minor, the major third step of the scale. The same
accompaniment is used as in its principaltheme; the theme
occurring in its upper part, then in the bass with the same
accompaniment on top, then dropping to the lower regions
of the instrument, with the vibrato accompaniment on
an
section,with a fraction
point,a weird four measure
organ
both separated,closing
of first theme
of also four measures,
with a running downward
figure. This part, without even a
to
a
close, and at the same
suggested ritardando, comes
The
time begins the return
of the first theme.
movement
second theme, this time, is not, as usual,in the originalkey,
but in that of the fourth step, F minor, but its second part
back to its right key, C minor, otherwise
following
comes
its exact
but at the end suddenly swerving aside with
course,
two
crashingdiminished chords, with a long wait on the last
chord, again producing that firstmentioned effect of impending
built on
this
of the introduction
crisis,then four measures
diminished
same
chord-harmony, after which the coda, of
twelve
crashes, as it were, therebybringing this
measures,

Before

stormy
The

plunging

movement

second

to

into this

full close.

part is

adagio cantabile,
very slow and
in the major key of the third below, or
A
flat major,
in the twofour-four
time, in singingstyle,a movement
A
deeply felt and tender melody of
part binary form.
with
a
eight measures
simple accompaniment is its first
theme.
This
is repeated with
double accompaniment an
octave
called
higher, after which enters what is sometimes
its second theme, and is often defined as the second part or
continuation
of the first theme.
However, it is so distinctly
like a free fantasia-like figureon a violin,
more
contrasting,
that it may
its second
be termed
subject,although not
theme now
referredto again. The first eightmeasure
occurs
in the original
A
flat
but
the next two
key,
major,
short theme .in -fee same
briiaga new
key in minor,
an

FORM

201

with
minor, which now
tripletsadded, is used

flat

staccato

fourteen

of

theme

latory changes

new

as

with

measures

and

great

accompaniment in
of working-out
sort

moduvery sudden
leading back to its first

some

climax,

with

but

changed accompaniment
of eight measures
coda
is a sort
The
moving downward, coming to a very serene
theme,

The
in

third movement

allegro, of

breve,

double

or

regular

third

minor.
in double

and

rapid tempo

Its
theme

in

key

same

as

Although
time, its

as

of

triplets.

recedingfigure

and

quietclose.

well defined rondo

minor, also alia

the

first movement,
in
being, first theme, second

arrangement
themes

is

of

and

third

theme, after which


repeated in the originalkey

are

this is indicated
character

the first movement,

does
and

as

not

fast movement,
demand
any such
a

amateurs

often make

stroying
taking this at a too rapid pace, thereby deits simplebeauty.
is so closelyconnected
first theme
with the second

mistake

the

time, the
The

form.

first and

of C

tempo,

recurring first theme

theme,
the

fast

of the sonata

in broken

of

that to the uninitiated

it appears

as

continuation

of

in another key, the major


first,but its being distinctly
key of the third step, E flat major, decides it as the first part
the

of

the

second

second

theme, like

theme, then
measures

to

of

more,

in the

treatment

of

the

of this sonata, divides

of
divisions,
eight measures
this part of theme, eight
sort of variation on
with added variation and closingmodulations

the first theme.


short

first movement

the

into three

this theme

Beethoven

theme.

running

parts

The
up

or

first part of this theme


and

down

is made

up
variation of

figures,the
of simple chords, with

the
while the second part is
triplets,
variation again returning.
triplet
After the now
recurringfirst theme in C minor, comes
in the major key of the sixth step of its
its third theme
withal simple
originalkey, or A flat major, a quiet,stately,
in the working-outstyleof the first
theme, written somewhat
sion
treatingit in contrapuntalstyle,both by invermovement,
of the theme and its part% and by adding a contrapuntal

in

more

older writers.

Its close is rather

fifth step or G
chord
which
on

any

it

to

other

of the

long

pause.
for the third time

comes

It follows the

C major.

except the last eightmeasures,


in

but
triplets,

modulation

back

time in its

After

the

without

first

episode

the second
reappears
of the first step of this

the

to

and
entirety,

divisions

same

before

which

were

as

before,

variation

of

lingering,
languid
first theme, recurringfor the fourth

this time

of the second

variation

last movement,

suggestionof change,

theme, but this time in the major key


movement,

styleof

stormy, in the key of the

the dominant

recurringnow

movement,
or

major,

the strict

stylethan

free

part, although

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

202

to

are

sort

its second

half is added

theme, coming

to

the

triplet

false close in A

the
only eight measures,
first four measures
of which
an
are
entirelynew
thought.
it closes with the rapid downward
scale run, by which
Then
theme
closes the first time, modulating to its
the second
firsttheme, but this time ending in its own
key, C minor.
flat

major, adding

"SONATA

short coda

QUASI

UNA

of

FANTASIE,"

OP.

NO.

(BEETHOVEN).
This

form,

as

movement

omitted

is sometimes

called the

Moonlight

Sonata.

Its

its title suggests, is free, like a fantasie. The


first
of the regularsonata
form, the openingallegro,is

entirely. Instead

it

begins with a slow, dreamy,


sharp minor, four-four time, from

in C
song-likemovement,
which, imaginativeminds have

deduced

its false title,


Moonlight

Sonata.
Beethoven
of

this

without

e"

in the

superscription
suggests the character
"With
movement,
great sonority,delicacy,and
of damper pedal." (This superscriptionis
use
in later editions.) This
of course
is not
to
with our
too literally
very sensitive and sonorous

but it is to be modified accordingto the con'piaaos,


f$ieinstrument used for reproduction.The effect

FORM
intended
on

harp

the

was

The

has

same

of

means

no

as

203

when

accompaniment played

an

damping

its tone

of this firstmovement

form

prolongation.

is the

binary,
two-part

openingtheme, on
theme,
the fifth step, recurringopening theme, and
on
the same
second
The
theme, with closingcoda.
movement
begins
with
four measures
of harp-like
broken
chords modulatory
or
introductoryin character,after which the principal
songlike first theme
begins with its harp-likecharacter of the
accompaniment continued through this entire movement.
form;

song

This
two

the

the first step, second

an

which

at

measures,

key

it is sometimes

as

song,

of the fifth

in the nature

of

step, or

short

first in upper

point
G

is carried
called,
a

second

division

sharp minor.

twenty-

on

begins

This

is rather

phrase of three-quarter
notes,

part then

in

literally
repeated one

duced
introoctave

Then

are
again both measures,
repeatedin imitation,
four steps higher,leadingto a passage
of broken
arpeggioin upward movement,
like chords
continuingduring four
then
with
following downward, two measures,
measures,
distinct melodic underground, and closing
modulation,of four

lower.

more

and

measures,

it returns

theme
to its firstrecurring

in the

Now,
Beethoven, instead of repeatingthe
verbatim, as in the previously
analyzed adagio,

originalkey.
entire theme

also in the
op. 13, writes the closing thirteen measures
key of the first step, but this time in C sharp major, not as
of

major key of the seventh step, B major.


After this follows a short coda, of eightmeasures,
usingthe
first three rhythmic notes of the first theme in the bass,over
of the opening accompaniwhich
are
ment,
placed two measures
followed by the up and downward
moving chord figures
in

expositionin

of the second
The

more

as

of

movement

this sonata

is

in character,a
time, sprightly

like the minuet

character
Not

theme.

second

in three-four

the

than

large as

the

of the older
movement

in the

sonatas

from

sort

and

which

previousop. 27,

an

No.

allegretto,
of scherzo,

stilldeeper in
it

developed.

1, distinct in

THEORY

THE

204

MUSIC

OF

in thematic

Its

division.

tion
key relais not regular,but only changed enharto first movement
in the major
monicallyfrom C sharp minor to D flat,but now
key. Its relation of parts is irregularand with the exception
of the second section all parts are in key of the first step. Its
Its
form is classed under the ternary or three-part
song form.
in the key
measures
first theme
continues through sixteen
the continuation
second
or
flat major, after which
of D
theme
follows in the minor key of the sixth step of its scale,
returns
to its first
B flat minor, but after eight measures
theme, closingwith full close in D flat major. The third
theme, or division,is also in the key of its first step, D flat
after which
follows eight
major, continuingeight measures,
of modulation
to the key of the fourth step, G flat
measures
of closingin the firstkey.
major, and eightmeasures
Beethoven, as will have been observed, still being in
down
the fantastic mood
does not
hold himself strictly
to
form

sharplyoutlined

and

laws, established by himself.

the former

The
sonata,
four

third

and

this

of

last movement

presto agitato (very free and

time, is in the

freely written

agitated),in

four-

form, the form used for the first


i. e., first theme, second theme, working-out part,
movement,
and
Its
recurring of first and second theme, with coda.
character, as its heading suggested,is agitatedand stormy.
It is described
also

others

as

sonata

great emotional

describe

it

as

outbreak

thunderstorm.

of the composer,
Either
tion
descrip-

fits this

wonderfully developed movement, and as the


imaginationof the listener is quickenedby its sweeping arpeggios,
and their closingchord crash, he thinks of one
the
or
other.
Its first theme begins with sweeping upward arpeggios,
through three octaves, with a staccato accompaniment in
bass ending with a twice repeatedchord, producing the abovecrash.

mentioned
This
with

six

part and
part all

two

measures

is

theme

measure
more

of

repeated four times,closing


broken

figurein

the

upper
the
lower
accompanyingparallel
part, not broken,in

QO

the organ

point,of

the fifth step, G

sharp major.

FORM
After

three

more

205

of
repetitions

the two

phrase,

measure

this

of twenty
exposition of the first theme
measures,
without
in
the
episode,
immediatelybegins
any
key of G
the
fifth
of
the
first key. Its melody is
sharp minor,
step
song-like character, although the accompaniment reminds
of the turbulent
undercurrent
one
of feeling. The
theme
consists of two

proper

making

measure,
octaves

measures

four

and

two

imitations of the last

phrase, which

measure

repeated,adding four measures


in melody, then a strong chord
and
eight measures,
upper part, continued
are

notes

in the

half of the second

second

theme

in the

in doubled

of

slow

half

running figure

leadingto

the

key. This is a
one
measure
short, staccato-like,
phrase,repeated five tones
higher. This two measure
phrase is literally
repeated,and
added.
This six measure
two
closing measures
phrase is
doubled, above

now

in

octaves

and

same

full chords, with

bass

reversed by breaking
corresponding, the closing measures,
its figureup instead of downward, and doubling its number.
After

these

six

measures

of

the

second

half

of

the

theme, the opening phrase of the first half of theme


is used
form
to
to the
a
modulatory episode,to return
beginning of its first part, and, as was the custom, to repeat
all this part alreadydescribed.
The
begins in the key of first
working-out part now
second

sharp minor, consistingof the two measure


phrase
in the beginning*of the exposition,
used
repeated three
of the second
times, after which, the four opening measures
in the key of the fourth
theme
are
brought into use, but now
This part is treated contrapuntally,
step, or F sharp minor.
bringing the theme first above, then invertingthis,bringing
the theme
below, and accompaniment above. After fourteen
short imitative figure in the
of this treatment
a
measures
part, with a vibrato bass accompaniment of fifteen
upper
recedingand modulatory, with two long sustained
measures,
brings this part to a close.
chords, the last one pianissimo,
section,the second
After the non-recurring
exposition
or
first,
of the first step or
theme
is repeated,
but this time in therffcey
step, C

but

section is reproduced in

entire second

The

sharp minor.
regular order,
C

end

the

at

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

206

added

are

two

phrase

measure
and then, twice,the two
expositiontheme, closing with two diminshed

chords

vibrato

through the
making what
more

is termed
four

the

uses

treatingit

in the

below, with

the

with

phrase

measure

Beethoven

kind

now

second

theme

once

theme,

above, then

accompaniment, working

of

sweeping

the

of

first,the

manner,

same

of the

chords, swept
on
long pause
either,

false close.

same

of wide

climax

keyboard

entire

of

measures

chords

broken

and

up

into

down

the

culminatingin
keyboard, in the upper part of eightmeasures,
an
upward chromatic scale run with a long trill on top and a
cadenza, closingwith two
long sustained
receding downward
slow for these two
bass notes, the tempo being marked
very
critics consider this already as the coda, but
some
measures;
it

short

The

imitative

chords
to

continuation of the former


eleven

coda, of

of second

fragment
of

like

more

seems

theme

made

measures,
and

of six measures,

brings this

beautiful sonata

listeners,suggests

just as their imaginationor

lover's story

temperaments

up

three

chord, figuresof first theme, with

added

some

parts.
of

measures

two

short

to

its close,which,

or

are

thunderstorm,
attuned

at

the

time.

WALDSTEIN
Known
Count
form

under

three

of

this title because

Waldstein.

von

53

OR

SONATA,

movements,

of its

noble sonata
the

(BEETHOVEN).

in

second

being dedicated to
C major in a large

of

these

movements

be

it being shorter than the


exceptedas to largeness,
other two, an intermezzo,
but of the same
depth and dignity.
Its first movement,
brio (rapid and
with
Allegro con
time
life),
four-four, opens with a distinct,characteristic

only

to

theme
chord

of

four
the

measures.

The

first and

second

measure

is

first step or C major, repeated staccato


in
and
the
in
last
fcigt"s, only
quarter does this move
upward
one
3tep, leadingin the third measure
to the end of this first

on

FORM

thought, reallya theme of


ending of three notes like
The

fourth

207

but
the

three

actual

ending

of

with

tones

reversed

an

turn.

of refrain

enlargesthese last
three
notes
to five an
octave
higher, a short and pointed
little grace note before a quarter, then in regularsuccession
four
Then
rapid notes downward.
a
repetitionof these
four measures
whole
one
step lower, in B flat major, after
which
these five notes
downward,
spoken of before, are
then without
ruption
interrepeated twice in successive measures,
are
repeated up and down, almost like a five-finger
downward
of one
exercise,and with a closing run
octave,
in short
C, continuing from this note downward
stop on
in the chord
of C minor, the expositionor
staccato
notes
presentingof the opening theme, closingon a long note with
of its key or
the fifth tone
G.
on
Now, as far as
pause
number
of measures
go, there are just thirteen of these,but
the rhythmical balance is in no
wise disturbed by this apparently
measure

number

uneven

The

the

of

first nine

repeated; but
of

as

is

measures.

of

measures

instead

orchestra

sort

of

staccato

used

now

the

and

or

exposition are
vibrato

now

the imitation

in the hands

of

skilful

performer is very beautiful. The continuingeight measures


are
an
enlargement of the five notes spoken of and the last
downward
run
repeated,up and down, with broken chord
accompaniment, modulating to its third step, the key of E
theme, episode like,
major, but before entering its new
of broken imitative octave
introducingan upward movement
the
staccato
notes, diminishing in force and rapidityfrom
former rapid sixteenths to eighths,
leadingto Its second theme
in
the third step of the scale in E major. This theme
on
in melody on sustained chords,
half and eighthnotes, song-like
the composer
and very connected
sweet
as
requests, is only
duration.
of four measures
By reducing its notes to the
ably,
larger value the tempo appears to have slowed up considerbut

this is

the listener is almost


four

measures

apparent than

more

of

slow

long, the second

real

The

effect

chorale,the real theme


part

of
repetition

on

is but

the first

THE

208

four

one

measures

octave

MUSIC

OF

THEORY
lower

but with

the fourth

measure

and leading to the variation of


already beginning in triplets
the theme
the same
being in lower part and
eight measures,
continues the
the triplet
variation being in upper part. Then
At the first hearing this is
half of the second theme.
second
chords that only
of broken
usually so hidden in the triplets
there is no
the printed page
will find it, as on
students
of melody,
indication of the intent of these chords ; the sense
however, will guide the musical student or listener to find it
very

soon.

the figure is again quickened


eight measures
sixteenths,and after quite a bit of this rapid figurework
After

to

comes

key
and

climax

on

trill of

major, but the momentum,


afterthought,taken or based

of E
an

two

in first theme

in

measures
as
on

the

it were,
is too
the five notes

with

to

it

same

great,
tioned
men-

closing
is added. This is repeated literally
an
figure in last measure
octave
lower, after which this new
closingfigureis woven
into a
of returning modulatory episode,leading
sort
out
the
back
to
repetitionof all this first part of the first
This
movement.
repetitionconsisted of again
customary
as
described,but as this so lengthened
playing both themes
the time of a performance it is beginning to be omitted
as
reallybeing superfluous.
The
working-out part begins on the fourth tone of its
of the first
key or F major, using the first four measures
think
would
theme, but here Beethoven
drops what most
a
the
most
last two
measures.
promising theme, discarding
The
already mentioned, five apparently unimportant closing
notes of the opening theme
are
again introduced and from this
material sixteen
section

of four

of the first part of

measures

formed.

measures,

The

new

brilliant middle

formed
are
thirtymeasures
from tli4
second half of the second theme, making use of only
its first feprmeasures,
buildingup this section in these triplets
of broken' "fcords,
treatingit first in contrapuntal style,then
oti tinderl'
*t"ut outwardly, broken
""jnpeI0"lic
lines,
triplet
of many
All
of
this
chords, the*|di|*a"y
"young pianists.
section i$ in kej$
y$ ""except the firstfour measures.
.are

next

GIACOMA

Born

Italian

living"
and

Lucca,

at

writer.

La

"

Tosca
**

is

by

In

his

the

far

power

he

of

and

Ivric

stvle

great

all

"

33oheme

"

his

but

success

greatest

the

over

dame
Ma-

world

popular.
the

Italian

him

and

old

with,

opera

coloringmakes

La

ing"
lead-

the

the

''

presented

combines

orchestral

is

probably

Lescaut,"

been

most

music

characteristics

lip-lit

has

Puccini

and

Manon

with

met

1858,

in

today

of
"

Butterfly
and

Italy,

composer

opera
"

PLJCCINi

and

verv

truly

dramatic

modern

his

popular

national

mastery
today.

of

the

FORM

209

reaching this point the modulations come


to a
the organ
and
the
section
return
G,
of fourteen
point,
is built up,
using a small fragmentary theme,

After

stop

on

measures

to

the

from

inverted

third

of

the

first theme, accompanied


by a continuous rollingfigure in the bass, working up
large climax and without
stop dropping back to its

opening

first and

.measure

theme

and

Instead

section.

of

repeating

first theme

this

surprise by
broken

of

staccato

first

the

as

G,

on

the

same

and

introduces a
before, Beethoven
modulation; instead of following its

part

false
chord

as

downward

time, he

makes

to

false close

then

repeats this same


false close on
B flat.
this

After

its logical conclusion,


on*

chord, in

digression,unusual

at

flat instead

flat major, with

this stage, and

most

glaring but nevertheless beautiful innovation, the remainder


of the first theme
is given in its regular order and key; but
the last half is placed in a minor
key leading through the
in imitative upward scale movement,
broken
staccato
octaves
theme
the sixth step of the scale,
to its recurringsecond
on
A
of
the
chord-like
major.
Only the eight measures
and
its variation in the same
of measures,
number
theme,
are
half being in the key of the
in this key, the second
now
carried out in exactlythe same
sonata, C major, which is now
as

manner

After

before.

trill,it recedes
mentioned
before, not

with

double

its

logicalkey,

of

the

exposition in D

forces

set

same

at

thematic

new

flat major, continuing with

modulating

in motion

the

its climax

as

short grace
closingmeasure,
sort of harkening back
to
a
and

reaches

expected,returningto what
the
major, but now
introducing

be

measures,

it

cannot

figure in syncopated

notes

figure
would
theme

the

before five downward

note

the

sanis

notes,

the working-outJP"*"In
back
as

of

yet

to
come

its
to

origp^JtetV

The

two
'

accompaniment of the first theme


of |
part has the last two measures*

the
on

lower

top is

treated,
always
running figure,then the IPS* gajeMfflfe!
one
%"re I" Jboth tipper
st% feigher,
finally
stotp^
until its
and
1o"ier;|fiucte
a

THEORY

THE

210

receding part

cadenza-like
choral

second

is

theme

its last chords,

by

once

three

and

MUSIC

two

long

touched

more

times

OF

held

repeating them,

the last one, Beethoven


and with
into his first theme

the last time

the

on
lingering

upon,

slower, and pausingon


for

chords,
slower

and

finally
plunges
showy

run

brilliant movement
to a
motion, bringsthis most
close.
and dashing
in key of F major, the fourth step
Its second movement
of first key, can
hardly be classed under any of the different
without its orderlyprocedure. A
forms, yet it is not entirely
in six-eight
time headed
"Introduction,"
very slow movement
meaning an introduction to the coming rondo.
(Introduzione)
In character dreamy, modulatory, its main theme being made
and closing chords.
of a small fragment with its repetition
Then
This, repeated,makes the first eight measures.
begins
of
this
the second half
If it
theme, eight measures
more.
in a new
were
key it would be classed as its second theme,
but, beginning tonallylike the first and in the same
key, it
It proceeds,unlike
be hardly classifiedas second theme.
can
the first theme, as it adds a new
figure,through eight measures,
first thought or theme of eight measafter the recurring
ures,
in contrary
very decided

the

and

musicallynot

number

same

finished

or

modulatory measures,

of
closed

on

its dominant:

halting,

like

ductor
con-

with raised

baton,surveyinghis orchestra,before giving


The
last long held note
his final signal to commence.
is,
also without
interruptionor cessation,the beginning of the
last movement.

The

key of C in a moderately fast tempo


ing
moderate), two-four time, its first theme consist(Allegretto
of a simple melody of quarter notes, in a four measure
followed by its imitation in the
phrase,repeatedidentically,
the dominant, producinga sixteen measure
same
on
manner
section with two
measures
added, by repetitionof the end
but prolonging the last tone
through four more
The accompaniment consists of rollby repetition.
rondo

in

00

rwbtcfa at the end

of these

twenty-two measures
aii" apparently
take the lead,
Ttie effect is
tipwaitt.
'

FORM

one

of suspense

211

and

waiting,as these eightmeasures, of interwoven


figurework, only fillin the pause preparatory to repeating
this

theme

in

The theme
larger manner.
in octaves, the accompaniment is the same
for sixteen
then the above-mentioned
of the last
measures,
repetition
is changed to a trill,
note, through four measures,
but the
same

is doubled

trill this time


and

imposed

is continued

downward,

this trill is the

over
a

through

scale run,

two

seven

more

theme.

same

octaves

upward

measures,

As
and

an

companimen
ac-

return

is

added, twice, completingthe treatment


of this
short four measure
into an expositionof
out
phrase worked
But this does not quitecomplete this
sixty-two measures.
voluminous
section as an
On paper
afterthoughtis added.
it appears as heavy broken chords, to the listener the same, but
if correctlyinterpreted
by a good performer it is a melody
continued
for eight measures
in half notes
Here
more.
this simple yet remarkablybuilt up exposition
ends on a short,

song-liketheme.
Its second

theme, in a minor key of the sixth step of


the scale,A minor, begins in unison, upper and lower parts
into octave
triplets.Again, as in the
alike, but broken
theme
four measure
is made
a
use
of, repeated
exposition,
tinue
conoctave
an
higher. After this broken octave the triplets
lower

in the upper part and a continuation of the theme


or
These last four measures
part follows for four measures.

repeatedin"a variation form in lower part,then a


two
measure
phrase, in the character of the beginning of
These
of figurework.
the theme, followed by two measures
peated,
reare
identically
four, apparently fragmentary measures,
after which this last two
measure
phrase is prolonged,
are

now

repeated four

measures

after these

Added

more.

'

twenty-

simplecontinuation of five notes, again in


*i. e., three octaves
unison, first only in octaves, then trebled,
for
broad, but not broken, statelyand quiet,leading now
its recurrii^first theme, in its
back
to
the first time
eight measures

is

a total of forty-four
originalkey, forming a second section,

measures,

"

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

212

out
repeatedin its entiretyand withsecond's hesitation plunges into its third theme, in the
a
minor.
This, like the
minor
key of its first step, C
second
theme, is introduced in unison,double staccato, broken
then these eight measures
continued
octaves
eight measures,
the theme
with
point
treated contrapuntally
above, counterare
below, counterpoint
below, then inverted, the theme
is continued, coming to a close on its
This treatment
above.
keynote C in octaves in unison repeated four times, making
measures.
a section of forty-four
class as a conNow
tinuation,
theme, which some
appears a new
differs that it can
but it so radically
hardly be so
it as new,
Its key, while near
considered.
related,marks
of the key the third theme
is
being the third step downward
its character,broad, rich,
written in, or A flat major, and
mellow chords,classes it as opposite.
The

first theme

But

whether

built of

four

or

as

flow

of

first movement,
established
order,

in the

all form

break

to

Beethoven's

new,

bounds, and

no

and

This

theme, as all others before, is


continuing in this wise for
groups,

order.

new

now

continuation

thought stops at
while appearing
creates

is

measure

Then
is to the ear
what
lot of
a
forty measures.
appears,
broken chord, figurework, but the underlyingthought is the
chord ground work, only elaborated in the upper part,
same
and usuallymistaken for a useless prolongation. After thirtyof this variation,
four measures
and while this stillcontinues,
a
hint, as it were, is given of the recurringfirst theme by
three singlenotes repeatedfour times,in two measure
groups ;
then

instead

long

and

of three notes

short

then

these

are

reduced

to

two

notes,

singlenote, one in each measure,


four times repeated,closingand adding a hint of the two
rhythmicalopening notes of the now
impending first theme;
aiidafter wavering between one and two note repetitions
this
one,

second half of the third theme

by modulating
ita fk$t key
m
IP its

the

back

to

of C

major.

of

one

hundred

first theme

This

closes

measures

of the

rondo, again

for the third time

entirety,
addingthe eightmeasures

is

peated
re-

of after-

FORM

before,but this

thought mentioned
this eight measure
of

213

theme

wave-like

and

time

builds

character

Beethoven

on

colossal part

new

enlarges

of

thirty-five
measures.
with
Then
in force
chords,graduallydiminishing
and
to the softest pianissimo,with
duration, down
a
long
the
last
its
coda.
for
chord, prepares
pause on
Now
follows in its originalkey, C major, a remarkable
Its tempo is marked
"Prestissimo"
coda.
(the most
rapid
stormy,

large,broad

The

possible)

time

mark

double

time, alia breve.

theme

values,

of

two

rondo

the

is used
into

measures

contracted

four

one,

thereby producingin tonal effect


After

but

ing
open-

in its time
into

measures

theme

new

The

of two

two,

measure

repetitionsand a variation of these


four measures
ures
prolonged by its last rapidfigure,twelve measis
a
slightepisodalthought of eight measures
more,
inserted,after which again the first theme and variation two
in all a part of thirtymeasure
phrases,fourteen measures,
take prominence, leading to what
reminds
eight measures,
of the second
half of the third theme, the part in A
one
The
thematic contents
flat major.
in the lower accomare
paniment,
while the upper part is in broken chords, in triplets,
but three notes
to the
(half measure) beat, producing the
duration.

two

groups of three in the measure.


double octave
close with the famous
eightmeasure

effect of six-four time


It

comes

to

glissando,first
in the

then

in the

lower

two

or

upper

part,

two

part,

downward,
upward, both repeated

two

octaves

octaves

from
ending of a run in contrary motion
the middle
outward, continuing with a trill in upper part
back
the lower
part continuing this run
eight measures,
first
to
of the piano preparatory to return
the middle
to

twice, with

its

theme.

Now,

certainlymust

Beethoven

the

have

had

other

ments
instru-

ure
followingthirtymeasdistinct parts, or
yokes. The trill
section into three
the middle
all through this part as
continues
mentioned
or
on
voice, the first,short contracted theme is used over
in
top of this;the lower part playsa chord figurein triplets,

in his

mind,

as

he

divides

six-four to the

rhythm,
an

make

From
more

now

measures,

three parts, with their counter


beautiful,if difficult part, closingwith

most

effective double

MUSIC

These

measure.
a

OF

THEORY

THE

214

trill.

built

end, the closing section of thirty


two
measure
phrases,on the organ

the

to

on

on

point on first step, C, carries this brilliant and unusual or


freelyformed rondo and sonata to a charming close.
modes
of
Beethoven's
genius,ever on the search for new
all former
transcended
limits.
expression,in this sonata
While
his thematic
material,as always, is the most
simple,
yet in the

elaboration

overthrown

all former

By comparing
stein Sonata, with

this material

of

in this work

he

has

rules.

the first movement,


the

Sonata

op.

53, of

Pathetique,the

the

utter

Wald-

freedom

placing of his first and second themes


in keys heretofore
unheard
of, and making a false closing
in exposition themes, in adding a
modulation
coda, the
and
dimensions
magnitude of a complete part will be seen.
In the rondo, the innovation
of repeatingthe expositionon
ducing
an
enlarged or doubled scale after the third theme, introsection with a distinct theme, which by courtesy
a
new
is described by critics as a continuation
of the third theme
but feels like a fourth theme, the enlargingof the eight
of second theme
at the recurringpart to a
dosing measures
and last a coda of such magninew
tude,
part of large dimensions
in three distinct,
hundred
and
large*sections,of one
creates
a
forty-eightmeasures,
feelingof almost reverence
Beethoven
and awe.
makes of this almost fragmentary material
a
beautiful,bold, masterly written sonata of such large
portance
proportionsthat it approaches a symphony in size and imof

modulation, and

SONATA

APPASIONATA,

;A, sonata

in three

OR

movements.

tyr ;very rapid;the second

57

(BEETHOVEN).
The

Andante

first one,
con

moto,

Assai

slowly

FORM

motion; third

with

but

troppo, fast but

on

beats

four

first downward

half with

followed

so.

key of F minor, twelve-eight


begins with a theme built
measure,

the fifth of this triad it moves,


its keynote, then
and
reverses
moves

to

closingin

octaves,

two

non

Beginningwith

the triad.

upward

Allegroma

in the

the

to

last movement,

much

too

first movement

The

time,

not

and

215

trill,
and, as it were,
by another
ending

constitute

the third measure,


its regulardownward
from

above.

its first theme.

They

on

second

ending

These

four

repeated, in
the fourth step of scale,or B flat minor,
double unison
on
with trill and peculiarending is
This time its last measure
repeated,followed by four singlenotes in the lower bass,like
measures

imitation

the

these
one

and

last

of

the

measures

kettledrums

in

repeated,two

are

the

are

orchestra.

steps higher,prolonged

of this refrain
by repetition
rhythmicallyimitated in the higher notes, much
more

measure

with

then

chord

broken

downward

close with

Both

for

of

drums,
retarded,

two

measures,

chords, the last one on


fifth step of its key.
the dominant
or
sixteen measures,
This, the first half of this exposition,
is now
repeated,but in full sonorous
chords, after eight
the lower part repeats one
singlenote persistently
measures,
for four
through all the twelve eights of the measure,
then this repetition
is broken into groups of three
measures,
is a
by adding the chord beginning at each beat. Above
in long notes in receding moduof the theme
continuation
lations
be its second theme, in the key of
would
to what
third step or A flat major.
A new
accompaniment is added, a full chord broken in
triplets.Rhythmicallythis accompaniment is a figureof twoThe
eights producinga cross rhythm of two againstthree.
in
inversion of the first theme, so critics are
theme
is an
it as second, or still as part
to classify
doubt as to whether
to

comes

abrupt

an

of the firsttheme.
trills each
run

of

one

four

measure

measures

This

ends

two

after ten

measures,

long, followed by
ajbsdnow
in triplets,

with

downward

enters

three

scale

a
positively

theme,

second

new

four

the third

on

step

It is

duration.

measures

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

216

or

exactly repeated,one

of this theme

higher; the last two notes


for the prolonging of this

flat minor, of

used

are

just

octave

as

basis

eight measure
phrase two
follows the remaining afterthought,
Then
more.
measures
ing
closingwith the triad theme moving downward, and diminishA
to a pianissimo. Here changing the key enharmonically,
is
G
to
"flat minor
sharp minor, the opening first theme
and trill are
used,
given in its entirety. Its closingmeasure
lead
the
to
to
In a sort of episodalway,
working-out part,
which
now
begins on the seventh step of its scale, in E
of

added

the

tion
innova-

repetitionof the entire first half


cipal
proceedingimmediately to developthe prin-

marking

not

and

in this movement

has

Beethoven

minor.

four

of the sonata, but

any

part.

Using only the


in the

and

bass

produced by

as

the

the

of the first theme

measures

accompaniment above,

an

stringson

Then

measures.

opening

two

vibrato

orchestra,but only

the

inversion

of

parts takes

for

place,

as

two

but

accompaniment is a figureof five notes to each beat of


this uneven
During ten measures
rhythm
three-eighttime.
continues, closing with the repetitionof the last note, in
of tensity
sense
producing in character the same
triplets,
This part of
at close of the first theme.
already mentioned
the

first theme

the

is

for the

first described
the

with
eleven

now

broken

heavy

worked

chords
on

in the
Then

measures.

all built

measures,

out

as
a

same

manner

fourteen

before

are

diminished

as

measures

added, with

seventh

chord.

This, the climax


the

three

same

of this part, graduallyrecedes in power, with


closingnotes of the first theme used again in the

manner

upper

part

tripletin
measures

it were,

as

as

the

kettledrums

by

flutes.

bass

in the

Continued

orchestra,answered
three-four

measures

in thq
this

half tone.
Two
suddenly drops one
of this singletone
repetitionfollow, preparing as
of the firsttheme, which now
for the re-entrance
in its
feeyof F minor is reproduced exactly,but this time
the fifth tone of the scale,or on C, leading to
"a

FORM
the
not

remaining ten
as

before

The

second

for

three

with

begins
with

major, ending

measures,

its second

minor, but

major.

theme

now

of this section in F

measures

in the

217

half

in the

its
and
in

same

the

its

heavy tripletchord

key of the first step


one
long trills,
measure

closingdownward

run,

paniment
accomor

in F

each,
leading

its minor

for
key. Thenceforward
this part is carried out as before,but before
twenty measures
more
closing the second theme once
enters, but in a higher
region of tone, making, what appeared before like a heavy
chord accompaniment, now
an
airy and lightsection of eight
Then
follows
measures.
a
closing section of the same
the closing part at the end of the working-out
nature
as
section, intended as an intense passionateclimax, terminating
with
but not
full close, with four measures
of this same
of the opening theme, retarding
part as the closingmeasure
slow
and diminishing to
a
adagio, repeating these
very
to

first described

three

in

notes

chord

slowlythree
very
coda based on twenty-

The
times,then three crashingchords.
four measures
begins on the first theme with tripletchord
accompaniment in the first half,beginning softlyand leading
the last half, all in full syncopated chords
with great
to
passion.
In the last four measures
by giving the full opening
theme
with
the
string vibrating accompaniment, dying
difficultboth
this passionatemovement,
to a pianissimo,
away
its almost
to
to
as
interpretationand execution, comes

whispered

close.

Its second

movement,

an

Andante

con

moto

(slow, but

major key of the third step


D flat major, two-four
time, Beethoven
or
downward,
now,
variations.
the theme
and
of the song
instead
form, uses
is of a serene,
theme
The
lofty and deep felt beauty, rich
in tone quality,
and sonorous
presentedin two eightmeasure
of the day, is
the custom
phrases. Each phrase, as was
marked
pianistsof today are
to be repeated,but concert
beginning to omit these time prolonging repeats.
with

some

motion),

in

the

first variation is

The

part being the

syncopated.
the

with

same,

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

bass

theme

The

in upper
half beat

followinga

In the second variation the upper part is varied by


these
breaking the former chords into sixteenths over
behind.

sevenths,the harmonic feelingis also complete but


is retained,and
by binding the third
melody sense

fourteen
the

melody, partly syncopated and


accompaniment is doubled in time,
sixteenths
from
to
making it the most
thirty-seconds,
beautiful of the three variations with its limpid,flowingand
running accompaniment. This is also inverted,the theme
being laid into the lower part and this varied accompaniment
placed in the upper part, in eight measure
groups, closing
begins this
partly repeated. The
variation

the variation with

same

scale

downward,

and

repeatingthe
in its originalsetting,
first theme, once
more
modifying only
of the closing
the pitchposition
Its last
measures.
slightly
instead

chord

the instruction

and

run

being a full close is a diminished chord,


beingthat it be playedvery softlyand brokenly

sustained
chord

of

to

twice

its time

value.

The

same

ished
dimin-

higher, held the same


length,but struck fortissimo (very loud), and without any
more
warning than this pausing on these two chords, the
next

is

movement

This

minor,

an

in two-four

repeated,one

octave

is attacked.

third movement

Allegro,ma
time,in

of the first step, or F


but not too fast),
tropo (rapid,
first movement,
as
form, the same

in the
non

sonata

key

diminished chord,but this time uttered


beginswith the same
in a trumpet-like
This is
manner.
through four measures
followed by a downward
running figure,taken partlyfrom
the first theme, firstin two
measure
phrases,then connected,
then doubled by adding the lower part in unison.
After

fifteen

firsttheme

of the

of this

section the
introductory
expositionbegins,made up of two meas-

measures

After eightmeasures
ypt |"hjrases.

$ffc"bttt almost

like

these

second theme

reidentically
another thought is
are

'

ti:3j1ii$
;rwttmer

of

working

with

two

continuallyjrotn
"QW

on

themes
to the

at

end.

the

FORM

219

After

this second thoughtis used as the


thirtymeasures
thought with accompanying figureof similar character

main
as

in

first theme
the

treatment

below.

first two

After

fourteen
of

measures

of

measures

the thematic

this

figureare

again used, modulating to its secondary subjecton the fifth


The separationis so indefinite,
step of its key or C minor.
the connection
with previous part so close,that it
appears
nearly as a continuation,but its key defines it as the second
theme.
Again, it is made up of short two measure
phrases,
with running figure,
repeated,then enlarged to six measures
containingabove it another thought,all of this main thought
while the upper
lower
being repeated two octaves
part is
varied twice by broken
and a running figurein two
octaves
measure
phrases. The remaining six measures
pleted
being comclosed
with broken
full
in
C minor, a
octaves
only,
in the first half
sort of coda-like section is added, consisting
of an imitation of the firsttheme, in the last
of two measures
of chords in the upper part and the run
This is built up into a section
in lower part.
is continued
of sixteen measures,
closingon a diminished seventh chord,
half of two

measures

first struck

then given
forcibly,

the entire sweep

of the

board,
key-

down

six measures, leadingto the working-out


part, in the key of the fourth step, or B flat minor.
the next
only the first theme
twenty-four measures

first up

During
is used, with

then

rather

simpleaccompaniment.
introduces an entirelynew
At this juncture Beethoven
four measure
phrase in the same
key, B flat minor, doubling
in octaves
in the upper part. All
this in its first repetition
are
identically
repeatedin C major, dosing
eight measures
Again, the first
fullyin the key of the first step or F minor.
into command, treated in imitative fashion;after
theme comes
theme follows leadingto a
beginning in upper part the same
climax

of

syncopatedoctaves.

theme, a find of receding


to a false
modulatory part being interposed. Having come
close, with a sweep of upward broken chords, a grotip of
Beethoven

these

measures

at

leaves this

once

and

one

measure

rest, all of which

is

re-

OF

THEORY

THE

220

MUSIC

figureis brought forward in two measure


a
steadilydecreasingtempo, until only one
which
to two
is used, then one
note
to each measure
measures,
a
long continued bass
is followed by four slow chords on
section.
The
measure
curring
renow
note
ending this thirty-six
Its
expositionis treated exactly as the first time.
this time is placedin the major key of the sixth
second theme
to the
step, or D flat major, but at its close again returns
minor
preparatory to repeatingall this working-out part.
have been an
sight,
overThis, as other writers have said, must
both pianistand hearer to have
this
it overtaxes
as
difficultpart rehearsed again,as it were.
most
The coda now
begins,presto (very rapid),with a new
in chords,the first time in the key
phrase of eightmeasures
of the first step, F minor, then repeated in the key of the
After this the first two
third step, A flat major.
measure
is
in
used
buildinga section of
phrase of the main theme
bringing this difficult and passionate
thirty-eight
measures,
sonata
to a very brilliant ending.
peated,the same
phrases,but in

When

the sonata

is written

for the entire orchestra

symphony. This word


"sinfonia,"meaning "a consonance

called

is derived

in another

from

the

sounds."

of

part' of this chapter the

it is

Italian
As

plained
ex-

sinfonia

name

given during the earlySeventeenth Century to the short


instrumental preludewhich precededan opera, and as we
can
the
the
trace
back
sinfonia the overto
ture
symphony
directly
is its predecessor. It was
of the
not until the middle
Eighteenth Century that composers
began to write separate
sinfonia exclusively
for concert
purposes, and Haydn added
to the old three movement
overture
a fourth,the minuet, and
the
firsttime
the
form ; in fact,he was
sonata
the
adapted for
first to adapt the sonata form for orchestration.
Beethoven
elaborated and extended the symphony and used the scherzo

was

placeof

the minuet.

The

introduced by
then
out

by

symphony

slow

a
a
a

consists of

movement,

scherzo and
finale

brilliant

followed

its trio and

by

the

usuallyin allegroand

an

com-

was

FORM

first real movement.

the

however,

can

The

stated

instruments

of

order

with

the

of

movements,

the ideas of the

orchestra

have

posers.
com-

given

broader

opportunitiesfor producing new


than
they could possiblycommand

effects

instrument.

The

the

of

instruments

various

orchestra

divisions
used

were

and
in

and
on

individual
the

varying

in alternate

rhythm,

less
handling of the melody and in numberthat the compositionfor the orchestra has
so
time the
greatest opportunityand at the same

other

ways,
to be the

come

No

given as they vary

varied

composers
elaborate

single

be

221

test of the modern

supreme
The

It

masters.

composer.
that preferredby the great classic
was
cal
produced "in the golden age of pure musi-

form

sonata
was

beauty," their

marked

the

change from the profound,


almost
mathematical, learning of the fugal or polyphonic
of the churchmen.
school
from
this the
Breaking away
classicists sought for greater simplicity,
ing
gradually establishand

metes

new

era

bounds

until the

of

present acceptance

technical

tinct
meaning of the term classical music is a disand
of
logicalarrangement of parts and a symmetry
form, which most
nearly approaches correspondencewith the
acceptedrules derived from the work of the great masters.
from
and
Aside
this narrow
somewhat
exacting use of
the word
and the
classic,as appliedto music by composers
majority of the critics,is another which has no regard for
consideration
and which is appliedto all works, without
form
the

of their form, which

have

stood

the test of time

peculiar and lastingappeal: with


have fugal,symphonic, romantic
may

of

because

their

this

understanding

we

and

operaticforms

which

are

classical because

illusive and
live.

ancient
and

there

are

times
somequalities

impossibleof analysiswhich

have

also is the acceptance of the term in


of the word- is borrowed
literature,and this use

them
to

in them

This

Rome,

another

where

one

man

was

man

regard
from

rated in the third class

in the fourth, the division

but the
worldly possessions,

made

of tie

being based

upon

his

higheststandingwas

spoken
From

of and

the

The

as

a
classical,

adoption of

romantic

term

of the best authors

this the works

hence
classics,
,-

ranked

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

the

man

came

criticism.
from

borrowed

way

same

in musical

name

is in the

class apart.
to be known
as

in

Ages poets told their mythical


of
tales,Christian legends,stories of fairies,of adventures
the crusaders and other heroes of chivalryin the old Romance
had been forgotten and neglected
language. These poems
even
by scholars and it was not until toward the close of the
EighteenthCentury that^theywere again brought into notice
and French
by a group of German
poets. They revived the
spiritof medieval
poetry by embodying it in their own
works
and as a group
School,
to be called the Romantic
came
literature.

which

During

served

clung to
the term

to

the Middle

the rules and


romantic

from

distinguishthem
models

was

writers

the

who

of classic

appliedto

antiquity.Very soon
music, and it characterized

in
and the manner
subjectsof certain compositions
is especially
which
treated.
they were
Today the term
them
since Beethoven, among
Weber,
applied to composers
Schubert, Schumann,
They accepted
Chopin and Liszt.
the suggestionsfound
for a largerfield
work
in Beethoven's
of musical
originalresources
expression and by their own
attained rich results.
Musicians
had been tending toward
and
formal
and we
of music
exact
treatment
are
grateful
both

the

to the Romantic

with

rules and

School

for

savingit when

restrictions that would

have

it

was

made

threatened
it

dead

formality. They
of

some

it greater freedom
of form, revived
gave
the finest works
of the early composers,
developed

the

capabilityand technique of various instruments and by


their own
genius added many
splendidmasterpiecesto the
of music.
treasures
Carl Maria
Weber
is perhaps the greatest
of this school of music, and to him, the Romantic
master
its origin and highest
Opera, one of Germany's prides,
owes
for these operas
derived
development. The themes
were
from
German, French, Norse, Spanish and Oriental tales
and

contain

modern

scenes

and

characters

legendsand folklore.

found

in

medieval

and

FORM

As

be

can

readily understood, the strife between the


classical tendencies
began just as soon
as
laws
were
established,although the application

and

romantic

musical

any

of

223

these

terms

made

not

was

until

later.

This

is

strikinglyexemplifiedby the rise of the Troubadours


in the Middle
ment,
Ages. To a considerable extent a social movein the absolute breaking away
it was
from
crystallized
church
The
had been for
all previous conditions in music.
very

the

centuries

graduallyassumed

protector of music

and

conservator

which

had

that

form

permitted it to express no
those of religionand worship. The
dours
Troubaemotions
save
and adventure, and went
developed songs of love,war
that they even
far in their effort to express themselves
so
devised musical modes
to their times and
new
entirelynew
for their accompaniments. At the same
time
instruments
in the
the Troubadours
were
working these innovations
countries

Latin

in
were
Meistersingers
doing the same
they gained such prominence and power

the

Germany, and there


that they eventually commanded

which
regulations,

their rules and


broken
musical
of

down

in the

same

things is admirably set


in music.

innovator

every

yearningfor
music.

his

some

out

productionsagree

in

to

came

new

This

lished
estab-

on

be
the

condition

"
tersingers
Meisopera, the
conditions confronting

Wagner's

visual

The

romanticist
way

is

to express

ever

the innovator,

his emotions

in

the rules of the past, and


the classicistwho
is striving
to make

refuses to be bound

He

into conflict with

comes

precedingthem.

is made

in which

in time

that they had trampled

way

of those

conventions

situation and

the

by

with those rules.

Under

these conditions

off secbnd
majorityof cases comes
best, as the critics who have gained their knowledge and
position by a mastery and understandingof productions
with those
already in existence do not as a rule deal lightly
the innovator

who

past.

have
Nor

in the vast

the termerityto depart from


does

the

musical

the traditions of the

public,whose standards are


seems
immovably set, readily

already firmly,sometimes it
From this it will be
accept the new.

seen

that the

meaning

224

of both

as

to

become

form

to

today
aside

necessityvague and
fixed, for the tendency is

emotion

be

emotion

subservient

improvement
warring between

classical forms

can

nothing yet produced having


the

these

tendencies that the

two

music,

ing
entirelyeliminat-

in

succeeded

repeat what

earlier forms, and, to

of

It is because

the art.

in all so-called romantic

be traced

of

first

the

tomorrow,

of

the

constant

for the romantic

setting
that
and the latter insisting
to
form, and both working

classic of

express

must

together for
the

the

possiblybe

cannot

is of

terms

considered

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

said

was

at

the

kind is an
beginning of this chapter,form or plan of some
absolute requirement of all art.
considered
the most
The
is by many
symphonic poem
it is a
direct and logicaloutgrowth of the symphony and
form
commonly used in orchestral compositions.There are
three pointsof agreement in all symphonic poems,
they are
always programmatic, that is,the clew to the meaning which
intended to convey is given in a title or literary
the composer
phrase which accompanies it; in this point they will be seen
to

resemble

titles

by

of the sonatas

some

the mental

hinting at

its

performance.

It

attitude

supposed

reduced

was

the

which

to

in

writers
to

form

gave
induced

be
to

single

and in this again there is a connection


with some
movement,
of the sonatas
whose
instructed that they be played
composers
without

and
interruption,

in the

of the sonata

movements

rhythm and tempo. The


the principalsubjectmust
moods, slow

movements

climaxes

being followed
foundation
principleof

in the romantic
seen

from

gradual

forms

this short

was

the

symphonic

traceable in

are

changes

new

and

in

key,

of this form is that


requisite
admit of presentationin various
with rapid passages and
alternating
In short, the
by points of repose.
unity and varietyis just as necessary
third

is the classical.

as

analysisof

change

from

the

the

It

unusual

way

can

symphonic

readilybe
poem

purely classic form,

mturally Enough, when we keep in mind the


"3i3$gewas
brought about by the Idnging of

fbr Swie

ent
the differ-

poem

for him

to

fact that

how
and
the

the individual

express

his

own

FORM

emotions;

225

the first change from

the

purely classic form was


in whose
made
by Beethoven
compositionstheorists find the
culmination
of the classic and the beginning of the romantic,
but all of whose
find a welcome
productionsnow
placeamong
classical programs.
Following the
from

the
in

overture

symphonic

true

sonata

form

sonata

in order

poem
is the

consists

of least

ture
depar-

classical overture.
of

two

or

The

three

themes

tion
differingin character, preceded by a short, slow introducafter a development section
of pathetic nature, and
of the principal
there is a repetition
subjects.It differs from
form
in that here is no repetition
of the entire
the true sonata
less strictly
in
or
exposition. This form is adhered to more
and in the majority of operaticoverthe concert
overtures
tures
based

not

the

from

themes

on

the opera

from

ouverture,
appliedto an instrumental
originally
The

played

the

the

"

the

opening

and

toccata

Seventeenth

Century

faint indications of the modern


be

in

movement

dance

an

"

it

one

or

usuallypassed
not
were

until the
there

more

oratorio.

or

opera

was

under

time

more

of

than

overture; in truth Lully may

it in its present form.


His
usuallyconsisted of the slow introduction,a quicker

considered

overtures

of

piece of

introductions

and

sinfonia

names

Lully

at

instrumental

early

name,

signifies
"opening,"and

French

movements

itself. The

forms

of

inventor

the

fugal style,and
then

in

use.

We

frequentlyone
hear

much

of

the

of the French

many
and

though the difference between


them
were
very marked, while in truth it lies only in the
the French
beginning with the serious
opening movement,
Italian with
the
As
and
a
quick, light introduction.
further developed the name
the overture
to be apcame
plied
the Italian

to
use

touch

operaticoverture

as

cert
compositions intended merely for conis today most
this way
used.
A
frequently

orchestral
and

of the

in

romantic

feear titlesthat convey

sometimes
at once

enters

into them

and

they

the intention of the composer

illustratesome
poeticallegendary subject,and again they
for their appeal.
depend upon their own artisticIfcauty
to

OF

THEORY

THE

226

MUSIC

professed to actually
give by snatches of
the opera to follow, is

overture, which
the listener to the drama, to

The

styleof

old

introduce

general outline a clue to


introduction
is
instrumental
an
rarely found today. When
has an independent
used it is really
a lengthenedprelude which
is but seldom
value and importance,though this name
motives

used

and

with operas, oratorios

The

cantatas.

or

classical

ture
over-

complete,well-rounded musical compositionand not


melodies in an
merely a gathering togetherof the principal
which
is much
more
pourri.
properly called a medley or potopera
is

There
least

the

attempt
few

are

which

through

whose

titles

explain in part

at

composition and we shall not here


complete list but shall speak brieflyof a
the

of

nature
to

forms

many

give

have

some

marked

characteristics and

have

lived

changes.
ment
Immediatelypreceding the sonata in matter of developthe fantasia,which
of the first titles
one
was
was
given to a composition intended expressly for instruments
to have been an
alone, which in turn, seems
outgrowth of the
madrigal, described in another chapter. As the name
gests,
sugit is a free creation abidingby no
strict laws of composition,
many

and

time

hence

find

we

having no

many

musical

definite form.

At

effusions called

the present
fantasias,and

compositions for orchestra,which are not long enough


to claim the titleof symphonic poem, or which
lack the dignity
Not only do we find the composer
of an overture.
using any
of license in his fantasias but he seems
amount
today to have
littleregard for the title and appliesthe name
to medleys of
operaticor folk-songsof the potpourri type, to grotesque
also

and

movements
no

other

in fact whenever

his fantastic work

as

indefinite is the

title ballad.

song accompanied by dancingand


the Italian word
Ballo, meaning a dance.
is

quite

claim

name.

Almost
meant

can

as

aiKt

indefinite

place and

as

is its

and
poetical,

was

It

originally

derived

Its musical
has

varied

from
form
with

though the generally


accepted meaning

FORM
is

narrative

accompaniment,

orchestra

purelyinstrumental

and

with

piano or
employed for

is also

name

today

have

we

orchestral

and

clasical

Among

since

favorite form
set

music,

the

voice

one

solo ballads.

instrumental

has been
piano pieces the nocturne
Chopin'stime,and though adheringto

it is like the

form

for

composed

poem

227

and

true

other

its name,
It is written

to

cycle

forms

of

several

a
no

ments
move-

"night piece,"is always

of

only for solo instruments


Not so long
but for open-airbands and stringedorchestras.
of its name
have the serenade,
we
adhering to the significance
form
in no
which
has developed into a decided
nected
conway
with the original
meaning.
written largelyfor wind instruments,
serenade was
The
suitable for open-airmusic, but as it became
a
as
they were
halls the compositionsfor stringed
favorite form for concert
instruments
gained ascendency. The serenade contains more
than are usuallyfound in the sonata
movements
or
symphony
and as a consequence
not
so
they are
fullydeveloped and
Even
are
some
lighter and less rigid in construction.
dreamy

nature.

modern

serenades

originallyused

piece as

the

derived
was
expressionthroughout. The name
Italian Sera (eveningsong),and though now
criminately
indis-

the

used

combined
search

for

methods

new

few

intended to

the song was


instrument which could
air and

open
an

are
one

of

expression.Conditions
at

never

form

rest

ends

nor

and

fixed and
another

of
we

any
can

begins,but,

while architecture varies with


earlier illustration,

with
conditions,
some

art

where

scarcelysay
our

was

and operaticforms have all been


sonata, romantic
of the others in
and each has been used with one

living,growing
use

of music,

or

The

to

for different kinds

playedat night in the


could be accompanied by
carried by the serenades

be sung
such as
be

in part to the true nature


of
and are
and
simple,melodious

in

sensuous

from

conform

do

not

countries

types of

centuries and

and

structure

it is to them

with
that

individual taste
have

stood

the

there
test

the architect consciously


or

are

of
un-

228

consciously
of

musical

and

seeking'

for

as

the

whole,

and

though

always

find

they

could

be

no

his

artistic

in

variety

unity.

of

intimate

composition
title

typical

and
creation

parts

student

may

relation,

ing
accord-

parts

many

lead,
mis-

forms.

analyze

we

the

the

may

classifications

general

unite

the

so

how

matter

no

which

some

work;

developed

every

artistic

every

the

his

of

developed

elements

have

in

own

perfectly

more

musical

base

forth,

set

make

can

the

to

every

here

as

find,

will

form

principles

the

for

turns

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

seem

otherwise

endless

In
it

by

into

we

there

APPRECIATION
beginnings of all things are full of interest as is
evident
of inquiry now
made
devoted
to the
by the 'amount
institutions and ideas, and of all the various
origin of human
of life. And
forms
surely most
interestingof all, because
embracing all, are the beginnings of the human
mind, the
first dim stages in the development of man's
God-like reason.
affair of the psychologist or
The
scientist is to explain the
of the simple,to trace
back the
seemingly complex in terms
first dim stages in the development of man's God-like reason.
makes
He
a careful
study of the earlyphases of mental life,
in so doing has found
it possibleto connect
the individand
ual
The

life with
of

the

on

some

If

one

the

life of

the

race;

and

careful

observation

first years
much
of the child have
thrown
light
of the gravest questionsrelatingto man's
nature.

believes

in

the

doctrine

of

evolution

he

views

the

intelligence
today as conditioned and
unfolding of a human
experience. The civilized
prepared by long ages of human
condensed record of
individual is,in a sense, a memento,
or
work
of organizing or buildingup living,conscious
Nature's
and the psychology
The psychology of the race
structures.
have obvious points of contact; the first
of the infant mind

to the earliest known


stages
years of the child indeed answer
of human
ginnings
history. It is probablethat inquiriesinto the be-

of human

culture,the originof, language, of primi-

close

scrutinyof

Because

the events

we

enabled

are

to

through

and
by observation,by introspection,

study mind

the medium
The

research.
anthropological

ethnologicaland

help from

of childhood.

is universal

mind

much

derived

institutions have

tive ideas,arts and


a

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

230

of

historian's

give us as
some
true
symbolic
a
pictureof an
such as poetry, decoration,painting,sculpture,
representation,
the
music, or romance.
History fails to show the essentials,
typicalfacts,as for instance do Shakespeare'shistorical plays
of the development and
in which
he gives us an
account
dependency of
growth of the English nation from a mere
France and Rome
to a mighty nation with a national church
novel may
In the same
and government.
a
give us the
way
the motives of the
true pictureof a period by seizing
upon
The
student in search of knowledge finds in the
actors.
than their chronologicalsuccession
of history more
events
account,

record

mere

does
of facts,in itself,
historic epoch as does

not

back of the
or
causes
relation,he seeks for the cause
stand
great crises recorded, and then,above all,in order to underthe stage of mental
and spiritual
development of the
and

race

or

and

to

looks to their games, to their amusements,


their records of self in products of art.
When

people,he

people has
over

left

us

creation

any

intellect

or

wherein

will,we

know

feelinghas predominated
they were, however

rudely,making manifest an unrest and dissatisfaction with


life as they found
it and striving
toward perfection;
we
see
in the crudest productionsthe awakening of the God-like in
As with the child, whose
man.
means
are
so
limited,so
with the earlyraces
of men, there is an effort to express the
ideas in mind.
Through the soul flitshadowy suggesvague
tions
of the identityof all life by play, through gesture,
and later through language, he strives,
in some
simpleway
and by the means
his
at
command, to recreate the littleworld
"

which

g^t

lies within him; it


survey

of his

Ire ""te to

seems

as

experiencesas

understand

though he
a

whole

its nature

essential from

and

were

tryingto

in order that he

discriminate its

its accidental and

vanishing

APPRECIATION

is,in fact,a

It

elements.
to

separate the real from

to

find himself

by

search

for

the unreal

truth,and

in which

puttingself into outward

little stride toward

one

231

the tie which

in the effort

it is

form,

immeshed,
he is making

will bind

him,

the

The one
created life is the
God, the creator.
in all things. Dimly at first man
realized there was
same
a
than
his
and he attempted to portray the
own
higher
power
The very foundation
of all art lay in
infinite in finite form.
dissatisfaction
with
the
material
man's
and
imperfect.
the
memorials
which
survive it would
Through the help of
that primitiveman
had a real althoughdim and rudimentary
seem
As soon
appreciationof the beautiful.
as
he, unconsciously
the
essential from the superperhaps,separated
ficial,
the qualityof objects was
soon
as
as
perceived as
the quantityor bulk, the aesthetic side was
distinct from
noted.
Primitive
is the infant,was
as
concerned
so
man,
that he had
efforts of bodily maintenance
with
no
great
but
of
he
had
to
in a
as
soon
as
variety
feelings express,
himself of sustenance
assured
he was
and protection,
measure
creature,

with

with

concerned
dawn

the
to

enter

intellect and

of

into life

our

and

is but

an

faculties came

so

outward

the

early man
impulse.

expressionof

the inner

man;

the

of the creator.

emotions
That

the

first products were

true, but

they

understand

the

far from

beingbeautiful

important rievertheless in helping us


times in which
created,and
they were

are

possiblethe higher forms of art which we


graduallydeveloped with the experienceof the races.
making

it is

reflects the civilizationin which


of

desire

in

arose

the art

With

crudest,simplestrelics in stone, metal and wood


in
the loftiest ideals expressed in sculptureor on canvas
present time, we have but a reflection of the thoughts

from
to

universal,and

existence.

mere

emotional

with it evolved

play impulse and


All art

than

something more

savagery

barbaric

art.

civilizedand

or

barbarism
A

high

high
art.

could
state

The

produced. A

give

forth

is
to

in

know

low

only savage

Art
state
or

civilization will produce a


child is at firstsatisfiedwith the
of

crudest

imitation

experience and
something nearer

OF

THEORY

THE

232

MUSIC

in
of any familiar object,but as he grows
observes
accuratelyhe will demand
more
perfection.He passes out of the state of

finallyreaches
life as a whole, truth
he wants
the point where, as a man,
in some
form, to speak to him from a product of art; he
and returns
understandinglyto his
seeks unity in diversity,
the art
of seeing things in their entirety;and
first power
been
it not
has
quite the same?
history of the race
that
believe the art earliest to be expressed was
Whether
we
of music, includingdance and song, or decoration,drawing
such
in imitation,or what, it is true the beginnings were
of the
the mind
to satisfytoday for a very brief time
as
infant
Then
the child in its many
as
stages of development
ideas to something more
of these vague
out
definite,
grows
he beginsto find likenesses in seeminglyunlike objects,so
as
the
in each
the race
succeeding generationbuilded upon
mental and spiritual
outlook,
knowledge gained,increased its own
and larger
felt more,
to express
and hence had more
wherewith
to do it
means
Nothing can so truly record the
of the people or a country'scivilization as its art, for
nature
Ruskin
be triumphant
The
acts of a nation may
as
says :
by its good fortune; and its words mighty by the genius of
few of its children; but its art only by the general gifts
a
and common
sympathies of the race."
The most
art is probably
originalform of representative
not
independent drawing or sculpture,but ornamentation,
and undoubtedly bodily decoration was
its earliest application.
Not satisfied,
with
however,
bodilyornamentation,the
earliest tribes decorated
their implementsand weapons,
and
followed
then
the primitive works
of free painting and
had
sculpture,which
an
independentsignificance,
serving

wholeness

or

as

oneness

he

finds details and

"

"

other purposes
than
That there was

that of decoration.

littlereal artisticcharacter in the lowest


conceded
stage of ornamentation is generally
to Be true, but

as
was

syirhols,property marks
and
;,iaiqt
sKgfat,

emblems

their historic value


their influence ttttist ttave been felt on
or

APPRECIATION

social life of the times.

233

The

or
pictorial
representative
tribes were
arts of primitive
quite naturally,with a few exceptions,
a
picturingof subjectstaken from the usual round
of experiencesof the aborigines figures of men,
animals,
and
in savage
life. They had
scenes
not
birds, weapons
formed
ing
merely strivingfor an understandany ideals,were
about them
of the things they saw
and recordingtheir
The
for various reasons.
observations
ings
carvings and drawof these early tribes are
works
usuallyclassed among
there
is
of art, but
some
question as to their claim
surely
self-evident that the picmeans
to this title,for it is by no
torial
works can trace their originto an aesthetic need.
There
have decided that they have had their rise
students who
are
but although they may
of religion,
have had
the servant
as
has been able to discover the
no
one
significance
some
religious
mysterious meanings of many of the earliest drawings. As
long as all symbolic meaning remains hidden we have no
right to suppose the figuresare intended for anything else
than that which
they appear to be.
Undoubtedly skill in
was
carving,drawing and sculpturing
practisedpurely from
for representing
things. As we have before said,
a fondness
until feelingwas
aroused
there could be nothingto express,

the

"

so

it sounds

rather

unreasonable

to

state

that

the

earliest

symbolic; rather, is it not reasonable


that the play spiritwas
the forerunner
of the
to suppose
in the first lines
art impulse,and as the child finds pleasure
direct simply because he feels his power
in so doing,
he can
the child race
so
discoveringits power rejoicedin it,and,
what it saw
with no deep meaning back of it,pictured
about
the doing of the deed
itself merely for the love of it. Then
within it other desires and longings,opened the
awakened
it feel a higher,greater power
eyes to the world about,made
the greatest
made
it a thinkingbeing,and soon
than its own,
With
questionsof life with which we today contend arose.
cation
the use of the symbol,which is an indithese longingscame
works
pictorial

were

of civilization.

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

234

practicaland useful
the question,
of reason
comes
the dawn
with
then
sense,
is sought. In seizingfact, everything
why, and the cause
is
large a part of its entire compass
depends upon how
fact is only a partialtruth,
a
reached.
As usually observed
it is a symbolic object of
little glimpse of the true reality,
a
it is seen
knowledge. Such a fact becomes truth only when
of which
the whole
see
we
in its scientific principle.Then
with more
We
see
the fact is only a partialmanifestation.
first,fact is

At

than

the animal

remains

the

law

of

the

fact, which

The

all circumstances.

under

same

its

find the

and

senses

in

only

seen

fact

itself

nothing to people in general,the law or principle


but the symbol appeals to
and
uninteresting,
unintelligible
between
fact and
and
intellect. It is midway
the emotions
principleand is a typicalfact, so complete that it illustrates
all the phases of the law or
almost
principle.Each bare
fore,
fact gives some
phases of the law but not all,and is, theredefective,but the typicalfact should contain all phases.
do not
for a moment
that the early tribes of
We
suppose
of symbols any
the use
set about
to
out
.men
reason
more
may

mean

than

we

ascribe

conscious

action

to

the

experienceof
enabled

study of the
ages, and
deduce
certain facts concerning the

to

intellect.

of the

divine within
were

all
the

infant,but from
human
mind, we

Man

simply sought

him, and

the wonderful

symbolic; he only
theoretical

and

used

the

moral

phenomena
he

means

truths.

Is

are

development

to

means

the

express
about

had

there

the
him

to

represent
then
not

truth in the

language of art, in poetic symbolism, than


in bald statements
of fact?
The man
who
cries againstthe
ideal in literature,
in music, sculpture,
or
land
painting,the fairy-

more

of child

fails to see life in its wholeness,


grown-up,
life universal,and is far from
his own
realizing
greatness as
man,

or

creature

made

It is reasonable
ic arts
i

in the likeness of God.

suppose that,before these plasticand


have been some
developed, there must
bodily

such

have

as

no

to

is found
records

in

primitivedances, though of

except

a$

they

are

pictured, and

APPRECIATION
this does

tell

the

235

order

the

of

development. The
is of social importance in the history of civilization,
dance
for it meant
a
gathering togetherof people for either religious,
festival
warlike or
occasions,and, as in the lower stage
not

us

of civilization the dance

is

always associated

with

song, we
it
to
are
poetry.
It is difficult today to realize the social power
which the
the most
dance
once
possessed. It was
perfectand most
led from

expressionof the primitiveaesthetic feeling. We all


the pleasuregiven both the performer and spectator by
know
gymnastic and mimetic performances; there is, perhaps, no
efficient

We

which

artistic act

other

excites

all

men

as

long before the child can


can
by bodily motion, not

that

know

language

he

does

the

express

dance.

himself

in

yet developed

even

evident his state of feelings. We


into gesture, make
know
well pleased over
he is particularly
when
anything he will

give expressionto his joy in the use of arms, legsand body.


Most
primitivedances gave vent outwardlyto inner pleasure
occasioned
and
that excited the
were
by any occurrence
mobile feelings
of the people. The mere
exercise of muscle,
the needs of expressionof joy,
not
answer
however, would
and
of

the aestheticcharacter of the dance


the

Its most

movements.

of the

of the

music, so

dancers
we

in the order

important property,

rhythm, is one of the essentials of


perfect time
people maintain
motions

is found

all art.
in their

The

most

that

of

tive
primi-

dances, and

the

coincide

find the

exactlywith the intonation


firstdances are regularly
repeated

steps, and the first decorations are regularlyrepeated units,


ments
the firstpoetry is metrical chants,and the firstmusical instruare

those

which

mark

off

measure

or

sound.

What

sound, proportionor
visible rhythm is to architecture,sculptureand
painting.
first to'
of
the
This
is
of
universal
one
impulse
rhythm
child. Man
is a rhythmic being, born
awaken
in a race
or
be strange indeed if
into a rhythmic universe, and it would
he gave
always
no
early signs of this impulse. Motion
rhythm

is to the arts, to ornament,

attracts,and

in time

bringsabout

and

the

questionof

power,

the

which

in nature

invisible power

beats

Nature

rounds

And
Whether

she

Or

hides

which

music, and

rhythm

We

might

productof culture

life

and
itself,

"The
is

Creator, for action is necessary

all culture,

There

is

father

of poetry

and

rhythm,

insert another

Orphic

an

the father
and

phrase

is
of

say,

the father of life the Great

is life,and

rhythm

the

this element.

of music

the father

the father of

then

follows:

as

is God."

sea,

alchemy."

her

is not

rune,

every

or

in the emotional

contain

runs

her

underground

alone, but is inherent


all art, must

perfecttune,
in land

works

planets,

rhythmic swing.

in

move

rhyme

rhythmic element

This

saying

in

with

the trees, the

causes

the waters, the entire universe to


"For

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

236

life,rest, absolute,means

to

in its broadest sense


then,
degeneracy or even death. Viewed
of all art, it is
rhythm is the greatest underlying principle
It hardly seems
the life of all art as it is of nature.
an
ural
exaggeration to say that the rhythmical is always the natform

of

Every stronger emotional


in rhythmical movement
because

music

tends

excitement
of

the

Is

body."

others,just as

of all the arts?

when

all the wonders

speak

we

It

it not

deep
to

seems

sky, and

largely

of motion, of

of the universe, we

of the heavens, of

itself

to express

best

it is the soul

said:

Spencer has

as

exemplifiesthis great law


in harmony, that we
feel in a very

movements
sense

and

movements,

our

"

and

true

include all
think

earth,and

of
sea,

of

color, of line,of form, blendingin one


great harmony,
held by one
law.
Music
not only the father of
seems
great
and
architecture.
We
poetry but of painting,sculpturing
borrow

We

arts.
as

musical

frozen

speak
music.

been slower than

in

terms

of

trying to

define

scale of color and

The

very fact that


that of other arts seems

phases of

define architecture
its

development has

to

verifythe

riient that it is the soul of all arts, for its latent


are

them

so

great
aEL

it must

take

ages

to

other

developor

even

state-

possibilities

recognize

APPRECIATION
In
and

hand

art, this

as

Until

art?

that

products of
classify

to

attempt

an

questionarises:
in

can

satisfaction of the

the

we

that

we

of art

in

nor

innate

our

in connection

used
to

questions have

while

art

in

it with

another

to

the

many
with

synonymous

synonymous,

to

all art
of

mind

one

it is but

does
of

may

one

But

exist

truth

and

it is not

meaning

of the terms

It is that

art, the

names

fail

we

of

abstract

all the attributes of

Goodness

beauty, while
all from
no

and

the essentials

element, and

elements.

is

or

consider

manner

truth
seems

the next
narrow

a
a

covers

to

one

to

course
dis-

moral

ness.
part of good-

the
thoughtof the symbol representing
would seem
logicalto say, that truth is the

contain

not

as

bare fact which, as before stated,

all the

back
phases of the law or principle
the mere
act, but truth which bringswith it mental recognition
of the principle.
It is impossible
to formulate a theorythat will explain
not

one
basis,for art is what its age
upon
it. We
make
make a set of laws
cannot

all art

and
each
and

art,

theory.

one

other

Truth

of art.

of

to our

return

typicalfact,it
aim

we

contains

the subject.views
upon
aspect and declares beauty is in
To

or

of

their solution.

what

language

qualities.Beauty

sole aim

idea of the

with

the

upon

agree

is the aim

interested theorists lor ages,

today but littlecloser


disagreeso much in

are

the

beauty

beauty and truth


independentlyof the other ?
These

What

mind

be answered, at least to
there can
be no
definite
individual,

Are

truth?

the human

measure

Is

classification made.

237

try all

arts

product
must

be

or

by
age

them
of

judged by

except in

very

and
nor

ment
environstandards

general way,

for

productsis separate and individual


its

own

methods

and ideas back

of

its conception.

objectof the artist should be to tell us in music,


in the paintedpicture,
form, or in literature,
or
sculptured
of life which
the truths of life and the beauty and sublimity
do not ask that
we, with lack of genius,fail to grasp* We
The

are

about

the

sensuous

ask that he

we

us,

if it had

his
were,

not
capabilities

true

its beginning,

had

art

would

than

more

stillbe in the

dimly
long before he realizes even
through imitation he finds himself,as it

imitates

child

but
power,
and
in time knows

own

we

with

see

which

scenes

state of culture.

primitive,
savage
The

to

it is

continued

so

represent

help us

imitation

In

eye.

but

imitation

in exact

and
faithfully

he

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

238

he

is

separate individual
So

another.

depending upon
passed to reason.

through

with
tion
imita-

The

for

symbol appeared and


then began to rid himself of bare facts, of the reality
life,which in picturedlanguages possesses little interest
We
do not read a book to hear of the dailyroutine
us.

of

our

the

man

of

race

beauties

and

this
of

an

the

unlike this

and

beyond

to

of

show

that the

Nature

is necessary
it is
to the scientist,

not

the

that

the greatness of his conception rather


nature.
Taking this view many a theorist

us

to

objectof

art

Taine

is to contribute
in his

science,beauty the aim

of

"art must

accept truth
sin against it,but art must

to
one

science
who

nor

has

with
art is

tions
crea-

artist,but

to

our

pleasure,

Philosophyof Art

of a pictureis not to tell the truth,


purpose
gratifythe aesthetic sense." These theorists consider

aim

felt.

his aim, for he

"The

the

and

never

that his

us

laws

to inculcate truth.

not

above

have

we

Facts

than truthfulness
claims

which

us

truths

interest and

knowledge

try to

must

genius is

the

found

artist has

as

make
never
pleasurefor us.
the skeleton
of art, they merely form
of the work,
edge
framework
we
commonly call technique. The knowl-

hold
work

man

realities about

in the

It is because

the

lives unless

of art; and

condition and

says :
but to
truth

further

sayT

offensively
not be made
to play the lackey
be distorted from
its proper
purpose." No
agree
given the subjectany serious thought, will dis-

the above

in

generallyconceded.

as

not

substance; that realism alone is


A

not

subjecttreated solelyfrom the


of the scientist with all the disagreeableand even
details portrayed because they are facts and make
true
to life as seen
o$ty with the physicaleye,

APPRECIATION

239

and even
attract
fascinate,but this is the worst
may
far from
of realism and
being art; but when we say
of art,

aim

is the

truth

mean

we

of fact

which

is

phase
truth

reallyopposed

to

the great majorityof men.


that a production may
We
know
be technically
perfectand
and yet if it ignore the spiritual
correct
element it
literally
the

doctrine

fails

us

by

seen

as

art.

The

genius departs from the actual


feed our
imagination but because

and

symbol represents
take the fact and
us

as

the

to

it to

of the

anatomy

the

to

please

typicalfact

something higher.

us

tear

alone

not

He

does

the purpose of
structure, but rather he adds

piecesfor

or

not

showing
fact to

fact, selects the real from the unreal, the eternal from the
transient,calls out the very seed of the truth,and, because
records for us what he with his deeper,more
he is an artist,
When
of his work
look
spiritual
insightsees.
we, by means
through his eyes, we see not merely detail,not just the line,
the form, the color, the subject,not only bare fact, all is
changed, we look below the surface to the soul of things.
He

imaginationand
that underlies
spirit

stimulates

till we

our

the

see

arouses

sympathies

our

the act, and the picture


embodiment
of man's
impulses,

an
sculpture becomes
nearly the artist is in
thoughts and deeds, and the more
criminat
touch with the human
pulse the more
capableis he of disthe truth and
that which
between
presses
merely ex-

or

mood.
fleeting
is

"Truth
fact.'*

If

accept this

we

truth

is the

facts

of

emotional

an

aim

nature

of

the

imaginative realization of
then surelywe
definition,
may say,
or

artist.

subservient

to

He

makes

his will and

nature
to

and

the

his artistic

point that theorists differ. The one


of ideas.
of facts,art the statement
says truth is a statement
True, and art then includes truth, but they argue that truth
to the thought
does not include art, and for proof return
of imitation and realism.
They agree that art is bound by
certain laws, laws of society,
of nature, of morality,and an
of these
artistic law, and that it must
one
not ignore any

conception.

It is at this

the

to

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

240

of misstatement, but

extent

morality is its primary object,as


pleasing. Beauty in
aesthetically

neither

that

of these

neither

is the

them

truth

nor

objectsis

element

the

artist seeks.

in
accept this theory then art exists, whether
tual
for the promotion of intellecor
painting,
music, literature,
If

we

a
hardly seems
satisfactory
explanationunless we understand by pleasure, happiness,
of the beautiful leads to harmony in life.
unless appreciation

and

pleasure. This

moral

so, then

If this is not

of life to
interpretation
which

in

arouses

his fellow

to

clearer when

declare

fact and

truth is the main

not

we

are

The

man?
man

art

to

be

the

the song,

poem,

conviction of his proper

nature, to God,
through its harmonies,
to

man,

say, that
devoted to the
we

ture,
piction
rela-

contains

truth,

beauty.
tions
Beauty is a qualityor attribute,it appealsto the emothrough the intellect and is perceivedby the senses.
here
into the old-time
We
shall not
enter
question of
whether
beauty exists only in the mind or in the external
with it as an
in both as we
world
are
or
only concerned
The recognition
element of art.
of the beautiful is a matter
of education and culture;the child for instance is pleasedby
a
but fails
picturesimply because it is pretty or agreeable,
to see
any .real beauty in it; is not capable of recognizing
and through the intellect
beauty,that is a matter of intellect,
the emotions
are
touched, and upon how
deeply and truly
This power is peculiar
depends one's power of appreciation.
to man
and raises him above the beast that has the physical

universal

truth, an4

eye

and

ear

to

scenes
objects,

feear

as

can

beautymakes
cmr
1

and
man,

and

to

hear

sounds, which
but

he

all about

while
he

lacks the

can

that there could be

him

are

sensuouslysee

and

intellect through which

its appealto the emotions.

statement

awakened

see

no

This carries
art

us

back

until the emotions

through the intellectaridthe

desire to express
We
aroused.
see
beautyand truth only in proporter intelligence.
The poet, the artist,
the musician,

fffe^iwe cannot, although ftBe$ afeotrtus


ffff

as

it has

STRAUSS

RICHARD

Born

prominent
the

Munich,

In

figure

greatest

Strauss

of

marvels

-what

fifty

11,

1864.
-world

musical

ago

today.

of

which
He

generation.

is

who

compositions

years

Strauss

orchestration

of

written
his

the

in

master

has

June

"Wagner

is

has

are

doing'
did

for

lor

the

most
He

ever

the
the

lived.
musical

tra
orches-

is

APPRECIATION

241

peoples for centuries,but our


have
sensitive to it,perhaps because we
all

about

as

the

open

usual

That

that

who

man

make

even

has

within

beauty,

of

long accepted it

effort to

has

or

or

merely

with

see

in art, whether

the

beautiful,
he creates

to enjoy them;
power
he views the gloriesof

pleasurein the songs of


lungs involuntarilyexpand to inhale the life
birds, whose
into his face, who
that blow
takes
force in the fresh winds
keen joy in the distant snow
lofty mountain
cap of some
has within him
divine
a
peak beyond his home, that man
Others then must
spark which makes him akin to his Maker.
of the human
heart which
the emotions
reveal to us
they
in
beautiful
and
and can
discovered
have
symbolic
express
language,giving us not only what is reallyfact according
"The
the materialist but their poetic conception of it
to
soul ever
does in this world
is to
greatest thing a human
heart

the

sunset, whose

see

something and

kin).
he
not
as

has

And

in

with

it

tell what

in

sees

to
his.abilityto interpret

revealed lies his claim to the

admire

thing but
by the man

the

conceived

back

the creator
In

beats

love for the

pulsequickenswhen

whose

man

the

him

he beholds this in nature

whether

things

not

so

not

heart.

and

mind

do

and

intellects are

the

plainway"

the world

name

of artist;we

idea,the portrayalof

who

created

the

the

(Rusbeauty

the

we
picture,

do

truth,
seek

of the created.

the technical

part of any

compositionwe

find the

in

language, in color,in line,form, proportion,


rhythm, variety. There may be beauty in each detail,but
back of all and embracing all there must
of
be a conception

beautiful

truth, else
and

not

we

admire

because it is

highestand best
and

embraces

in

us.

it for the mechanical


a

skill it exhibits

livingcreation which appealsto the


truth is life,
Beauty is an attribute,

beauty* We

are,

of course, considering
the
these higherand nobler conceptions,

superlative
purpose of art, from
the prodto which
only the greatest artists attain,
ucts,
classed under art, descend to lower standards
generally
dependingupon the ideas or thoughts
expressedin them.

Before

that

clearlyunderstood
that

art

do

we

wish

always

be art must

to

not

in art, let it be

truth

subjectof

this

leave

we

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

242

give

to

tell

the

The

story.

sion
impresidea

tell a tale of

joy,
passion,and
of struggle,of hope, of despair,of any
but again there
tell it in a literalbut artistic manner,
it may
ideas not so tangible. There are thoughts and emotions
are
which
the artist describes by picturing the scene
which
It is true that his exact thought may
aroused them in him.
makes

which

create

man

any

productmay

human

be called forth in any


in any two
quitethe same

one

not

the

work

the

of

us

spectators,but

of the creator, and

power

aroused

the emotion

nor

feel in

we

it awakens

viewing
sense

impossiblefor the majority of


to put in language the impressionmade
us
upon us by some
if we
But
artist.
of the grandest conceptionsof the
possess
second only to him
are
to enjoy his conceptionwe
the power
them for us.
who
creates
Abilityto understand is one thing
to express is quite another; the artist lays claim
and ability
the divine

of

in

It is

man.

artist is greatestwho
best reach
of life and who can
the principles
That

to both.

Schiller tells

him

given

was

or

in his

Song

that he

creatingby

he is

what

us

poet

the soul of

of the Bell that man's

might

his

best understands

own

feeHn

man.

intelligence

his "innermost

heart"

hand.

widely from one another in our use of terms


and essentials of the fine arts and
to describe the qualities
in our
reasonings as to the artisticappeal. No less do we
differ in our
view, in our judgment, of the beautiful and
true.
ards,
However, there is somethingfixed in regard to standthere are
of judgment and
some
sentiment
principles
differ

We

to

common

their

on

else

all men,

reason

and

no

sufficient hold

passionsto

maintain

could

the

be

made

respondence
ordinarycor-

of life.
It is difficult to define
a

term

as

taste, which

is

with judgment, but there


two

"$ the

words

clearlyand concisely
so figurative
used synonymously
quitefrequently
surelyis a distinction between the

themselves

prove there should be.

The

APPRECIATION
the

between

relation

243

emotional

physicaland

is

close,and

has

recognizedthe dependency of the


the external, through the medium
of
inner or spiritual
upon
has borrowed
direct physical
with
words
the senses, and
As with
meaning and given them metaphoricalsignificance.
word, that of taste is not absolutely
accurate.
a
figurative
many
it
is not a simple and
The
by
thing we understand
in
determinate idea, and is therefore liable to be confused
by

man

his

of

minds

the

language

probably

more

derived from
of

most

If

men.

significanceof
its physical
meaning, we consider
nearly

exact

receivingpleasure;an

preferment

of

one

obviouslycall

not

Can

there

the

cause

the
taste

term
a

as

faculty

intuitive choice

or

act

into

It is the

then

thing to another, which"


play the facultyof reason.

does

discrimination.
be

great difference in the


principleof taste, the
and

instinctive and

and

narrower

material

of immediate

power

accept the

we

tastes
manner

of affection

taste, is there any


of different individuals?
The

good

any

are

or

bad

in which
the

same

men

in and

are

affected,

for different

individuals,but the difference lies in the degreeof the appeal


sensitive to the external beauty
Some men
are
naturallymore
in
and are
than others, through education
or
inheritance,
quickerto perceive truth or beauty in a work
consequence
of nature, in its

in a singlequality.
or
entirety,
object or class of
Again, the close study of a particular
objectsis the cause of various degreesof taste,but the principle
the same.
still remains
which
Any object
suggests
pleasurableconceptionsto the mind is pleasing,pretty or
and just so far as he alone is
beautiful to that individual,
concerned
his taste is correct.
If he calls a thing beautiful
and means
simply that it givesto him pleasureby suggesting
to him some
some
emotion, by revealing
truth,then to him it
is beautiful just as all other conceptions
pleasethose to whom
they appear beautiful. When, however, he tries to set a
standard by his own
he insists because of a
taste, when
for consideringthe
peculiarqualitywhich to him is cause
of

art

work

or

or

scene

that it should awake


beautiful,

in others the

same
or

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

244

defect

emotion, and, if it fails,that it is due to some


prejudicein them, he has attempted to do what

individual
Tastes

shall constitute true

do, dictate what

can

equallyjust and

are

of his

in

correct

individual

feels to be beautiful is beautiful to him

others

then, we

would

this

do not

we

In

decide.

may

own

to

answer

our

own

each

as

what

emotions, and

speaks only

one

art.

far

so

individual

of what

no

an

regardless
question

but from
say there is no good and bad taste,
infer that all tastes are equallydesirable. The

facultyof taste is to afford delight,is to help us in choosing


tinguish
to disthe harmful
the helpful from
by aiding us at once
the good from the bad without the necessityof long
study or close and continual observation,and in this way
assists in the cultivation of the finer,intellectual and spiritual
of
being. While we cannot say a man's taste in the matter
the beautiful is bad as his view concerns
only himself, we
need

and

allow

not

trulygreatestand

what

is

bad

let

us

use

in taste.
aroused

uncultivated

an

else has

or

man

been

to

hinder

and

us

Rather

best in art.
much

the terms

The

taste

little to

in declaring

good

than

describe degrees

whose

imaginationhas never
improperlynourished, whose

been
vations
obser-

been

tive
unorganized,and, hence, who is not sensiabout him, can
and alive to the world
discern beauty
with difficulty,
and often we
regard his taste a peculiarone,
as
accordingto our standards his conceptionsof beauty are
peculiar.
have

The

the

imaginationand

the

judgment are the


of man
natural powers
with knowledge of the
concerned
The
external world.
of perceiving
external objects
manner
is quite the same
in all men
in so far as they are physically
normal, so that objectspresent similar images to all mankind.
We
that
what
be
to
agree
lightto one eye
appears
We

as
light to
appears
touch is rough or

smooth, what

sotjr^what

ear

ag^edto
,,

senses,

no

to

the

another.
is

agree
to

harmony

upon

the
or

taste

the

to

is sweet

discord.

ascribe certain qualities


to certain
about sugar being sweet, or

;i(^gctte.

what
We

things;

vmegar

or

have

there

sour,

is
or

APPRECIATION

quinine bitter,and we concur


and bitterness unpleasant. So
our

sentiments, and

apply
or

We

emotions.

do

in

callingsweetness

far there is

understand

we

in

these terms

245

no

another

one

metaphoricalsense
know, however,

pleasant,
disagreementin

to

that

when

we

objects,persons
a

natural

taste

pervertedor cultivated until the sour or bitter may


agreeableto the individual,but this in no way interferes
with our
speaking definitely
taste, for though
concerning'
be

may
be

fact that the

particularfood is bitter or sour,


them agreeableto the palate. So
it is habit which has made
that no one
know
what pleasureor pain
can
positively
see
we
individual may
find from the taste of some
a particular
ticular
parbut
the
which
we
thing,
concerning
things
argue
may
to this sense.
or
disagreeable
are
naturallypleasing
Wherein, then, lies the degree of taste, why does one
select the finest creations,as agreed upon
at once
man
by
the lesser ones, why does he see beauty when
from
critics,
sensible to

fails to

another
mental

the

creative

see

Is it not

it?

The

power?

primarilythe

the

senses

him

they represent images

at once

are

combines

in

since it is the

he possesses

greater

he receives through
with all men,
but to

sensations
same

as

in proper
new

Imaginationis the

order.
and

them

because

order

or

or
relation,

he

ent
accordingto a differfacultycapableof doing this,
manner

of
representation

the senses,

and

can

be

with the objectsas imaged,and just in


pleasedor displeased
with the material
proportionas sense is pleased or displeased
ing
thing,so do the imaginationsof men
agree or differ accordto

their

senses.

Without

going

into the fine distinctions and

stoppingat

discuss

holds true
just how far our statement
in general say, that art is in a way
with all arts, we
may
imitation,(not literal imitation,
for,as we have stated before,
realism is not art,)and that a pleasureis perceivedby the
imagination from the resemblance which the imitation has to
the original Judgment deals with differences,
but imagination

this

point to

with
m

likenesses.

Pleasure is derived in

gree
far greater de-

because
differences,
tracing likenesses than in finding

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

246

we
are
are
uniting qualities,
by making resemblances we
images, enlargingour store of mental food, we
making new
are
creating,whereas the task of making distinctions does

so

such

afford

not

play to
pleasurewe

that what
So

nature.

far, men

perceptionand
differ in their

this difference
When

are

of resemblances

in

the

knowledge

first view

we

equal in the

about

work

more

it is of

from

derive

do

knowledge of

is

imaginationand

the

matter

severe

indirect

an

of

sense

pleasingthe imagination,but
and from
things represented,
difference in taste

the
of art

one

or

so

arises.

called,if it is
conception or

to us, that is, a new


new
something entirely
its resemblance
at once
of presentation,
see
we
manner
a new
do know, but fail to find its defects in mat*
to something we
ter

of imitation unless

the uneducated

manner

same

they

are

glaring.In quite the

very
sees

man

resemblance

ever
how-

faultyand is pleased;if,however, he later sees a finer


come
of the same
subject,the defects of the first berepresentation
evident and cannot
again make the same
appealto him.
in
He
is still admiring the likeness to truth but has grown
knowledge, and only the finer conceptionof it pleaseshim.
Our

mistakes

of art, from
about

in

judgment

come

from

failure to avail ourselves

lack of knowledge

of the

privileges

of
and
from
want
a
masterpieces,
Our
knowledge of nature and of man.
theory is then, that
critical taste does not depend upon the superiorprinciple
in
but upon
their largerknowledge of life. Taste, natural
men
of a faculty
to all,but taste in the sense
taste, is common
that embraces
both imagination and judgment is a quality
with which
human
is sparinglygifted. It means
nature
a
perfectblendingof imaginationand judgment, and but few
all have
the
possess this talent in any
great degree. We
seed of taste in our
vated
mind, and as imaginationcan be cultiand knowledge gained, there is every reason
why we
should strive toward
its highestconsummation
and
though
we
never
hope to reach it,we will in the effort acquire
may
at

us

least

term.

to

some

study

the

degree of

Perhaps,the

taste

as

we

best rule that

are
can

now

be

the
considering
given one is to

APPRECIATION
avoid all that is

good;

not

247

if you feel your own


judgment
whose
taste or
judgment is acknowledged

faulty accept that of men


good, and give your time to the study of the
reallygreat creations rather than waste it in an attempt to
the
have
select the worthy from
unworthy. When
you
learned to find the true and beautiful,you will recognizeit
in all things where it exists and you will then waste
time
no
is good, for a cultivated taste tells
in your selection of what
This is,of course,
contrary to the thought of
you at once.
who would
have you first decide that every detail
the realists,
the finer taste ignoresthe detail except
whereas
was
perfect,
it is perfectfor the sake of the perfectionof the whole,
as
the perfectionnecessary to the beautiful.
If
than
if

we

accept the theory that

we

that of

giving pleasurethrough

believe it should

bringing him
men,

for

into closer and

its mission

then

art's sake

semi-artistic

false

creations

is

one

That

one.

and

do

not

the
have

there

doubt.

We

by

man

his fellow

theoryof

art

been

are

the

for

produced purely

satisfaction of the artist we

beautiful,

of the

means

relation with

truer

social

mission

another

understandingof

the

further

has

art

and

relief and
found

it in

and we find it today


drawings and carvingsof aborigines
in the work
of the child whose
representation
though not
finished is always full of expressionand is usually recognizable.
The
things,the details of things which impress
the

often ignoringthe, to
him, he pictures,

characteristics. He
that his art

forms

us

chief

grown-ups,

is

simply obeying genuine impulses,so


reallyspringout of the deep grounds of

his emotion.

Every strong impressionman


senses

from

the external

world

receives

by

excites in him

call emotion
^mental processes which we
form
to be liberated in one
^which demand

or
or

means

of the

physicaland
passion, and
another.

The

the child may


or
primitiveman
give vent to his joy,sorrow,
his emoand is satisfied,
or
tion
anger by physicalexpression,
and
itself
has spent
he again becomes physically
and

mentally

normal.

The

man

sensitive to

his external

sur-

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

248

roundings, the emotional and intellectual man, feels all more


violent and his
acutely,the passionaroused in him is more
emotions deeper and more
sessed,
lasting. His whole being is poshe has put forth in
and will only be satisfied when
outward

some

part of all

received; and

has

he

find

they;will

of the higher order

be

his emotions
in

form

outlet

an

artistic creation,
which, therefore,is the solution

some

if

of

have art produced


In this case we
overpoweringemotion.
mission,art which aims at no other
a subjective
merely fulfilling
goal than to relieve a mind of a compellingidea, but as the
an

child

the

or

conscious

ideas manifest

in

than

convincingways

more

the

into

meaning

of

make

his

greater abilityto

his

of

things and

external

insight

keener

of

artist becomes

civilization the

with

advances

race

the

can

age
aver-

man.

does

is, it is true, seeking self-satisfaction quite as

Hfe

primitiveman; in theoryat least he is still inspired


by impulse,but he has in mind the public,the vast audience
he is to speak through his creation.
Uncontrollable
to whom
is not his guide, though it may
led
at first have
inspiration
him into the paths of artistic creation.
The man
who
by his
work
appeals to the emotions through the intellect of his
deep impressions,
spectators, is the intellectual artist;
strong
emotions
are
his, inspirationand impulse, but if he would
make
an
appeal to the people he must also have a knowledge
the

more

not

alone

Viewing
sense

Nature

all

of

oneness

best

of

and

life; he

by

of man,

works

not

for

himself

utilitarian.

By

word

to

of

means

of

in this way
aesthetic means

leads
it

as

only

riteminghis music,
tft"t

but

of art

Haydn spoke not


urged by Mozart
one

laws

mission

the

need, but furthermore


all mankind,

;not

her

us

to the

speaks

away
English, he
was

it he

it fills an

the

society.
in the

aesthetic

viting
great truths of life,in-

universal

an

from

replied that

speak

men

to

language.

all artists

London

language all
could

but

of

becomes

art

for himself but for

remain

and

the

as

his

when,

he

knew

language,

understood

and

people of

any

APPRECIATION
then

Here

find

we

The

artistic creations.

test of

our

249
art, of the greatest,highest
individual

lack

imagination,
perfectedor
ment
judgmay
faulty and his knowledge of things,of emotions, of
him we
laws, scant, to him we will not turn for criticism,
will not ask for an opinion. Rather let us turn to the greatest
who
have been least bound
of all ages, the men
men
by
and
habits of thought, who
the artificial customs
have cast
who
aside or ignored the trivial,
have, in spiteof and with
the help o$ the material, risen to a higher intellectual and
plane. There is art which belongs only to certain
spiritual
peoples or certain ages, which had its mission in helpingto
clear away
and as a means
to somesome
thing
hazy impressions,
greater belongs in the category of art, for it possessed
element
lesser truth which
of truth, some
into
some
merges
and becomes
a
as
man
begins to see
part of a greater one
the likeness in all things. There
are
products,lyricpoems,
charming statuettes, dainty bits of music, pleasingpictures,
will always hold interest for their grace of movement,
which
their elegance of form, their charm
of color,and they may
but they are
of a singleindividual,
tell the joys or sorrows
creations prompted by
not to be compared with the splendid
whose
universal belief or emotion
some
national, religious,
grandeur lives throughages.
his taste

We
have
time
some

truth

it may
emotion

rouse
common

joy, some

some

wrong,
it cannot

hope

to

live

great, its author

poets.

It is he

by

self-environed
creates

for

us

his
even

that

life in highest art;

poem

may

one

triumph which is an
through centuries,and

however

trammeled

or

country and at one particular


nation to action,but unless it portrays
to all mankind, unless it pictures
some

strong appeal to

may

his
uncultivated,

be

then

seek

average

will

never

become

one

universal

one,

its merit,
of our world

on

the man
unlife,
as
nearly as possible
though it may be for the time only, who
which,because of its truth,will live forever.

with

the

largestview
environment, who is

of

History shows us how art has been bound down


kept from reaching its great mission by religionand

and

by

obliged to create for his king or


art suggested to the people all that

artist was

The

monarchy.

ruler,his church, and his


favorable

was

people do

until

class used

the

subjectsof

as

to

come

we

nor
traditional,

find art other than

we

of the humbler

sorrows

Not

its dictators.

to

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

250

joys

free
and

When

art.

the splendorof court


life,it
kings dictated,art represented
preached the fear of God, submission to the king and state,
the mass
of people could
and respect for nobles and officials;
find themselves

not

of

people,it
joys,common

free

the low, gross

but this
satisfied;

were

of greater
As we

far from

swung

passionsof
the

was

in this

art.

Netherlands, the

in the

however, it obeyed, as

When,

emotions

their human

nor

court

and

scenes,

the humbler

mands
de-

classes

turningpoint,the beginning

things.
have

of civilization and

said, the age

before

art

and
general revolution has its spiritual
the productionsof its time, and the
influence on
economical
circle of art critics widens.
Today the artist must pleasenot
few people,
not a singleruler,or even
a government,
not a
a
in hand,

hand

go

church

the

or

leaders of

societyat large
the

of art.

name

to

church, but his work

branded

be

the artist is

As

worthy

as

today

or

before

passes

unworthy

freer to work

out

of
his

conceptions,so the critics have greater opportunitiesfor


in their
purely aesthetic appreciation;
they are not narrowed
views by any mechanism
of state or church, nor
intimidated
by artificialgrandeur or magnificence;they are not looking
for any direct personal advantageor for their own
tion
glorificaas

patrons and criticsof old.

were

societydemands

Thfe artist is freer to

give more,

and

in art and

but
asks that it be ennobled, a likeness,

that

one,

it may

an
respect itself,

raised

be
art

in its

wide

ki"nd,"a

enough
people to

gift of the
everybody can understand, and
ap"it of every life and
'
"

!p$tery

It asks to find itself

more.

sight and

own

to admit

the

every

the whole

people, a
one

beautiful

taught
of

thing

surround

to

man-

which

with love,

hindrance to none."

the story pf music, and of the


mythicallore which surround^ the birth of this

has

told

us

APPRECIATION

251

Philosophersand scientists have attempted to solve the


elusive mystery surrounding it,and in all the older theories
find a suggestionof divinity.It was
and traditions we
garded
reas
a gift from
some
great god who not only created
its guardian,and in the literature of all countries
it but was
are
poetic fancies concerningmusic and its origin. Man has
always felt it to be a part of himself and hence its origin
art

divine

his

as

and

voice

Based

own.

the

on

of

the modulations
human

of the human

muscles

by the
and emotional
sensations,the needs and hopes
spiritual
many
with human
of humanity, it has grown
growth and developed
into civilization. Having no
actual model
in nature, being
neither a repetition
of an experiencenor
imitation of a
an
real object,it stands unique and supreme
the arts,
among
it speaks directly
without the medium
of
to the souls of men
any tangiblematerial.
The
is
of sound
tendency to express feelings
by means
The wolf or
to all livingcreatures.
universal; it is common
dog that givesvent to short sharp barks or prolongedhowls
is actuated by an impulse similar to that of the child who by
We
know
the
its cooing or crying expresses its emotions.
sound has to excite human
beings,how a mob may
power
be

orator

audienc^
an

are

emotional

of its leader

tones

word

to make

But

the man,

appealto
sympathetic

the fulness of whose

use
necessarily
unmistakablyintelligible.

utterance, must

Music

own

an

how

an

handling
intelligent

emotions

pels
com-

forms of expression

of tones, that is its crude


of its being molded
within it lies the possibility

consists of

material and
into

the

by

caused

of all he says is understood,and


depends largelyfor his effect upon his skillIn
not

his voice.

that

violent acts

led to

though

movement

As

form.

exist without

stated

some

great

in

kind of

mass

previouschapter,music
design;there must be a
and
only vague, fleeting

cannot

definite-

useless
phrase or
find only
impressionsare produced* In early music we
well defined though there
rhythmic sounds, but they were
no
was
varietyafforded by a change of pitch,or, there were
ness

about

each

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

252

varying in pitchbut lackingregular marking of time.


had reached
Other
arts were
fairlywell developed and man
before the many
attempts at
a
high degree of intellectuality
nated
making a well-balanced succession of sounds finallyculmiscales. From
modern
in our
development of rhythm
them
a
and pitch,as the early musician knew
finallycame
combiningof the two and the melody was produced.
The
systematicand scientific study of the origin and
in
mission of music has been of rather recent date,and even
writers who
the past century there were
attempted to prove
that it was
purely an invention,and drew its material from

sounds

the voices of the creatures, beasts and


went

even

furnished
for

far

so

birds,from

the

life

was

when

he

great scheme

it

which

creation

us, but

has

of the universe

always

its foundations

because

the

from

song
view

sighingtrees. His
and the primitiveman
was
ascribed it to a special
god ; it is

part of the whole


was

taken

were

and

ripplingwaters
superficial
one,

the truth

nearer

theorist

one

prove that the duck had


and clarinet,the rooster

to

for "the oboe

model

the

attempt

to

trumpet, that melodies

the

of

as

birds,and

are

been

of man,

with us,

and

part of

deeply rooted

so

in the

because there has been so much


soul of man,
else more
other means
of expressingthe divine in him easier
tangible,
very

to

formulate

understand,its progress has been a slow


So many
lie within the bounds
of music
possibilities
it has taken man
ages to develop them, and without

one.

that

doubt

and

future ages will find its power


better its relation to

wider

we

the art, man


have yet done

develops,as

stand
greater, will under-

will
infinite,

understandingof

than
express more
of expression. It
and

the

even

we

and

with

nature, be able

through it,as
have

greater,

said,with

to

medium
the

race

the individual,as the

limited,so the
modulation

notes

of

vocabularyof primitive
peoplesare
their music, and they use gesture and

of voice to

supplement them. As the mind and


become
capable of deeper emotions, as man
becomes
more
complex, he requiresbetter means
of exas

He has grown

out

of the superstitious
beliefs

APPRECIATION
with

connected

the power
of the art

understanding
through its beauty
of

the

thing of

truthful

and

law

possiblean

and

order

expressionappeals to

With

man.

average

freedom

music, he has made

of
as

253

freedom

the

which

the intellect

of

thought

tion
expressionof the present day, with civilizathe earth,music should exert
spread so widely over
a
influence
than
other
art.
one
Sculptureand paintgreater
any
ing
appeal to a comparativelysmall number, for only so far
their works
accessible can
are
as
individually
they wield an
When
influence.
copied,though of value, they lose much of
Literature
their original power.
standing
depends upon an underof the language in which it is written,and it like a
element
in a translation.
statue
or
picture often loses some
classic qualityof music
the other hand
The
is not hurt
on
by repetition.The same
symphony,
opera, sonata, the same
in
the same
lands at the same
fugue, may be heard
many
and

of

quality. The
in

The

but

his

of

be

each
seen
only
serve
only as valuable

can

casts

travel

must

the world

his fellow

with

or

spontaneous

or

of sculpture
or
painting,

home,

own

statues

and

museum

individual

greatest works
in

originalpower

of

Greek

famous

art
particular

references.
the

loss

without

moment

of

to

over

see

architecture,
in

townsmen

the influence of the great


under
hall,he may come
masters:
Beethoven, Mozart, Haydn, Bach
Wagner,
or
in
America.
whether he live in England,
Germany, France or
be claimed for
It has possibilities
of influence which cannot
in so far as it may
be considered
architecture,
paintingor sculpture
concert

ideal

an

in human

nature.

the

of

mass

expressionof that which is best and truest


Because
music most universally
appealsto

people

even

before there

training,it is the

educational

most

has been

special

any

universallyrefiningof

all art.
We
and

know

ballads

important
Some
themes

of

that the music


and

dances,

have

factors in culture
our

drawn

of the

and

people,the folk-songs
always been recognizedas
are

of

greatest compositions have


from

reallyclassic
been

based

these simplesources, the Scotch

value.
upon

ballads,

Lied

German

the

OF

THEORY

THE

254

and

MUSIC

Hungarian dances,

which
placein operas and symphonies,
for good
and power
the universality

have

found

their

fact goes far in proving


influence of the art of

music.
is music

There

which

simply pleasesthe

pleasethe eye, and


hours and have no

picturemay

like books

ear

which

as

pretty

entertain

higher purpose, no ennobling


aday
such creations have their place in a workresults,however
world, and of such we shall speak in another chapter.
the noblest
There is music of lofty
purpose ; by portraying
life,or by showing its sordidness,
gloom and
passionsof human
stirs the heart and givesrise to the desire for a freer,
sorrow,
of
better life. It arouses
a truer sympathy of mankind, a feeling
closer kinship. Its mission,then, like that of all other arts,
is a social one, the unitingof mankind.
Again we repeat that the rightappeal to the emotions,
the appeal which
can
hope for any good result,is made
and in so far as all men
are
equal,that
through the intellect,
there is every
is, that all men
faculties,
possess like mental

us

for

reason

few

to say

effort have

that all

an

by proper trainingand
understandingof the masterpiecesof
men

can

mental
musical

be unintelligible
to them.
compositionwhich may now
They
now
appeal to certain emotions,the list may have some
may
understanding of the composer's thought without any
vague
real knowledge of the design of the various movements
or
of why certain harmonies, certain tones, produce different
effects.

If he

can

with

little effort and

observation

crease
in-

knowledge and thereby increase his mental and


spiritual
understanding,and can live for the time in a world
of harmony, can
more
completelythan perhaps in any other
be lifted from
the material physicalworld to that of
way
soul or spiritby thinking in the language of the musician,
such thoughts as the greatest minds of ages have thought,
then surely no
mental
time put upon
the study
energy, no
of raisic,can ever
be called wasted.
When
is going to journey in a foreign land he
one
his

wants

irst to know

of "w$athe
something

may

expect

APPRECIATION
will

find, he

to

weeks

spend

land, he will discover

255

in

reading

the

historyof

the

in

print many chief pointsof interest,


have
some
knowledge of the people and if possibletheir
language. Not that he does not in a general way know
human
life,but this particular
phase of it,this expression of
in sympathy with that he may
to come
realize
it, he wants
the benefit of such

its fullest extent

to

of us make
many
truths of life as given
How

the

Either

conceit is

our

visit.

equal effort

an

to

understand

the greatest of mankind?


because music is so universal

by

us

large and

feel we
are
capable of understandingthe
language, we
language of the genius,or we are indolent and do not realize
the benefit to be derived, or we
are
ignorantof the fact that
a

it is

the

possiblefor

us

greatest the earth

Pleasure, that

improve

to

and

our

the mind

of

leads

want

we

have

man

pleasure,which

is real

until

taste

to

only

offer

us.

happiness,

to

be sought; the art


must
everything else worth attaining,
of no
longer a nation but a whole world belongs to each
of us, and as we have shown, the greatest and
and every one
will but try to understand it,and
if we
best in music is ours
It is
attained,no power on earth can take it from us.
once
for it helpshim in
of the greatest possessionsof man,
one
is making to become
the effort all mankind
free being by
a
making the physicaland material the servant of mind and
like

of this present chapteris to help the untaught


purpose
lover of the art to a higher and fuller conceptionof

The

soul.

expression.

musical
For
treated
or

past, poetry and paintinghave always been


distinct marks
of great minds; the creator, poet

ages
as

artist,has always been recognizedas

in the
has

community

presumed
know

himself
the
could
eye

This

not

for
same

to

one

of honor

criticisethe works

either

through

difference between

by lookingat
the

and

moment
reverence

only
and

innate

genius,his position

often envy; and no one


of either,
who
did not
taste

or

ballad and

tion
through educa-

sonnet,

picturetellwhether
or

would

stand

respect have

not

it

or

who

pleasedhis

the test

of time.

always been

ac~

THEORY

THE

256

OF

MUSIC

corded

to

attained

music
come

we

to

know

much

comparativelyrecent
placein the fine arts, and

within

her proper

time
we

has
have

mentary
moexpressionof some
regard her, not as a mere
mood
or
fantasyintended only to pleasethe ear, but

now,

an

Only

music.

and

masters

expressionof

have
man's

that music

long known,
soul and

of

is

as

universal

and holds a place as great and lastingas 'does


Iliad.
tine Madonna, or Homer's

truth,
Raphael's Sis-

Simple melodies, easilycaught by the ear and held by


have always been popular and eagerly seized
the memory,
But only after study
and a child could enjoy them.
upon,
sonata
does the complexityof a Mozart
present tone pictures
in a fugue mean
to
to the mind, or do the varying answers
than a medley of intricate musical
the untaught anything more
an
expressionof pent-up
phrases. Music is as much
tunately,
human
passionsas are any of the other fine arts, but, forof education
sort
nearly all good music requiressome
it. This is of course
true
to a good
to understand
true of music,
understanding of all the arts, but is especially
is not
since the language of music unless expressed in tunes
And
in reaching up to understand, man
easilyunderstood.
gains in breadth of intelligence.
Fortunately for the betterment of mankind
people are
craving to interpretthe works of masters, and there are
teachers ready and willing
The
road
to help us understand.
to
appreciationis not a difficultone to travel,since every
brings an added pleasure,and as the sounds
step onward
become
familiar to the ear, progress
"more
along the way
means
enjoyment.
Learning to appreciatemusic may be likened to being
,

lost in
vastness

forest.
of the

The

first thingyou

woods

around

you;

are

you

conscious
are

of is the

surrounded

by

the
know
trees, familiar enough sightsto you, you may even
but their number
Steelsby name,
confuses you, you feel helpin which direction you turn, you'll
" :$$re that no matter
But if, as yw
out
wander
way
along, you
of

foot-path,or

ya;ur;eyerests

on

the

APPRECIATION
familiar

of

contour

detects the faint


within

well-known

rippleof

for you

you,

know

where

trees, their shade

is

you;

you

stoop

to

perhaps lie down and


while with expanded
and

your heart leaps


and you are
no

now

heart

and

and

vast

the

enjoy

you

but

longera gloomy shadow


the glaring sunlight;
you

pick

ear
listening

friend,a feelingof kinshipwith

the animal

see

your

no

protectionfrom
tall forms, you

or

are,
you
the forest,so

arises in your

surroundings

your

old

an

tree,

the forest stream,

longer groping blindly. And


unsociable,becomes

257

admire

the

ful
gratetheir

life busy and

happy all around


flowers,lingerby the stream,

limbs on the soft grass,


weary
chest you
take in big lungfuls of air
in gratefultones,
This is beautiful !
The
rest your

"

"

exclaim

talks to you in languageyou understand, language


satisfied. You
are
simple and direct that all your senses
and
no
alone, the sightsand sounds
longer confused

forest
so
are

now

around

are

you
Let the

but the

untaught

images and

listen to

will be those
will fail to

He

taught

to

understand
the

look

any
for the

of your own
soul.
pression
opera, his first im-

in the

confusion

in it at

of

mass

all

But

as
significance

of the music

he

becomes

able to

he

is

and

to

read

in

passion,expectancy,

joy, sorrow,

opera
surrounded

sound.

as

motives, to distinguish
them,

doubt, the plotof the

or

Wagner

meaning

see

their

character

of

echoes

unfolds itself before him, and

by a forest of unintelligible
sounds, but as the music proceedshe finds himself wandering
to well-known
voices,and,
through familiar paths, listening
willingto lingerif he dared, he is carried along athrill with
sympathy. Some people are fortunate enough to be born
with a capacityfor enjoyinggood music, but most of us have
he

to

is

longer

no

be educated
Before

the
must

the

up

imaginationor

nature
spiritual

be

an

to it.

of

fancy

can

be

awakened

and

there
appreciated,
great composition

intelligent
hearingthe

firsttime.

It is not

sary
neces-

that the listener be conversant


with all the technicalities
of the material side of music but he must know
something
of the generaldesignand the essential musical elements. We

first

recognizewith

and

relation of
of

material

little or

tones

memory,

intellectual effort the

no

which,

as

composition.Then

and

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

258

said, form

have

we

with

tones

the

little exercise

raw

of

aginatio
im-

of concentration
added to
power
design of music as set forth in the
and

knowledge of the
sons
previouschapter,the listener will be ready to make comparimusic is made.
and recognizethe elements out of which
effort to recognize musical tones
as
lated
remake
One
an
must
other in regard to time and pitch,and
some
to each
of all
recognize the three chief elements
men
intuitively
music
rhythm, melody and harmony.
of understandingof
In the order of development and
felt by almost
these elements first comes
rhythm, recognized,
all men,
a
grouping of tonal time units so accented as to
of the music, it is an
make
feel the swing or movement
one
to the sensuous
element, appealingat once
unifying,life-giving

"

as

well

as

of these tones

blend

ordering of
rests

or

harmonize

these tones

value

the

elements
with

each

we

have

ing
blend-

of the universe
to truth
a

other, and

series of tones

and

to

flow of tones
in the correct

successively
of the melody which forms
the larger unit
design of a compositiondepends. Melodies

which
the
upon
of course
contain
from

two

be

must

else all is discord ; the law


it is an essential to life and

requiresharmony,
beauty,and with these
which

There

intellectual emotions.

their

or

smaller

units which

rhythmical and

time

heard

derive

their individuality

value

characteristics,
and
the ear
becomes
accustomed
as
gent
to a melody the intellilistener will be able to distinguish
these smaller parts
which
termed
are
phrases,periodsor motives.
Melodies
all simple nor
not
are
the whole
on
easily
followed.
In the songs of the people one
usuallyrecognizes
the melody at once
by the rhythm which is well defined and
which

characterizes
or

rhythm

he

the

song.

will find

If

by

one

will mark

littleexercise

the

ment
move-

of memory

thst he can follow a theme or musical subjectthroughlarger


kstrtmiental work where its repetition,
though varied,forms
t"e C""M" idea of the composition,
until the listener is able

APPRECIATION
follow

259

the

composer's thought and to find it even


when
to be lost,crowded
it appears
out by a great varietyof device
material.
Until he can
and seemingly new
hold the theme in
it when
and know
in new
mind
attire,he cannot
appreciate
understand the design
a
compositionas a whole, he cannot
of its author
nor
reallyunderstand any part, for a truly
to

so

in music

work

masterful

is like

wonderful

picture,where
whole, and in

detail is necessary
to the beauty of the
the spectator does not
which
appreciatethe detail until he
has grasped the idea as a whole, and so sees what part it fulfils
every

in the

form,
or

Gain

larger scheme.
you

so

fugue, you

Many

then

may

know

want

to understand.

make

what

the mistake

to

first a

expect,

which

has

fairlygood
a

sonata,

idea

an

of

opera,

to them

through
given us of
be a pictureof some
kind or a story in every piece of music, and that if they fail
it all as such, or fail in their pictureto agree
to understand
made
with another, they are
to feel that perhaps they are
lacking in imagination and hence in musical appreciation.
One
is not imitatingeven
must
not forget that the composer
that the sculptoris, his ideas are
in the sense
mainly and
He
conceives a definite
primarily of a purely musical nature.
come

fanciful

picturespoets and romancers


certain musical works, that there must
the

beautiful
every

melody

seeminglyaims

phenomenon

concrete

leads to

and

wide

have

suggests its own

conceptionor largerclass

at

no

class

more;
or

in which

kind

but
or

it is but

element, and in this way for instance a melodious adagio


softly dying away
suggests the idea of gentlenessand of
concord, an abstract idea. We
by an imaginativefaculty
the conceptionsof art and our
establish relations between

one

sentiments
lower
our

or

and

we

loftier sense

to
ability

see

construe

different strains of

accordingto

our

music

in

habit of thought and

great truths in small things.

Though all arts have the power to act on the feelings,


in which it displays
in the manner
its power.
music is peculiar
It works
emotional facultywith greater intenseness
in our
and rapidity
than the productof any other art. A few chords

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

260

could
feelingswhich a picture or poem
by long contemplation.The action of sound is
only arouse
so
sudden, so powerfuland so direct,it takes us by surprise.
But undue
prominence has been given to the action of music
to think that
seem
and there are those who
our
on
feelings,
the

in

arouse

may

beauty.

musical
the

The

created

artistic forms

the mind

to

music

works.

there

is of

affectpossesses of ing
ascribed to the
much

music

be

cannot

evidence

more

which

power

system

nervous

the

action

the

violent

more

which

us

so

the mind

and
of the composer
pealing
apwith
of the listener as to the material

by

listen to music

Many

with

the

physical

and allow
only; they are in a state of passivereceptivity
servant,
only the elemental in music to affect them; they are not obthey exercise no power of will but are rather in a
of sound.
state of waking dreaminess, lost in the harmony
do not understand
the
and they are numerous,
Such listeners,
in its artistic
specialfeature of a piecenor the individuality
number
of compositionsof like general
a
interpretation,
character,say solemn and somber, will all impress alike.
Instead of closelyfollowingthe movement
of music they
ear

allow

their

to

senses

be satisfied,
their faculties to

be lulled

by the flow of sound, now


increasing,now
diminishingin
strength,now
risingto jubilantstrains,now
softlydying
in
It
them
series
of
sensations
a
produces
away.
vague
which they may
even
imagine to be the result of intellectual
action.

It is such

If

allow

they

elemental

themselves

in music

time, lessen the

enjoy
and

with

listeners who

so

as

glory of

keenly

be

to
to

lower

dignityof music.
by the purely
away

carried

lose mental
art

the

well

as

observant

mind

control,they, for

the

of

To

as

that

is the

most

man.

dignified

beneficial mode
to

music.

but by no means
the easiest one
of listening
Without
mental
aesthetic enjoyno
activity
ment

is possible.
The habit mentioned

revelingin
those who

sensations
have

and

of

passively
to music,
listening

of

emotions,is invariably
limited

to

the preparatory
of the beauty of music.
mot

knowledge for aesthetic


which play so
Feelings,

APPRECIATION

important

part with

the

261

uneducated

are
listener,

the intellectualenjoyment of the true

by

music; the first will usuallyask whether


the

latter wants

should

listen to

while

One

it is

what

is used

music
as

musical

as

to

means

must

appreciateda pieceof
than a
something more
a

be

to

confound

not

If

an

matter

no

in

has

one

ties
proper-

reallyheard

he

vague

purely

its elemental

lastingimpressionof

real listener to be such must

and

with

him

he
feelings,
the particular

know

what

to

for it in any music.


The
distinct recognition
of the melody is the first step
musical appreciation.
The careless audience is liable
toward
look

to

how

art

will carry away


after-effect of his

music

definite and

composition.The

bad.

or

it may
have; the moment
induce certain states of mind

it ceases

its artistic worth.

will have

sake

sad,

or

good

of

construction

We

sense.

with

its own

lover

is gay

it is

whether

compositionfor

ornamental

or

accessory

what

or

to know

music

shadowed
over-

for and

its immediate

consider

the emotions

over

power

to look

the ear
effect upon
its dramatic
or
of more
taining
importance than its con-

in itselfthe germs
of a well-developed
and symmetrically
rounded
composition. Many melodies appeal strongly
to

but may

emotions

the

"developedfor an
charming

contain

material

no

orderly composition;they
and

and
interesting

which
may

be

can

be

selves
them-

inspiringbits

even

of

music, while another apparentlyhomely phrase contains the


of a whole
splendidmusical movement
potency and power
or

The

several movements.

melody

caught by the ear


it may
be recognized

once

that
be firmlyfixed in the mind
in part or with other
it appears

must

when

will find that this task is not


it

that

and

after this
and

one

requiresclose attention

which

relation borne
which

it learned

is made*

an

and

upon

The

taught
un-

at first
easy one
observation.
And

the mental

faculties,

affords keenest

by

reallymeans

of its structure.
when

tax

severer

material.

one
an

The
to

enjoyment,that of findingthe
part of the compositionto another,
of the organiccharacter
understanding
works with largerunits than
mind now

melodies.
recognize

In

making

an

effort

first

gain

to

between

relation

of the

of
perception

clear

the

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

262

unit and

the melodic

larger and

then

larger musical

units,
of purely

undoubtedly loses a certain amount


oughly
he will not as thoremotional
pleasure,and for that reason
and
completely enjoy the first performance or first
his mind
few performances as he will later when
grasps the
plan of the whole without great effort and can give more
This power,
artistic whole.
attention to its beauty as an
however, must be gone through with if the pleasurewe derive
gratification.
from music is higher than vaguely emotional
of absolute pitch, or
attainment
The
pitch memory,
listener

the

should
every

musician, and

tunes

or

who

many

more
compositions
a

of

music

as

well

as

difficult to learn than

more

composition. All people who play by


play by note, learn and memorize
many
less difficult by hearing them
repeated
or

without

times

few

lover

musical

any

ear, and

of every
should be no

ambition

the

be

ever

having seen

the notes*

Why

should

time fix the pitch fully in mind


and
they not at the same
selects
always play them in the originalkey? The composer
that certain
a certain key for his compositionfor the reason
desired effects cannot
be secured in any other key* A composition
written in sharps should not be played in flats,
and
the transposingof the compositioneven
one-half tone higher
lower changes its character.
A good musician can
or
rize
memo-

the

the

without
is
such

difficult

most

score

alone

ory
instrument,and therefore pitch memfor
qualification the accomplishment of

feat.

It has been
that

the

of the

use

essential

an

compositionfrom

because

International

urged that absolute pitchmay

of

the

and

three

Concert

different

be

pitchesin

a
use

detriment,
French,
"

is

likelyto be confused.
of a hair,and it may
This, however, is but the splitting
as
well be contended
that a highly trained ear
is a detriment,
in that to the average person slightly
out-of-ttme instruments
m

an

orchestra

will pass

"

one

unnoticed

and

the

performance be
enjoyed,while to the highlytrained ear they will
be a distinct shock, and its possessor will be ex-

APPRECIATION
We
ceedingly uncomfortable.
study of art on the ground
multitude

to

the

of

drawing,

while

bad

in

to

263

might as well discouragethe


that a picturemay
be pleasing

the trained

perspective,
poor

eye

in

of

artist it is out

an

monious
inhar-

composition,or

in color.
Pitch

is not

memory

as

difficult as

it seems,

and

be

may

to some
much
acquired by practise,although it comes
more
of people are
in the
naturallythan to others. If a company
habit of singing together without
accompaniment one person
will always be asked to start the songs because he has a good
the tenor
and
too
runs
never
pitch memory
high nor the
dozen singers,at least
basses too low, and usuallyamong
a
will be found
has absolute pitch,or, at least,very
who
one
it. Every one
knows
the range of his own
near
voice, his
lowest and highestnote, and by a littleeffort can
fix these in

Let

his mind.
he

tone

latter

hears

in his

fix

and

mind,

trials of

"practisemakes

student

the

as

then

this

any

kind

will

perfect,"and

note

tone

with

the pitch of
nearly as possible
verify the pitch on the piano.

he may
hear and
compositionhe hears is written.
name

his lowest

compare

he

soon

will

know

convince
be

soon

the

key

him
enabled

in which

the
peated
Rethat
to

any

understandingof the difference between the major


the minor
keys helpsone greatlyto appreciatethe mood
chooses the key
A composer
compositionis to convey.
An

and
the

which

best

expresses
The
key of

the
A

emotional

character

of his sition.
compoto the
example, seems

major, for
while the key of A minor, the
trained ear
very brilliant,
The key
simplestof all the minor keys, is dull and somber.
rich and brilliant,
but B minor exof B major is sensuous,
presses
and
simplicity
sincerity.The key of C major is
while that of C minor
noble, frank and open in expression,
that of
pathos. The key of D major is brilliant,
expresses
is sad. The key of E flat is grand but also pathetic,
D minor
while the key of E major is sparklingand vivacious. The
and that of F minor
key of F major is mixed in expression,
is most
patheticof all. The key of G major is used to

express
the C

emotions

warlike

the

major, while

it is not

though
key of G

is

minor

lofty a key as
only a littleless

so

It will be

that of F minor.

than
pathetic

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

264

from

seen

this that

parison
has a wide range to choose from, and a comthe composer
keys reveals
of the major and their relative minor
liant
the fact that the major keys usuallyexpress outspoken, bril-

moods, while the minor are used to convey the idea of


pathos,tenderness and artlessness.
A study of the major and minor scales,and of the major
and

chords

minor

simply,and since most


compositiontake place through

be summed

can

up

changes of the key in a


a
change in chords, called modulation, it is well to know
something of the two kinds of scales and of the formation
difference between
The
a
of chords.
major and a minor
the first and third
in the interval between
key lies principally
steps of each key. The interval formed between the firstand
third steps in major keys produces a large third; the interval
the first and third steps of minor
between
keys produces a
of the

If to each

third.

small

step of the
called

scale

triad.

minor

major
the

minor

one

the

triad.

effect of

and

fourth

triad.

steps

the fifth

are

one

minor

small

triads

The

on

the third

augmentationis formed

half tone,

making both

is

notes

the

ones

third is

joyous;

plaintive.The

the

principal

the first step,

on

on

major scale

the seventh

step,which

scale the triads

triads,but the

one

step is a major triad. These constitute the


of the minor
scale. The triad on the second
; the one

three

minor

or

triads of the

In the minor
are

of

the primary
step, constituting

All other
the

chord

the fifth

large or major third is

major

major key

step and

the

triads is soft and

triads,except

diminished

with

effect of

triads of the key.


minor

formed

with the

one

The

triads in the

fourth

have

we

The

major triad,and

of these intervals is added

step becomes

by

an

on
on

are

is

the first
the

fifth

primary triads
ished
step is dimin-

augmented triad.

its fifth tone

being raised

intervals major thirds. The triad on


the sixth step in the minor
key is a major triad,and the
the seventh step is a diminished triad. All the chords
one
on

APPRECIATION
mentioned

heretofore

first

had

have

in their intervals in the

large

and

then

having a small and then


having both thirds minor.

chords
chord
the

different

the

difference
and

265

possiblechords
in harmonies,

major
third; the

small

large third

One

; the

minor

diminished

by comparing

see

can

chords

in the

major and minor scale^


the possibilities
in modulation

and

effects.

tone

minor

originallyformed by beginningon
the third tone below
given major key, using the same
any
intervals of the major key through one
octave, and it was
diatonic minor
scale. This, however,
called the parallel
or
was
unsatisfactorybecause reallyit was
only the scale of C
beginning on A; and while the interval from the first to the
the required minor
third step formed
third,nevertheless the
of the scale,the seventh
mark
tone, which
distinguishing
The

be

should
seventh
and

key

half

was

before

tone

in the minor

note

scale

newly formed

this

Its form-name

scale.

the octave, was


absent.
The
scale was
then raised a half tone

the harmonic

was

to
being stillunsatisfactory

and

half

change

is

what

scale, which
The

work.
three

is

before

student

can

which

There

is

which

we

one

must

used

see

words,
a

more,

seventh
most

to

as

from

of minor

because

it left

on
a

This
a

step

tone, another

half step; this


minor
scale. The

tone

the

harmonic

minor

basis for all harmony

this that

composer
from
and

scales to work

has

the

three-fold greater than


is restricted in the major keys.

compositionsare

the composer
besides the
other cause

look

for what

Besides the triads


and

scale.

seventh

based

were

commonly

different kinds

to

and

relative minor

minor

th'e melodic

termed

in minor
possibilities
those

sixth

the

now

indicated

chords

minds

some

by raisingthe sixth

added

was

formed

between

called the

was

modulation
the former

there

some
so
are

mentioned

difference in
call harshness

commonly
seventh

used

keys
in

to

positions.
com-

zation
in harmoni-

chords; in other

triad is added

one

interval

third,which forms the intervalof the seventh. The


chord, formed on the fifth tone of the scale,is the

pleasingone

of all the

seventh chords

formed

within

of

the

chords

the seventh

All

seventh.

the

dominant

formed

the

termed

is therefore

scale, and

the

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

266

on

or

ruling

other

steps

on
secondary sevenths, and the one
step is the diminished seventh, both its fifth and

scale

are

the seventh

called

makes
Any composition which
being diminished.
will appear
chords
to
of these secondary seventh
much
use
ears
people like dissonances, and
some
harsh, but as some
when
to like them
some
they are used right,this source
grow
of
of pleasure. The
cause
of unpleasantnesschanges to one
apparent difference in the feeling of different keys, which
people experienceat present, is mostly due to faulty tuning
seventh

or

Of

respect.
raised

course,

half

one

or

in

of their instruments

condition

the bad

to

pitchof

if the
whole

other

some

composition is suddenly

temporarily
tone, it will appear
effect
wise,
takes
place; othercontrary

brighter,if lowered the


considering all from

the

standpointof

strumen
perfectin-

keys will hardly be noticed. Much


A good instrument
in
depends upon a piano being in tune.
will produce mellow, soft,beautiful tones
and the same
tune
will sound
instrument, if out of tune, even
harsh,
slightly,
hard and unpleasant.
effect of keys in compositionsand their choice is
The
of the composer
and
the
entirelydetermined
by the mood
the difference in

mood

in

which

If it is to

be

he

intends

to

the

have

compositionappear.

brilliant and

strikingmarch, he will choose


in
a major key.
Tannhauser
Example, Wagner's March
at the entrance
to the Wartburg. If the composer
wishes to
death
he chooses the minor
scene
express a
key. Splendid
a

"

examples
"

Funeral

Chopin's "Funeral

are

"

March

Sonata

March"

weird.

One

to sad

music.

the

Poles

as

minor

must

not

Some

tones

use

it even

mazurkas, many

keys. This would

rather

mean

Beethoven's
are

soft,singing,

patheticand

think that the minor

nations

in their

and

Opus 26, their

expressive, sorrowful, sometimes

"

key

often

is restricted

in their dance

music,

of

in the

which

are

that the Poles

pot forgottentheir sadness,

Of

even

course

in
the

APPRECIATION
Strauss

as

waltzes

267

always in the joyous major keys, expressing


with
undercurrent
of sadness,
an
never
only gaiety,
are

in the Polish mazurkas.

preceding chapters of

the

As

this

volume

have

given
composition we
in general but

knowledge of the elements of


will no
longer dwell upon musical structure
hints which may
preting
attempt to give some
prove of value in intermusic
as
performed on various instruments
or
by
We
differ in our
the human
voice.
opinions of what
may
and in a particularinterpretationof a comis good music
position
the
but when
technical
to
we
come
qualitiesof a
performance differences of judgment should not exist. A
good or bad execution of a symphony is not a question of
opinion but of fact,and the musical critic,
cognizant of the
technics of the art, can
judgment upon the perpronounce
formance
with absolute certainty.
the

reader

THE

the modern

Because

ORCHESTRA

orchestra

is

the greatest of all instruments


it is intended
to perform the most

and

perhaps the

we

maintained

complex

music

it must

of timbre
range
solid sonority
a

finest

pianissimo to the
If it is not possible
heaviest forte.
for you to distinguish
ing
by ear the various wood, brass and stringinstruments durthe performance, it would
musician
be well to have some
identifythem for you, as they can be learned only by hearing
them

be

can

from

potent

consider it first. As

necessarilycontain a great compass, wide


and
tone
or
color, the greatest flexibility,
which

most

the

often.
The

orchestra

consists

of

four

of instruments,
groups
first includes the viols,

choirs, as they are called. The


doublebasses ; the
that is violins,violas, violoncellos and
nets
second, the wind instruments of woo^: flutes,
oboes, clariand bassoons ; the third,the wind instruments of brass :
trumpets, horns, trombones and bass tuba ; and the last group
or

of

orchestra, though

an

they

as

this effect

by

hence

are

given

the

horns

will be

drums

distribution

but
or

the

others

other

wind

development

the

by

part and

bass

The

and

ments
instru-

are

the double-

bassoons
flutes,oboes,clarinets,
violins

trombones

front

ments.
instru-

do

the

composition as

the

of

of

choir,
singleoboe, flute,

composer
a

of

This

cornets.

of the various

the volume

may

and

cellos
violon-

and

just in

and

by the
instruments,for

instrument

of

in each

the left

to

treated

solo

as

and

center, with

found

stringsare

ground
fore-

the

of the orchestra

at the side of them

is indicated

The

ductor
con-

are
percussiveinstruments
hearers, usuallyoccupyingthe center

the

front, and

in
the

in

are

the

other

and

of the stage, and back of them


The
bass stringinstruments.
and

of

usually in

are

massing of voices
placesof advantage.

the

from

placed farthest

drums

the

taste

generalrule for concert

the real foundation

are

make

and

as

the

with

cellos

violins,violas and

the

work

varies

instruments

of these

of

instruments

other

and

chimes

cymbals, triangle,bell,
percussion. The arrangement

kettledrums, big drums,

of

consists

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

268

same

whole

as

work

body

in
of

first

violins.
The

number

somewhat

upon
which
an

use

to

or

dramatic.

dramatic

the

music

orchestra

number

orchestra,such

tuba
concert

instruments

and

depends
to be
special
is to be put, whether
symphonic
of
instruments
required in a
group
performed or the

brass trumpet, tenor

bass
tuba, contra-

contrabass

work, and

instruments.

as

each

About
of

so

trombone, are seldom called for in


have no
place in the regular list of

three-fourths

ninetyor

of

well-balanced

tra,
orches-

hundred

instruments,consists
of strings,
which
choir is usuallyspoken of as the string
Its chief instrument is of course
the violin,the
quartet
which
leads the entire orchestra,
one
for its clear,
practically
penetratingtones make it the richest of all the voices,and
the brilliancy
of a compositionis portrayed by the mass
of
say

violins

one

playingin

one

the upper or middle register.Instrumentmakers, performers and composers have combined their skill

APPRECIATION
and

made

genius and
whose

modern

our

of

range

269

orchestra

expression is

into

almost

ment
instru-

an

infinite.

Its

and
varied that there are no shades
so
many
color it cannot
of tone
touch, and its compass reaches from
the lowest tone
on
a
piano, given by the bass tuba, to the
voices

are

so

in the voice

highest found

piccoloflute.

The

lowest

deep as any in which the ear can detect


pitchand the highestas acute as it can recognize.
viols are
The
only solo instruments,except the harp,
which
can
play harmony as well as melody; their range
extensive and are capableof more
is the most
manipulation
by the performers than any other instruments and answer
more
quickly and eloquentlyto the feelingsof the player.
instruments
The
wind
of course
are
dependent upon the
breath of the playersand so are
somewhat
limited in their
abilityto sustain tones, and in this respect the viols have
the other choirs.
For these reasons
a
great advantage over
the stringed choir is depended upon
to sustain the life of
note

is about

of the

as

orchestral music.
violin part of an
orchestral score
is two
be many
voiced, first and second violin,but there may
which
subdivisions
smaller
produce entrancing effects.
the

Usually

Between

the first and

in the music

written

that the middle


out.
an

The

violin the

second

for them

; it is a

division made

parts of the harmony may

firstviolins

are

orchestra;the second

only difference
be

in order

properlyfilled

the sopranos
the altos;the violas

frequentlycalled
violins

are

lies

of
are

barytones
; and the doublethe basses. This is not exactlya true division,
basses are
for the viola and cello are
capableof a soprano register,
all are
but when
playing togetherthe order is correct, and
the tenors

as

the viola then

all violins
The

; the violoncellos are

an

qualityof tone;
somber, while

pathetic.

lie too

far below
have

played together,we
importantinstrument

were

viola is

would

the

in its lower

in

its upper

tones
tones

the violin part if


the second violin.

owing

to

its beautiful

it is rather gloomy and


tender and
it becomes

In size it is next

tuned

stringsare

four intervals

violoncello,whose

the

violoncello possesses

The

lower.

octave

an

is tuned

violin and

to the

with
beautifully

blends

It

lower.

MUSIC

OF

THEORY

THE

270

capacityfor expression,next to that of the


violin,and it can speak the language of tender passion more
The
than any other of the stringedinstruments.
effectively
structure
for the harmonic
doublebass providesthe foundation
ment.
Solos are
of the orchestra.
only seldom given this instrua

marvelous

It sounds

is called therefore

for it and
The

full

which

each
of
groups,
The entire choir

the

harmony
can

with

brass, or

or

divided

be

may

and

produce melody

can

written

capableof playing

is

group

with all the

be combined

instruments

into

small

harmony.

stringsor

parts of either of these groups.

distinguishthese

difficult to

music

the

than

transposinginstrument.

instrument

wood-wind

itself in

by

lower

octave

an

It is not

they

as

all

so

are

instrument has a
frequentlyused in solos. Each wood-wind
strongly characteristic voice adapted to certain styles of
other or with
music and it is only by combinations among
of expresthat they possess any great range
other groups
sion.
The flute is an
Flutes and oboes are purely soprano.
instrument

of

marvelous

great effectiveness with

other

sentiment
superficial

and
as

soft

are

instrument,for

and

complaining,its
with

The

is

oboe

the

oboe

can

be

blended

with

instruments,though brilliancy

about

solo

compared
is

agilityand

all that

are

requiredof

its voice is sweet, at

while
low

tones

are

not

it

times

rich, and,

clarinet,it is expressionless.
melody instrument of a pastoralnature and

frequentlyused

in the

or

orchestra

in

imitative music.

It

well

of joy,griefand tenderness, and


express feelings
Beethoven
has used it to give the melody of the funeral
can

march
and
same

of his Heroic

Symphony.

While

the oboe

is

grave

rather timid
grave

instrument,the bassoon, while using the


voice, becomes almost humorous
because of its

deeply solemn
utterance.

The

Nighf 9 Dream"

voice combined
clowns
are

in

introduced

with

its great flexibility


of
Mendelssohn's
"Midsummer

by music fat

two

bassoons.

APPRECIATION
The

clarinets,both

the widest
of

the

expressive of

most

and

soprano

wood-wind
three

over
range
is
rich and
clarinet

the

271

"

contralto, are
instruments,

and

mellow

perhaps the
they have

as

half octaves.

and

The

voice

fuller than

much

the

its

rather
shrill and
high tones
are
even
for
its
lies
in
its
middle
These
tones.
beauty
screaming,
instruments
wood-wind
are
usuallyemployed in pairs,though
is added, and
frequently a third flute,clarinet or bassoon

oboe, though

The

occasionally a fourth.
all

are

The
the

and

lipson the
variety of

size

shape,

produced by

and

brass

vibration

modifications

wood-wind

ments
instru-

of reeds.

instruments

take the

of

place of reeds,
the
quality depend upon

of

the

and

tone

in these

tones

bell and

the

piece
mouth-

of the brasses.
The

have

brasses

been

greatly improved in the past


fiftyyears, and today can give all the semitones within their
which
the old brasses has been
improvement over
compass,
of valves
which
control
the
accomplished by the means
tube, and bring it within the mastery
length of the sonorous
of
three
the
and
horns, two
player. Four
trumpets
trombones
with perhaps an
addition of a bass tuba usually
comprise this brass choir. The horns are used either for solo
in support of other instruto sustain long chords
ments.
or
purposes
The

Ages

French

adapted

is the old

horn
for

orchestral

hunting
It is

use.

horn
a

of the Middle

valuable

member

the brass instruments


the most
among
expressive. Its range is very wide and it is employed when
is required, or
it may
sound
unite in
heavy, thunderous
of

the

softest

and

orchestra

of

powerful

chords
and

with

strings or

yet mellow

and

clarinets,for its voice

sweet.

Two

familiar

is

horn

show
the tone
of the
clearlyand distinctly
the hunting calls which
precede the entrance
I of
of the Landgrave in Act
Tannhauser," and the trio
Eroica
in the scherzo of the
symphony.
The
place of trumpets we usuallyfind filled by the more
the highest voiced of the brass
familiar cornets, which
are

which
passages
instrument
are

"

"

"

THEORY

THE

272

They

instruments.

give

seldom

they are
occasionallyhappens, leads
of

choir

the

Their

in chords.

used
and

which

as

the head

the

melody except
plays alone,

member

orchestra, but

the

brass band

as

or,

ofteuest

are

often

when

combatant,

familiar to all.

are

and

trombones, alto, tenor

three

The

MUSIC

is brilliant and

tone

lead of

or

OF

bass,

are

known

and
dignifiedtones; they are
majestic,serene
other instrument
and no
can
equal
wonderfully expressive,
when
elevatingeffect is
them
a
nobly solemn and spiritually
required. Though chieflyused to sustain harmonies, they
their

for

are

passages, and
orchestra, proclaimingthe entrance
found

often

the

in melodic

act

of

heralds

as
some

for

musical

idea.
the

of the brass

band, sounds
though of great

tuba, the doublebass

The

size
harmonies, and
of a compobe made
it can
to respond to the gentlermoods
sition.
sound
While
think
of
volume
of
a
we
usually
great
in connection
with the brass choir,a little observation
shows
when
that it is capable of vague,
far away
us
tones, and
played softly,as in the prayer in Lohengrin, it is quite as
lowest

note

effective

as

of

when

its

used

for volume

of tone

in

combination

with the entire orchestra.

Except
to
to

the kettledrums

or

certain tones, the instruments


accentuate

rhythms.

Many

which

tympano,
of
of

can

percussionare
these, such as

be tuned
used

only

steel bass

used for rather fantastic


bells,and tambourines
are
and by some
work
considered unnecessary
for
are
composers
performances of the best compositions. The
kettledrums
are
usually used in pairs,and because they possess pitch
are
really musical and therefore of greater value.
They
gongs,

are

tuned 'in various

ways,

allowingfor

frequentchange

of

keys and so that they can be used as harmony instruments.


The positionof drummer
is not, as many
to think, an
seem
h
e
to fill;
have a perfectsense
must
of tune
and
easy one
rhythm and also of pitch,as he must at times change the
pdtehof one or both of his drums in a very few seconds, and
the orchestra is playing.

Founder
to

composer

with

away
all

any

German

romantic

German

create

Italian

and

that

has

him

given

is

His

this

his

in

clo

work

quality

place

first

and

liberty

Germany,
It

The

opera.

musical
in.

opera

German,

thoroughly
other

the

o"

1786-1826

WEBER.

VON

MARIE

was

than

more

the

musical

world,

H/B.

K^fcfel^l

guys*

W^a^tiw

i*

atot

"ti

^feistlc

legacy

fro^i

Carl

by
Marie
4

'

von

In

only

*"""f"yed

idt^r^^^li^l'

**"*!**
Richa^i

"T^-ttfttrm

'

APPRECIATION
In
so

orchestra
present-clay

our

handled

the kettledrums

are

as

give effective

to

as

effectivelywith

used

is

entire orchestra
"

in

tutti

One

of

of

the

or

be

ulated
manip-

pitch,but

no

is

drum

it is

smaller

ones

compositionswhere

in the

the

cian,
the musi-

languageof

first time

listens,
say

he

large orchestra,to hear


and recognizean
once

to

all the voices


instrument

by
The
derives
from
an
pleasure one
abilityto
instruments
various
and
to discover
just what
fillsin the interpretation
of a composition is
one
effort and close attention it requires.
oft-repeated
wishes to gain much
who
from good music should

the

place each
worth

heavy parts

passages.
hope the

played by

its voice.
follow

It cannot

because it has

employed or,

instruments

the

results.

big bass

"

cannot

symphony

the

even

large stick

one

in

of the kettledrum

273

the

Every one
acquirethe habit
fair knowledge

at

analysis.One should have at least a


of the form
or
design of a composition
For instance,
if it
before he hears it playedby an orchestra.
first by its name
that it is a
is a symphony
he knows
of
sounding together,an employment of all the resources
instrumental
modulation
dominant

sonata

ear

further

sound, and

through three or
feelingor musical

relation between
concert.

of

The

of the

most

study of

form

reallylies

form

at

that it expresses a
four different moods
is

There

idea.

the bottom

at

the reader

has shown

of

of

usuallya

heard
compositions

one

close

classical
that the

symphonies,symphonic

for solo instruments

overtures, concertos
poems,
orchestra as well as smaller forms, such

of

kind

and

trios,
quartets and
compositionthen follow, not

quintets for strings. If a


exactlybut in its generalstructure, a
in the sonata
or

form

movements,

and

it is

symphony, concerto,
instrument, we
written for

an

have

is

one

such

scheme

composed

of

as

number

accordingto the

treatment

of

If

written

for

or

the

sonata.

sonata,

if the

orchestra,a concerto,

is for orchestra then

as

we

have

the

and

is found
of parts

parts
a

solo

accompaniment is
if the entire

symphony.

score

In
we

the

first of

recognize

the

OF

THEORY

THE

274

the

usual

sonata

four
in

form

MUSIC

parts of
which

are

symphony
found

the

subject for later ments.


developin
order
to
Invariably a symphony begins simply
If it open with a burst of chords they will
its scope.
show
usuallybe followed by a quiet,even legend-liketheme, which
Either
the heavy opening chords.
float from
to
seems
wood-winds
or
strings and occasionallybrasses will carry
this theme, and after a few bars of simple,possiblysolemn,
chanting of the subject,you will feel a stir of motion among
second
a
choir, while the theme still continues, and then
to gather impetus, and
the other instruments
seem
they are
either echoing a response to the wood-wind
choir, which
soon
is now
carrying the melody, or are giving the rhythmic
in harmonies, or taking an
swing, by their chords, filling
active vocal part and
Then,
giving color to the whole.
stated and
the
has been
after the theme
restated,comes
find
period of discussion,or the development, in which we
it is the free
the composer's learningfind fancy exploited;
excitement
for the symphony
fantasia,and it is a delightful
lover to follow the fancy of a composer
through these parts.
You
usuallyfind the highestcontropuntal discussion between
the voices.
In the string quartet the violins each seem
to
be exploitingtheir ideas of the subject now
successively,
now
later,
by alternate interruptionor in dual agreement;
possiblythe oboe, and then all the wood-winds, voice their
drums
opinions,and then perhaps the brass and even
join
in the discussion,often with seemingly irresponsible
ment.
merriThere
is perfectfreedom of utterance
in this development.
After this development we find a return to the first
with modifications and the addition of
a
division,
repetition
melodies

which

to

are

the

form

close.
The

first movements

dramatic

fire and

is to be

worked

contain,as
out

hopes, despair,in
merrimtet

in the

are

we

full of
usually rapid and
have said,the theme which

in all other
second

scherzo; and

slow

jiarts,its

sorrows,

movement;

its

its triumphant or

griefs,
gaiety or
tragicending

APPRECIATION

275

which is a movement
of largedimensions and
finale,
of great importance. After the playful,
mood
of the
merry
scherzo, where perhaps the stringsand flutes may but whisper
in the

the

the basses

carry

brought

are

we

loud

the

to

answer

other

whole

comic, mocking rhythm

on

strains of

back

to

the

melody,
eration
statelyconsidviolins perhaps start
often strictly
repeat

The

simplebut emphasizedmelody and


know
it quite as though to make
sure
we
a

up

unadorned, and
rounds

this theme

as

form

and

occurs

of

been
other

choirs,or by

sonata

in

passage

triumphant

the

the wood-winds

which

the

acclaim

and

the

cadence, whereupon

of the

snatches

whole
the

melody,

deep design of

felt it before,

rondo

form, and continues

charm

of mystery

lull in volume
and

orchestra

furious

the
their

not

work

of the

wood-winds
sixteen

are

second

gentlytoss

brief time and

close,which

loud
into

little
about

usually feel

another,as

most

well

One
a

then

novel
after

passage for full


in various
of the theme

may

whole.

lends

comes

of

the instruments,

expression,and

part of

an

orchestra

good result depends

upon

and

of instruments
proportioning
More
conductor.
stringsthan

upon
brass and

least sixteen

first and

necessary

and

violins,twelve

at

emphatic voices.
a
interpret
sition
compo-

considers
first carefully

as

follows the

vehement

hurrying

orchestra

an

overpower
the arrangement and
the

for

in loudest and

composer

his work

often

comes

fugalpassage

volume, register,
flexibility,
range

balances
must

that

by strings with

this part you

serious

rhythm, with

rhythmic guisesand
In order

In

the very

at

and
a

have

the composer
even
though you have not
feelingof completenessand usually of

profound dignity. Often

themes

of

after this little respitethe

then

again enters.

orchestra

the

instead

orchestra

instruments

and

it stands

joins with
to drop exhausted
seems
stringswith possibly a

the wood-wind

from

assistance

as

in constant

alone, there

whole
then

it

form

beginning.After
played,perhaps only by strings,or

the

even

recurs

this finale is in rondo

discover

we

or

serious and

more

for the close.

of the theme

choirs, and

violas,ten cellos,and

eight

THEORY

THE

276
doublebasses

well

may

more

have
due

right
partly to
a

who

one

or

needed

are

balance, while
proper
Solidityis another element we

to

expect in

to

the

the

secure

added.

be

is hollow, thin,

parts by the composer


composition for orchestra, and
a
appreciates

ear

any

and

at

detects

once

full
one

Occasionally th? acoustic


though the
poor that even

nasal.

or

is

of

partly to good playing. Almost


substantial resonant
body of tone
that

this

and

good orchestra,

arrangement

arranges

MUSIC

OF

propertiesof a concert hall are so


qualityo'f tone of each instrument and of the various choirs
voices of the
be rich,smooth
and full,and the many
may
feels conscious
of a
orchestra work
perfectlytogether,one
and
finds upon
lack of solidity,
inquirythat the orchestra
was

in

no

Again,
attack

voice, and
instrument

at fault.

way
one

can

detect

soon

phrase properly; the


every
at

should

tone

exactlythe

same

failure of

orchestra
be

begun

instruments

should
and

act

ended

instant,otherwise

as

by
the

to
one

every

theme

unorganized
phrase lacks definiteness,
you feel the careless,
handling of instruments,and it detracts materiallyfrom one's
instrument
little
so
one
enjoyment. When
drags ever
behind
the
another
the
not
rhythms are
perfect,and
smoothness
and
the unity of the performance are
ruined.
We
brilliant passages partlybecause we
admire
realize what
precisionand unity they require.Unstinted applauseshould
be given a conductor and his orchestra for a perfect
ance.
performArduous
and frequentrehearsals,
constant
practiseby
the various instruments,continued working togetherof the
of
separate choirs and the entire orchestra,a subordinating
self and instrument
for the perfectionof the orchestra as a
whole, a common
sympathy and understanding between
or

conductor

and

Many

of

his men,
all necessary.
are
fail to recognizethe power
us

of
analyzinga composition which is reqttired
He
know
the symphony, the concerto
must

know
thorpjdgWy,
to

t"" manner

it

so

in which

of

the conductor.

that he has formed his


it should be

properly

or
own

overture,
ideas as

performed, and then he

APPRECIATION

277

the
possess
is
He
orchestra.

abilityof imparting his ideas to