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Itihsa of Bhratam Janam through

Indus Script cipher and Maritime


Tin Route
--
(Meluhha cipher), ProtoPrakritam
S. Kalyanaraman, Sarasvati Research Centre
September 3, 2015
kalyan97@gmail.com
http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/

Roots in 8th millennium BCE


Dance step
Bhirrana hieroglyph potsherd
Mohenjodaro bronze sculpture

Histoire Ancienne Des Etats Hindouiss


D'extrme-Orient --George Coedes
History of Ancient Hinduised States of Far East

Roman Aqueduct: 2,000 years old, 2500 feet long, 100 feet high, 20,000 granite blocks with no
mortar
Pont Du Gard in Languedoc, France. Romans built a 50km aqueduct from Uzs to Nmes in
France with an overall fall of about 17 metres and an average gradient of 1/3000.
Magdeburg Water Bridge in Germany. 918 metres (2003)

Aqueduct across GangaYamuna for reborn Sarasvati


from Sharada River

Confluence of Pachu nala and Gori


Ganga - On The Trek Route Of
Milam Glacier, Uttarakhand

http://www.uttarakhandguide.com/glaciers/milam-glacier/

Milam glacier, Kumaon Himalaya


http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/recession-and-reconstructionmilam-glacier-kumaon-himalaya-paper-current-science

Mahakali-Sharada: Uttarakhand Milam is a major Himalayan


glacier situated in Munsiyari tehsil of Pithoragarh district
within the hill state of Uttarakhand in India. Milam with an
elevation ranging from 5, 500 - 3, 870 meters above the sea
level, is located about 15 Km northeast of Nanda Devi.

Typical size of inscription

Indian Ocean Maritime Routes ca.


500-1000 CE

Hindumahsgar Parivr
Indian Ocean Community

Dholavira-Uruk

Assur-Kultepe

Uruk-Kultepe

http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1301/report.pdf Tin resources of the


world, USGS Bulletin 1301 (1969)

Trefoils on terracotta bangle. H983517/8679-01

H2000-4432/2174-3 Steatite button sealCf. Kenoyer 2010. Smoothed,


polished pedestal of dark red stone. National Museum of Pakistan,
Karachi. After Mackay 1938: 1,411; II, pl. 107:35; cf. Parpola, 1994, p.
218. Heifer with trefoil inlays, Uruk (W.16017) c. 3000 BCE; shell mass
with inlays of lapis lazuli, 5.3 cm long. Vorderasiatisches Museum,
Berlin; cf. Parpola, 1994, p. 213.Trefoil-decorated bull; traces of red
pigment remain inside the trefoils. Steatite statue fragment;
Mohenjodaro (Sd. 767). After Ardeleanu-Jansen 1989: 196, fig.1

Trefoil on Egyptian artifacts

Hammered gold fillet. Fillet with hanging ribbons falling down the
back.

[ paamu ] paamu. [Skt.] n. A gold band or fillet tied


on the forehead of one at the time of coronation

[ paaa ] paau. [Tel.] n. A smithy, a shop.


[ paika ] An
anvil paaai, n. < K. paale. 1. Community; . 2.
Guild, as of workmen; .
paa, n. < bhaa. 1. Learned man, scholar; priest.
patau m. ferry (Sindhi) paakila m. tenant of royal land Vet. -- .
Pk. paal(l)a -- m. village headman ; G. pael m. hereditary headman
OM. palu, M. pel, l m. village headman.(CDIAL 7703)

bhaa 'furnace'. baa iron (Gujarati).


pot shawl Rebus: pottha-kara 'modeller in clay'
and pot a artisan casting in metal.
kolom pota 'three perforated
beads' Rebus: kolimi pottha-kara
pot a 'smithy-forge modeller in clay
(metalcaster), casting in metal'.

patta ferryman(Punjabi)
The following semantics lend support to derivation by R. A. Hall in Language
12, 133 from *partana -- (pr ~ Lat.portus, &c.) for the word
paana (Kautilya):
Rebus: S. patau m. ferry (whence pta m. ferryman , f. ferry boat );
L. pattan, (Ju.) pata m. ferry ; P. patta ferry, landing -- place
, patta, tu m. ferryman, one who lives near a ferry ; B. ptan ferryman
.(CDIAL 7705). paaku, n. [T. paava, M. paaku.] 1. Small boat;
. 2. Dhoney, large boat; . (W.) [ pai
] pahi. [Afghan.] n. Pathan, a certain tribe of Afghans.
Allograph: [ paaga ] paaga. [Tel.] n. A flag or banner, a crest. .
A snake's crest or hood.

A tree associated with smelter and linga from


Bhuteshwar ca. 3rd cent. BCE: kuTi tree Rebus:
kuThi smelter. Six lingas found in Harappa.

Eraka Subrahmanya, Swamimalai:


peacock, gajanana (Both are hieroglyphmultiplexes)
Three-headed: elephant, buffalo, bottom
jaw of a feline. NS 91.02.32.01.LXXXII.
Dept. of Archaeology, Karachi. EBK 7712

King Puru presenting Indian ukku (wootz) steel sword


to Alexander in the battle on River Hydaspes (Jhelum,
Vitasta) Painting in SAIL Guest House, Ranchi

Intermixed ferrite and cementite alloys in the


crucible steel of South India, 6th cent BCE

The 'Porus Medallion', a silver decadrachm


with an image of Alexander the Great

This silver Dekadrachm featuring the figure of Alexander the Great was part of the
Prospero Collection was struck during Alexanders campaigns in India.
http://www.davecullen.com/forum/index.php?topic=26820.3870

(Coin image above reproduced courtesy of Baldwin's Auctions Ltd, New York Sale
XXVII, 304).

Did Alexander defeat Porus?


Daunted by the skill and number of the native people
and terrified by their elephants, the Macedonians
mutinied and demanded to return westwards, to
which Alexander eventually agreed. After many
trials and tribulations the Macedonian army
ultimately returned to Babylon where Alexander
would live out the last few months of his life before
dying suddenly and mysteriously on the 10th June
323 BC. Was Alexander injured by Indian steel ukku
sword?
Sharada Srinivasan;
Srinivasa Ranganathan (2004). India's Legendary Wootz Steel:
An Advanced Material of the Ancient World. National Institute
of Advanced Studies. (South Indian sites producing crucible
steel: Gulbarga, Mysore, South Arcot.
http://materials.iisc.ernet.in/~wootz/heritage/WOOTZ.htm

http://blogs.warwick.ac.uk/numismatics/tag/undergraduate_research/

Maritime Tin Route of 3rd millennium


BCE from Far East to Fertile Crescent
Tin belt of the world is in the Far East
Dong Son Bronze Drums attest to cire perdu
casting methods and use of hieroglyphs
Eurasias demand for tin to make Tin Bronzes
because of scarcity of arsenical copper
Maritime Tin Route supplied Tin through
Seafaring Merchants of Meluhha (Mleccha),
'bhratam janam

The rollout Shu-ilishu Cylinder seal. Akkadian


translator of Meluhha . Courtesy of the Department
des Antiquites Orientales, Musee du Louvre, Paris.

Nahal Mishmar: cire perdue arsenical


copper hieroglyphs, 4th millennium
BCE

Hindumahasagar parivaar
Malay Tin Granite belt
Opencast tin mining, Taiping
Dong Son Bronze Drum with heron, antelope

Tin

Tin belt of the globe


Paramahamsa
http://www.slideshare.net/JohnSykes/myanmar-the-black-swan-of-global-tin-gardiner-sykes-may-2015-itri-conference

'bhratam janam
R.gveda (ca 3.53.12) uses the term, 'bhratam janam',
which can be interpreted as 'bhrata folk'. The i of the
skta is vivmitra gthina. India was called
Bhratavara after the king Bharata. (Vyu 33, 51-2; Bd.
2,14,60-2; lin:ga 1,47,20,24; Viu 2,1,28,32).

ya ime rodas ubhe aham indram atuavam


vivmitrasya rakati brahmedam bhratam janam
3.053.12 I have made Indra glorified by these two, heaven
and earth, and this prayer of vivmitra protects the
people of Bharata. [Made Indra glorified: indram
atuavam -- the verb is the third preterite of the casual,
I have caused to be praised; it may mean: I praise Indra,
abiding between heaven and earth, i.e. in the
firmament].

Tiny seals with Indus Script


https://www.pinterest.com/pin/4424083633692
62276/

Tiny seal
Dr. Bryan Well (unseen), an expert on Indus
Valley Civilisation, holding a tablet at The
Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Taramani,
Chennai. Photo: M. Karunakaran
http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/indus-civilisation-reveals-its-volumetricsystem/article48883.ece

Tablets, seals -HARP


An additional six copies of these tablets, again all
with the same inscriptions, were found elsewhere
in the debris outside of perimeter wall [250]
including two near the group of 16 and two in
debris between the perimeter and curtain walls.
Here all 22 tablets are displayed together with a
unicorn intaglio seal from the Period 3B street
inside the perimeter wall, which has two of the
same signs as those found on the tablets.

Hieroglyph-multiplex (hypertext)
demonstrated by Dennys Frenez &
Massimo Vidale

M0299 composite animal h096 composite animal m1177 composite animal

Composite animal has the body of a ram, horns of a zebu, trunk of an


elephant, hindlegs of a tiger and an upraised serpent-like tail
Composition of faces analysed by Huntington

Mahabharata, the most accurately dated


history in human civilization

Earliest Phase-Ravi (3300-2800 B.C.)

mhaIp kI %r yaa ke pfav

Great Water Tower for 250 crore people


Himalaya is the source of major rivers for 2.5 billion people; Manasarovar in Tibet yields Sindhu, Sutlej, Sarasvati, MahakaliKarnali-Sharada and Tsangpo-Lohitya-Brahmaputra rivers; other rivers flowing from eastern Himalaya are: Irawaddy,
Salween, Mekong, Yangtse and Huanghe. Precipitation levels increase along the Himalaya from Karakorm (250 cm. per
annum) to Cherrapunjee, Assam (1410 cm p.a.) registering the highest rainfall regions of the world. Since 1959, Chinese
government estimates that they have removed over $54 billion worth of timber.

Satellite imagery
Siwalik hills were
left-laterally
displaced. NNWSSE-trending
tear fault is still
active. The
earlier westflowing rivers
were swung
southwards,
following the
path of the
fault.
[NRSA, ISRO,
Hyderabad]

IRS P3 WiFS True Color Composite image: palaeo-drainage of Sarasvati river basin. 4 to
10 kms. wide channels. ISRO, Jodhpur

Map of Sapta Sindhu (Nation of Seven Rivers): Theatre of Pan~cajana_h,Five Peoples Marius Fontane, 1881,
Histoire Universelle, Inde Vedique (de 1800 a 800 av. J.C.), Alphonse Lemerre, Editeur, Paris. Amri-Nal
maritime roots. Helavo, elelo seamens song: Mleccha lingua franca; Sanskrit literary language,
grammatically correct.

Spatial distribution of major drainages in northern Haryana. Important


pilgrim sites/tirthas lie on the bank of Saraswati Nadi.
Inset: Location of the study area

Drainages and watershed boundaries of (1) Markanda, (2)


Saraswati and (3) Somb Rivers on the Siwalik foothills of Haryana

Spatial distribution of Harappan and post Harappan sites in relation to


palaeochannels in parts of northern Haryana. Note the concentration
of archaeological sites along Saraswati Nadi.

Distribution/concentration of settlements of Sarasvati


civilization
http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/rihn_e/project/img/H03-2.jpg (After RIHN 2009 GIS map)

IRS P6 LISS III image of Feb. 2004 showing Markanda-Bata divide and its mis-fit
wide valley around Paonta Sahib. Movement
along the NNWSSE trending Yamuna Tear Fault was possibly responsible for
the diversion of Yamuna towards south.

(a) SRTM DEM (Feb. 2000) with draped


Landsat ETM image (Oct. 2000)
showing 3D view of Siwalik foothill
around Adi Badri area. (b) Elevation
contour map (5m interval) is generated
from SRTM DEM (enclosed box only)
between Adi Badri and Rampur Herian,
west of Somb River. Dashed line shows
possible linkage of the two places. (c)
IRS P6 LISS-IV Image (5.8 m) of May,
2004 showing vegetation anomaly
(yellow dashed line) from Adi Badri to
Rampur Herian, indicating possible link
between Somb River and Saraswati
Nadi.

Action plan map to


revive the Saraswati
Nadi by three possible
River Linking schemes
(a) Saraswati-Somb for
1.5-2.0 km
distance, (b)
Saraswati-Markanda
for 3-4 km distance
and (c) SaraswatiWestern Yamuna
Canal for ~18 km
distance.

VS Area, Section A. Block I, House II: Room 23, showing brick floor with dyeing troughs [Original
1931 caption] House II. - Rooms 1 to 26, covering a rectangular area of 86 ft. 10 in. by 64 ft. 5 in.
to the north of the building just described, appear originally to have belonged to one and the
same house, which had two entrances opening into the main street on the east and another
into Lane I Mohenjo-daro

Riverine, maritime
civilization

Steatite seal showing boat, Mohenjodaro.Sindhu River near Mohenjodaro. Boat and cart still plying here.
24. Moulded tablet, Mohenjo-daro.
Three sided molded tablet. One side shows a flat bottomed boat with a central hut that has leafy fronds at the top of two poles.
Two birds sit on the deck and a large double rudder extends from the rear of the boat. On the second side is a snout nosed gharial
with a fish in its mouth. The third side has eight symbols of the Indus script.
Material: terra cotta Dimensions: 4.6 cm length, 1.2 x 1.5 cm width Mohenjo-daro, MD 602 Islamabad Museum, NMP 1384
Dales 1965a: 147, 1968: 39
22. Toy carts, Nausharo.
Terra cotta toy carts from the Harappan period site of Nausharo in Baluchistan. Holes along the length of the cart serve to hold
wooden side bars and at the center of the cart two of the wooden side bars can be extended below the frame to hold the axle. A
long stick inserted into the holes at the end of the cart would have been used to support a yoke. The two wheels were found lying
next to the cart frame. Period III, Harappan, 2300-2200 B. C. Similar carts are still used in rural areas of Pakistan and India (#2).
Material: terra cotta Dimensions: Larger cart - 17 cm length, 8 cm width, 1.2 cm thickness; Wheel - 7 cm dia., 1.2 cm thickness
Nausharo, NS/88/IV [Accession Number with year] Department of Archaeology, Karachi, EBK 6916 Jarrige 1990: XVa

Indus-Sarasvati Rivers

Valdiya, K. S., 1996, Resonance,1, pp.19-28

Tin ingots in the Museum of Ancient Art of the Municipality of Haifa, Israel (left #8251, right
#8252). The ingots each bear two inscribed Cypro-Minoan markings. (Note: I have argued
that the inscriptions were Meluhha hieroglyphs (Indus writing) denoting ranku 'tin' dhatu
'ore'. See: The Bronze Age Writing System of Sarasvati Hieroglyphics as Evidenced by Two
Rosetta Stones By S. Kalyanaraman in: Journal of Indo-Judaic Studies Volume 1: Number 11
(2010), pp. 47-74.)

ranku 'liquid measure'; ranku 'antelope' Rebus: ranku 'tin' (Santali) dhatu 'cross'
Rebus: dhatu 'mineral ore' (Santali).

Hieroglyph: ran:ku = liquid measure (Santali) Rebus: ran:ku = tin (Santali)

Hieroglyph: ran:ku a species of deer; ran:kuka (Skt.)(CDIAL 10559).

Hieroglyph: du = cross (Telugu) Rebus: dhatu = mineral (Santali)

Hindi. dhn to send out, pour out, cast (metal) (CDIAL 6771).
Inscribed tin ingot with a moulded head, from Haifa (Artzy, 1983: 53). (Michal Artzy, 1983,
Arethusa of the Tin Ingot, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, BASOR 250,
pp. 51-55) An additional hieroglyph on this third tin ingot is : human face. Hieroglyph: mhe
face (Santali) Rebus: mh ingot (Santali). mh opening or hole (in a stove for stoking (Bi.);
ingot (Santali) mh metal ingot (Santali) mh = the quantity of iron produced at one time in
a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a fourcornered piece a little pointed at each end; mh mht = iron smelted by the Kolhes and
formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mht ko
mh akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali).

Indus writing legacy


-- Punch-marked glyphs

[Tree symbol (often on a platform) on punch-marked coins; a symbol recurring on


many tablets with Sarasvati hieroglyhphs]. (After Pl. 30 C in: Savita Sharma, 1990,
Early Indian Symbols, Numismatic Evidence, Delhi, Agam Kala Prakashan; cf. Shah,
U.P., 1975, Aspects of Jain Art and Architecture, p. 77).

[Pl.8, Local Tribal coin symbols: Ujjayini, Tripuri, Ayodhya, Almore, Pa_n~ca_la, Arjuna_yana (13), Ra_janya (3,6,8), Uddehika, Audumbara, Kun.inda, Kuluta, Vr.s.n.i, Yaudheya, Ks.atrapa,
Sa_tava_hana]

Taurine symbol [Pl. 35, on punch-marked, local, uninscribed cat coins and local coins]. The
symbol is so intense in almost all cultural periods and in a large number of sites that the taurine
symbol can be compared with the most frequently occurring sign of the SSVC inscribed objects:
the rimmed jar with a narrow-neck (kan.d.kanka copper furnace).

[After Pl. 10 to 13 in: Savita Sharma, 1990, Early Indian Symbols: Numismatic evidence, Delhi, Agam Kala
Prakashan]

[Pl. 2, N: Sahet-Mahet punch-marked coins symbols]

[Pl. 3, M,N: Singavaran punch-marked coin symbols]

Pl. 5, A to C, Amaravati punch-marked coin symbols]


Pl. 5, D, Punch-marked copper coins, Madhipur]

[Pl. 5, E, Uninscribed cast coins]


[Pl. 5, F, G, Eran punch-marked local coin
symbols]

[Pl.5, J, Ahichhatra, punch-marked local coin symbols]


[Pl.5, K, Kada, punch-marked local coin symbols]
[Pl. 5, L, Kanauj, punch-marked local coin symbols]
[Pl. 5, M, Mathura, punch-marked local coin symbols]

[Pl. 5, N, O, P, Taxila, punch-marked local coin symbols]

[Pl. 6, A, Shamiawala (Lucknow Museum) Uttara Pa_n~ca_la Ahicchatra (Type I) punch-marked coin
symbols]

[Pl.4,J to P, Amaravati punch-marked coin symbols]

[Pl. 5, h, I, Kausa_mbi_ punch-marked local coin symbols]

Map of Metal Resources and Distribution Networks


(After Fig. 5.20f, Kenoyer, 1998)

Over 45 sites where objects with epigraphs


have been discovered

Bharatiyo

Areas for further research: it is no coincidence that the term bharatiyo means caster of
metals (G.)
Further linguistic studies to reconstruct the Proto-Bharatiya parole (spoken idiom,
vernacular) should relate to the work of sren.i (18 guilds are mentioned in Ja_taka-s)
and links with megalithic cultures.
Further archaeological explorations in Sarasvati river basin and metallurgical analysis is
likely to reveal the early presence of iron-work and experimentation with alloys in
Bharat.
Sociological studies related to Bhratam Janam (R.gveda) and Pn~cla (five artisans =
Pan~cakamml.ar) will establish the pan-bharatiya presence of the visvakarma and
vra_tya tradition (together with yajn~a and yoga), also exemplified by saiva a_gama,
all dating back to not later than 5000 years Before Present.
Knowledge systems of Bharat exemplified by Vedic, itihsa and pura texts will
provide the framework for inter-relating archaeology, tradition and cultural continuum
in puyabhmi Bharat. This calls for a multi-disciplinary approach to the study of
Bharatiya culture, based on Bharatiya ethos and kla gaana using planetaria software
to authenticate the astronomical references in these texts. Such an approach will result
in national resurgence consistent with the tradition which postulates study of itihsa to
achieve dharma, artha, kma and moka.

Bhart, baran -- an alloy


bharatiyo = a caster of metals; a brazier;
bharatar, bharatal, bharata = moulded; an
article made in a mould; bharata = casting
metals in moulds; bharavum = to fill in; to put
in; to pour into (G.lex.) bhart = a mixed metal
of copper and lead; bhart-y = a barzier,
worker in metal; bhat., bhrra = oven,
furnace (Skt.) bharata = a factitious metal
compounded of copper, pewter, tin (M.)

Implications for language


studies

Language X and borrowings from proto-Munda can be identified


in over 25 ancient languages of India. (Indian Lexicon exists with
8000 semantic clusters for these languages).
http://sites.google.com/site/kalyan97

The formation and evolution of Language X and differentiation


into Prakrits, Pali and other languages of India need to be
studied through isoglosses of the linguistic area.

The decoding of Sarasvati hieroglyphs establishes the essential


cultural continuum of the civilization which was nurtured,
principally, on the banks of Vedic River Sarasvati. The continuum
is evidenced in language and also in many cultural markers.

Bronze murti: cire perdue technique used today in Swamimalai


to make bronze utsavabera.
Eraka Subrahmanya is the presiding divinity in Swamimalai.
Eraka! Copper.
Devices on punch-marked coins comparable to Sarasvati
hieroglyphs

Plate X [c] Lingam in situ in Trench Ai (MS Vats, 1940, Excavations at Harappa, Vol. II, Calcutta)
Lingam, grey sandstone in situ, Harappa, Trench Ai, Mound F, Pl. X (c) (After Vats). "In an
earthenware jar, No. 12414, recovered from Mound F, Trench IV, Square I... in this jar, six lingams
were found along with some tiny pieces of shell, a unicorn seal, an oblong grey sandstone block
with polished surface, five stone pestles, a stone palette, and a block of chalcedony..." (Vats, EH, p.
370).

dvAdasha jyotirliNga stotram: kAverikAnarmadayoH pavitre samAgame sajjanatAraNAya


| sadaiva mAndhAtRipure vasantamoNkAramIshaM shivamekamIDe || Trans. I pay my
obeisance to the One Who is the savior of the good people and the great One Who
always resides at the Holy merging point of Kaveri and Narmada, i.e., Omkar Shiva.

6500 BCE. Date of the womans burial with ornaments including a wide bangle of
shankha. Mehergarh. Burial ornaments made of shell and stone disc beads, and
turbinella pyrum (sacred conch, san:kha) bangle, Tomb MR3T.21, Mehrgarh, Period
1A, ca. 6500 BCE. The nearest source for this shell is Makran coast near Karachi, 500
km. South. [After Fig. 2.10 in Kenoyer, 1998].

Seal, Bet Dwaraka 20 x


18 mm of conch shell
Wide bangle made from a single conch shell and carved with
a chevron motif, Harappa; marine shell, Turbinella pyrum
(After Fig. 7.44, Kenoyer, 1998) National Museum,
Karachi. 54.3554. HM 13828.
Seven shell bangles from burial of an elderly woman,
Harappa; worn on the left arm; three on the upper arm
and four on the forearm; 6.3 X 5.7 cm to 8x9 cm marine
shell, Turbinella pyrum (After Fig. 7.43, Kenoyer, 1998)
Harappa museum. H87-635 to 637; 676 to 679.

Modern lady from


Kutch, wearing shellbangles.

Nausharo: female figurines. Wearing sindhur at the


parting of the hair. Hair painted black, ornaments golden
and sindhur red. Period 1B, 2800 2600 BCE. 11.6 x
30.9 cm.[After Fig. 2.19, Kenoyer, 1998].

Toilet gadgets: Ur and Harappa After


Woolley 1934, Vats 1941

Terracotta toys show yogic asanas: 1-4,


from Harappa; 5-6, from Mohenjo-daro.

Ligatured sculpture: three-faced: tiger, bovine, elephant, Nausharo NS


92.02.70.04 6.76 cm (h); three-headed: elephant, buffalo, bottom jaw of a
feline. NS 91.02.32.01.LXXXII. Dept. of Archaeology, Karachi. EBK 7712

W. Theobald, 1890 (JASB): Glyphs


on punch-marked coins

C.L. Fabri, JRAS, 1935, pp. 307-318


KK Thapliyal in Studies in Ancient Indian Seals found that many Indian
seals from the 3rd century BCE to 7th century CE, portray animals, with
an inscription above the animal (just like in the case of the Harappan
seals).

Punch-marked coin Sun hieroglyph; M0428b


[Or, sun depicted with rays? glyph: arka sun; rebus substantive: akka, arka copper]
Meaning: akka, aka (Tadbhava of arka) metal (Ka.); akka metal (Te.) arka =
copper (Skt.) cf. arh, argha a collection of twenty pearls (having the weight of a
Dharan.a) VarBr.S.; worth , value , price , Mn. Ya_jn~.; arghya = valuable (Skt.) akkaca_lai metal works (Cilap. 16,126, Urai); mint; akkaca_laiyar goldsmiths, jewellers
(Ta.lex.) 5952a.Workshop of a goldsmith: aka-sa_la, aga-sa_la, aka-sa_liga, akasa_le a gold or silversmith; aka-sa_like the business of a gold or silver smith; akkasa_le, aka-sa_le the workshop of a goldsmith; a goldsmith; akka-sa_liti a woman of
the goldsmith caste (Ka.); akka-c-ca_lai a shop where metals are worked
(Ta.)(Ka.lex.) CDIAL 624 ark 1 m. flash, ray, sun RV. [arc] Pa. Pk. akka m.
sun, Mth. k; Si. aka lightning, inscr. vidki lightning flash.

arukkam
, n. < arka. ( .) 1. Copper; .

aka
, n. < arka. Sun; . ( . .
35).

H243b
ahi, ai = the petioles and mid-ribs of a compound leaf after the leaflets
have been plucked off, stalks of certain plants, as Indian corn, after the
grain has been taken off (Santali)
dhtu mineral (Vedic); a mineral, metal (Santali)

Imperial series

* ram , n. < ra. 1. Spoke of a wheel.


See .
(.
253). 2. Brass; . (. .)

M428b arka sun; agasle


goldsmithy (Ka.)
kmahum = a bow; kma,
kmaum = a chip of bamboo (G.)

Asmaka janapada

Silver bent-bar
kamakom = fig leaf (Santali.lex.)
kamarma (Has.), kamakom (Nag.); the
petiole or stalk of a leaf (Mundari.lex.)

kampaam coinage, coin (Ta.); kammaam,


kammiam coinage, mint (Ma.); kammatia coiner
(Ka.)(DEDR 1236) kammaa = coinage, mint
(Ka.M.) kampaa-k-kam mint; kampaa-kkran- coiner; kampaa- muai die, coining stamp
(Ta.lex.)

A solid copper bolt (24 1/2" in length and a circumference of 14" at the centre and 12" at the
ends), was found in the Rampurva Asoka Pillar near Nepal border.
h188, h196, h291, h630, h631

M. (p. 009) [ agnikua ] n (S) A hole in the ground, or an enclosed space on


the surface, or a metal square-mouthed vessel, for receiving and preserving
consecrated fire.

The copperbolt
with epigraph
(line 1) was
used to bolt
in the bull
capital on the
pillar.

Sohgaura copper plate (Pre-Mauryan)

Hieroglyph 1 (from left): glyph: tree, rebus: smelting furnace


kuhi kua, kui, kuha a tree (Kaus'.); kud.a tree (Pkt.); ku tree; kaek tree, oak (Pas;.)(CDIAL 3228). kuha,
kua (Ka.), kudal (Go.) kudar. (Go.) kuhra, kuha, kuaka = a tree (Skt.lex.) kut., kurun: = stump of a tree
(Bond.a); khut. = id. (Or.) kut.a, kut.ha = a tree (Ka.lex.) gun.d.ra = a stump; khuut = a stump of a tree left in
the ground (Santali.lex.) kuamu = a tree (Te.lex.)
kui, smelting furnace (Mundari.lex.).kuhi, kui (Or.; Sad. kohi) (1) the smelting furnace of the blacksmith;
kut.ire bica duljad.ko talkena, they were feeding the furnace with ore; (2) the name of e_kut.i has been given to
the fire which, in lac factories, warms the water bath for softening the lac so that it can be spread into sheets;
to make a smelting furnace; kut.hi-o of a smelting furnace, to be made; the smelting furnace of the blacksmith
is made of mud, cone-shaped, 2 6 dia. At the base and 1 6 at the top. The hole in the centre, into which the
mixture of charcoal and iron ore is poured, is about 6 to 7 in dia. At the base it has two holes, a smaller one
into which the nozzle of the bellow is inserted, as seen in fig. 1, and a larger one on the opposite side through
which the molten iron flows out into a cavity (Mundari.lex.)
Hieroglyph 3 glyph: spear rebus: furnace

la = spear (Skt.)

cuai = potters kiln, furnace (Ta.); cu_l.ai furnace, kiln, funeral pile (Ta.); cul.l.a potters furnace; cu_l.a brick
kiln (Ma.); culli_ fireplace (Skt.); culli_, ulli_ id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4879; DEDR 2709). sulgao, salgao to light a fire;
sen:gel, sokol fire (Santali.lex.) hollu, holu = fireplace (Kuwi); sod.u fireplace, stones set up as a fireplace
(Mand.); ule furnace (Tu.)(DEDR 2857).
Hieroglyph 4 glyph: peak mounted by a rimless pot rebus: furnace
ka = peak (Telugu)
baa = rimless pot (Kannada)
kam = workshop (Tamil); baa = furnace (Santali) bhrra = furnace (Skt.)
Hieroglyph 5 glyph: tree (as shown on hieroglyph 1) with a rim of a jar and a quail ligatured on the branches of
tree
kui = tree; rebus: kui = smelting furnace.
ka kanka = rim of jar (Santali); ka = fire-altar (Santali); kan = copper (Tamil)
baa = quail (Santali)
baa = furnace (Santali) bhrra = furnace (Skt.)
Hieroglyph 2 and hieroglph 6: koha_ga_ra, a pair of storehouses
Thus the line 1 is a hieroglyphic representation of facilities provided to artisan guilds,
itinerant metalsmiths at the tri-junction of three highways.

Date? Pre-Mauryan, that is first millennium BCE

http://www.engr.mun.ca/~asharan/bihar/ironage/IRONAGEINDIA2.htm

Villagers reported (as a tradition passed down from several generations), that the agarias (a
particular tribe known for their iron smelting skills) from Robertsganj side, used to come in this area
to procure iron by smelting the hematite (Rakesh Tewari about the excavations in Malhar which

yielded an iron smelter dated to ca. 18th century BCE).

Rakesh Tiwari, 2003, Origins of iron working in India: new evidence from the Central
Ganga plain and Eastern Vindhyas, pp.536-545 ca. BCE 1800 Lohar dewa, Malhar, Raja
Nal ka Tala Circular clay furnace, comprising iron slag and tuyures and other waste
materials stuck with its body, exposed at Lohsanwa mound, Period II, Malhar, Dist.
Chandaulihttp://www.antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/tewari/tewari.pdf

Indian linguistic area

Pre-Indo-Aryan substratum languages (After F. Southworth, 2005,


Linguistic Archaeology of South Asia, New York, RoutledgeCurzon,
p. 65)
Mleccha-speaking areas of Asokas empire

Austro-asiatic speakers:
Pinnow map
http://www.ling.hawaii.ed
u/austroasiatic/
Correlates with bronzeage sites (extension of
Ganga basin iron-age
sites) [After Fig. 8.1 in:
Charles Higham, 1996,
The Bronze Age of
Southeast Asia,
Cambridge University
Press].

Implications for language studies


Language X and borrowings from proto-Munda can be
identified in over 25 ancient languages of India. (Indian
Lexicon exists with 8000 semantic clusters for these
languages). http://sites.google.com/site/kalyan97
The formation and evolution of Language X and
differentiation into Prakrits, Pali and other languages of India
need to be studied through isoglosses of the linguistic area.
The decoding of Sarasvati hieroglyphs establishes the
essential cultural continuum of the civilization which was
nurtured, principally, on the banks of Vedic River Sarasvati.
The continuum is evidenced in language and also in many
cultural markers.

Indus writing mlecchita vikalpa


(Meluhha cipher)--1
- Adoration of
patta ferryman, paaai
guild, kole.l smithy, temple
S. Kalyanaraman
Sarasvati Research Center

Indus writing mlecchita vikalpa


(Meluhha cipher)2
-- Semantics & orthography of
svastika hieroglyph
S. Kalyanaraman
Sarasvati Research Center

Indus writing mlecchita


vikalpa (Meluhha
cipher)3
-- Meluhha animal hieroglyphs
read rebus: ores, metals, alloys
S. Kalyanaraman
Sarasvati Research Center

Indus writing mlecchita vikalpa


(Meluhha cipher)4. kol alloy
of 5 metals pacaloha in
Meluhha hieroglyphs
S. Kalyanaraman
Sarasvati Research Center

Indus writing mlecchita


vikalpa (Meluhha cipher)
5. Metalwork hieroglyphs
S. Kalyanaraman
Sarasvati Research Center

kana, kanac = corner (Santali); Rebus: kacu =


bronze (Telugu)
ra 'spokes' Rebus: ra brass. cf. erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka)
copper (metal); crystal (Kannada) Glyph: erakanave of wheel Rebus: eraka copper;
cf. erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Kannada)

du cross(Telugu) Rebus: dhatu mineral (Santali).

kuila bent; Rebus: kuila, katthl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts
tin) [cf. ra-ka, brass (Sanskrit) (CDIAL 3230)

ka jar + kanka rim of jar Rebus: ka fire-altar


Rebus: karka account (scribe) kar supercargo
khareo = a currycomb (Gujarati) [ kharr ]
m ( H) A currycomb. 2 Currying a horse. (Marathi)
Rebus: [kara] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c.
(Marathi) khard turner (Gujarati)
kna arrow (Sanskrit) Rebus:khna tools, pots and
pans, metal-ware. Rebus 2: ka 'fire-altar' (Santali)
mogge sprout, bud Rebus: muh ingot (Santali)

me body Rebus: me iron (Ho.) Rebus: [ kha ]


measure of weight (Marathi) ; kai, n. < Mhr.
khail. [T. Tu. khai, M. kai.] Candy, a weight, about 500
lbs. [ kh ] f ( S) frame or structure of the body
(Marathi) Rebus: [ kha ] measure of weight (Marathi)
; kai, n. < Mhr. khail. [T. Tu. khai, M. kai.]
Candy, a weight, stated to be roughly equivalent to 500 lbs.
water-carrier hieroglyph kui; Rebus: kuhi smelter
furnace. PLUS rim of jar:
kanka rim of jar Rebus: karka account (scribe) kar
supercargo

bicha scorpion (Assamese) Rebus: bica stone ore (Santali)


g mountain-ridge (H.)(CDIAL 5476). Rebus: dhangar blacksmith (Maithili)
mu height, rising ground, hillock (Kannada) Rebus: mht, me iron (Munda.Ho.)

kamaha crab Rebus: kammaa mint, coiner.ato = claws of crab (Santali) Rebus: dhtu mineral ore
PLUS [ kh ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or
weapon). Rebus: ka tools, pots and pans and metal-ware Thus, mint metalware, ore.
hanga = a crook used for pulling down the branches of trees, for goats, sheep and camels (P.)
Rebus:hangar blacksmith.
Strands of yarn/rope hieroglyph: Hieroglyph: strands of yarn Rebus reading: dhtu strand of rope Rebus:
dhatu mineral ore (Santali)

kolmo paddy plant Rebus: kolami smithy, forge Vikalpa: mogge sprout, bud Rebus: muh
ingot (Santali)
dolu plant of shoot height Rebus: dul cast metal

aar 'harrow'; rebus: aduru 'native unsmelted metal


mu height, rising ground, hillock (Kannada) Rebus: me iron (Ho.) kolom three Rebus: kolami smithy, forge
Thus, me kolami iron smithy-forge

loa ficus religiosa Rebus: lo iron (Sanskrit) PLUS unique ligatures: [lkhaa ]
n ( S) Iron. or To oppress grievously. [ lkhaakma ] n Iron work; that
portion (of a building, machine &c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith. [ lkha
] a ( ) Composed of iron; relating to iron. (Marathi)
koi flag (Ta.)(DEDR 2049). Rebus 1: ko workshop (Kuwi)
Rebus 2: kh m. pit, kh f. small pit (Kashmiri. CDIAL 3947).
barao = spine; backbone (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat mixed alloys (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi)
baroi twelve bhrata a factitious alloy of copper, pewter, tin (Marathi)
Ligature: two peaks: mu height, rising ground, hillock (Kannada) Rebus: me iron (Ho.) dula pair Rebus: dul
cast metal PLUS |||| Numeral 4: gaa 'four' Rebus: kaa 'furnace, fire-altar' (Santali
dula two, pair Rebus: dul cast metal PLUS dh a slope; inclination of a plane (G.); hiyum = adj. sloping,
inclining (G.) Rebus: hlako = a large metal ingot (G.) hlak = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid
piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati) PLUS kolom three Rebus: kolami smithy, forge. Thus cast metal ingot smithy.

Parentheses joined into an ellipse to


create a circumfix ligature
() Parentheses when joined become an ellipse
Each parenthesis orthographically denotes a bent line.
dula pair Rebus: dul cast metal
PLUSkana, kanac = corner (Santali); Rebus: kacu = bronze (Telugu) PLUS infixed kolmo
paddy plant Rebus: kolami smithy, forge. Thus, cast bronze smithy, forge. Or, mogge
sprout, bud Rebus: muh ingot (Santali) Thus, cast bronze ingot.

muka ladle (Tamil)(DEDR 4887) Rebus: muh ingot (Santali) baa = rimless pot
(Kannada) Rebus: ) baa = a kind of iron (G.) ) bhaa furnace (Gujarati) Thus,
iron ingot.
kolom three Rebus: kolami smithy, forge kna arrow (Sanskrit)
Rebus:khna tools, pots and pans, metal-ware. Rebus 2: ka 'fire-altar'
(Santali) Thus, the three sign sequence reads: iron ingot, furnace smithy, firealtar metalware.

ayo fish(Munda); ayas iron (Sanskrit) Rebus: ayas metal (Vedic)


PLUS
aaren lid Rebus: aduru unsmelted native metal.
ayo fish Rebus: ayas iron (Gujarati) ayas metal (Vedic) PLUS infixed hieroglyph of slanted stroke:
dh a slope; inclination of a plane (Gujarati); hiyum = adj. sloping, inclining (Gujarati) Rebus:
hlako = a large metal ingot (Gujarati) hlak = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece
of metal; an ingot (Gujarati) Thus, the ligatured hieroglyph reads: ayo hlako native metal ingot.

ayo fish Rebus: aya iron (Gujarati) ayas metal (Vedic) notch (infixed ligature) Rebus: ka pots and
pans, metalware, Thus, the composite hieroglyph reads rebus: metalware of alloyed metal.
ayo fish Rebus: aya iron (Gujarati) ayas metal (Vedic) PLUS ligatured fins: khambha m. fin
(Lahnda); khambh wing (Punjabi) Allograph: Garh. khambu pillar .(CDIAL 13640) Rebus: kammaa
coiner, mint. Thus fish hieroglyph gets ligatured with fins to denote alloyed metal (of) mint to read:
aya kammaa.coiner, mint alloy.
ayo fish Rebus: ayas iron (Gujarati) ayas metal (Vedic) aaren lid Rebus: aduru native unsmelted
metal
ayo fish Rebus: aya iron (Gujarati) ayas metal (Vedic) PLUS ga four Rebus: ka fire-altar

gaa 'four' Rebus: kaa 'furnace, fire-altar' (Santali)


baa rimless, broad-mouthed pot Rebus: bhaa
furnace (Gujarati.); baa a kind of iron (Gujarati

kanka (Santali) karika scribe(Sanskrit)


Rebus: kar, supercargo for a boat shipment. INFIXED
[ kh ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as
upon the edge of a tool or
weapon). Rebus: ka tools, pots and pans and
metal-ware

vajrasanghAta in Varahamihira

Seals(texts) m0839(2476),, m0931


(3091) 5261

M0839 (2476)
[kha] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) Rebus: kdr turner
(Bengali); knda engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems (Marathi)
G. sgh m. lathe ; joinery; M. sga double-canoe Rebus:

sangataras stone-cutter, mason


Bronze alloy workshop kacu sal starting with bronze which is a tin + copper
alloy or tin bronze (as distinguished from arsenical bronze, i.e. naturally
occurring copper + arsenic).
aar 'harrow'; rebus: aduru 'native unsmelted metal bhaa warrior
(Sanskrit) Rebus: baa a kind of iron (Gujarati). Rebus: bhaa furnace
(Santali)

me body Rebus: me iron (Ho.) [ kh ] f ( S) frame or


structure of the body (Marathi) Rebus: [ kha ] measure of weight
(Marathi) ; kai, n. < Mhr. khail. [T. Tu. khai, M. kai.]
Candy, a weight, stated to be roughly equivalent to 500 lbs.
kanka rim of jar Rebus: karka account (scribe) kar supercargo

M0931 (3091)
[kha] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) Rebus: kdr turner (Bengali); knda engraver, lapidary
setting or infixing gems (Marathi) G. sgh m. lathe ; joinery; M. sga double-canoe Rebus: sangataras

stone-cutter, mason
ra 'spokes' Rebus: ra brass. cf. erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Kannada)
Glyph: erakanave of wheel Rebus: eraka copper; cf. erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal);
crystal (Kannada) erako moltencast copper PLUS
notch+slanted stroke reads rebus: hlako ka ingot, tools, pots and pans and metal-ware.dh a slope;
inclination of a plane (G.); hiyum = adj. sloping, inclining (G.) Rebus: hlako = a large metal ingot (G.) hlak =
a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati) PLUS [ kh ] m A jag,
notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). Rebus: ka tools, pots and pans and metal-ware
Thus, together, the pair reads: ra erako kh brass, moltencast copper metalware.

dula pair Rebus: dul cast (metal) PLUSkana, kanac = corner (Santali); Rebus: kacu = bronze (Telugu) PLUS infixed
kolmo paddy plant Rebus: kolami smithy, forge. Thus, cast bronze smithy, forge. Or, mogge sprout, bud Rebus:
mu h ingot (Santali)Thus, cast bronze ingot. Read as: kacu dul mu h bronze cast ingot
ayo hlako alloy metal ingot
kna arrow (Sanskrit) Rebus:khna tools, pots and pans, metal-ware. Rebus 2: ka 'fire-altar' (Santali)

5261
du cross(Telugu) Rebus: dhatu mineral (Santali).
dh a slope; inclination of a plane (G.); hiyum = adj. sloping,
inclining (G.) Rebus: hlako = a large metal ingot (G.) hlak = a
metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot
(Gujarati) PLUS [ kh ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as
upon the edge of a tool or weapon). Rebus: ka tools, pots and
pans and metal-ware
aya kammaa.coiner, mint alloy
[ kh ] f ( S) A granary, garner, storehouse, warehouse,
treasury, factory, bank. 2 The grain and provisions (as of an army); the
commissariatsupplies. Ex. -- -.
kanka rim of jar Rebus: karka account (scribe) kar supercargo

Terracotta seal and faience tablets

Three dancers, m1428C


Iron forge
Potsherd from Bhirrana showing dance step

kolom three(Mu.); kolami


forge (Te.)
me body, dance (Santali); meed
iron (Mu.); me iron (Ho.)

M1406: sunflower, body; drummer; two acrobats;


chain link M0312 Five acrobats vault over buffalo
Banawali (after UMESAO 2000:88, cat. no. 335).

kamsa = to jump
(Santali) Rebus: kacu
bronze (Telugu)

Banawali seal: olu 'to tumble over' Rebus: h m. stone


Glyphs: 1. arrow, 2. jag/notch:

1. kaa arrow (Skt.) H. ker m. a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL
3024). Or. ka, k stalk, arrow (CDIAL 3023). ayaska a quantity of iron, excellent iron (P.ga)
2. [ kh ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon).
(Marathi) Rebus: khtools, pots and pans, metal-ware.
An acrobat woman (kola woman; rebus: kol smithy):
ka a chain; a hook; a link (G.); kaum a bracelet, a ring (G.) Rebus: kaiyo [Hem. Des. kaaio = Skt. sthapati
a mason] a bricklayer; a mason; kaiyaa, kaiyea a woman of the bricklayer caste; a wife of a bricklayer
(G.) hol drum (Gujarati.Marathi)(CDIAL 5608) Rebus 1: large stone; Rebus 2: brass pot; Rebus 3: dul to
cast in a mould.
The imagery of vaulting over is repeated. This hieroglyphic representation of 'vaulting or rolling over' is an
allograph: Allographs: ollu. [Tel.] v. n. To fall, to roll over. , . [ olucu ] or olusu.
[Tel.] v. n. To tumble head over heels as dancing girls do (Telugu) Mth. Bhoj. Aw. lakh. Marw. G. M. hol m.
*hlayati makes fall(CDIAL 5608). Glyph: hol a drum beaten on one end by a stick and on the other by
the hand (Santali); hol drum (Nahali); dhol (Kurku); hol (Hi.) dhol a drum (G.)(CDIAL 5608) [lu
] [Tel.] n. A drum. Rebus 1: dul to cast in a mould; dul mht, dul mee, dul; koe mee forged iron
(Santali) Wpah. Rebus 2: h m. stone, kg. h m. big stone or boulder, hu small id. Him.I
87.(CDIAL 5536).Rebus 3: K. ula m. rolling stone (CDIAL 6582)Rebus 4: Bshk. l brass pot ; K. ol m.
bucket , S. olu m., P. ol m., WPah.bhal. ol n., Ku. N. B. Mth. ol, Aw. lakh. lu, H. dol, ol m., G. ol f.,
M. ol m. WPah.poet. r m. small pot , kg. l m. bucket , J. 'l m. H. or < *dlla -- ).(CDIAL 6583)
Allograph: Pk. la -- m. eye (CDIAL 6582).

Bronze, bell-metal. Drummer announces


a new alloy casting: Pewter + tin
Ku. N. rgo buffalo bull (CDIAL 10559) Rebus: raga3 n. tin
lex. [Cf. nga -- 2, vaga -- 1]Pk. raga -- n. tin ;
P. rg f., rg m. pewter, tin ( H.); Ku. r tin, solder ,
gng. rk; N. r, ro tin, solder , A. B. r; Or. rga tin
, rg solder, spelter , Bi. Mth. rg, OAw. rga;
H. rg f., rg m. tin, pewter ; Si. ranga tin .(CDIAL 10562)
kamsa jump (Santali) Rebus: kacu bronze (Telugu) ksya made of bell -- metal Ktyr.,
n. bell -- metal Yj., cup of bell -- metal MBh., aka -- n. bell -- metal . 2. *ksiya -. [kas -- 1]1. Pa. kasa -- m. (?) bronze , Pk. kasa -- , ksa -- n. bell -- metal, drinking
vessel, cymbal ; L. (Jukes) kj adj. of metal , aw. ks jar ( E with -- s -- , not j);
N. kso bronze, pewter, white metal , kas -- ku metal alloy ; A. kh bell -- metal , B. ks,
Or. ks, Bi. ks; Bhoj. ks bell -- metal , ks base metal ; H. ks, ks m. bell -- metal ,
G. ksu n., M. ks n.; Ko. k n. bronze ; Si. kasa bell -- metal .2. L. kih m. bell -- metal ,
P. kss, ks f., H. ks f. A. kh also gong (CDIAL 2987) ksyakra m. worker in bell -- metal
or brass Yj. com., kasakra -- m. BrahmavP. [ksya -- , kra -- 1]N. kasr maker of brass
pots ; A. khr worker in bell -- metal ; B. ksri pewterer, brazier, coppersmith , Or. ksr;
H. kasr m. maker of brass pots ; G. ksr, kas m. coppersmith ; M. ksr, ks m. worker
in white metal , ksr m. contemptuous term for the same .(CDIAL 2988, 2989)

M1918a; seal found in


Afghanistan
rngo water buffalo bull (Ku.N.)(CDIAL 10559) Rebus: ranku
tin raga3 n. tin lex. [Cf. nga -- 2, vaga -- 1]Pk. raga -n. tin ; P. rg f., rg m. pewter, tin ( H.)
kol spearing kolsa = to kick the foot forward, the foot to
come into contact with anything when walking or
running; kolsa pasirkedan = I kicked it over
(Santali.lex.)msa = v.a. toss, kick with the foot, hit with the
tail (Santali) me~he~t iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast
iron; kolhe m. iron manufactured by the Kolhes(Santali)
kolsa = to kick the foot forward (Santali) kola = killing (Telugu)
Rebus: kol working in iron kolhe smelters kol panchaloha,
alloy of five metals (Tamil)

m14
M0492 A,B,C Person throwing a spear at a bison, placing one
foot on the head; serpent at left.
M1430 A,C Person throwing aspear at a buffalo and placing
one foot on itshead; three persons standing near a tree at the
centre. Text of inscription 2819 Material: terra cotta
Dimensions: 3.91 length, 1.5 to 1.62 cm width Harappa, Lot
4651-01 Harappa Museum, H95-2486
Meadow and Kenoyer 1997

Seated person in penance + other


Meluhha hieroglyphs read rebus
kamaha penance crab Rebus: kammaa mint, coiner.
kolsa to kick (Santali) Rebus: kol alloy of 5 metals
pacaloha (Hieroglyphs: kolsa, to kick; kol to kill)
nga snake Rebus: nga lead (Sanskrit) anakku tin
(Akkadian)
karvu crocodile (Telugu) Rebus: khara blacksmith
(Kashmiri)
balad m. ox , gng. bald, (Ku.) barad, id. (N. Tarai) Rebus:
bharat (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin)(Punjabi)
rngo water buffalo bull (Ku.N.)(CDIAL 10559) Rebus:
ranku tin raga n. tin (Sanskrit)

Two animals look back


krammara look back (Telugu) Rebus: kamar metalsmith
(Santali)
kul tiger (Santali); klu id. (Telugu) klupuli = Bengal tiger
(Telugu) [ klh ] [klh] A
jackal (Marathi) Rebus: kole.l 'temple, smithy' (Kota.) kol =
pacalha, a metallic alloy containing five metals (Tamil):
copper, brass, tin, lead and iron (Sanskrit); an alternative list of
five metals: gold, silver, copper, tin (lead), and iron (dhtu;
Nnrtharatnkara. 82; Mangarjas Nighau. 498)(Kannada)
agararam Rebus: tagara tin Thus, tinsmith: tagara kamar.
agararam Rebus: tagara tin ranku antelope Rebus: ranku
tin heraka spy Rebus: eraka moltencast copper kui tree
Rebus: kuhi smelter

A seal impression from Ur provides an example of ligatured Meluhha hieroglyphs:


Seal impression, Ur (Upenn; U.16747); dia. 2.6, ht. 0.9 cm.; Gadd, PBA 18 (1932), pp.
11-12, pl. II, no. 12; Porada 1971: pl.9, fig.5; Parpola, 1994, p. 183; water carrier with a
skin (or pot?) hung on each end of the yoke across his shoulders and another one
below the crook of his left arm; the vessel on the right end of his yoke is over a
receptacle for the water; a star on either side of the head (denoting supernatural?).
The whole object is enclosed by 'parenthesis' marks. The parenthesis is perhaps a way
of splitting of the ellipse (Hunter, G.R., JRAS, 1932, 476). An unmistakable example of
an 'hieroglyphic' seal.
meha polar star (Marathi). Rebus: me (Ho.); mhet iron (Munda.Ho.) dula pair
Rebus: dul cast metal. Thus, the two star sign hieroglyphs flanking the composition
denote iron castings.
Ligatured sign hieroglyph: rim-of-jar PLUS water-carrier
kanka rim of jar Rebus: karka account (scribe) kar supercargo [
karadhra ] m S (A holder of the ear.) A helmsman or steersman. Thus, together, the
ligatured hieroglyph reads: supercargo for a boat.

Ur cylinder seal impression (cut down


into Ur III mausolea from Larsalevel; U.
16220), Iraq. BM 122947

Rebus Meluhha readings: Zebu + Meluhha


hieroglyphs on Ur cylinder seal
hangatall, long-shanked; maran: hangi aimai kanae = she is a big tall
woman (Santali) hgo lean , m. skeleton (Ku.) (CDIAL 5524) Rebus:
hangar blacksmith (Maithili)
bicha scorpion (Santali) Rebus: bica, bica-diri stone ore (Munda etyma)
kuire bica duljad.ko talkena, they were feeding the furnace with ore (Santali)
ranga ronga, ranga conga = thorny, spikey, armed with thorns; edel dare ranga
conga dareka = this cotton tree grows with spikes on it (Santali) [Note the
thorns on the round object in front of the bull onthe Ur cylinder seal
impression U 16220]
Rebus alloy of tin, lead and antimony: ranga, rang pewter is an alloy of tin,
lead, and antimony (ajana) (Santali).
tagaraka tabernae montana fragrant flower (Sanskrit) tagara tin (Tamil)
nga serpent Rebus: nga lead (Sanskrit) anakku tin (Akkadian)
ayo fish Rebus: aya iron (Gujarati) ayas metal (Sanskrit)

poLa zebu Rebus poLa magnetite, A synonym is aar


angra Rebus: aduru hangar native-metal- or blacksmith (Kannada.Santali). dangra bull (Punjabi) Rebus:
hangar blacksmith (Maithili) adar dangra zebu bos
indicus (Santali) Rebus:
(Kannada) aduru gan.iyinda tegadu
karagade iruva aduru = ore taken from the mine and not
subjected to melting in a furnace (Ka. Siddhnti
Subrahmaya astris new interpretation of the
Amarakoa, Bangalore, Vicaradarpana Press, 1872,
p.330). adar = fine sand (Tamil) aduru native
metal (Kannada); ayil iron (Tamil) ayir, ayiram any
ore (Malayalam); ajirda karba very hard iron (Tulu)(DEDR
192).

poLa zebu Rebus poLa magnetite,


Alternative:khu, zebu Rebus read guild,
kuha a type of copper
Mleccha is a variety of tmra, (copper)
The copper with white, black and red shades, very hard and
remaining black even after repeated washing is considered the
mleccha tmraka.
Mua, tka and knta are the three main varieties of loha; mdu,
kuha and kara are the three sub-varieties of mua loha. Mdu
mua loha: That which melts quickly, does not contain fissures and
has a smooth surface is considered as mdu mua loha. It is the best
of all the three varieties of mua. Kuha mua loha: That which
expands with great difficulty on hammering is known as kuha
mua loha. It is considered medium.
Vgbhaa (13th century), Rasaratnasamuccaya (tr. INSA) (42-46, 6974)

ca. 2900 BCE. Khafajah chlorite vessel hieroglyphs


including the zebu hieroglyph

arye lion Rebus ra brass. kola woman Rebus:


kolhe smelter
poLa zebu Rebus poLa magnetite, Alternative:
khu, zebu Rebus read rebus guild, A synonym is
aar angra Rebus: aduru hangar native-metalsmith, black-smith working on native metal
(Kannada.Santali).

A zebu on a plaque from the Elamite


Diyala Valley (Lamberg-Karlovsky and
Potts 2001: 225).

poLa zebu Rebus poLa magnetite, Alternative:


adar dangra zebu bos indicus Rebus: nativemetal-smith; khu zebu bos indicus Rebus: guild
or community kuha a type of copper
loa ficus religiosa Rebus: lo iron (Assamese,
Bengali); loa iron (Gypsy) Glyph: lo = nine
(Santali); no = nine (Bengali) on-patu = nine
(Tamil)

A zebu bull tied to a post; a bird above. Large painted


storage jar discovered in burned rooms at Nausharo, ca.
2600 to 2500 BCE. Cf. Fig. 2.18, J.M. Kenoyer, 1998, Cat.
No. 8.

poLa zebu Rebus poLa magnetite, khu zebu Rebus:


guild or community kuha a type of copper
baa quail; bhaa furnace (Gujarati); baa a kind of
iron (Gujarati)
aga = lathe (Gujarati) san:gaa, lathe, portable
furnace; rebus: battle; jangaiyo military guard who
accompanies treasure into the treasury (Gujarati) Rebus:
sangho (Gujarati) cutting stone, gilding (Gujarati);
sangatar = stone cutter (Telugu) ; joinery; M.
sga double-canoe

m1224A,B m1168
eraka upraised arm Rebus: eraka moltencast copper
me body Rebus: me iron (Ho.)
zebu horns: poLa zebu Rebus poLa magnetite, khu, zebu
Rebus read rebus guild, community kuha a type of copper
A synonym is aar angra Rebus: aduru hangar native-metalsmith, black-smith working on native metal (Kannada.Santali).
poLa zebu Rebus poLa magnetite, khu zebu Rebus: (native
metal) guild
aaren, aren lid, cover (Santali) Rebus: aduru native metal
(Kannada)
kola tiger Rebus: kolhe smelter kol working in iron

Kalibangan 032 m1118A

m277A
[kha] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi)
Rebus: kdr turner (Bengali); knda engraver,
lapidary setting or infixing gems (Marathi) G.
sgh m. lathe ; joinery; M. sga doublecanoe Rebus: sangataras. lit. to collect
stones, stone-cutter, mason. Count of four: ||||
Numeral 4: gaa 'four' Rebus: kaa 'furnace, firealtar' (Santali) PLUS aya kammaa.coiner, mint alloy
kanka rim of jar Rebus: karka account (scribe)
kar supercargo

M1179, 1180
mil markhor (Trwl)meho a ram, a sheep
(Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mht, me iron (Mu.Ho.)
dhatu scarf; (Western Pahari) Rebus: dhatu mineral ore
(Santali)
Variant hieroglyph Sign: kuila bent Rebus: bronze
Duplicated bent glyph: dula pair Rebus; dul cast metal. Thus
the hieroglyph denotes caste bronze.

kanka rim of jar Rebus: karka account (scribe) kar


supercargo

M1135: tusk of boar, body of bull,


feet of elephant, ears of donkey
bahia = a castrated boar, a hog (Santali) bahi a caste who work
both in iron and wood (Santali) baea merchant Vikalpa: k
rhinoceros (Tamil) Rebus: kh tools, pots and pans, metalware
(Marathi) khara donkey Rebus: khar blacksmith (Kashmiri) [
kh ] f An outspread shovelform sack (as formed temporarily out
of a , to hold or fend off grain, chaff &c.) (Marathi) koiyum
rings on neck (Gujarati) kondh heifer. ku horn (Kannada. Tulu.
Tamil) [kha] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) Rebus:
kdr turner (Bengali); kd to turn in a lathe (Bengali).
knda engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems (Marathi)
G. sgh m. lathe ; sg m. frame of a building , f.
lathe (CDIAL 12859) Rebus: sangataras. lit. to collect
stones, stone-cutter, mason. Rhinoceros/boar: bahia = a castrated
boar, a hog (Santali) bahi a caste who work both in iron and wood
(Santali) baea merchant ibha elephant Rebus: ib iron ibbo
merchant (Gujarati)

Glazed steatite . Cylinder seal. 3.4cm high; imported


from Indus valley. Rhinoceros, elephant, crocodile
(lizard? ).Tell Asmar (Eshnunna), Iraq. IM 14674

Ibha elephant Rebus: ibbo merchant, ib iron


Rhinoceros; bahia = a castrated boar, a hog
(Santali) bahi a caste who work both in iron
and wood (Santali) baea merchant Vikalpa:
k-mirukam , n.
[M. kmgam.]
Rebus: k metalware, tools, pots and
pans.kru crocodile Rebus: kru artisan.

sangai = joined animals (Marathi) Rebus: sgh m. lathe


(Gujarati); sg m. frame of a building , f.
lathe (CDIAL 12859) sangataras. lit. to collect
stones, stone-cutter, mason.
arae lizard Rebus: aira anvil.(A Tepe Yahya epigraphs clearly indicate a
lizard hieroglyph).
Ibha elephant Rebus: ibbo merchant, ib iron Rhinoceros; bahia = a
castrated boar, a hog (Santali) bahi a caste who work both in iron and wood
(Santali) baea merchant
me body Rebus: me iron (Ho.) [ kh ] f ( S) frame or structure
of the body (Marathi) Rebus: [ kha ] measure of weight (Marathi)
; kai, n. < Mhr. khail. [T. Tu. khai, M. kai.] Candy, a weight,
stated to be roughly equivalent to 500 lbs.
Ta. karam monkey. Ir. ka (small)monkey; kag monkey. Ko. ko small
monkey. To. kw monkey. Ka. kaga monkey, ape. Ko. ko
monkey. Tu. koaji, koaja, koag baboon. (DEDR 2196). kuhru = a
monkey (Sanskrit) Rebus: kuhru armourer or weapons maker(metalworker), also an inscriber or writer.
balad m. ox , gng. bald, (Ku.) barad, id. (N. Tarai) Rebus: bharat (5 copper, 4
zinc and 1 tin)(Punjabi) pattar trough Rebus: pattar guild. Dula pair Rebus:
dul cast metal

h176A,B
Side A:balad m. ox , gng. bald, (Ku.) barad, id. (N. Tarai) Rebus: bharat (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin)(Punjabi)
ra 'spokes' Rebus: ra brass. cf. erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal
(Kannada) Glyph: erakanave of wheel Rebus: eraka copper; cf. erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka)
copper (metal); crystal (Kannada) erako moltencast copper DUPLICATED dula pair Rebus: dul cast metal
Thus, cast copper and brass.
me body Rebus: me iron (Ho.) Rebus: [ kha ] measure of weight (Marathi) ; kai, n. <
Mhr. khail. [T. Tu. khai, M. kai.] Candy, a weight, about 500 lbs. [ kh ] f ( S) frame or
structure of the body (Marathi) Rebus: [ kha ] measure of weight (Marathi) ; kai, n. <
Mhr. khail. [T. Tu. khai, M. kai.] Candy, a weight, stated to be roughly equivalent to 500 lbs.
baa = rimless pot (Kannada) Rebus: baa = a kind of iron (Gujarati) : bhaa furnace, kiln
khv- cot; no. 3785, khai- bier (lex.)(CDIAL 3781) Pa. kaeya cot (< Halbi); Kui kae id.; Kur. kha bedstead,
bed; Malt. kae, ki id. (DEDR 1145) Rebus: [ kh ] f ( S) frame or structure of the body
(Marathi) Rebus: [ kha ] measure of weight (Marathi) ; kai, n. < Mhr. khail. [T.
Tu. khai, M. kai.] Candy, a weight, stated to be roughly equivalent to 500 lbs.
kanka rim of jar Rebus: karka account (scribe) kar supercargo
Side B: kol tiger Rebus: kolhe smelters krammara turn back Rebus: kamar blacksmith
kha A stock or stump (Marathi); leafless tree (Marathi) Rebus: kdr turner (Bengali); Allograph: young
bull.
heraka spy Rebus: erako moltencast copper
kamaha penance Rebus: kammaa mint, coiner.
dhatu scarf; Rebus: dhatu mineral ore
Kur. ka a stool. Malt. kano stool, seat. (DEDR 1179) Rebus: ka 'fire-altar' (Santali) ka tools, pots
and pans and metal-ware (Marathi)
Hare + trough+tiger looks back: kulai hare Rebus: kolhe smelter pattar trough Rebus: pattar guild kol
kamar smelter-artisan Thus, together, the pictorial composition reads: smelter-artisan guild

m1927a 1927b

poLa zebu Rebus poLa magnetite, khu zebu (denoted by the ligatured horns of zebu)
Rebus: (native metal) guild
ibha elephant Rebus: ib iron; ibbo merchant (Gujarati. Desi)

Kur. xol tail. Malt. qoli id. (DEDR 2135). Rebus: kolhe smelter
Message: iron smelter merchant guild.
Other ligaturing elements are: body of a ram and hindlegs of tiger read rebus:
agararam Rebus; tagara tin
kol tiger Rebus; kolhe smelter
mu h human face Rebus: mu h ingot
Thus, the message conveyed by the composite animal hieroglyph is: ingot (from) iron smelter,
tin smelter merchant guild.

M1792 Cylinder seal. Provenience: Khafaje Kh. VII


256 Jemdet Nasr (ca. 3000 - 2800 BCE) Frankfort,
Henri: Stratified Cylinder Seals from the Diyala
Region. Oriental Institute Publications 72. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, no. 34.
[kha] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) Rebus: kdr turner (Bengali); knda engraver, lapidary setting or
infixing gems (Marathi)
Circumscript: dula two Rebus: dul cast metal PLUS kanka rim of jar Rebus: karka account (scribe) kar supercargo
karaa duck (Sanskrit) karaa a very large aquatic bird (Sindhi) Rebus: [kara] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c.
(Marathi) khard turner (Gujarati) Vikalpa: baa quail Rebus: bhaa furnace. baa a kind of iron (Gujarati)
aya kammaa.coiner, mint alloy
dula pair Rebus: dul cast (metal) kolmo rice plant Rebus: kolami smithy/forge
kanka rim of jar Rebus: karka account (scribe) kar supercargo
karaa duck (Sanskrit) karaa a very large aquatic bird (Sindhi) Rebus: [kara] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c.
(Marathi)
karaa panther Rebus: kara hard alloy.
kha A stock or stump (Marathi); leafless tree (Marathi). Rebus: kdr turner (Bengali); kd to turn in a
lathe (Bengali).
ka flowing water Rebus: k metalware, tools, pots and pans.
kul tiger (Santali); klu id. (Telugu) klupuli = Bengal tiger (Telugu) [ klh ] [klh] A
jackal (Marathi) Rebus: kole.l 'temple, smithy' (Kota.) kol = pacalha, a metallic alloy containing five metals (Tamil): copper,
brass, tin, lead and iron (Sanskrit); an alternative list of five metals: gold, silver, copper, tin (lead), and iron (dhtu;
Nnrtharatnkara. 82; Mangarjas Nighau. 498)(Kannada) kol, kolhe, the koles, iron smelters speaking a language akin
to that of Santals (Santali)
sg m. frame of a building , f. lathe (CDIAL 12859) Rebus: sangataras. lit. to collect stones, stone-cutter,
mason.
bhaa warrior (Sanskrit) Rebus: baa a kind of iron (Gujarati). Rebus: bhaa furnace (Santali) H. sain, sen f. ladder
Rebus: Pa. si -- f. guild, division of army ; Pk. si -- f. row, collection ; ri (metr. often rayai -- ) f. line, row, troop
RV. rik f. house ~ ladder Rebus:rei in meaning guild (Sanskrit) Pa. si -- f. guild, division of army (Pali)(CDIAL
10718) seniya soldier.

Anthropomorph with `fish' glyph incised on the chest. Curved arms like the horns of a
fighting ram ligatured to the outstretched legs of a warrior. Sheorajpur, Kanpur Dist.,
UP, India. State Museum, Lucknow (O.37). 47.7 x 39 x
2.1 cm. C. 4 kg. Early 2nd millennium BCE.
Kalibangan 34A mil markhor (Trwl) meho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120)
Rebus: mht, me iron (Mu.Ho.)
ayo fish Rebus: aya iron ayas metal
Two pure tin ingots found at Haifa with Meluhha hieroglyphs

With curved horns, the anthropomorph is a ligature of a


mountain goat or markhor (makara) and a fish incised
between the horns. agara antelope; takar, n.
[ T. tagaru, K. tagar.] 1. Sheep; .
(.) 2. Ram; . (.)

( ,
486). Rebus: agara tin. ayo fish(Munda); ayas iron
(Sanskrit) Rebus: ayas metal
ranku = tin (Santali)
ranku = liquid measure (Santali)
ranku a species of deer; ran:kuka (Sanskrit)(CDIAL 10559).
du = cross Telugu; dhatu = mineral (Santali)
Hindi. dhn to send out, pour out, cast (metal) (CDIAL
6771).

Fish sign incised on copper anthropomorph


Sheorajpur, upper Ganges valley, ca. 2nd
millennium BCE, 4 kg; 47.7 X 39 X 2.1 cm. State
Museum, Lucknow (O.37) Typical find of
Gangetic Copper Hoards. mil markhor
(Tor.wali) meho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL
10120) Rebus: meh helper of merchant
(Gujarati) me iron (Ho.) meed-bica = iron
stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore
(Munda) ayo fish Rebus: ayo, ayas metal.
Thus, together read rebus: ayo meh iron
stone ore, metal merchant.

meh goat (Br.) Rebus: meho one who helps


a merchant vi.138 vaiksahyah (dei.
Hemachandra). Allograph: mego = with horns
twisted back; meha, m., mihi f.= twisted,
crumpled, as a horn (Santali)

h1997A,B
Side A: Text box enclosing 24 incisions or a pair of 12 incisions: dula pair Rebus: dul cast metal

baroi twelve bhrata a factitious alloy of copper, pewter, tin (Marathi) dulo hole Rebus: dul
cast metal. Thus bharat alloy castings.
aaren cover of pot or lid Rebus: aduru native, unsmelted metal LIGATURED to ayo fish
Rebus: ayas metal (Vedi) Thus, aya aaren (homonym: aduru)alloy native metal
barao = spine; backbone (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat mixed alloys (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin)
(Punjabi)
kanka rim of jar Rebus: karka account (scribe) kar supercargo
khareo = a currycomb (Gujarati) [ kharr ] m ( H) A currycomb. 2 Currying a horse.
(Marathi) Rebus: [kara] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi) khard turner
(Gujarati)
Side B:
balad m. ox , gng. bald, (Ku.) barad, id. (N. Tarai) Rebus: bharat (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1
tin)(Punjabi) pattar trough Rebus: pattar guild. Thus, copper-zinc-tin alloy (worker) guild.
Duplicated: dula pair Rebus; dul cast metal Thus bharat alloy castings.
kha A stock or stump (Marathi); leafless tree (Marathi) Rebus: kdr turner
(Bengali); kd to turn in a lathe (Bengali).

Array of 6X6 retorts (each of 750 cc or 1200 cc


capacity) inverted over a perforated grate of ceramic
bricks. ZnO heated with carbon reduces to Zinc
vapour in condensation chambers with furnace
chamber at the top. Zn + carbon turns into Zinc metal
at 950 degrees C. This transmutation is defined by the
orthography of svastika hieroglyph.

Alchemists burned zinc in air to form


what they called philosophers wool or
"white snow".
Bluish-white sphalerite (zinc sulfide) with 60% zinc, is
malleable between 100 and 150 Degrees C. Above 210
degrees, the metal becomes brittle again. This
characteristic justifies the choice of svastika orthography
of alternating turns of arms. Boiling point of zinc is 907
degrees. Zinc alloys with a number of metals copper,
aluminium, antimony, bismuth, gold, iron, lead, mercury,
silver, tin, magnesium, cobalt, nickel, tellurium and
sodium. The element is found in association with copper
and lead in ores.
Zinc ores were used for brass prior to discovery of zinc as
a separate element.

c. 430 BCE: Zawar mines


The earliest 14C dates (uncalibrated) for the
Zawar mines are PRL 932, 430+100 BCE and BM
2381, 380+ 50 BCE. Old workings at RajpuraDariba (375 BCE) and Rampura-Agucha (370
BCE) confirm the mining of lead-zinc ores in the
southern Rajasthan during the fifth-fourth
centuries BCE onwards.
http://www.infinityfoundation.com/mandala/t_
pr/t_pr_khara_zinc_frameset.htm

Zinc retort distillation furnace, Zawar, Rajasthan

http://www.indogold.com.au/images.htm

Ligature of distillation retorts on svastika


glyph on four arm-endings indicate
transmutation of vapor into metal

[Pl. 28, A, Ramnagar, Lotapur, Mamdar, Singavaran: Punch-marked coins]


[Pl. 28, B to E: svastik symbol on punch-marked/cast copper coins]
[Pl.28, F: Ujjayini, copper coins with svastik symbol]
[Pl. 28, G to J, Taxila, Ayodhya, Arjunayana, Sibis, Kuinda, Kuluta, yaudheya,
tavhana coins: Svastik symbol]
Svastika on Sarnath ayagapatta ca. 100 BCE. Beige sandstone.

Kamarjoda, Single Becha, Jiragora sites


show 1)bowl-shaped 2)dome-shaped
3)shaft 4) slag-pit furnaces

Zinc metallurgy in Ancient India


Thus the credit goes to India for developing the complex
metallurgy and producing alloy of metals. This speaks legions of
the metallurgical skill which the metal workrs and artisans of
ancient India possessed way back in the early centuries before
Christ. Such a good understanding of metallurgical processes as
involved in metallurgy of zinc may also be a pointer to the overall
expertise which the Indian artisans possessed of the fine
behaviour of specific minerals in antiquity. It was almost at this
point of time that the famous Damascus steel was being exported
to other parts of the world from India. The extraction of zinc may
be taken as the culmination of this art (or science). (Rina
Shrivastava, opcit., IJHS, 34(1), 1999, pp.44-45)See:
http://www.cbseacademic.in/web_material/Circulars/2012/68_KT
PI/Module_8.pdf

IJHS, 34(1), 1999: Rina Shrivastva,


Smelting furnaces in ancient India
The earliest kiln for copper smelting has been
traced at Lothal. The kilns used for melting
copper ingots in earthen bowls was a simple
circular and brick structure (0.8m dia and 0.6m
deep).

Cf. Kenoyer: Ravi Phase (3300 to 2700 BCE) Button


seal; svastika motif?

This is a tribute to Mahadevan, Parpola and scholars of Indian civilization studies. This is M. [ a ] n (S)
Debt. Three departments of man's debt are reckoned, viz. , , , q. v. This is thus a homage to who
have given us a civilization under dharma or aam , n. < -. [K. aa, M. aam.] 1. Moral or religious duty, virtue,
performance of good works according to the stras, duties to be practiced. < - au- : notes with another;
. (. 385, .) Raison detre of
my life: repay a homage to who have given me my social identity and goals of life, pururtha.

Most of the ca. 500+ glyphs and glyptic elements have been identified with
precision (without ambiguity) thanks to the brilliant work done by
Mahadevan, Parpola and other scholars who have contributed to unraveling
the orthography and structure of the writing system
Each glyph is a potential resource for relating the glyph to glosses of Indian
languages to identify mleccha glosses in the linguistic area
Isoglosses will help reconstruct proto-mleccha and proto-vedic.
Glyptic semantic clusters decode the writing system using the simple rebus
method -- occams razor (rebus: A representation of words in the form of
pictures or symbols, often presented as a puzzle. From Latin rebus, ablative
pl. of res, thing. bartleby.com) and relating them to one semantic
category: early workings in mines, early workings with minerals and metals
an industrial revolution of those ancient times.

Marshall 1931: pl. CX, 311 MM 50.258


2X2 cm. Svastika on the reverse.

Copper plate m1457


m1225 cube seal with perforation through breadth

svastika pewter (Kannada); jasta = zinc (Hindi) yasada (Jaina Pkt.)


mehao = to entwine itself, wind round, wrap around, roll up (Santali.lex.)
meiya = a rock (Te.) meed, me~ed iron; enga meed soft iron; sani meed hard
iron; ispt meed steel; dul meed cast iron; i meed rusty iron, also the iron of
which weights are cast; bica mer.ed iron extracted from stone ore; bali meed iron
extracted from sand ore; meed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron
sand ore (Mu.lex.)
hompo = knot on a string (Santali) hompo = ingot (Santali)

h182 tablet
-- mo~e~ five (Santali); rebus: ma = warehouse, workshop (Kon.lex.) Alt. (vikalpa)
me iron (Ho.)
pancha-lnamu. n. A mixed metal, composed of five ingredients, viz.,
copper, zinc, tin, lead, and iron Alloy bharat (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin). Is this count of 5
svastika a count of 5 zinc + 5 copper to constitute a brass alloy?
-- an:gara, d.an:gura public notice by a crier who beats a tom-tom (Ka.); rebus: hangar
blacksmith
Vikalpa: dol drum; dollu drummer Rebus: dul cast metal
kul tiger (Santali); klu id. (Telugu) klupuli = Bengal tiger (Te.) [ klh ] [klh] A
jackal (Marathi) Rebus: kole.l 'temple, smithy' (Kota.) kol = pacalha, a metallic alloy containing
five metals (Tamil): copper, brass, tin, lead and iron (Sanskrit); an alternative list of five metals:
gold, silver, copper, tin (lead), and iron (dhtu; Nnrtharatnkara. 82; Mangarjas Nighau.
498)(Kannada) kol, kolhe, the koles, iron smelters speaking a language akin to that of Santals
(Santali) dhol drum dhollu drummer Rebus: dul cast metal 2+3 svastika: dula two Rebus: dul
cast metal PLUS kolom three Rebus: kolami smithy, forge Rebu: sattva, jasta zinc Or, five parts
of zinc added to copper to create alloy brass.
dula pair Rebus: dul cast (metal) PLUSkana, kanac = corner (Santali); Rebus: kacu = bronze (Telugu)
Thus, cast bronze
kanka rim of jar Rebus: karka account (scribe) kar supercargo
Alternative: The Meluhha gloss for 'five' is: taal Homonym is: haha brass(i.e. alloy of copper +
zinc).
taal Five, a slang term; . (J.)

M0482, Text 1620


sathiy (H.), sthiyo (G.); satthia, sotthia (Pkt.) Svastik sign

Rebus: zasth or zasuth m adj. c.g. made of zinc or pewter. jasth


zinc, spelter; pewter. Jastuvu adj. (f. jastv), made of zinc or pewter (Kashmiri) satavu, satuvu, sattu
= pewter, zinc (Ka.) dosta = zinc (Santali) jasada, yasada, yasadyaka, yasatva = zinc (Jaina Pali)
Svastika appears with tree:kui rebus: kuhi smelter
Side B: ayo fish Rebus: aya iron ayas metal PLUS karvu crocodile (Telugu) khara blacksmith (Kashmiri)
ayakara metalsmith (Pali)
Side A: svastika hieroglyph: Rebus: jasta, satva, zinc (Hindi.Kannada) zasath or zasuth m.
(sg. dat. zastas ), zinc, spelter, pewter (cf. Hind jast)(Kashmiri) kui tree Rebus: kuhi smelter
kanka rim of jar Rebus: karka account (scribe) kar supercargo
dula pair Rebus: dul cast (metal) PLUSkana, kanac = corner (Santali); Rebus: kacu = bronze (Telugu) PLUS
infixed kolmo paddy plant Rebus: kolami smithy, forge. Thus, cast bronze smithy, forge. Or, mogge sprout,
bronze cast ingot
bud Rebus: muh ingot (Santali)Thus, cast bronze ingot. Read as: kacu dul muh

khareo = a currycomb (Gujarati) [ kharr ] m ( H) A currycomb. 2 Currying a horse.


(Marathi) Rebus: [kara] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi) khard turner
(Gujarati)

Sattva glyph; satavu pewter, zinc


sathiy (H.), sthiyo (G.); satthia, sotthia (Pkt.)
Svastik sign
Kashmiri. Grierson lex. zasath or zasuth
m. (sg. dat. zastas ), zinc, spelter, pewter
(cf. Hind jast). jasti jasti adj.
c.g. made of zinc or pewter . Jastuvu made of zinc
or pewter.
satavu, satuvu, sattu = pewter, zinc (Ka.) dosta = zinc
(Santali) jasada, yasada, yasadyaka, yasatva =
zinc (Jaina Pali) ruhi-tutiya (Urdu) tuttha
(Arthas'a_stra) totamu, tutenag (Te.) oriechalkos
(Gk.)

M488 Side A: krammara look back Rebus: kamar


blacksmith kola tiger Rebus: kolhe smelter kol
working in iron heraka spy Rebus: erako
moltencast copper kui tree Rebus: kuhi smelter
kha A stock or stump (Marathi); leafless tree
(Marathi) Rebus: kdr turner (Bengali); kd to
turn in a lathe (Bengali).
Svastika Rebus: sattva, jasta zinc
ibha elephant Rebus: ib iron ibbo merchant
(Gujarati)

M488 Side B: [kha] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) Rebus: kdr turner (Bengali); knda engraver,
lapidary setting or infixing gems (Marathi) G. sgh m. lathe ; joinery; M. sga double-canoe Rebus:
sangataras stone-cutter, mason
loa ficus religiosa Rebus: lo iron (Sanskrit) PLUS unique ligatures: [lkhaa ] n ( S) Iron.
or To oppress grievously. [ lkhaakma ] n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine
&c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith. [ lkha ] a () Composed of iron; relating to
iron. (Marathi) bhaa warrior (Sanskrit) Rebus: baa a kind of iron (Gujarati). Rebus: bhaa furnace (Santali) Thus,
together, the ligatured hieroglyph reads rebus: loa bhaa iron furnace lkhaakma ] n Iron work; that portion (of a
building, machine &c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith. [ lkha ] a () Composed of
iron; relating to iron. (Marathi)
aar 'harrow' rebus: aduru 'native unsmelted metal me body Rebus: me iron (Ho.) [ kh ] f ( S) frame
or structure of the body (Marathi) Rebus: [ kha ] measure of weight (Marathi)
khareo = a currycomb (Gujarati) [ kharr ] m ( H) A currycomb. 2 Currying a horse. (Marathi)
Rebus: [kara] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi) khard turner (Gujarati)
The pair of hieroglyph signs are compositions: 1. bicha scorpion (Assamese) Rebus: bica stone ore (Santali) The
pairing sign is a composition of: sloping stroke PLUS two short strokes of a splinter:dh a slope; inclination of a
plane (Gujarati); hiyum = adj. sloping, inclining (Gujarati) Rebus: hlako = a large metal ingot (Gujarati) hlak = a
metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati)PLUS sal splinter Rebus: sal
workshop. Thus the composition reads: hlako sal ingot workshop.
kha field, division (Skt.) Rebus: khna tools, pots and pans, metal-ware. Rebus 2: ka 'fire-altar' (Santali) dula
pair Rebus: dul cast metal Thus, duplicated division hieroglyph sign reads: cast metal metal-ware.

M488 Side C: ku horn Rebus: workshop me body Rebus: me iron (Ho.) [ maapa ] canopy Rebus: [ ma ] f ( H) A green market, the
place in a city whither vegetables and fruits are brought to be disposed of by wholesale.
lo, no nine (Assamese) Rebus: lo iron, copper
loa ficus religiosa Rebus: lo iron (Sanskrit) PLUS unique ligatures: [lkhaa ] n ( S) Iron. or To oppress
grievously. [ lkhaakma ] n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine &c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith. [
lkha ] a () Composed of iron; relating to iron. (Marathi)
Composite animal: Markhor horns: mil markhor (Trwl) meho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mht, me iron (Mu.Ho.) scarf: dhatu
scarf Rebus: dhatu mineral ore Ligature: Kur. xol tail. Malt. qoli id. (DEDR 2135). Rebus: kolhe smelter Thus, copper smelter.
Worshipper: bha G. bhuv m. worshipper in a temple rather < bhrta --(CDIAL 9554) Yj.com., Rebus: bha kiln, furnace ku horn Rebus: workshop
kd 'bunch of twigs' (Sanskrit) Rebus: kuhi 'smelter furnace' (Santali)
Scarf: dhatu scarf Rebus: dhatu mineral ore As a phonetic-semantic reinforcement, the worshipper holds a pot: rimless, broad-mouthed pot which is
baa read rebus: bhaa furnace.
kao stool, seat Rebus: ka metalware kaa fire-altar erugu = to bow, to salute or make obeisance (Te.) er-agu = obeisance (Ka.), ir_ai (Ta.) [Note
image of an offering adorant]eraka, erka = copper (Ka.) erako moltencast copper (Gujarati)
[mai] or mani. [Tel.] n. Kneeling down with one leg, an attitude in archery, , . Rebus:
mai market
bhaa worshipper bhaa furnace baa iron (Gujarati)
.

Khandagiri caves (2nd cent. BCE) Cave 3 (Jaina Ananta gumpha). Fire-altar?, rivatsa, svastika
(hieroglyphs)
(King Kharavela, a Jaina who ruled Kalinga has an inscription dated 161 BCE) contemporaneous with
Bharhut and Sanchi and early Bodhgaya

Manoharpura.
ygapaa 50 to
299 CE. Red
sandstone.
Lucknow State
Museum.
(Scan no. 0053006)

Manoharpura.
ygapaa
Tirthankara. Red
sandstone. Lucknow
State Museum. (Scan
no. 0053007)

Manoharpura. Lower quadrant of ygapaa. Twin fish. 1st to 3rd cent. Red sandstone.
Lucknow State Museum. (Scan no.0053009 )

Manoharpura. Left quadrant of ygapaa.Red sandstone.


Lucknow State Museum. (Scan no. 0053010)

Manoharpura. Right
quadrant of
ygapaa.Red
sandstone. Lucknow
State Museum. (Scan
no. 0053011)

Manoharpura. Svastika. Top of


ygapaa. Red Sandstone. Lucknow
State Museum. (Scan no.0053012 )

Manoharpura. Twin fish and rivatsa. Top section of ygapaa. Red sandstone. National
Museum, New Delhi. (Scan no. 0053016)

Manoharpura. Bottom section of ygapaa. Inscription. Brazier?


National Museum, New Delhi. Red sandstone. (Scan no. 0053017)

Manoharpura. Pillar with


cakra capital. Winged
tigers. Left section of
ygapaa. Red Sandstone.
National Museum, New
Delhi (Scan no. 0053018)

Manoharpura. Pillar with


elephant capital. Winged
tigers. Right section of
ygapaa. Red Sandstone.
National Museum, New
Delhi (Scan no. 0053019)

175. This sign also gets associated with


svastika glyph.The ligature on Sign 175
may be compared with a retort used in a
zinc distillation furnace, Zawar, Rajasthan

SVASTIKA_, ENDLESS-KNOT

Why svastika appears with endlessknot glyph [mehao twisted


(Mu.); me iron (Mu.)]: sattva, jasta = zinc

Cylinder seal impression. Sumer (ca. 2500 BCE). After Amiet 1980a: pl.
108, no. 1435
Early Dynastic seal. Lagash. After Amiet 1980a: pl. 83, no. 1099
Rojdi axe

mehao = v.a.m. entwine itself; wind


round, wrap round roll up; mar.hna_
cover, encase (H) (Santali.lex.Bodding)
[Note: the endless-knot motif may be a
rebus representation of this semant.
entwine itself]. meh = curl, snarl,
twist or tangle in cord or thread (M.);
meli, melika = a turn, a twist, a loop,
entanglement; meliyu, melivad.u,
meligonu = to get twisted or entwined
(Te.lex.) merhao = twist (Mun.d.ari)
me~e.he~t = iron (Santali)

Svastika, endless-knot
m1356
m443Atm443Bt

Chanhudaro49A Chanhudaro49B
Chanhudaro50A Chanhudaro50B

m1457Actm1457Bct 2904 Copper tablet

Brass alloy: hard alloy of zinc and


copper

karaa a very large aquatic bird


(Sindhi) karaa duck (Sanskrit)
Rebus: [kara] Hard from
alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi)

A remarkable legacy of the Sarasvati Sindhu inscriptions: two


symbols are reminiscent of the inscriptions: the svastika and the
tree on railing. Yaudheya coin. Goddess a on reverse.
an.mukha with lance on obverse. Lucknow State Museum
(Journal of the Numismatics Society of India, Vol. V, Pt.I, June
1943).

ika *pertaining to 60 , n. the number 60 VarBrS. [a -- ]


S. sahyo having 60 ; M. sh f. an aggregate of 60 .(CDIAL
12805) a- sixth a phonetic determinant of svasti zinc.
kui tree Rebus: kuhi smelter

Sunflower, duck hieroglyphs (Manoharpura


svastika + sunflower). Cyprus svastika +
ducks) Rebus: hard alloy
karaa a very large aquatic bird (Sindhi) karaa duck (Sanskrit)
Rebus: [kara] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi)
karaa -- m. safflower, -- f. a tree like the karaja (Prakrit);
M. kar, a f. safflower, carthamus tinctorius and its seed .
(CDIAL 2788). Rebus: [kara] Hard from alloy--iron,
silver &c. (Marathi) khard ' turner, a person who fashions or
shapes objects on a lathe' (Gujarati)

vidy samuddea lit. objective of schooling or


eduation included mlecchita vikalpa to be
learned by youth
mlecchita vikalpa (lit. Meluhha cipher) was
identified as one of the 64 arts (including two allied
communication arts called akra muika
kathanam and deabh jnam lit. fist-finger
gesture narrations and knowledge of spoken
language) to be learned by the youth.
Source: Vtsyyanas Kmastra in
a section titled: vidy samuddea lit. objective of
schooling or eduation.
The cipher is composed of hieroglyph multiplex
hypertexts of metalwork.

15 cm. 15 kg. Shahi-Tump leopard weight.


Lead filling in copper shell. Seashells for
hieroglyphs. Lost-wax casting.
karaa panther
Rebus: karaa hard alloy.
mil markhor (Trwl)
meho a ram, a sheep
(Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120)
Rebus: mht, me iron
(Mu.Ho.)
Vikalpa: mlekh 'goat' Rebus:
milakkhu 'copper' (Pali)

Earliest lost-wax castings? 2.2 cm dia. Wheels w/spokes. Mehergarh


Bourgarit D., Mille B. 2007. Les premiers objets mtalliques ont-ils t fabriqus par
des mtallurgistes ? Lactualit Chimique . Octobre-Novembre 2007 - n 312-313:54-60.

ar 'spokes' Rebus: ra brass. cf. erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh.
of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Kannada) Glyph: erakanave of wheel
Rebus: eraka copper; cf. erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka)
copper (metal); crystal (Kannada) eraka moltencast copper
Duplicated: dula pair Rebus: dul cast metal Thus cast copper, brass
casting.

Recumbent ram. Silver. Lost-wax casting. Mounted on pins


and dowelled into the center of cylinder seal. Ashmolean
Museum, Oxford. Uruk. c. 3200 BCE pasaramu, pasalamu =
an animal, a beast, a brute, quadruped (Telugu) Rebus: pasra
= a smithy, a place where a blacksmith works; to do a
blacksmiths work; kamar pasrat.hene sen akantalea = our
man has gone to the smithy; pasrao lagao (or ehop) akata =
he (the blacksmith) has started his work (Santali);

Steatite pendant. m1656A


Metalware. Turner. Joinery
joinery; M. sga double-canoe

USE OF HIEROGLYPHS
Cylinder seal impression, ca. 21832159 B.CE of Ibnisharrum, a scribe of Shar-kali-sharri bos gaurus,
overflowing pot

Gold statuette, Elam king, carrying a bull


Cylinder seal impression. 3rd m. BCE Su-ilisu,
Meluhha interpreter, i.e., translator of the Meluhhan
language (EME.BAL.ME.LUH.HA.KI), carrying an
antelope
Indus Script pectoral (heifer, overflowing pot), Seal
(Water-carrier)

ko = place where artisans work (G.lex.) koiyum = a wooden circle put round the neck
of an animal; ko = neck (G.lex.) ku = horns (Ta.)
[kha] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) Rebus: kdr turner (Bengali); knda engraver,
lapidary setting or infixing gems (Marathi) G. sgh m. lathe ; joinery; M. sga double-canoe
Rebus: sangataras stone-cutter, mason

dol = likeness, picture, form (Santali) [e.g., two tigers, two bulls, duplicated signs] dulo
hole Rebus: dul cast metal : me~he~t iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron
(Santali)

m0296 Two heads of one-horned bulls with


neck-rings, joined end to end (to a standard
device with two rings coming out of the top
part with nine knobs?), under a stylized tree
with nine leaves.
Zebu and leaves. In front of the standard
device and the stylized tree of 9 leaves, are
the black buck antelopes. Black paint on red
ware of Kulli style. Mehi. Second-half of 3rd
millennium BCE. [After G.L. Possehl, 1986,
Kulli: an exploration of an ancient civilization
in South Asia, Centers of Civilization, I,
Durham, NC: 46, fig. 18 (Mehi II.4.5), based
on Stein 1931: pl. 30.

lo iron (Assamese, Bengali); loa iron (Gypsy) Glyph: lo = nine (Santali); no = nine (B.) on-patu = nine
(Ta.) lo, no nine phonetic reinforcement of: loa ficus Rebus: lo copper nava: In counting by tetrads
(octo=8 is a dual!) a new series nava begins with No. 9

Dotted circle with sangaa lathe,


furnacedulo hole Rebus: dul cast metal
Pict-123 Standard device which is normally in front
of a one-horned bull. The device is flanked by
columns of dotted circles.
m0008, m0021, h228B

Carved Ivory Standard in the middle


har501 Harappa 1990 and 1993. Standard device,
model reconstructed after Mahadevan

Kot-diji shard from a burial vessel. Kalibangan seal.


Ficus religiosa: loa Rebus: loh, lo copper g
mountain-ridge (H.)(CDIAL 5476). Rebus: dhangar
blacksmith (Maithili) damgar merchant (Akkadian)

Potsherd. Triple pipal leaf. Bir Kot Ghwandai, Swat, c.


1700 BCE Ficus religiosa: loa Rebus: loh, lo copper
kolom three Rebus: kolami smithy/forge

Potsherd with inscription c. 3300 BCE


tagaraka tabernae montana, fragrant tulip
tagara tin

1.Finely burnished gold fillet (headband)


with holes at both ends to hold a cord.
Each end is decorated with a
punctuated design of standard device.
42 x 1.4 cm. Mohenjodaro Museum,
MM 1366; Marshall 1931: 220.527. Pl.
CXVIII, 14 (for punctuated design)

2. Detail of gold fillet with punctuated


design of standard device at both ends
of the gold fillet. (After Fig. 7.32,
Kenoyer, 1998)

Gold fillet. Lathe-drill (gimlet)/portable furnace


h195B, h98a. Priest with fillet on forehead.

[Pl. 55, Standard symbol on punch-marked coins and on local coins; this is paralleled by
the standard device in front of the one-horned bull shown on many inscribed objects
with Sarasvati hieroglyphs].

[After Mahadevan. Standard device. Indra dhvaja?].

aamangalaka hra
Necklaces with a number of pendants aamangalaka hra depicted on a pillar of a
gateway (toran.a) at the stupa of Sanchi, Central India, 1st century BCE. [After VS
Agrawala, 1969, The deeds of Harsha (being a cultural study of Bas Haracarita, ed.
By PK Agrawala, Varanasi: fig. 62] The hra or necklace shows a pair of fish signs
together with a number of motifs indicating weapons (cakra, parau, an:kua),
including a device that parallels the standard device normally shown in many inscribed
objects of SSVC in front of the one-horned bull.
(cf. Marshall, J. and Foucher, The Monuments of Sanchi, 3 vols., Callcutta, 1936,
repr. 1982, pl. 27). The first necklace has eleven and the second one has thirteen
pendants (cf. V.S. Agrawala, 1977, Bhraya Kal , Varanasi, p. 169); he notes the
eleven pendants as: sun, ukra, padmasara, an:kua, vaijayanti, pan:kaja, mnamithuna, rvatsa, parau, darpaa and kamala. "The axe (parau) and an:kua
pendants are common at sites of north India and some of their finest specimens
from Kausambi are in the collection of Dr. MC Dikshit of Nagpur." (Dhavalikar, M.K.,
1965, Sanchi: A cultural Study, Poona, p. 44; loc.cit. Dr.Mohini Verma, 1989, Dress
and Ornaments in Ancient India: The Maurya and S'un:ga Periods, Varanasi,
Indological Book House, p. 125). Note that one of the pendants looks like the
'device' normally found in front of the one-horned bull, the san:gaa, portable
brazier and lathe (also meaning, battle).
ayo fish Rebus: aya iron ayas metal dula pair Rebus: dul cast metal

sga = lathe component


(drill); saghai_, s'aghai = a
pot for holding fire (Gujarati.)
Rebus: joinery; M. sga
double-canoe djong id.
(Javanese) sangara (Periplus)
sangataras. lit. to
collect stones, stone-cutter,
mason. sangho (G.) cutting
stone, gilding (G.)

Modern . sga double canoe sea


boats; sail-boats on ancient coins

Meluhhan. Seal. Mohenjo-daro. Mackay 1938: pl. XCVI, 494


NMP 50.289
[ sgaa ] m f ( S) f A body formed of two or more
(fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together [
sgaa ] f (Verbal of ) Linking or joining
together.(Marathi) G. sgh m. lathe ; joinery;
Rebus: [ sga ] f (Commonly ) A float &c. Double
canoe(Marathi)

[kha] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) Rebus: kdr


turner (Bengali); knda engraver, lapidary setting or
infixing gems (Marathi) Rebus: sangataras stone-cutter, mason
balad m. ox , gng. bald, (Ku.) barad, id. (N. Tarai) Rebus:
bharat (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin)(Punjabi)
Dm. mra m. markhor Wkh. merg f. ibex (CDIAL 9885) Tor.
mi ram, mial markhor (CDIAL 10310) me iron(Munda);
mehmerchants helper(Pkt.) me iron (Ho.)

Harappa. Workers platforms

Ligature of three holes:


adoration toru
kolom three Rebus: kolami smithy, forge Rebus: kole.l smithy, temple

ol little hole (Marathi) (CDIAL 6452) Ta. to (top-, to-) to perforate, bore
with an instrument; Ma. toa hole, cavity; Ka. toe hole, bored hole; ou, ou,
to void, hollow. Te. toli, tolika hole; tol(u)cu to bore, perforate, hollow, dig,
scoop, carve (DEDR 3528)

Rebus: Ta. toru (-v-, -t-) to worship, adore, pay homage to; torukai worshipping,
adoration, prayer; toruvu worshipping, adoration. Ma. toruka to salute by joining
the hands, acknowledge superiority. Ka. turil salutation, obeisance,
bow. Ko. to- (topp-, tott-) to salute. Tu. turli obeisance; solma,
solm salutation. Go. (Mu.) do- to bow (Voc. 1902). Pe. o- (ot) id. Man. u- to bow head. ? Kona tuRpa- to invoke gods, fulfil a religious
vow, adore, worship (DEDR 3525)

Plate X [c] Lingam in situ in Trench Ai (MS Vats, 1940, Excavations at Harappa, Vol. II, Calcutta)
Lingam, grey sandstone in situ, Harappa, Trench Ai, Mound F, Pl. X (c) (After Vats). "In an
earthenware jar, No. 12414, recovered from Mound F, Trench IV, Square I... in this jar, six lingams
were found along with some tiny pieces of shell, a unicorn seal, an oblong grey sandstone block
with polished surface, five stone pestles, a stone palette, and a block of chalcedony..." (Vats, EH, p.
370).

Ein Gedi temple.- jpg


Dating to 3500 BCE

Dholavira shrine: kole.l smithy,


temple. Structures compare with Ein
Gedi shrine?
aka

1 a court of law. -2
depository of legal
documents.

Golden needle-like pendant with inscription from


jewelry hoard. Mohenjodaro 4.16 cm.long; .66 cm base
dia. Hoard No. 2, DK area, Room 1, House 1, Trench E.
Mohenjodaro Museum, MM 1374; Marshall 1931: 521,
pl. CLI, B3
Inscription which encircles the gold pendant (After Fig.
4.17, Kenoyer, 1998).
kana, kanac = corner (Santali); Rebus: kacu = bronze
(Telugu) sal splinter Rebus: sal workshop
du cross(Telugu) Rebus: dhatu mineral (Santali).
ayo fish Rebus: aya iron ayas metal
gaa 'four' Rebus: kaa 'furnace, fire-altar' (Santali)
kolom three Rebus: kolami smithy, forge

Seal fragment. Man with double bun.


eraka upraised hand Rebus: eraka
moltencast copper(Tulu) kolmo
paddy plant Rebus; kolami smithy,
forge.

khanaka m. one who digs , digger , excavator MBh. iii , 640 R. ; a miner
L. ; a house-breaker , thief L. ; a rat L. ; N. of a friend of Vidura MBh. i ,
5798 f. ; (%{I}) f. a female digger or excavator P. 3-1 , 145 Pat. ; iv , 1
, 41 Ka1s3. karaka scribe
The rim of a jar is ka kan-ka (Santali)
ka is pot; kan-ka in Sanskrit is karaka 'ear or rim of jar'. ka also
means 'fire-altar'.
Daimabad seal (ca. 1400 BCE) Frequency of occurrence of sign:
1395
or [ kra or kraka ] a ( S) That causes, conducts,
carries on, manages. Applied to the prime minister of a state, the
supercargo of a ship &c. (Marathi) or karanikamu.
Clerkship: the office of a Karanam or clerk.
[ karaamu ] karaamu. [Skt.] n. A village clerk, a writer, an
accountant. he has talents
for speaking but not for writing.

the registrar of a district.